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Drevlians

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European territory inhabited by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th centuries
European territory inhabited by East Slavic tribes in 8th and 9th centuries

The Drevlians or Derevlianians[1] (Ukrainian: Древляни, romanizedDrevliany, Russian: Древля́не, romanizedDrevlyane) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 10th centuries, which inhabited the territories of Polesia and right-bank Ukraine, west of the eastern Polans and along the lower reaches of the rivers Teteriv, Uzh, Ubort, and Stsviha. To the west, the Drevlians' territories reached the Sluch River, where the Volynians (related to the territory of Volynia) and Buzhans (related to the name of Southern Bug river) lived. To the north, the Drevlians' neighbors were the Dregovichs.

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Romanization of Ukrainian

Romanization of Ukrainian

The romanization of Ukrainian, or Latinization of Ukrainian, is the representation of the Ukrainian language in Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration and transcription.

Russian language

Russian language

Russian is an East Slavic language mainly spoken in Russia. It is the native language of the Russians, and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages. Besides Russia itself, Russian is an official language in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is used widely as a lingua franca throughout Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to some extent in the Baltic states. It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.

Romanization of Russian

Romanization of Russian

The romanization of the Russian language, aside from its primary use for including Russian names and words in text written in a Latin alphabet, is also essential for computer users to input Russian text who either do not have a keyboard or word processor set up for inputting Cyrillic, or else are not capable of typing rapidly using a native Russian keyboard layout (JCUKEN). In the latter case, they would type using a system of transliteration fitted for their keyboard layout, such as for English QWERTY keyboards, and then use an automated tool to convert the text into Cyrillic.

Tribe

Tribe

The term tribe is used in many different contexts to refer to a category of human social group. The predominant worldwide usage of the term in English is in the discipline of anthropology. Its definition is contested, in part due to conflicting theoretical understandings of social and kinship structures, and also reflecting the problematic application of this concept to extremely diverse human societies. The concept is often contrasted by anthropologists with other social and kinship groups, being hierarchically larger than a lineage or clan, but smaller than a chiefdom, nation or state. These terms are equally disputed. In some cases tribes have legal recognition and some degree of political autonomy from national or federal government, but this legalistic usage of the term may conflict with anthropological definitions.

Polesia

Polesia

Polesia, Polesie, or Polesye is a natural and historical region that starts from the farthest edge of Central Europe and encompasses Eastern Europe, including Eastern Poland, the Belarus–Ukraine border region and Southwestern Russia.

Right-bank Ukraine

Right-bank Ukraine

Right-bank Ukraine is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kyiv and Cherkasy. It was separated from the left bank during the Ruin.

Polans (eastern)

Polans (eastern)

The Polans or Polians, also Polanians or Polianians, were an East Slavic tribe between the 6th and the 9th century, which inhabited both sides of the Dnieper river from Liubech to Rodnia and also down the lower streams of the rivers Ros', Sula, Stuhna, Teteriv, Irpin', Desna and Pripyat.

Teteriv

Teteriv

The Teteriv is a right tributary of the Dnieper River in Ukraine. It has a length of 365 km and a drainage basin of 15,300 km².

Stsviha

Stsviha

The Stsviha or Stvyha is a river of Ukraine and Belarus. It is a tributary of the Pripyat River in the Dnieper basin. A notable marsh wetland known as the Polesia, home to about 265 different species of bird, lies between the Pripyat, Stsviha and Ubort Rivers.

Sluch (Ukraine)

Sluch (Ukraine)

The Sluch or Southern Sluch is a river, a right tributary of the Horyn, which flows through Ukraine. It has a length of 451 km and a drainage basin of 13,800 km2. The Sluch river takes its source in the Ukrainian province of Khmelnytskyi, and then flows through the Zhytomyr and Rivne oblasts, and flows briefly along the Ukrainian-Belarusian border before finally emptying into the Horyn.

Buzhans

Buzhans

The Buzhans were one of the tribal unions of Early Slavs, which supposedly formed East Slavs in Southern Russia and Volga region. They are mentioned as Buzhane in the Rus' Primary Chronicle. Several localities in Russia are claimed to be connected to the Buzhans, like for example Sredniy Buzhan in the Orenburg Oblast, Buzan and the Buzan river in the Astrakhan Oblast.

Southern Bug

Southern Bug

The Southern Bug, also called Southern Buh, and sometimes Boh River, is a navigable river located in Ukraine. It is the second-longest river in Ukraine.

Ethnonym

Their name is derived from Slavic drevo/древо or derevo/дерево, meaning "wood"[2] and "tree",[3] because they lived in the forests.[2] Their name may be rendered "the dwellers in the forest".[3] They possibly were mentioned as Forsderen-Liudi by Bavarian Geographer in the 9th century.[4] Nestor the Chronicler (1056–1114) mentioned that those Slavs who settled in open fields had been called Polyani (after the Slavic pole/поле, meaning "field"), and those in forest areas Drevlyani.[5]

Settlements

The Drevlians left many archaeological traces, such as agricultural settlements with semi-dugouts (or earth-houses), moundless burial grounds and barrows, fortified towns like Vruchiy (present-day Ovruch), Horodske, site of an ancient settlement near Malyn (supposedly, a residence of the Drevlian prince Mal), and others. The principal city of the Drevlians was Iskorosten (today's Korosten), where one can still see a group of compact ancient settlements. After the Kievan Rus' conquered the Drevlians, Iskorosten was burned to the ground and the capital transferred to Ovruch. By the end of the first millennium, the Drevlians already had well-developed farming and handicrafts.

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Dugout (shelter)

Dugout (shelter)

A dugout or dug-out, also known as a pit-house or earth lodge, is a shelter for humans or domesticated animals and livestock based on a hole or depression dug into the ground. Dugouts can be fully recessed into the earth, with a flat roof covered by ground, or dug into a hillside. They can also be semi-recessed, with a constructed wood or sod roof standing out. These structures are one of the most ancient types of human housing known to archaeologists, and the same methods have evolved into modern "earth shelter" technology.

Tumulus

Tumulus

A tumulus is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus.

Ovruch

Ovruch

Ovruch is a city in Korosten Raion, in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. Prior to 2020, it was the administrative center of the former Ovruch Raion (district). It has a population of approximately 15,250 and is home to the Ovruch air base.

Malyn

Malyn

Malyn is a city in Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of Ukraine located about 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of Kyiv. It served as the administrative center of Malyn Raion, now located in Korosten Raion. Population: 25,172

Prince

Prince

A prince is a male ruler or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince is also a title of nobility, often hereditary, in some European states. The female equivalent is a princess. The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin noun prīnceps, from primus (first) and caput (head), meaning "the first, foremost, the chief, most distinguished, noble ruler, prince".

Korosten

Korosten

Korosten is a historic city and a large transport hub in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. It is located on the Uzh River. Korosten serves as the administrative center of the Korosten Raion (district) . As of January 2022 Korosten's population was approximately 61,496.

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus', also known as Kyivan Rus', was a state in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century. Encompassing a variety of polities and peoples, including East Slavic, Norse, and Finnic, it was ruled by the Rurik dynasty, founded by the Varangian prince Rurik. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestor, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. At its greatest extent in the mid-11th century, Kievan Rus' stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the East Slavic tribes.

Handicraft

Handicraft

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by one’s hand or by using only simple, non-automated related tools like scissors, carving implements, or hooks. It is a traditional main sector of craft making and applies to a wide range of creative and design activities that are related to making things with one's hands and skill, including work with textiles, moldable and rigid materials, paper, plant fibers,clay etc. One of the oldest handicraft is Dhokra; this is a sort of metal casting that has been used in India for over 4,000 years and is still used. In Iranian Baluchistan, women still make red ware hand-made pottery with dotted ornaments, much similar to the 5000-year-old pottery tradition of Kalpurgan, an archaeological site near the village. Usually, the term is applied to traditional techniques of creating items that are both practical and aesthetic. Handicraft industries are those that produce things with hands to meet the needs of the people in their locality without using machines.

History

Igor of Kiev Exacting Tribute from the Drevlyans, by Klavdiy Lebedev (1852–1916)
Igor of Kiev Exacting Tribute from the Drevlyans, by Klavdiy Lebedev (1852–1916)

The Drevlians initially fervently opposed the Kievan Rus'. According to a number of chronicles, in the times of Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv (supposedly, founders of Kiev) the Drevlians had their own princely rule and were frequently at war with the Polyani. In 883, Prince Oleg of Novgorod made the Drevlians pay tribute to Kiev. In 907, the Drevlians took part in the Kievan military campaign against the Eastern Roman Empire.

Olga's revenge for the assassination of her husband
Olga's revenge for the assassination of her husband

After Oleg's death in 912 the Drevlians stopped paying tribute. The Varangian warlord Sveneld made them pay tribute to himself. Oleg's successor Igor attempted to levy the tribute after Sveneld, but the Drevlians revolted and killed him in 945. Igor's widow Olga avenged her husband's death in an extremely harsh manner, killing Drevlian ambassadors and nobility, burning their capital of Iskorosten to the ground and leveling other towns. After having subjugated the Drevlians, Olga transformed their territories into a Kievan appanage with the center in Vruchiy.

The last contemporary mention of the Drevlians occurred in a chronicle of 1136, when Grand Prince Yaropolk Vladimirovich of Kiev gave their lands to the Church of the Tithes.

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Igor of Kiev

Igor of Kiev

Igor the Old of Ihor of Kyiv was a Rurikid ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus', also known as Kyivan Rus', was a state in Eastern and Northern Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century. Encompassing a variety of polities and peoples, including East Slavic, Norse, and Finnic, it was ruled by the Rurik dynasty, founded by the Varangian prince Rurik. The modern nations of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine all claim Kievan Rus' as their cultural ancestor, with Belarus and Russia deriving their names from it. At its greatest extent in the mid-11th century, Kievan Rus' stretched from the White Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south and from the headwaters of the Vistula in the west to the Taman Peninsula in the east, uniting the East Slavic tribes.

Chronicle

Chronicle

A chronicle is a historical account of events arranged in chronological order, as in a timeline. Typically, equal weight is given for historically important events and local events, the purpose being the recording of events that occurred, seen from the perspective of the chronicler. A chronicle which traces world history is a universal chronicle. This is in contrast to a narrative or history, in which an author chooses events to interpret and analyze and excludes those the author does not consider important or relevant.

Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv

Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv

Kyi, Shchek and Khoryv were three legendary brothers—often mentioned along with their sister Lybid —who, according to the Primary Chronicle, founded the medieval city of Kyiv, which eventually became the capital of Kievan Rus' and present-day Ukraine. There is no precise and historically established information about the rule of Kyi and the establishment of the city of Kyiv.

Oleg of Novgorod

Oleg of Novgorod

Oleg, also known as Oleg the Wise, was a Varangian prince of the Rus' who was ruler of Novgorod. He later conquered Kiev, thereby laying the foundations of the Kievan Rus' state.

Sveneld

Sveneld

Sveneld is a semi-legendary 10th-century Varangian warlord in the service of Svyatoslav I of Kiev and his family. Although he seems to have been the richest and the most influential Rus' leader after the ruling prince, his relation to the House of Rurik, if it existed, has not been positively established. Most of information about Sveneld is scarce.

Olga of Kiev

Olga of Kiev

Olga was a regent of Kievan Rus' for her son Sviatoslav from 945 until 960. Following her baptism, Olga took the name Elenа. She is known for her subjugation of the Drevlians, a tribe that had killed her husband Igor of Kiev. Even though it was her grandson Vladimir who converted the entire nation to Christianity, because of her efforts to spread Christianity through Rus', Olga is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church with the epithet "Equal to the Apostles". Her feast day is 11 July.

Ambassador

Ambassador

An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment. The word is also used informally for people who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions, activities, and fields of endeavor, such as sales.

Nobility

Nobility

Nobility is a social class found in many societies that have an aristocracy. It is normally ranked immediately below royalty. Nobility has often been an estate of the realm with many exclusive functions and characteristics. The characteristics associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles or simply formal functions, and vary by country and by era. Membership in the nobility, including rights and responsibilities, is typically hereditary and patrilineal.

Appanage

Appanage

An appanage, or apanage, is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture. It was common in much of Europe.

Church of the Tithes

Church of the Tithes

The Church of the Tithes or Church of the Dormition of the Virgin was the first stone church in Kyiv. Originally it was built by the order of Grand Prince Volodymyr (Volodymyr) the Great between 989 and 996 by Byzantine and local workers at the site of death of martyrs Theodor the Varangian and his son Johann. It was originally named the "Church of Our Lady", in honor of the Dormition of the Theotokos. The church was ruined in 1240 during the siege of Kyiv by Mongol armies of Batu Khan.

In literature

The Drevlians are depicted in works dedicated to Kniaz Igor and Kniaginia Olga, including:

and also

  • S. A. Korff (1911), Den drevljanske fursten Mal / S. A. Korff, Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland (in Swedish), Helsinki, ISSN 0039-6842, Wikidata Q113396170

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Igor of Kiev

Igor of Kiev

Igor the Old of Ihor of Kyiv was a Rurikid ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.

Olga of Kiev

Olga of Kiev

Olga was a regent of Kievan Rus' for her son Sviatoslav from 945 until 960. Following her baptism, Olga took the name Elenа. She is known for her subjugation of the Drevlians, a tribe that had killed her husband Igor of Kiev. Even though it was her grandson Vladimir who converted the entire nation to Christianity, because of her efforts to spread Christianity through Rus', Olga is venerated as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox Church with the epithet "Equal to the Apostles". Her feast day is 11 July.

Leopold von Sacher-Masoch

Leopold von Sacher-Masoch

Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch was an Austrian nobleman, writer and journalist, who gained renown for his romantic stories of Galician life. The term masochism is derived from his name, invented by his contemporary, the Austrian psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing. Masoch did not approve of this use of his name.

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland

Skrifter utgivna av Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland is a book series in Swedish published in Finland since 1886 by the Society of Swedish Literature in Finland (SLS). The main series had reached number number 734 in the year 2010. The series has several sub-series with own themes and numbering. Several of the publications have been digitalised and made freely available by the National Library of Finland.

Source: "Drevlians", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drevlians.

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References
  1. ^ "Slavs". Encyclopedia of Ukraine. 1993. Retrieved 2023-01-25.
  2. ^ a b Francis Conte (1995). The Slavs. East European Monographs. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-88033-310-8.
  3. ^ a b Nora K. Chadwick (4 July 2013). The Beginnings of Russian History: An Enquiry into Sources. Cambridge University Press. pp. 17–. ISBN 978-1-107-65256-9.
  4. ^ Henryk Łowmiański, O identyfikacji nazw Geografa bawarskiego, Studia Źródłoznawcze, t. III: 1958, s. 1–22; reed: w: Studia nad dziejami Słowiańszczyzny, Polski i Rusi w wiekach średnich, Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu im. Adama Mickiewicza, Poznań 1986, s. 151–181, ISSN 0554-8217
  5. ^ Frank A. Kmietowicz (1976). Ancient Slavs. Worzalla Publishing Company. p. 54.
  6. ^ a b Sacher-Masoch, L. and Haivoronskyi, P., 2016, Bloody Wedding in Kyiv: Two Tales of Olha, Kniahynia of Kyivan Rus, Sova Books, Sydney (Engl. transl.)

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