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Dot-fronted woodpecker

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Dot-fronted woodpecker
Dot-fronted Woodpecker.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Piciformes
Family: Picidae
Genus: Veniliornis
Species:
V. frontalis
Binomial name
Veniliornis frontalis
(Cabanis, 1883)
Veniliornis frontalis map.svg
Synonyms

Dryobates frontalis

The dot-fronted woodpecker (Veniliornis frontalis) is a species of bird in subfamily Picinae of the woodpecker family Picidae.[2] It is found in Argentina and Bolivia.[3]

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Bird

Bird

Birds are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Aves, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5.5 cm (2.2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.8 m common ostrich. There are about ten thousand living species, more than half of which are passerine, or "perching" birds. Birds have wings whose development varies according to species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which are modified forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in some birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.

Woodpecker

Woodpecker

Woodpeckers are part of the bird family Picidae, which also includes the piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers. Members of this family are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Guinea, New Zealand, Madagascar, and the extreme polar regions. Most species live in forests or woodland habitats, although a few species are known that live in treeless areas, such as rocky hillsides and deserts, and the Gila woodpecker specialises in exploiting cacti.

Argentina

Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a country in the southern half of South America. Argentina covers an area of 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,500 sq mi), making it the second-largest country in South America after Brazil, the fourth-largest country in the Americas, and the eighth-largest country in the world. It shares the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, and is also bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast, Uruguay and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Drake Passage to the south. Argentina is a federal state subdivided into twenty-three provinces, and one autonomous city, which is the federal capital and largest city of the nation, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and a part of Antarctica.

Bolivia

Bolivia

Bolivia, officially the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north and east, Paraguay to the southeast, Argentina to the south, Chile to the southwest and Peru to the west. The seat of government and executive capital is La Paz, while the constitutional capital is Sucre. The largest city and principal industrial center is Santa Cruz de la Sierra, located on the Llanos Orientales, a mostly flat region in the east of the country.

Taxonomy and systematics

The International Ornithological Committee and BirdLife International's Handbook of the Birds of the World place the dot-fronted woodpecker in genus Veniliornis.[2][4] However, starting in 2018, the American Ornithological Society and the Clements taxonomy moved all species of genus Veniliornis into genus Dryobates.[5][6][7] The dot-fronted woodpecker and little woodpecker (V. (or D.) passerinus) sometimes hybridize, and some authors have treated them as conspecific.[8]

The taxonomic systems agree that the dot-fronted woodpecker is monotypic.[2][7][4]

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BirdLife International

BirdLife International

BirdLife International is a global partnership of non-governmental organizations that strives to conserve birds and their habitats. BirdLife International's priorities include preventing extinction of bird species, identifying and safeguarding important sites for birds, maintaining and restoring key bird habitats, and empowering conservationists worldwide.

Handbook of the Birds of the World

Handbook of the Birds of the World

The Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) is a multi-volume series produced by the Spanish publishing house Lynx Edicions in partnership with BirdLife International. It is the first handbook to cover every known living species of bird. The series was edited by Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, Jordi Sargatal and David A. Christie.

Veniliornis

Veniliornis

Veniliornis is a genus of birds in the woodpecker family Picidae. They are native to Central and South America.

American Ornithological Society

American Ornithological Society

The American Ornithological Society (AOS) is an ornithological organization based in the United States. The society was formed in October 2016 by the merger of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) and the Cooper Ornithological Society. Its members are primarily professional ornithologists, although membership is open to anyone with an interest in birds. The society publishes the two scholarly journals, The Auk and The Condor as well as the AOS Checklist of North American Birds.

Dryobates

Dryobates

Dryobates is a genus of birds in the woodpecker family Picidae. The species are widely distributed and occur in both Eurasia and the Americas.

Little woodpecker

Little woodpecker

The little woodpecker is a species of bird in subfamily Picinae of the woodpecker family Picidae. It is found in every mainland South American country except Chile, Suriname, and Uruguay.

Description

The dot-fronted woodpecker is about 16 cm (6.3 in) long and weighs 30 to 40 g (1.1 to 1.4 oz). Males and females have the same plumage except on their heads. Males have an olive to gray-brown forehead ("front") with many white spots and are red from the crown to the nape with dark gray feather bases showing through. The female is olive-brown from forehead to nape with white spots throughout. Adults of both sexes have a mostly olive-brown face with a thin white supercilium and a thin white "moustache". Their upperparts are mostly yellowish olive with golden feather tips and pale bars and streaks. Their flight feathers are brown with wide yellow-green edges and pale bars on the inner webs. Their tail is dark brown with a yellow wash and thin whitish bars on the feathers. Their underparts are olive-gray with narrow whitish bars. The iris is dark brown, the longish beak blackish with a paler mandible, and the legs are dark gray. Juveniles are duller and grayer than adults and both sexes have some red on the crown, the male more than the female.[8]

Distribution and habitat

The dot-fronted woodpecker is found on the east side of the Andes from Bolivia's Cochabamba and Santa Cruz departments south to Tucumán Province in Argentina. It inhabits dry montane woodland, humid forest, and the transition zone between them. In elevation it ranges as high as 2,000 m (6,600 ft) but generally occurs lower.[8]

Behavior

Movement

The dot-fronted woodpecker tends to move to lower elevations outside the breeding season.[8]

Feeding

The dot-fronted woodpecker typically forages near the ground on tree trunks and small branches. Its diet has not been described.[8]

Breeding

The dot-fronted woodpecker's breeding season has not been fully defined but appears to include at least September to November. The single known nest cavity was about 8 m (25 ft) above the ground in a dead tree. Nothing else is known about the species' breeding biology.[8]

Vocalization

The dot-fronted woodpecker "makes [a] series of 8–10 'juíc!' or 'jíc!' calls, or a rather harsh 'wík!'."[8]

Status

The IUCN has assessed the dot-fronted woodpecker as being of Least Concern, though it has a somewhat limited range and its population size is not known and is believed to be decreasing. No immediate threats have been identified.[1] It occurs in at least two national parks but is thought "generally rather uncommon". "Very poorly known species; research required on its ecology and reproduction."[8]

Source: "Dot-fronted woodpecker", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dot-fronted_woodpecker.

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References
  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2018). "Dot-fronted Woodpecker Veniliornis frontalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T22681202A130038837. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T22681202A130038837.en. Retrieved 25 January 2023.
  2. ^ a b c Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P., eds. (August 2022). "Woodpeckers". IOC World Bird List. v 12.2. Retrieved 9 January 2023.
  3. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 24 July 2022. Species Lists of Birds for South American Countries and Territories. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCCountryLists.htm retrieved July 24, 2022
  4. ^ a b HBW and BirdLife International (2022) Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 7. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v7_Dec22.zip retrieved December 13, 2022
  5. ^ R. Terry Chesser, Kevin J. Burns, Carla Cicero, Jon L. Dunn, Andrew W. Kratter, Irby J. Lovette, Pamela C. Rasmussen, J. V. Remsen, Jr., Douglas F. Stotz, Benjamin M. Winger, and Kevin Winker. "Fifty-ninth supplement to the American Ornithological Society’s Check-list of North American Birds". The Auk 2018, vol. 135:798-813 retrieved December 13, 2022
  6. ^ Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 24 July 2022. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. https://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm retrieved July 24, 2022
  7. ^ a b Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, T. A. Fredericks, J. A. Gerbracht, D. Lepage, S. M. Billerman, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2022. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2022. Downloaded from https://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/ retrieved November 10, 2022
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Winkler, H. and D. A. Christie (2020). Dot-fronted Woodpecker (Dryobates frontalis), version 1.0. In Birds of the World (J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana, Editors). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.2173/bow.dofwoo1.01 retrieved January 25, 2023

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