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Dewan Rakyat

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House of Representatives

Dewan Rakyat
15th Parliament
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Azhar Azizan Harun, Independent[1]
since 13 July 2020
Deputy Speaker I
Vacant
since 11 October 2022
Deputy Speaker II
Vacant
since 11 October 2022
Nizam Mydin
since 13 May 2020
Anwar Ibrahim, PH-PKR
since 24 November 2022
Structure
Seats222
Dewan Rakyat 2022 election results.svg
Political groups
(As of 24 November 2022)

Government (148)

  PH (82)
  BN (30)
  GPS (23)
  GRS (6)
  WARISAN (3)
  KDM (2)
  PBM (1)
  Independent (1)

Opposition (73)

  PN (73)

Vacant (1)

Committees
5
Length of term
Up to 5 years
Elections
First-past-the-post
Last election
19 November 2022
Next election
2027
Meeting place
Insidedewanrakyat.jpg
Dewan Rakyat chamber
Malaysian Houses of Parliament,
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Website
Official website

The Dewan Rakyat (English: 'House of Representatives'; lit.'People's Assembly') is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

The Dewan Rakyat is a directly elected body consisting of 222 members known as Members of Parliament (MPs). Members are elected by first-past-the-post voting with one member from each federal constituency. Members hold their seats until the Dewan Rakyat is dissolved, the term of which is constitutionally limited to five years after an election. The number of seats each state or territory is entitled to is fixed by Article 46 of the Constitution.

While the concurrence of both chambers of Parliament is normally necessary for legislation to be enacted, the Dewan Rakyat holds significantly more power in practice; the Dewan Negara very rarely rejects bills that have been passed by the Dewan Rakyat and the Dewan Rakyat can bypass the Dewan Negara if it refuses to pass a specific law twice, with at least one year in between. The Cabinet is solely responsible to the Dewan Rakyat, and the prime minister only has to maintain the support of the lower house.

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English language

English language

English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. English is genealogically West Germanic, closest related to the Low Saxon and Frisian languages; however, its vocabulary is also distinctively influenced by dialects of French and Latin, plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse. Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

Bicameralism

Bicameralism

Bicameralism is a type of legislature, one divided into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses, known as a bicameral legislature. Bicameralism is distinguished from unicameralism, in which all members deliberate and vote as a single group. As of 2015, about 40% of world's national legislatures are bicameral, and about 60% are unicameral.

Legislature

Legislature

A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. They are often contrasted with the executive and judicial powers of government.

Constitution of Malaysia

Constitution of Malaysia

The Federal Constitution of Malaysia which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia and contains a total of 183 articles. It is a written legal document influenced by two previous documents, the Federation of Malaya Agreement 1948 and the Independence Constitution of 1957. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the states of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore became part of the Federation. The Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy, having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State with largely ceremonial roles. It provides for the establishment and organisation of three main branches of the government: the bicameral legislative branch called the Parliament, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate ; the executive branch led by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet Ministers and the judicial branch headed by the Federal Court.

Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and colloquially referred to as KL, is a federal territory and the ceremonial, legislative and judicial capital city of Malaysia. It is one of the fastest growing cities in Asia and the largest city in Malaysia, covering an area of 243 km2 (94 sq mi) with a census population of 1,982,112 as of 2020. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.564 million people as of 2018. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, both in population and economic development.

Dewan Negara

Dewan Negara

The Dewan Negara is the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia, consisting of 70 senators of whom 26 are elected by the state legislative assemblies, with two senators for each state, while the other 44 are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), including four who are appointed to represent the federal territories.

First-past-the-post voting

First-past-the-post voting

In a first-past-the-post electoral system formally called single-member plurality voting (SMP) when used in single-member districts, or (informally) choose-one voting in contrast to ranked voting or score voting), voters cast their vote for a candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.

Dissolution of parliament

Dissolution of parliament

The dissolution of a legislative assembly is the mandatory simultaneous resignation of all of its members, in anticipation that a successive legislative assembly will reconvene later with possibly different members. In a democracy, the new assembly is chosen by a general election. Dissolution is distinct on the one hand from abolition of the assembly, and on the other hand from its adjournment or prorogation, or the ending of a legislative session, any of which begins a period of inactivity after which it is anticipated that the same members will reassemble. For example, the "second session of the fifth parliament" could be followed by the "third session of the fifth parliament" after a prorogation, but the "first session of the sixth parliament" after a dissolution.

Elections in Malaysia

Elections in Malaysia

Elections in Malaysia include elections to public office of the political entities that since 1963 have composed the federation of Malaysia. At present, elections in Malaysia exist at two levels: federal level and state level. Federal level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state level elections are for membership in the various State Legislative Assemblies. The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers respectively, are indirectly elected, usually filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures.

Bill (law)

Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature as well as, in most cases, approved by the executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an act of the legislature, or a statute. Bills are introduced in the legislature and are discussed, debated and voted upon.

Cabinet of Malaysia

Cabinet of Malaysia

The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of the Government of Malaysia. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Federal Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The constitution is amended by repealing the Clause (8) of Article 43, enabling a person who is a member of State Legislative Assembly to continue to serve even while serving as a minister or deputy minister in the cabinet. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign from office. In practice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers.

Confidence and supply

Confidence and supply

In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a ruling cabinet to retain power in the lower house.

Membership

Members are referred to as "Members of Parliament" ("MPs") or "Ahli Dewan Rakyat" (lit.'member of the Dewan Rakyat') in Malay. The term of office is as long as the member wins in the elections.

A member of the Dewan Rakyat must be at least 21 years of age and must not concurrently be a member of the Dewan Negara. The presiding officer of the Dewan Rakyat is the Speaker, who is elected at the beginning of each Parliament or after the vacation of the post, by the MPs. Two Deputy Speakers are also elected, and one of them sits in place of the Speaker when he is absent. The Dewan Rakyat machinery is supervised by the Clerk of the House who is appointed by the King; he may only be removed from office through the manner prescribed for judges or by mandatory retirement at age 60.[2]

As of the 2018 general election, the Dewan Rakyat has 222 elected members. Members are elected from federal constituencies drawn by the Election Commission. Constituency boundaries are redrawn every ten years based on the latest census.

Each Dewan Rakyat lasts for a maximum of five years, after which a general election must be called. In the general election, voters select a candidate to represent their constituency in the Dewan Rakyat. The first-past-the-post voting system is used; the candidate who gains the most votes wins the seat.

Before a general election can be called, the King must first dissolve Parliament on the advice of the Prime Minister.[2] According to the Constitution, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong has the right at his own discretion to either grant or withhold consent to dissolve the parliament.

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Malay language

Malay language

Malay is an Austronesian language that is an official language of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, and that is also spoken in East Timor and parts of the Philippines and Thailand. Altogether, it is spoken by 290 million people across Maritime Southeast Asia.

Elections in Malaysia

Elections in Malaysia

Elections in Malaysia include elections to public office of the political entities that since 1963 have composed the federation of Malaysia. At present, elections in Malaysia exist at two levels: federal level and state level. Federal level elections are those for membership in the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament, while state level elections are for membership in the various State Legislative Assemblies. The heads of executive branch at both the federal and state levels, the Prime Minister and Menteri Besar/Chief Ministers respectively, are indirectly elected, usually filled by a member of the majority party/coalition in the respective legislatures.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 14th Malaysian Parliament

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 14th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia.

Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat

Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat

The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the highest-ranking presiding officer of the Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia. He is responsible for convening sessions of the Dewan Rakyat, organising debates, and examining the admissibility of petitions, bills, and amendments. In the absence of the Speaker, one of his deputies will take his place.

2018 Malaysian general election

2018 Malaysian general election

The 2018 Malaysian General Election, formally known as the 14th Malaysian General Election, was held on Wednesday, 9 May 2018, for members of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia. At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 505 seats in 12 out of the 13 state legislative assemblies of Malaysia. The 13th Parliament of Malaysia was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.

List of Malaysian electoral districts

List of Malaysian electoral districts

These are the list of federal constituencies followed by the state constituencies in Malaysia.

Election Commission of Malaysia

Election Commission of Malaysia

The Election Commission of Malaysia, abbreviated SPR or EC, is a commission set up for ensuring fair and equitable operations in undertaking the elections in Malaysia. Its establishment is mandated by executive order of the former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad. The agency falls under the purview of the Prime Minister's Department.

Powers and procedure

Parliament is the legislative branch of the federal government and is responsible for passing, amending and repealing primary legislation. These are known as Acts of Parliament.

Members of Parliament possess parliamentary privilege and are permitted to speak on any subject without fear of censure outside Parliament; the only body that can censure an MP is the House Committee of Privileges. Immunity is effective from the moment a member of Parliament is sworn in, and only applies when that member has the floor; it does not apply to statements made outside the House. An exception is made by the Sedition Act passed by Parliament in the wake of the 13 May racial riots in 1969. Under the Act, all public discussion of repealing certain Articles of the Constitution dealing with Bumiputra privileges such as Article 153 is illegal. This prohibition is extended to all members of both houses of Parliament.[3] Members of Parliament are also forbidden from criticising the King and judges.[4]

The executive government, comprising the Prime Minister and his Cabinet, is usually drawn from members of Parliament; most of its members are typically members of the Dewan Rakyat. After a general election or the resignation or death of a Prime Minister, the King selects the Prime Minister, who is the head of government but constitutionally subordinate to him, from the Dewan Rakyat. In practice, this is usually the leader of the largest party in Parliament. The Prime Minister then submits a list containing the names of members of his Cabinet, who will then be appointed as Ministers by the King. Members of the Cabinet must also be members of Parliament. If the Prime Minister loses the confidence of the Dewan Rakyat, whether by losing a no-confidence vote or failing to pass a budget, he must either advise the King to dissolve Parliament and hold a general election or submit his resignation to the King. The King has the discretion to grant or withhold consent to the dissolution. If consent is withheld, the government must resign and the King would appoint a new Prime Minister that has the support of the majority of members of Parliament. The Cabinet formulates government policy and drafts bills, meeting in private. Its members must accept "collective responsibility" for the decisions the Cabinet makes, even if some members disagree with it; if they do not wish to be held responsible for Cabinet decisions, they must resign. Although the Constitution makes no provision for it, there is also a Deputy Prime Minister, who is the de facto successor of the Prime Minister should he die or be otherwise incapacitated.[5]

A proposed act of law begins its life when a particular government minister or ministry prepares a first draft with the assistance of the Attorney-General's Department. The draft, known as a bill, is then discussed by the Cabinet. If it is agreed to submit it to Parliament, the bill is distributed to all MPs. It then goes through three readings before the Dewan Rakyat. The first reading is where the minister or his deputy submits it to Parliament. At the second reading, the bill is discussed and debated by MPs. At the third reading, the minister or his deputy formally submit it to a vote for approval. A simple majority is usually required to pass the bill, but in certain cases, such as amendments to the constitution, a two-thirds majority is required. Should the bill pass, it is sent to the Dewan Negara, where the three readings are carried out again. The Dewan Negara may choose not to pass the bill, but this only delays its passage by a month, or in some cases, a year; once this period expires, the bill is considered to have been passed by the house.[6]

If the bill passes, it is presented to the Yang di-Pertuan Agong who has 30 days to consider the bill. Should he disagree with it, he returns it to Parliament with a list of suggested amendments. Parliament must then reconsider the bill and its proposed amendments and return it to the King within 30 days if they pass it again. The King then has another 30 days to give the royal assent; otherwise, it passes into law. The law does not take effect until it is published in the Government Gazette.[7]

The government attempts to maintain top secrecy regarding bills debated; MPs generally receive copies of bills only a few days before they are debated, and newspapers are rarely provided with copies of the bills before they are debated. In some cases, such as a 1968 amendment to the Constitution, an MP may be presented with a bill to be debated on the same day it is tabled, and all three readings may be carried out that day itself.[8] In rare circumstances, the government may release a White paper containing particular proposals that will eventually be incorporated into a bill; this has been done for legislation such as the Universities and University Colleges Act.[9]

Although the process above assumes only the government can propose bills, there also exists a process for private member's bills. However, unlike most other legislatures following the Westminster system, few members of Parliament actually introduce bills.[10] To present a private member's bill, the member in question must seek the leave of the House in question to debate the bill before it is moved. Originally, it was allowed to debate the bill in the process of seeking leave, but this process was discontinued by an amendment to the Standing Orders of the Dewan Rakyat.[11] It is also possible for members of the Dewan Negara to initiate bills; however, only cabinet ministers are permitted to move finance-related bills, which must be tabled in the Dewan Rakyat.[12]

It is often alleged that legislation proposed by the opposition parties, which must naturally be in the form of a private member's bill, is not seriously considered by Parliament. Some have gone as far as to claim that the rights of members of Parliament to debate proposed bills have been severely curtailed by incidents such as an amendment of the Standing Orders that permitted the Speaker to amend written copies of MPs' speeches before they were made. Nevertheless, it is admitted by some of these critics that "government officials often face sharp questioning in Parliament, although this is not always reported in detail in the press."[13]

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Legislature

Legislature

A legislature is an assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. They are often contrasted with the executive and judicial powers of government.

Government of Malaysia

Government of Malaysia

The Government of Malaysia, officially the Federal Government of Malaysia, is based in the Federal Territory of Putrajaya with the exception of the legislative branch, which is located in Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia is a federation comprising the 11 States of Malaya, the Borneo States of Sabah and Sarawak, and 3 Federal Territories operating within a constitutional monarchy under the Westminster system and is categorised as a representative democracy. The federal government of Malaysia adheres to and is created by the Federal Constitution of Malaysia, the supreme law of the land.

Parliamentary privilege

Parliamentary privilege

Parliamentary privilege is a legal immunity enjoyed by members of certain legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made in the course of their legislative duties. It is common in countries whose constitutions are based on the Westminster system.

Constitution of Malaysia

Constitution of Malaysia

The Federal Constitution of Malaysia which came into force in 1957, is the supreme law of Malaysia and contains a total of 183 articles. It is a written legal document influenced by two previous documents, the Federation of Malaya Agreement 1948 and the Independence Constitution of 1957. The Federation was initially called the Federation of Malaya and it adopted its present name, Malaysia, when the states of Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore became part of the Federation. The Constitution establishes the Federation as a constitutional monarchy, having the Yang di-Pertuan Agong as the Head of State with largely ceremonial roles. It provides for the establishment and organisation of three main branches of the government: the bicameral legislative branch called the Parliament, which consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate ; the executive branch led by the Prime Minister and his Cabinet Ministers and the judicial branch headed by the Federal Court.

Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia

Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia

Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia grants the Yang di-Pertuan Agong responsibility for "safeguard[ing] the special position of the 'Malays' and natives of any of the States of Sabah and Sarawak and the legitimate interests of other communities" and goes on to specify ways to do this, such as establishing quotas for entry into the civil service, public scholarships and public education.

Prime Minister of Malaysia

Prime Minister of Malaysia

The prime minister of Malaysia is the head of government of Malaysia. The prime minister directs the executive branch of the federal government. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints as the prime minister a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs; this person is usually the leader of the party winning the most seats in a general election.

Cabinet of Malaysia

Cabinet of Malaysia

The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of the Government of Malaysia. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Federal Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The constitution is amended by repealing the Clause (8) of Article 43, enabling a person who is a member of State Legislative Assembly to continue to serve even while serving as a minister or deputy minister in the cabinet. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign from office. In practice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers.

Head of government

Head of government

The head of government is either the highest or the second-highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. In diplomacy, "head of government" is differentiated from "head of state" although in some countries, for example the United States, they are the same person.

Budget

Budget

A budget is a calculation plan, usually but not always financial, for a defined period, often one year or a month. A budget may include anticipated sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities including time, costs and expenses, environmental impacts such as greenhouse gas emissions, other impacts, assets, liabilities and cash flows. Companies, governments, families, and other organizations use budgets to express strategic plans of activities in measurable terms.

Bill (law)

Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature. A bill does not become law until it is passed by the legislature as well as, in most cases, approved by the executive. Once a bill has been enacted into law, it is called an act of the legislature, or a statute. Bills are introduced in the legislature and are discussed, debated and voted upon.

Reading (legislature)

Reading (legislature)

A reading of a bill is a stage of debate on the bill held by a general body of a legislature.

Private member's bill

Private member's bill

A private member's bill is a bill introduced into a legislature by a legislator who is not acting on behalf of the executive branch. The designation "private member's bill" is used in most Westminster system jurisdictions, in which a "private member" is any member of parliament (MP) who is not a member of the cabinet (executive). Other labels may be used for the concept in other parliamentary systems; for example, the label member's bill is used in the Scottish Parliament and the New Zealand Parliament, the term private senator's bill is used in the Australian Senate, and the term public bill is used in the Senate of Canada. In legislatures where the executive does not have the right of initiative, such as the United States Congress, the concept does not arise since bills are always introduced by legislators.

Current composition

Final composition before dissolution on 10 October 2022
Final composition before dissolution on 10 October 2022

Last composition before dissolution

Dewan Rakyat as of 6 June 2020
Affiliation Leader in Parliament Status Seats
2018 election Current
Barisan Nasional Ismail Sabri Yaakob Majority coalition government 79 41
Perikatan Nasional Muhyiddin Yassin 46
Gabungan Parti Sarawak Fadillah Yusof 19
Parti Bangsa Malaysia Zuraida Kamaruddin 6
United Sabah Party Maximus Ongkili 1
Independents 3 3
Pakatan Harapan Anwar Ibrahim Opposition 113 90
Heritage Party Shafie Apdal 8 7
Gerakan Tanah Air Mahathir Mohamad New 4
Parti Sarawak Bersatu Baru Bian 0 1
Malaysian United Democratic Alliance Syed Saddiq New 1
Total 222 219

Incoming composition after 2022 Malaysian General Election

Dewan Rakyat as of 24 November 2022
Affiliation Leader in Parliament Status Seats
2022 election Current
Pakatan Harapan Anwar Ibrahim Majority coalition government 82 82
Barisan Nasional Ahmad Zahid Hamidi 30 30
Gabungan Parti Sarawak Fadillah Yusof 23 23
Gabungan Rakyat Sabah Jeffrey Kitingan 6 6
Heritage Party Shafie Apdal 3 3
KDM Wetrom Bahanda 2 2
Parti Bangsa Malaysia Larry Sng 1 1
Independents 1 1
Perikatan Nasional Muhyiddin Yassin Opposition 73 73
Total 222 221

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Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat of the 15th Parliament of Malaysia.

List of members of the Dewan Rakyat

List of members of the Dewan Rakyat

This is a complete list of members of the Dewan Rakyat, lower house of the Parliament of Malaysia.Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 1st Malayan Parliament; 1959–1964 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 2nd Malaysian Parliament; 1964–1969 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 3rd Malaysian Parliament; 1971–1973 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 4th Malaysian Parliament; 1974–1978 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 5th Malaysian Parliament; 1978–1981 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 6th Malaysian Parliament; 1982–1986 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 7th Malaysian Parliament; 1986–1990 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 8th Malaysian Parliament; 1990–1994 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 9th Malaysian Parliament; 1995–1999 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 10th Malaysian Parliament; 1999–2003 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 11th Malaysian Parliament; 2004–2007 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 12th Malaysian Parliament; 2008–2013 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 13th Malaysian Parliament; 2013–2018 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 14th Malaysian Parliament; 2018-2022 Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament; 2022-present

2018 Malaysian general election

2018 Malaysian general election

The 2018 Malaysian General Election, formally known as the 14th Malaysian General Election, was held on Wednesday, 9 May 2018, for members of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia. At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 505 seats in 12 out of the 13 state legislative assemblies of Malaysia. The 13th Parliament of Malaysia was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Nasional

The National Front is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing political parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 30 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after coalition Pakatan Harapan with 82 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 73 seats.

Ismail Sabri Yaakob

Ismail Sabri Yaakob

Dato' Sri Ismail Sabri bin Yaakob is a Malaysian politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of Malaysia from August 2021 to November 2022. He is both the shortest-serving Prime Minister who served for 15 months and the Deputy Prime Minister who served for 40 days, the first and only Prime Minister born after the independence of Malaya in 1957, the first ever former Leader of the Opposition to become Prime Minister, the first and only Prime Minister who is not the highest in rank in a political party or coalition and the first and only Prime Minister without having a deputy prime minister.

Majority government

Majority government

A majority government is a government by one or more governing parties that hold an absolute majority of seats in a legislature. This is as opposed to a minority government, where the largest party in a legislature only has a plurality of seats. A government majority determines the balance of power.

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

Gabungan Parti Sarawak

The Sarawak Parties Alliance is a Sarawak-based national political alliance in Malaysia. It was established in 2018 by four former Barisan Nasional (BN) component parties operating solely in Sarawak following the federal coalition's defeat in the 2018 Malaysian general election. It is currently the fourth largest political coalition with 23 seats in the Dewan Rakyat, and forms the government in the state of Sarawak.

Fadillah Yusof

Fadillah Yusof

Dato' Sri Haji Fadillah bin Haji Yusof is a Malaysian politician who served as Senior Minister of the Infrastructure Development Cluster and as Minister of Works from 2021 to 2022. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Petra Jaya since 2004.

Maximus Ongkili

Maximus Ongkili

Datuk Seri Panglima Dr. Maximus Johnity Ongkili is a Malaysian politician who has served as Minister in the Prime Minister's Department for Sabah and Sarawak Affairs for the second term in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob since August 2021. He served his first term in the Perikatan Nasional (PN) administration under former Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin from March 2020 to August 2021 as well as for National Unity and Integration in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi from March 2004 to March 2008 for almost 4 years. He was also the Minister of Energy, Green Technology and Water in the BN administration under former Prime Minister Najib Razak from May 2013 to May 2018 for almost 5 years. He has also been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Kota Marudu since April 1995. He is the President and a member of the United Sabah Party (PBS), a component party of the United Alliance and the ruling PN coalitions.

Independent politician

Independent politician

An independent or non-partisan politician is a politician not affiliated with any political party or bureaucratic association. There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent.

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar Ibrahim

Anwar bin Ibrahim is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since November 2022. He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 to 1998.

Gerakan Tanah Air

Gerakan Tanah Air

Gerakan Tanah Air is a newly-formed alliance of Malay political parties, founded in August 2022 by former Prime Minister of Malaysia Mahathir Mohamad.

Members per state and federal territory

State /
federal territory
Number of seats Population
(2020
census)
Population per seat
Kuala Lumpur F. T. Kuala Lumpur 11 1,982,112 180,192
Labuan F. T. Labuan 1 95,120 95,120
Putrajaya F. T. Putrajaya 1 109,202 109,202
 Johor 26 4,009,670 154,218
 Kedah 15 2,131,427 142,095
 Kelantan 14 1,792,501 128,036
 Malacca 6 998,428 166,405
 Negeri Sembilan 8 1,199,974 149,997
 Pahang 14 1,591,295 113,664
 Penang 13 1,740,405 133,877
 Perak 24 2,496,041 104,002
 Perlis 3 284,885 94,962
 Sabah 25 3,418,785 136,751
 Sarawak 31 2,453,677 79,151
 Selangor 22 6,994,423 317,928
 Terengganu 8 1,149,440 143,680

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Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur

Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur and colloquially referred to as KL, is a federal territory and the ceremonial, legislative and judicial capital city of Malaysia. It is one of the fastest growing cities in Asia and the largest city in Malaysia, covering an area of 243 km2 (94 sq mi) with a census population of 1,982,112 as of 2020. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.564 million people as of 2018. It is among the fastest growing metropolitan regions in Southeast Asia, both in population and economic development.

Labuan

Labuan

Labuan, officially the Federal Territory of Labuan, is a Federal Territory of Malaysia. Its territory includes Labuan Island and six smaller islands, off the coast of the state of Sabah in East Malaysia. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an offshore financial centre offering international financial and business services via Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an offshore support hub for deepwater oil and gas activities in the region. It is also a tourist destination for people travelling through Sabah, nearby Bruneians and scuba divers. The name Labuan derives from the Malay word labuhan which means harbour.

Putrajaya

Putrajaya

Putrajaya, officially the Federal Territory of Putrajaya, is a planned capital city which functions as the administrative capital and the judicial capital of Malaysia. The seat of the federal government of Malaysia was moved in 1999 from Kuala Lumpur to Putrajaya because of overcrowding and congestion in the former, whilst the seat of the judiciary of Malaysia was later moved to Putrajaya in 2003. Kuala Lumpur remains as Malaysia's national capital city per the constitution and is still the seat of the head of state and the national legislature, as well as being the country's commercial and financial centre.

Johor

Johor

Johor, also spelled as Johore, is a state of Malaysia in the south of the Malay Peninsula. Johor has land borders with the Malaysian states of Pahang to the north and Malacca and Negeri Sembilan to the northwest. Johor shares maritime borders with Singapore to the south and Indonesia to both the west and east. Johor Bahru is the capital city and the economic centre of the state, Kota Iskandar is the seat of the state government, and Muar serves as the royal town of the state. The old state capital is Johor Lama. As of 2020, the state's population is 4.01 million, making it the second most populated state in Malaysia. Johor has highly diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate. The state's mountain ranges form part of the Titiwangsa Range, which is part of the larger Tenasserim Range connected to Thailand and Myanmar, with Mount Ophir being the highest point in Johor. While its state capital, Johor Bahru, which is located within Iskandar Malaysia development corridor, is one of the most densely populated and fastest-growing urban areas in Malaysia.

Kedah

Kedah

Kedah, also known by its honorific Darul Aman and historically as Queda, is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km2, and it consists of the mainland and the Langkawi islands. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice, while Langkawi is an archipelago, most of which are uninhabited islands.

Kelantan

Kelantan

Kelantan is a state in Malaysia. The capital is Kota Bharu and royal seat is Kubang Kerian. The honorific name of the state is Darul Naim . Kelantan is located in the north-eastern corner of the peninsula. Kelantan, which is said to translate as the "Land of Lightning", is an agrarian state with green paddy fields, rustic fishing villages and casuarina-lined beaches. Kelantan is home to some of the most ancient archaeological discoveries in Malaysia, including several prehistoric aboriginal settlements.

Malacca

Malacca

Malacca is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.

Pahang

Pahang

Pahang officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia. It is the third largest Malaysian state and the largest state in peninsular by area, and ninth largest by population. The state occupies the basin of the Pahang River, and a stretch of the east coast as far south as Endau. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the Peninsular Malaysia, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu to the north, Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan to the west, Johor to the south, while South China Sea is to the east. The Titiwangsa mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula's east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at Mount Tahan, which is 2,187 metres (7,175 ft) high & the famous Kuantan 188 which is 188 metres (617 ft) high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, and along the coast there is a 32-kilometre (20 mi) wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Pahang, Rompin, Endau, and Mersing rivers.

Penang

Penang

Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Town, is located, and Seberang Perai on the Malay Peninsula. They are connected by Malaysia's two longest road bridges, the Penang Bridge and the Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Bridge; the latter is also the second longest oversea bridge in Southeast Asia. The second smallest Malaysian state by land mass, Penang is bordered by Kedah to the north and the east, and Perak to the south.

Perak

Perak

Perak is a state of Malaysia on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula. Perak has land borders with the Malaysian states of Kedah to the north, Penang to the northwest, Kelantan and Pahang to the east, and Selangor to the south. Thailand's Yala and Narathiwat provinces both lie to the northeast. Perak's capital city, Ipoh, was known historically for its tin-mining activities until the price of the metal dropped, severely affecting the state's economy. The royal capital remains Kuala Kangsar, where the palace of the Sultan of Perak is located. As of 2018, the state's population was 2,500,000. Perak has diverse tropical rainforests and an equatorial climate. The state's mountain ranges belong to the Titiwangsa Range, which is part of the larger Tenasserim Range connecting Thailand, Myanmar and Malaysia. Perak's Mount Korbu is the highest point of the range.

Perlis

Perlis

Perlis,, also known by its honorific title Perlis Indera Kayangan, is the smallest state in Malaysia by area and population. Located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, it borders the Thai provinces of Satun and Songkhla to the north and the Malaysian state of Kedah to the south. It was called Palit by the Siamese when it was under their influence. Perlis had a population of 227,025 as of the 2010 census.

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Parlimen: Azhar Harun Speaker baharu [METROTV]". 13 July 2020.
  2. ^ a b "Government: Parliament: Dewan Rakyat". Retrieved 8 February 2006. Archived 14 June 2004 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ Means, Gordon P. (1991). Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, pp. 14, 15. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-588988-6.
  4. ^ Myytenaere, Robert (1998). "The Immunities of Members of Parliament" Archived 25 July 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 12 February 2006.
  5. ^ "Branches of Government in Malaysia" Archived 7 February 2006 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 3 February 2006.
  6. ^ Shuid, Mahdi & Yunus, Mohd. Fauzi (2001). Malaysian Studies, pp. 33, 34. Longman. ISBN 983-74-2024-3.
  7. ^ Shuid & Yunus, p. 34.
  8. ^ Tan, Chee Koon & Vasil, Raj (ed., 1984). Without Fear or Favour, p. 7. Eastern Universities Press. ISBN 967-908-051-X.
  9. ^ Tan & Vasil, p. 11.
  10. ^ Ram, B. Suresh (16 December 2005). "Pro-people, passionate politician" Archived 27 April 2006 at the Wayback Machine. The Sun.
  11. ^ Lim, Kit Siang (1997). "Consensus Against Corruption". Retrieved 11 February 2006.
  12. ^ Henderson, John William, Vreeland, Nena, Dana, Glenn B., Hurwitz, Geoffrey B., Just, Peter, Moeller, Philip W. & Shinn, R.S. (1977). Area Handbook for Malaysia, p. 219. American University, Washington D.C., Foreign Area Studies. LCCN 771294.
  13. ^ "Malaysia". Retrieved 22 January 2006.

Discover more about Notes and references related topics

Malaysia

Malaysia

Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of thirteen states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital, largest city and the seat of the legislative branch of the federal government. The nearby planned capital of Putrajaya is the administrative capital, which represents the seat of both the executive branch and the judicial branch of the federal government. With a population of over 32 million, Malaysia is the world's 45th-most populous country. The southernmost point of continental Eurasia is in Tanjung Piai. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, home to numerous endemic species.

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

Members of the Dewan Rakyat, 15th Malaysian Parliament

This is a list of the members of the Dewan Rakyat of the 15th Parliament of Malaysia.

Perlis

Perlis

Perlis,, also known by its honorific title Perlis Indera Kayangan, is the smallest state in Malaysia by area and population. Located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, it borders the Thai provinces of Satun and Songkhla to the north and the Malaysian state of Kedah to the south. It was called Palit by the Siamese when it was under their influence. Perlis had a population of 227,025 as of the 2010 census.

Padang Besar (federal constituency)

Padang Besar (federal constituency)

Padang Besar is a federal constituency in Perlis, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1995.

Kangar (federal constituency)

Kangar (federal constituency)

Kangar is a federal constituency in Perlis, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

Arau (federal constituency)

Arau (federal constituency)

Arau is a federal constituency in Perlis, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

Shahidan Kassim

Shahidan Kassim

Shahidan bin Kassim is a Malaysian politician who has served as Minister of Federal Territories in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob since August 2021, President of the Kuala Lumpur City F.C. since August 2022, Chairman of the Perbadanan Perumahan Rakyat 1Malaysia (PR1MA) and Chairman of the National Housing Corporation (NHC) since March 2021. He served as the Minister in the Prime Minister's Department in the BN administration under former Prime Minister Najib Razak from May 2013 to May 2018, Menteri Besar of Perlis from May 1995 to March 2008 and Member of the Perlis State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Tambun Tulang from April 1995 to May 2013. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Arau since May 2013 and from August 1986 to April 1995. He is a member of the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), a component party of the Perikatan Nasional (PN) coalition and was a member of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), a component party of the ruling BN coalition. He served as the Chairman of the PN Government Backbenchers Club (PNBBC) from May 2020 to the collapse of the PN government in August 2021.

Kedah

Kedah

Kedah, also known by its honorific Darul Aman and historically as Queda, is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The state covers a total area of over 9,000 km2, and it consists of the mainland and the Langkawi islands. The mainland has a relatively flat terrain, which is used to grow rice, while Langkawi is an archipelago, most of which are uninhabited islands.

Langkawi (federal constituency)

Langkawi (federal constituency)

Langkawi is a federal constituency in Langkawi District, Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1995.

Jerlun (federal constituency)

Jerlun (federal constituency)

Jerlun is a federal constituency in Kubang Pasu District, Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1995.

Abdul Ghani Ahmad

Abdul Ghani Ahmad

Dr. Haji Abdul Ghani bin Ahmad is a Malaysian politician. He was twice the Member of the State Assembly of Kedah for the seat of Ayer Hitam, representing the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS). His two terms were from 1999 to 2004 and from 2008 to 2013 In the latter term he was a member of the Executive Council of Kedah responsible for Information and Entrepreneur Development.

Kubang Pasu (federal constituency)

Kubang Pasu (federal constituency)

Kubang Pasu is a federal constituency in Kubang Pasu District, Kedah, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

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