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Dusky spinefoot

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Dusky spinefoot
Siganus luridus Karpathos 02.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Siganidae
Genus: Siganus
Species:
S. luridus
Binomial name
Siganus luridus
(Rüppell, 1829)
Synonyms[2]
  • Amphacanthus luridus Rüppell, 1829
  • Teuthis lurida (Rüppell, 1829)
  • Amphacanthus abhortani Valenciennes, 1835

The dusky spinefoot (Siganus luridus), also known the squaretail rabbitfish,is a species of marine ray-finned fish, a rabbitfish belonging to the family Siganidae. It is native to the western Indian Ocean which has spread to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal (Lessepsian migration). Its fin spines contain venom. It is regarded as a food fish.

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Rabbitfish

Rabbitfish

Rabbitfishes or spinefoots are perciform fishes in the family Siganidae. The 29 species are in a single genus, Siganus. In some now obsolete classifications, the species having prominent face stripes—colloquially called foxfaces–are in the genus Lo. Other species, such as the masked spinefoot, show a reduced form of the stripe pattern. Rabbitfishes are native to shallow waters in the Indo-Pacific, but S. luridus and S. rivulatus have become established in the eastern Mediterranean via Lessepsian migration. They are commercially important food fish, and can be used in the preparation of dishes such as bagoong.

Family (biology)

Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as the "walnut family".

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2 (27,240,000 sq mi) or ~19.8% of the water on Earth's surface. It is bounded by Asia to the north, Africa to the west and Australia to the east. To the south it is bounded by the Southern Ocean or Antarctica, depending on the definition in use. Along its core, the Indian Ocean has some large marginal or regional seas such as the Arabian Sea, Laccadive Sea, Bay of Bengal, and Andaman Sea.

Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The Sea has played a central role in the history of Western civilization. Although the Mediterranean is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually referred to as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years during the Messinian salinity crisis before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.

Suez Canal

Suez Canal

The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez and dividing Africa and Asia. The 193.30 km (120.11 mi) long canal is a popular trade route between Europe and Asia.

Lessepsian migration

Lessepsian migration

The Lessepsian migration is the migration of marine species across the Suez Canal, usually from the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea, and more rarely in the opposite direction. When the canal was completed in 1869, fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and other marine animals and plants were exposed to an artificial passage between the two naturally separate bodies of water, and cross-contamination was made possible between formerly isolated ecosystems. The phenomenon is still occurring today. It is named after Ferdinand de Lesseps, the French diplomat in charge of the canal's construction.

Taxonomy

The dusky spinefoot was first formally described in 1829 as Amphacanthus luridus by the German naturalist and explorer Eduard Rüppell with the type locality given as the Red Sea.[3] The specific name luridus means “pale yellow”, this name was given to it by the collector of the type specimen, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, According to Achille Valenciennes in 1835, Ehrenberg described the colour of the body as yellowish-brown, with numerous very thin pale yellow lines. However, Rüppell said that the colour was bluish black with some irregular, paler spots and a yellowish ring around pupil in his description.[4]

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Species description

Species description

A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species that have been described previously or are related. The species description often contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name. Some 1.9 million species have been identified and described, out of some 8.7 million that may actually exist. Millions more have become extinct throughout the existence of life on Earth.

Eduard Rüppell

Eduard Rüppell

Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Rüppell was a German naturalist and explorer. Rüppell is occasionally transliterated to "Rueppell" for the English alphabet, due to german orthography.

Red Sea

Red Sea

The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. Its connection to the ocean is in the south, through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To its north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. It is underlain by the Red Sea Rift, which is part of the Great Rift Valley.

Specific name (zoology)

Specific name (zoology)

In zoological nomenclature, the specific name is the second part within the scientific name of a species. The first part of the name of a species is the name of the genus or the generic name. The rules and regulations governing the giving of a new species name are explained in the article species description. For example, the scientific name for humans is Homo sapiens, which is the species name, consisting of two names: Homo is the "generic name" and sapiens is the "specific name".

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg was a German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist, geologist, and microscopist. Ehrenberg was an evangelist and was considered to be of the most famous and productive scientists of his time.

Achille Valenciennes

Achille Valenciennes

Achille Valenciennes was a French zoologist.

Description

The dusky spinefoot has a compressed body which Has a depth which fits into its standard length 2.1 to 2.8 times. There is a single row of incisor-like teeth in the jaws, each with 1 or 2 lateral cusps.[5] The dorsal fin contains 13-14 spines and 10 soft rays while the anal fin has 7 spines and 9 soft rays.[2] The caudal fin is truncate.[5] This species attains a maximum total length of 30 cm (12 in), although 20 cm (7.9 in) is more typical.[2] The colour is variable, it is normally olive green to dark brown with a mottled pattern. The pectoral fins are hyaline-yellow and there are dark bars on the caudal fin[5]

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Distribution and habitat

The dusky spinefoot is found on the coast of eastern Africa from Mozambique northwards into the Red Sea, and also the Comoros, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands. Its presence in the Persian Gulf needs to be confirmed.[1] Recorded first in the Mediterranean Sea in 1955 off Israel, following entry via the Suez Canal, it fast expanded across the eastern Basin and now reaches westwards as far as the French Mediterranean coast and the Adriatic Sea.[6]

It is found at depths between 2 and 40 m (6 ft 7 in and 131 ft 3 in) in waters over hard substrates, such as coral and rocky reefs.[1]

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Mascarene Islands

Mascarene Islands

The Mascarene Islands or Mascarenes or Mascarenhas Archipelago is a group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar consisting of the islands belonging to the Republic of Mauritius as well as the French department of Réunion. Their name derives from the Portuguese navigator Pedro Mascarenhas, who first visited them in April 1512. The islands share a common geologic origin in the volcanism of the Réunion hotspot beneath the Mascarene Plateau and form a distinct ecoregion with a unique flora and fauna.

Persian Gulf

Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf, sometimes called the Arabian Gulf, is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Arabian Sea located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. It is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. The Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline.

Mediterranean Sea

Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant. The Sea has played a central role in the history of Western civilization. Although the Mediterranean is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually referred to as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years during the Messinian salinity crisis before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago.

Adriatic Sea

Adriatic Sea

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan Peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro, and Slovenia.

Biology

The dusky spinefoot spawns in April and from June to August when the seawater temperature is between 24 and 29 °C (75 and 84 °F), the eggs and larvae are planktonic. The larvae stay close to the surface where they feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton from 3 days old. The adults are herbivores which are active during the day, hiding in cavities during the hours of darkness. They are frequenbtly encountered in schools but solitary individuals can also be seen, grazing on algae from the substrate. It feeds on larger brown algae species, as well as other macrophytes.[7]

Venom

This species produces venom in the spines of its fins.[7] In a study of the venom of a congener it was found that rabbitfish venom was similar to the venom of stonefishes.[8] This species has been observed stopping suddenly. erecting the dorsal, anal and pelvic to present a potential threat with an array of venomous spines around its body.[2]

Predators and parasites

The venomous spines are used for defence against predators so the highest predation pressure is on the planktonic and larval stages.[7] Known parasites of the dusky spinefoot included the monogenean Glyphidohaptor plectocirra and Tetrancistrum polymorphum as well as the digeneans Hexangium brayi, Hexangium sigani and Progyliauchen magnacetabulum.[9]

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Brown algae

Brown algae

Brown algae, comprising the class Phaeophyceae, are a large group of multicellular algae, including many seaweeds located in colder waters within the Northern Hemisphere. Brown algae are the major seaweeds of the temperate and polar regions. They are dominant on rocky shores throughout cooler areas of the world. Most brown algae live in marine environments, where they play an important role both as food and as a potential habitat. For instance, Macrocystis, a kelp of the order Laminariales, may reach 60 m (200 ft) in length and forms prominent underwater kelp forests. Kelp forests like these contain a high level of biodiversity. Another example is Sargassum, which creates unique floating mats of seaweed in the tropical waters of the Sargasso Sea that serve as the habitats for many species. Many brown algae, such as members of the order Fucales, commonly grow along rocky seashores. Some members of the class, such as kelps, are used by humans as food.

Venom

Venom

Venom or zootoxin is a type of toxin produced by an animal that is actively delivered through a wound by means of a bite, sting, or similar action. The toxin is delivered through a specially evolved venom apparatus, such as fangs or a stinger, in a process called envenomation. Venom is often distinguished from poison, which is a toxin that is passively delivered by being ingested, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin, and toxungen, which is actively transferred to the external surface of another animal via a physical delivery mechanism.

Monogenea

Monogenea

Monogeneans are a group of ectoparasitic flatworms commonly found on the skin, gills, or fins of fish. They have a direct lifecycle and do not require an intermediate host. Adults are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female reproductive structures.

Digenea

Digenea

Digenea is a class of trematodes in the Platyhelminthes phylum, consisting of parasitic flatworms with a syncytial tegument and, usually, two suckers, one ventral and one oral. Adults commonly live within the digestive tract, but occur throughout the organ systems of all classes of vertebrates. Once thought to be related to the Monogenea, it is now recognised that they are closest to the Aspidogastrea and that the Monogenea are more closely allied with the Cestoda. Around 6,000 species have been described to date.

Utilisation

The dusky spinefoot is caught using set fish traps, gillnets and beach seines, the catch is sold as fresh fish. This species has become an important species for fisheries in the Mediterranean while i other areas, such as Kenya, it is a bycatch.[1] This species has been implicated in cases of mild ciguatera like poisoning when consumed.[10]

Source: "Dusky spinefoot", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dusky_spinefoot.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d Obota, C.; Carpenter, K.E.; Borsa, P.; Jiddawi, N.; Yahya, S.; Smith-Vaniz, W.F. (2018). "Siganus luridus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T18178550A46663979. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T18178550A46663979.en. Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  2. ^ a b c d Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2021). "Siganus luridus" in FishBase. June 2021 version.
  3. ^ Eschmeyer, William N.; Fricke, Ron & van der Laan, Richard (eds.). "Species in the genus Siganus". Catalog of Fishes. California Academy of Sciences. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  4. ^ Christopher Scharpf & Kenneth J. Lazara, eds. (12 January 2021). "Order Acanthuriformes (part 2): Families Ephippidae, Leiognathidae, Scatophagidae, Antigoniidae, Siganidae, Caproidae, Luvaridae, Zanclidae and Acanthuridae". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  5. ^ a b c J.C. Hureau. "Dusky Spinefoot (Siganus luridus)". Fishes of the NE Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  6. ^ Atlas of Exotic Fishes in the Mediterranean Sea (Siganus luridus). 2nd Edition. 2021. 366p. CIESM Publishers, Paris, Monaco.https://ciesm.org/atlas/fishes_2nd_edition/Siganus_luridus.pdf
  7. ^ a b c "Siganus luridus dusky spinefoot". CABI. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  8. ^ Kiriake A; Ishizaki S; Nagashima Y; Shiomi K (2017). "Occurrence of a stonefish toxin-like toxin in the venom of the rabbitfish Siganus fuscescens". Toxicon. 140: 139–146. doi:10.1016/j.toxicon.2017.10.015. PMID 29055787. S2CID 205439876.
  9. ^ Nicolas Bailly (2008). "Siganus luridus". WoRMS. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  10. ^ A. Herzberg (1973). "Toxicity of Siganus luridus (Rüppell) on the Mediterranean coast of Israel". Aquaculture. 2: 89–91. doi:10.1016/0044-8486(73)90127-0.
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