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Duchy of Parma and Piacenza

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Duchy of Parma and Piacenza
Ducato di Parma e Piacenza (Italian)
Ducatus Parmae et Placentiae (Latin)
1545–1802 (1808)
1814–1859
Coat of Arms of the Duke Ranuncius Farnese (1600-1622).svg
Coat of Arms under the Farnese
Coat of arms of the House of Bourbon-Parma.svg
Coat of Arms under the Bourbon-Parma
Motto: Dirige me Domine!
"Lead me, oh Lord!"
The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (green)
The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (green)
Northern Italy in 1815.
Northern Italy in 1815.
StatusDuchy
CapitalParma
Piacenza
Common languagesEmilian
Italian
Latin
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy (Duchy)
Duke 
• 1545–1547
Pier Luigi Farnese (first)
• 1854–1859
Robert I (last)
History 
• Creation and granting of the title of duke to Pier Luigi Farnese by Pope Paul III
16 September 1545
24 April 1748
1 November 1802
• Formal annexation by France
1808
• Restored
11 April 1814
3 December 1859
Population
• Estimate
501,000 in the 19th century
CurrencyParman lira
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Papal States
Taro (department)
Duchy of Guastalla
Kingdom of Etruria
Taro (department)
Kingdom of Etruria
United Provinces of Central Italy

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (Italian: Ducato di Parma e Piacenza, Latin: Ducatus Parmae et Placentiae), was an Italian state created in 1545 and located in northern Italy, in the current region of Emilia-Romagna.[1]

Originally a realm of the Farnese family after Pope Paul III made it a hereditary duchy for his son, Pier Luigi Farnese, it was ruled by the dynasty until 1731, when the last duke, Antonio Farnese, died without direct heirs.[1][2]

It was invaded by Napoleon and annexed by France, having its sovereignty restored in 1814 after Napoleon’s defeat. Napoleon's wife, Marie Louise (Maria Luigia), then ruled as its duchess until her death. Parma was restored to Bourbon rule in 1847, and in 1859, the duchy was formally abolished as it was integrated into the new Italian state.[1]

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Italian language

Italian language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Together with Sardinian, Italian is the least divergent language from Latin. Spoken by about 85 million people (2022), Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria.

Northern Italy

Northern Italy

Northern Italy is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of Italy. It consists of eight administrative regions: Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. As of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance and Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy. The Venetian language is sometimes considered to be part of the Italo-Dalmatian languages, but some major publications such as Ethnologue and Glottolog define it as Gallo-Italic.

Emilia-Romagna

Emilia-Romagna

Emilia-Romagna is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy, situated in the north of the country, comprising the historical regions of Emilia and Romagna. Its capital is Bologna. It has an area of 22,446 km2 (8,666 sq mi), and about 4.4 million inhabitants.

House of Farnese

House of Farnese

The House of Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. The titles of Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Duke of Castro were held by various members of the family.

Pope Paul III

Pope Paul III

Pope Paul III, born Alessandro Farnese, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 13 October 1534 to his death in November 1549.

Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma

Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma

Pier Luigi Farnese was the first Duke of Castro from 1537 to 1545 and the first Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1545 to 1547.

Napoleon

Napoleon

Napoleon Bonaparte, later known by his regnal name Napoleon I, was a French military commander and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars. He was the de facto leader of the French Republic as First Consul from 1799 to 1804, then Emperor of the French from 1804 until 1814 and again in 1815. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy endures to this day, as a highly celebrated and controversial leader. He initiated many liberal reforms that have persisted in society, and is considered one of the greatest military commanders in history, but between three and six million civilians and soldiers perished in what became known as the Napoleonic Wars.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

Marie Louise I was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 11 April 1814 until her death. She was Napoleon's second wife and as such Empress of the French and Queen of Italy from their marriage on 1 April 1810 until his abdication on 6 April 1814.

History

The 16th century city of Parma, at the early stages of the duchy.
The 16th century city of Parma, at the early stages of the duchy.

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from parts of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which had been conquered by the Papal States in 1512. These territories, centered on the city of Parma, were given as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese.[2]

In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter known as the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza (Italian: Ducato di Parma e Piacenza). The Farnese family continued to rule until the extinction of their male line in 1731.[1]

Because of the lack of male heirs, Elisabeth Farnese, niece of Duke Antonio Farnese, was declared the Farnese heiress. She received many marriage proposals, finally getting married in 1714 with Philip V, King of Spain. On the death of childless Duke Antonio in 1731, Philip V of Spain asserted the rights that his wife had over the duchies according to the agreements signed in the Treaty of Vienna of 1725 and the Treaty of Seville of 1729, and he claimed both for the Spanish House of Bourbon. The Duchy would thus be inherited by his first son with Elisabeth, Infante Carlos of Spain, who will reign as Duke Charles I of Parma and Piacenza. He ruled his territories for four years until the end of the War of the Polish Succession, when, according to what was established in the Treaty of Vienna of 1738, he handed over both duchies to the House of Habsburg in exchange for the Kingdoms of Naples and Sicily.

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748, whose final peace treaty, the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, ceded back the Duchy to the Bourbons in the person of Infant Philip of Spain, younger brother of Charles I. Duke Philip became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma, reigning over an expanded Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla (Italian: Ducato di Parma, Piacenza e Guastalla).

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte, and the political situation of the state became extremely confused. Duke Ferdinand maintained his throne under French military governors until the Treaty of Aranjuez of 1801, when a general agreement between the House of Bourbon and Napoleon formally decided the cession of the duchy to France in exchange for Tuscany, but the Duke lasted in Parma until he died in 1802.

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Duchy of Milan

Duchy of Milan

The Duchy of Milan was a state in northern Italy, created in 1395 by Gian Galeazzo Visconti, then the lord of Milan, and a member of the important Visconti family, which had been ruling the city since 1277.

Papal States

Papal States

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the pope from 756 until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from the 8th century until the unification of Italy, between 1859 and 1870.

Parma

Parma

Parma is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna known for its architecture, music, art, prosciutto (ham), cheese and surrounding countryside. With a population of 198,292 inhabitants, Parma is the second most populous city in Emilia-Romagna after Bologna, the region's capital. The city is home to the University of Parma, one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name. The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma.

Fief

Fief

A fief was a central element in medieval contracts based on feudal law. It consisted of a form of property holding or other rights granted by an overlord to a vassal, who held it in fealty or "in fee" in return for a form of feudal allegiance, services and/or payments. The fees were often lands, land revenue or revenue-producing real property like a watermill, held in feudal land tenure: these are typically known as fiefs or fiefdoms. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting, fishing or felling trees, monopolies in trade, money rents and tax farms. There never did exist one feudal system, nor did there exist one type of fief. Over the ages, depending on the region, there was a broad variety of customs using the same basic legal principles in many variations.

Italian language

Italian language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire. Together with Sardinian, Italian is the least divergent language from Latin. Spoken by about 85 million people (2022), Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria.

House of Farnese

House of Farnese

The House of Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. The titles of Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Duke of Castro were held by various members of the family.

Elisabeth Farnese

Elisabeth Farnese

Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent.

Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma

Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma

Antonio Farnese was the eighth and final Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza. He married, in 1727, Enrichetta d'Este of Modena with the intention of begetting an heir. The marriage, however, was childless, leading to the succession of Charles of Spain, whose mother, Elisabeth Farnese, was Antonio's niece, to the ducal throne.

Philip V of Spain

Philip V of Spain

Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 14 January 1724, and again from 6 September 1724 to his death in 1746. His total reign of 45 years is the longest in the history of the Spanish monarchy. Philip instigated many important reforms in Spain, most especially the centralization of power of the monarchy and the suppression of regional privileges, via the Nueva Planta decrees, and restructuring of the administration of the Spanish Empire on the Iberian peninsula and its overseas regions.

Peace of Vienna (1725)

Peace of Vienna (1725)

The Peace of Vienna was a series of four treaties signed between 30 April 1725 and 5 November 1725 by the Habsburg monarchy, the Holy Roman Empire, and Bourbon Spain; the Russian Empire later joined the newly-found alliance in 1726. The signing of this treaty marks the founding of the Austro-Spanish Alliance and led the Fourth Anglo-Spanish War (1727-1729). This new alliance thereby removed Austria from the Quadruple Alliance. In addition to a formation of the new partnership, the Habsburgs relinquished all formal claims to the Spanish throne, while the Spanish removed their claims in the Southern Netherlands, and a number of other territories.

House of Bourbon

House of Bourbon

The House of Bourbon is a European dynasty of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

Charles III of Spain

Charles III of Spain

Charles III was King of Spain (1759–1788). He also was Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I (1731–1735); King of Naples, as Charles VII, and King of Sicily, as Charles V (1734–1759). He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism and regalism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his childless half-brother Ferdinand VI.

The consolidation of the duchy

Ottavio Farnese strove to make the duchy prosperous, to win the benevolence of the people by applying the wise measures already taken by his father and to flatter the local nobility using more moderation than Pier Luigi, he knew how to consolidate the duchy by promoting its economy and financial and commercial exchanges and cultural, it started the territorial expansion with the annexation of some fiefdoms. In 1573 the number of inhabitants of the new capital had increased considerably reaching 26,000. Alexander Farnese, who was also an important general of the Spanish army, succeeding the leadership of the duchy, was forced by the King of Spain Philip II to appoint his seventeen-year-old son Ranuccio I Farnese, as regent, since the Spanish King did not want to deprive himself of the able and valiant general.[3]

Alessandro died far from Parma on 3 December 1592 from gangrene caused by an arquebus ball during the siege of Can de Bec, a year before his death he ordered the construction of the fortress of the Citadel with the aim of affirming the power of the family but also to provide work to a labor force of 2,500 people made up mostly of the poor sections of the city population. Ranuccio I, passionate about arts and music, makes the ducal court the first in Italy in the musical arts. During this period, the city was enriched with unique monuments, such as the Palazzo della Pilotta and the Teatro Farnese, modern legislation is passed, which made Parma a center of excellence both in terms of lifestyle and as an architectural model, elevating it as a cultural capital to the same level of other important European capitals. His government was guilty of the public execution of over 100 Parma citizens accused of conspiring against him. In 1628, on the death of Ranuccio I, the duchy was passed on to his just sixteen-year-old legitimate son Odoardo, who on 11 October of the same year married the fifteen-year-old Margherita de' Medici in Florence, daughter of Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany.[4][5]

These were difficult years for the duchy, in addition to the terrible plague of 1630 which decimated the population, the new duke maintained an army of 6,000 infantry and to finance it he forced his subjects into severe deprivation, getting into debt with bankers and merchants. Despite the high expenses incurred, his first campaign was negative: Piacenza was occupied by the Spanish troops, his troops were defeated in Parma territory by Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena, and the Odoardo was forced to sign a peace treaty with Spain which, one once the alliance with France was dissolved, he would have evacuated Piacenza.[6]

On his death, which took place in Piacenza on 11 September 1646 at the age of 34, the duchy passed to his son Ranuccio II and for two years the regency was ensured by his wife Margherita de' Medici and by his uncle the Cardinal Francesco Maria Farnese, until the age of eighteen. In 1691 the Duchy of Parma was invaded by the imperial troops and plundered by the four thousand soldiers who arrived in Parma with women and children; not only their maintenance fell on the subjects, but rape, abuse and violence followed one another without respite. Ranuccio II made many works to improve the situation of his subjects, but the contrast between the carefree life of the court and the coffers of the treasury was truly remarkable and to keep all the characters who rotated at the court of Parma, the duke was forced to tax everything, avoiding, however, to touch the ecclesiastical income. During his reign, Ranuccio II bought precious paintings and volumes, he moved most of the works belonging to the family collections preserved in the Roman residences to Parma and in 1688 the new Ducal Theater was inaugurated. Ranuccio II had a son destined to succeed him, Odoardo, who, however, premorted his father and therefore never governed the duchy.[7][8]

Three years before his death, thanks to the mediation of the ambassador Count Fabio Perletti, Odoardo had married Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg, with whom he had two children: Alessandro, who died at the age of eight months, and Elisabeth. On 11 December 1694, upon the sudden death of Ranuccio II, the duchy then passed into the hands of the just sixteen-year-old second son Francesco, who married the widow of his brother Dorothea.[9]

Rule of Francesco Farnese

Parma in the early 18th century.
Parma in the early 18th century.

Francesco Farnese's work fully brought the Farnese dynasty back to the center of great politics. Having inherited a disastrous financial situation, in order to try to heal it he cut all the unnecessary expenses of the court by firing most of the servants, musicians, buffoons and dwarves. He also abolished performances, court parties and banquets. A hydraulic work was built to defend the city of Piacenza from the erosion of the Po, the expansion of the University of Parma and the Collegio dei Nobili was favored, encouraging the study of public law, history, languages ​​and geography. Artists, writers, musicians and playwrights enjoyed the protection of the Court. In 1712 the renovation works of the fortress of Colorno began, completed in 1730. In 1714 the duchy achieved an important diplomatic success when Francesco, thanks to the offices of his ambassador in Spain Giulio Alberoni, was able to give his niece Elisabeth in wife to King Philip V, who in that year became the widower of Maria Luisa of Savoy.[10][11]

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Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma

Alexander Farnese was an Italian noble and condottiero and later a general of the Spanish army, who was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. Thanks to a steady influx of troops from Spain, during 1581–1587 Farnese captured more than thirty towns in the south and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics. His talents as a field commander, strategist and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age.

Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma

Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma

Odoardo Farnese, also known as Odoardo I Farnese to distinguish him from his grandson Odoardo II Farnese, was Duke of Parma, Piacenza and Castro from 1622 to 1646.

Margherita de' Medici

Margherita de' Medici

Margherita de' Medici was Duchess of Parma and Piacenza by her marriage to Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma. Margherita was regent of Piacenza in 1635, and regent of the entire duchy from 1646 until 1648 during the minority of her son.

Florence

Florence

Florence is a city in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region. It is the most populated city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2016, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.

Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany

Cosimo II de' Medici was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1609 until his death. He was the elder son of Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Christina of Lorraine.

Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena

Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena

Francesco I d'Este was Duke of Modena and Reggio from 1629 until his death. The eldest son of Alfonso III d'Este, he became reigning duke after his father's abdication.

Francesco Maria Farnese

Francesco Maria Farnese

Francesco Maria Farnese was an Italian Roman Catholic cardinal.

Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma

Odoardo Farnese, Hereditary Prince of Parma

Odoardo Farnese was the eldest son of Duke Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma and Piacenza. Odoardo was the Hereditary Prince of Parma from his birth until his death. He was the father of the famously domineering Elisabeth, Queen of Spain.

Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg

Countess Palatine Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg

Dorothea Sophie of Neuburg was Duchess of Parma from 1695 to 1727 by marriage to Francesco, Duke of Parma. She served as Regent of the Duchy of Parma for her grandson Charles of Spain between 1731 and 1735.

Elisabeth Farnese

Elisabeth Farnese

Elisabeth Farnese was Queen of Spain by marriage to King Philip V. She exerted great influence over Spain's foreign policy and was the de facto ruler of Spain from 1714 until 1746. From 1759 until 1760, she governed as regent.

Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma

Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma

Francesco Farnese reigned as the seventh Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1694 until his death. Married to Dorothea Sophia of the Palatinate, his brother Odoardo's widow, to avoid the return of her dowry, Francesco curtailed court expenditure, enormous under his father and predecessor, Ranuccio II, while preventing the occupation of his Duchy of Parma, nominally a Papal fief, during the War of the Spanish Succession.

Giulio Alberoni

Giulio Alberoni

Giulio Alberoni was an Italian cardinal and statesman in the service of Philip V of Spain.

Napoleonic era (1796-1814)

Napoleon Bonaparte was undecided about the future of the duchy, aspiring to a total engagement of the Bourbons in the European wars as his allies. Even as French laws and administration were gradually introduced, the formal annexation to the French Empire was declared only in 1808 after the outbreak of the conflict against Spain. The duchy was reformed as the département of Taro.

Last decades of the duchy (1814 to 1860)

In 1814, the duchies were given to Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie-Louise, styled Maria-Luigia, who ruled them for the rest of her life. After Maria-Luigia's death in 1847, the Duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny Duchy of Lucca. Guastalla was ceded to Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the French and Sardinian victory in the war against Austria (called Austrian War in France and Second War of Independence in Italy).

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and merged with the Kingdom of Sardinia into the Kingdom of Italy in March 1860 after holding a referendum.

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Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma

Marie Louise I was an Austrian archduchess who reigned as Duchess of Parma from 11 April 1814 until her death. She was Napoleon's second wife and as such Empress of the French and Queen of Italy from their marriage on 1 April 1810 until his abdication on 6 April 1814.

Duchy of Lucca

Duchy of Lucca

The Duchy of Lucca was a small Italian state existing from 1815 to 1847. It was centered on the city of Lucca. By the Congress of Vienna of 1815 the Duchy was to revert to Tuscany on the end of its Bourbon-Parma line of rulers or when the line would obtain another territory, which both happened in 1847, when Marie Louise of Austria died and the Bourbon-Parma recovered the Duchy of Parma. In accordance with the final act of the Congress of Vienna, the Duchy of Lucca then came into the possession of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, which was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) in 1860.

Duchy of Modena and Reggio

Duchy of Modena and Reggio

The Duchy of Modena and Reggio was an Italian state created in 1452 located in Northwestern Italy, in the present day region of Emilia-Romagna. It was ruled since its establishment by the noble House of Este, and since 1814 by the Austria-Este branch of the family. The Este dynasty was a great sponsor of the arts, making the Duchy a cultural reference during the Renaissance and Baroque periods.

Second Italian War of Independence

Second Italian War of Independence

The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, the Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859, was fought by the Second French Empire and the Savoyard Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian Unification.

Grand Duchy of Tuscany

Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was an Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Republic of Florence. The grand duchy's capital was Florence. In the 19th century the population of the Grand Duchy was about 1,815,000 inhabitants.

United Provinces of Central Italy

United Provinces of Central Italy

The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Confederation of Central Italy or General Government of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. It was formed by a union of the former Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, and the Papal Legations, after the Second Italian War of Independence.

Kingdom of Sardinia

Kingdom of Sardinia

The Kingdom of Sardinia, also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, or Savoy-Piedmont-Sardinia during the Savoyard period, was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.

Kingdom of Italy

Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy was a state that existed from 1861, when Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy, until 1946, when civil discontent led to an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state resulted from a decades-long process, the Risorgimento, of consolidating the different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state. That process was influenced by the Savoy-led Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered Italy's legal predecessor state.

Historical flags and coat of arms

Source: "Duchy of Parma and Piacenza", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchy_of_Parma_and_Piacenza.

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References
  1. ^ a b c d "Duchy of Parma and Piacenza | historical duchy, Italy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-11-02.
  2. ^ a b "Parma e Piacenza, ducato di nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2021-08-05.
  3. ^ "FARNESE, Ottavio in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  4. ^ "Alessandro Farnese principe e poi duca di Parma e Piacenza nell'Enciclopedia Treccani". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  5. ^ "ODOARDO Farnese, duca di Parma e di Piacenza in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  6. ^ "La famiglia Farnese - la storia dei Duchi di Parma e Piacenza". Informazioni turistiche su Parma e provincia (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  7. ^ "RANUCCIO II Farnese, duca di Parma e Piacenza in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  8. ^ "FARNESE, Odoardo in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  9. ^ "FARNESE, Odoardo, detto Odoardo II in "Enciclopedia Italiana"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  10. ^ "FRANCESCO Farnese, duca di Parma e Piacenza in "Dizionario Biografico"". www.treccani.it (in Italian). Retrieved 2022-07-12.
  11. ^ "Francesco Farnese". www.histouring.com. Retrieved 2022-07-12.
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