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Demographics of Bulgaria

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Demographics of Bulgaria
Bulgaria single age population pyramid 2020.png
Bulgaria population pyramid in 2020
PopulationDecrease 6,519,789 (7th of September, 2021) [1][2][3][4][5]
Growth rateDecrease –13.2 people/1,000 population (2021)[1]
Birth rateDecrease 8.5 births/1,000 population (2021)[6]
Death rateNegative increase 21.7 deaths/1,000 population (2021)[1]
Life expectancyDecrease 73.6 years (2020)[7]
 • maleDecrease 69.9 years (2020)[7]
 • femaleDecrease 77.5 years (2020)[7]
Fertility rateIncrease 1.58 children born/woman (2021)[1]
Infant mortality rateNegative increase 5.6 deaths/1,000 infants (2021)[1]
Net migration rateDecrease –0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.)[8]
Age structure
0–14 yearsSteady 14.4%
15–64 yearsDecrease 63.8%
65 and overIncrease 21.8% (2020)
Sex ratio
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
15–64 years0.97 male(s)/female
65 and over0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Bulgarian(s) adjective: Bulgarian
Major ethnicBulgarian (84.8%)
Minor ethnicTurkish (8.8%)
Roma (4.9%)
Other and unknown (1.5%)
Language
OfficialBulgarian (85.2%)

The demography of the Republic of Bulgaria is monitored by the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Bulgaria, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Bulgaria has a high Human Development Index of 0.813, ranking 51st in the world in 2018[9] and holds the 38th position in Newsweek's rankings of the world's best countries to live in, measuring health, education, political environment and economic dynamism.[10]

Discover more about Demographics of Bulgaria related topics

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria covers a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), and is the sixteenth-largest country in Europe. Sofia is the nation's capital and largest city; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.

Ethnic group

Ethnic group

An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. Ethnicity is sometimes used interchangeably with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism, and is separate from the related concept of races.

Human Development Index

Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a statistic composite index of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which is used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores a higher level of HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the gross national income GNI (PPP) per capita is higher. It was developed by Pakistani economist Mahbub ul Haq and was further used to measure a country's development by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)'s Human Development Report Office.

Newsweek

Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly online news magazine and digital news platform, co-owned 50 percent each by Dev Pragad, its president and CEO, and Johnathan Davis, who has no operational role at Newsweek. Founded as a weekly print magazine in 1933, it was widely distributed during the 20th century, and had many notable editors-in-chief. The magazine was acquired by The Washington Post Company in 1961, and remained under its ownership until 2010.

Demographic history

Census population and average annual growth rate
YearPop.±% p.a.
1880 2,007,919—    
1887 3,154,375+6.67%
1892 3,310,713+0.97%
1900 3,744,283+1.55%
1905 4,035,575+1.51%
1910 4,337,513+1.45%
1920 4,846,971+1.12%
1926 5,478,741+2.06%
1934 6,077,939+1.31%
1946 7,029,349+1.22%
1956 7,613,709+0.80%
1965 8,227,866+0.87%
1975 8,727,771+0.59%
1985 8,948,649+0.25%
1992 8,487,317−0.75%
2001 7,928,901−0.75%
2011 7,364,570−0.74%
2021 6,519,789−1.21%
Source: Censuses in Bulgaria

Various estimates have put Bulgaria's medieval population at 1.1 million in 700 AD and 2.6 million in 1365.[11] At the 2011 census, the population inhabiting Bulgaria was 7,364,570 in total, but more recent estimates calculate that the population has declined to 6.9 million.[12] The peak was in 1989, the year when the borders opened after a half of a century of communist regime, when the population numbered 9,009,018.

Historical population of Bulgaria, 1812 to 2023
Historical population of Bulgaria, 1812 to 2023

Note: Crude migration change (per 1000) is an extrapolation [13]

Vital statistics

Vital Statistics 1875 to 1915

The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World in Data and Gapminder Foundation.[14]

Years 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880[14]
Total Fertility Rate in Bulgaria 5.16 5.05 4.95 4.84 4.73 4.62
Years 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890[14]
Total Fertility Rate in Bulgaria 4.52 4.92 5.16 5.16 5.04 4.37 5.15 5.05 4.92 4.7
Years 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900[14]
Total Fertility Rate in Bulgaria 5.24 4.82 4.69 5.09 5.45 5.55 5.7 5.28 5.45 5.67
Years 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910[14]
Total Fertility Rate in Bulgaria 5.7 5.73 5.76 5.8 5.83 5.77 5.72 5.66 5.6 5.55
Years 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915[14]
Total Fertility Rate in Bulgaria 5.52 5.48 5.45 5.42 5.39

Vital statistics 1900–1915

[15][16][17]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1900 3,710,000 157,000 84,000 73,000 42.3 22.6 19.7
1901 3,740,000 141,000 87,000 54,000 37.7 23.3 14.4
1902 3,800,000 149,000 91,000 58,000 39.2 23.9 15.3
1903 3,850,000 159,000 88,000 71,000 41.3 22.9 18.4
1904 3,910,000 167,000 84,000 83,000 42.7 21.5 21.2
1905 4,000,000 174,000 87,000 87,000 43.5 21.8 21.8
1906 4,100,000 179,000 91,000 88,000 43.7 22.2 21.5
1907 4,150,000 180,000 92,000 88,000 43.4 22.2 21.2
1908 4,200,000 169,000 102,000 67,000 40.2 24.3 16.0
1909 4,280,000 173,000 113,000 60,000 40.4 26.4 14.0
1910 4,350,000 180,000 100,000 80,000 41.4 23.0 18.4
1911 4,400,000 176,000 94,000 82,000 40.0 21.4 18.6
1912 4,430,000 185,000 91,000 94,000 41.8 20.5 21.2
1913 4,200,000 108,000 122,000 -14,000 25.7 29.0 -3.3
1914 4,240,000 191,000 88,000 103,000 45.0 20.8 24.3
1915 4,280,000 172,000 85,000 87,000 40.2 19.9 20.3

Vital statistics 1916–1940

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[14]
1916 4,660,000 99,000 97,000 2,000 21.2 20.8 0.4 5.38
1917 4,690,000 81,000 99,000 -18,000 17.3 21.1 -3.8 5.37
1918 4,740,000 100,000 152,000 -52,000 21.1 32.1 -11.0 5.36
1919 4,790,000 157,000 97,000 60,000 32.8 20.3 12.5 5.35
1920 4,850,000 193,000 104,000 89,000 39.8 21.4 18.4 5.35
1921 4,890,000 197,000 106,000 91,000 40.3 21.7 18.6 5.27
1922 5,010,000 203,000 106,000 97,000 40.5 21.2 19.4 5.19
1923 5,090,000 192,000 108,000 84,000 37.7 21.2 16.5 5.11
1924 5,210,000 207,000 108,000 99,000 39.7 20.7 19.0 5.03
1925 5,310,000 196,000 102,000 94,000 36.9 19.2 17.7 4.94
1926 5,420,000 203,000 93,000 110,000 37.5 17.2 20.3 4.80
1927 5,510,000 183,000 112,000 71,000 33.2 20.3 12.9 4.65
1928 5,590,000 185,000 99,000 86,000 33.1 17.7 15.4 4.50
1929 5,670,000 173,000 103,000 70,000 30.5 18.2 12.3 4.36
1930 5,740,000 180,000 93,000 87,000 31.4 16.2 15.2 4.05
1931 5,800,000 171,000 98,000 73,000 29.5 16.9 12.6 3.80
1932 5,884,000 186,000 96,000 90,000 31.6 16.3 15.3 4.07
1933 5,961,000 174,000 93,000 81,000 29.2 15.6 13.6 3.76
1934 6,039,000 181,795 85,046 96,749 30.1 14.1 16.0 3.88
1935 6,102,000 160,951 89,086 71,865 26.4 14.6 11.8 3.39
1936 6,154,000 159,146 87,723 71,423 25.9 14.3 11.6 3.33
1937 6,196,000 150,771 84,674 66,097 24.3 13.7 10.7 3.12
1938 6,244,000 142,415 85,373 57,042 22.8 13.7 9.1 2.92
1939 6,292,000 138,883 84,150 54,733 22.1 13.4 8.7 2.81
1940 6,341,000 140,564 85,046 55,518 22.2 13.4 8.8 2.84

Vital statistics 1941 to present

[18]

Source: National Statistical Institute[19]

Average population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rates[fn 1]
1941 6,715,100 147,293 85,011 62,282 21.9 12.7 9.3 2.80
1942 6,771,100 153,272 88,082 65,190 22.6 13.0 9.6 2.91
1943 6,827,600 148,840 88,386 60,454 21.8 13.0 8.9 2.79
1944 6,884,600 151,013 94,082 56,931 22.0 13.7 8.3 2.83
1945 6,942,200 166,960 103,591 63,369 24.1 14.9 9.1 3.09
1946 7,000,200 179,226 95,799 83,427 25.6 13.7 11.9 3.29
1947 7,063,700 169,501 94,395 75,106 24.0 13.4 10.7 3.06
1948 7,130,100 175,771 89,927 85,844 24.7 12.6 12.0 3.16
1949 7,195,100 177,734 84,675 93,059 24.7 11.8 12.9 3.17
1950 7,251,000 182,571 74,134 108,437 25.2 10.2 15.0 2.94
1951 7,258,200 152,803 77,364 75,439 21.1 10.7 10.4 2.45
1952 7,274,900 154,014 84,254 69,760 21.2 11.6 9.6 2.44
1953 7,346,100 153,220 68,055 85,165 20.9 9.3 11.6 2.41
1954 7,423,300 149,902 68,384 81,518 20.2 9.2 11.0 2.36
1955 7,499,400 150,978 67,960 83,018 20.1 9.1 11.1 2.41
1956 7,575,800 147,910 71,153 76,757 19.5 9.4 10.1 2.36
1957 7,651,300 141,035 65,807 75,228 18.4 8.6 9.8 2.26
1958 7,727,600 138,294 60,734 77,560 17.9 7.9 10.0 2.23
1959 7,797,800 136,892 73,850 63,042 17.5 9.4 8.1 2.23
1960 7,867,374 140,082 63,665 76,417 17.7 8.1 9.7 2.31
1961 7,943,118 137,861 62,562 75,299 17.3 7.8 9.4 2.29
1962 8,012,946 134,148 69,640 64,508 16.7 8.7 8.0 2.24
1963 8,078,145 132,143 66,057 66,086 16.3 8.1 8.1 2.21
1964 8,144,340 130,958 64,479 66,479 16.0 7.9 8.2 2.19
1965 8,204,168 125,791 66,970 58,821 15.3 8.1 7.2 2.09
1966 8,258,057 123,039 68,366 54,673 14.9 8.3 6.6 2.03
1967 8,310,226 124,582 74,696 49,886 14.9 9.0 6.0 2.02
1968 8,369,603 141,460 72,176 69,284 16.8 8.6 8.2 2.27
1969 8,434,172 143,060 80,183 62,877 16.9 9.5 7.5 2.27
1970 8,489,574 138,745 77,095 61,650 16.3 9.1 7.2 2.17
1971 8,536,395 135,422 82,805 52,617 15.8 9.7 6.2 2.10
1972 8,576,200 131,316 84,174 47,142 15.3 9.8 5.5 2.03
1973 8,620,967 139,713 81,470 58,243 16.2 9.4 6.8 2.15
1974 8,678,745 149,196 85,239 63,957 17.1 9.8 7.3 2.29
1975 8,720,742 144,668 89,974 54,694 16.6 10.3 6.3 2.23
1976 8,758,599 144,929 88,348 56,581 16.5 10.1 6.5 2.24
1977 8,804,183 141,702 94,362 47,340 16.1 10.7 5.4 2.21
1978 8,814,032 136,442 92,445 43,997 15.5 10.5 5.0 2.15
1979 8,825,940 135,358 94,403 40,955 15.3 10.7 4.6 2.16
1980 8,861,535 128,190 97,950 30,240 14.4 11.0 3.4 2.05
1981 8,891,117 124,372 95,441 28,931 14.0 10.7 3.2 2.00
1982 8,917,457 124,166 100,293 23,873 13.9 11.2 2.7 2.01
1983 8,939,738 122,993 102,182 20,811 13.7 11.4 2.3 2.01
1984 8,960,679 122,303 101,419 20,884 13.6 11.3 2.3 2.01
1985 8,960,547 118,955 107,485 11,470 13.3 12.0 1.3 1.97
1986 8,958,171 120,078 104,039 16,039 13.4 11.6 1.8 2.02
1987 8,971,359 116,672 107,213 9,459 13.0 11.9 1.1 1.96
1988 8,981,446 117,440 107,385 10,055 13.1 11.9 1.1 1.97
1989 8,876,972 112,289 106,902 5,387 12.8 12.2 0.6 1.90
1990 8,718,289 105,180 108,608 -3,428 12.1 12.5 -0.4 1.82
1991 8,632,367 95,910 110,423 -14,513 11.2 12.8 -1.7 1.66
1992 8,540,164 89,134 107,998 -18,864 10.5 12.7 -2.2 1.55
1993 8,472,313 84,400 109,540 -25,140 10.0 12.9 -3.0 1.46
1994 8,443,591 79,442 111,827 -32,385 9.4 13.3 -3.8 1.37
1995 8,406,067 71,967 114,670 -42,703 8.6 13.7 -5.1 1.23
1996 8,362,826 72,188 117,056 -44,868 8.7 14.0 -5.4 1.23
1997 8,312,068 64,125 121,861 -57,736 7.7 14.7 -6.9 1.09
1998 8,256,786 65,361 118,190 -52,829 7.9 14.4 -6.4 1.11
1999 8,210,624 72,290 111,786 -39,496 8.8 13.6 -4.8 1.23
2000 8,170,172 73,679 115,087 -41,408 9.0 14.1 -5.1 1.27
2001 7,913,300 68,180 112,368 -44,188 8.5 14.0 -5.5 1.24
2002 7,868,900 66,499 112,617 -46,118 8.5 14.4 -5.9 1.21
2003 7,823,500 67,359 111,927 -44,568 8.7 14.4 -5.7 1.23
2004 7,781,100 69,886 110,110 -40,224 9.1 14.3 -5.2 1.29
2005 7,739,900 71,075 113,374 -42,299 9.3 14.8 -5.5 1.31
2006 7,679,300 73,978 113,438 -39,460 9.7 14.9 -5.2 1.38
2007 7,640,200 75,349 113,004 -37,655 10.0 15.0 -5.0 1.42
2008 7,606,600 77,712 110,523 -32,811 10.4 14.8 -4.4 1.48
2009 7,563,700 80,956 108,068 -27,112 10.9 14.5 -3.6 1.57
2010 7,504,900 75,513 110,165 -34,652 10.2 14.9 -4.7 1.49
2011 7,327,200 70,846 108,258 -37,412 9.6 14.7 -5.1 1.51
2012 7,284,600 69,121 109,281 -40,160 9.5 15.0 -5.5 1.50
2013 7,245,700 66,578 104,345 -37,767 9.2 14.4 -5.2 1.48
2014 7,202,200 67,585 108,952 -41,367 9.4 15.1 -5.7 1.52
2015[20] 7,153,784 65,950 110,117 -44,167 9.2 15.3 -6.2 1.53
2016[21] 7,101,859 64,984 107,580 -42,596 9.1 15.1 -6.0 1.54
2017[22] 7,050,034 63,955 109,791 -45,836 9.0 15.5 -6.5 1.56
2018[23] 7,000,039 62,197 108,526 -46,329 8.9 15.4 -6.6 1.56
2019[24] 6,951,482 61,538 108,083 -46,545 8.8 15.5 -6.7 1.58
2020[25] 6,916,548 59,086 124,735 -65,649 8.5 18.0 -9.5 1.56
2021[26] 6,519,789 58,678 148,995 -90,317 9.0 22.9 -13.9 1.79

Current vital statistics

[27]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January - September 2021 40,796 96,050 -55,254
January - September 2022 40,438 85,288 -44,850
Difference Decrease -358 (-0.88%) Positive decrease -10,762 (-11.20%) Increase +10,404

Birth rates and fertility

Fertility rate (1980–2010)
Fertility rate (1980–2010)
Births and deaths, Bulgaria 1900-2015

In 2016 a total of 64,984 live births were recorded in Bulgaria.[28] The country has a crude birth rate of 9.1‰.

Seventy years ago (in the census of 1946), Bulgaria had a crude birth rate of 25,6‰. Ethnic Bulgarians (23,3‰) had a much lower crude birth rate compared to the two largest minorities: Turks (40,9‰) and Roma (47,2‰).[29] However, it is unlikely that this difference continued since then, as birth rates in the Balkan countries dropped sharply.

Bulgaria has a low total fertility rate of 1.54 children per woman (at the end of 2016). This is up significantly from the late 1990s, but still below replacement and not enough to prevent further population decline, especially with emigration. Provinces with large Roma populations (for example Sliven, Montana and Yambol) tend to have higher fertility rates (and higher death rates) compared to other areas, whereas Turkish fertility is similar to the Bulgarian majority.[30]

Total fertility rate and crude birth rate by province from 2010 to 2020 (NSI)[31][32]
Province TFR (2010) TFR (2016) TFR (2017) TFR (2018) TFR (2019) TFR (2020)
Northwest Region 1.53 1.72 Increase 1.72 Steady 1.75 Decrease 1.77 Increase 1.75 Decrease
Vidin 1.50 1.45 Decrease 1.58 Increase 1.68 Increase 1.65 Decrease 1.45 Decrease
Vratsa 1.46 1.77 Increase 1.68 Decrease 1.81 Increase 1.83 Increase 1.85 Increase
Lovech 1.58 1.66 Increase 1.79 Increase 1.89 Increase 1.84 Decrease 1.91 Increase
Montana 1.52 1.74 Increase 1.65 Decrease 1.67 Increase 1.62 Decrease 1.63 Increase
Pleven 1.56 1.80 Increase 1.79 Decrease 1.71 Decrease 1.81 Increase 1.76 Decrease
North Central Region 1.32 1.45 Increase 1.45 Steady 1.45 Steady 1.43 Decrease 1.37 Decrease
Veliko Tarnovo 1.19 1.40 Increase 1.43 Increase 1.34 Decrease 1.27 Decrease 1.25 Decrease
Gabrovo 1.43 1.41 Decrease 1.49 Increase 1.58 Increase 1.69 Increase 1.46 Decrease
Razgrad 1.37 1.49Increase 1.48 Decrease 1.65 Increase 1.60 Decrease 1.50 Decrease
Ruse 1.34 1.40 Increase 1.37 Decrease 1.41 Increase 1.30 Decrease 1.34 Increase
Silistra 1.49 1.77 Increase 1.71 Decrease 1.55 Decrease 1.76 Increase 1.58 Decrease
Northeast Region 1.53 1.50 Decrease 1.48 Decrease 1.49 Increase 1.52 Increase 1.45 Decrease
Varna 1.57 1.45 Decrease 1.44 Decrease 1.44 Steady 1.47 Increase 1.49 Increase
Dobrich 1.44 1.53Increase 1.51 Decrease 1.44 Decrease 1.56 Increase 1.44 Decrease
Targovishte 1.67 1.59 Decrease 1.57 Decrease 1.63 Increase 1.61 Decrease 1.41 Decrease
Shumen 1.42 1.54 Increase 1.45 Decrease 1.53 Increase 1.51 Decrease 1.35 Decrease
Southeast Region 1.67 1.82 Increase 1.88 Increase 1.84 Decrease 1.87 Increase 1.82 Decrease
Burgas 1.54 1.63Increase 1.65 Increase 1.61 Decrease 1.69 Increase 1.59 Decrease
Sliven 1.95 2.24 Increase 2.34 Increase 2.27 Decrease 2.35 Increase 2.24 Decrease
Stara Zagora 1.64 1.73 Increase 1.80 Increase 1.76 Decrease 1.72 Decrease 1.73 Increase
Yambol 1.70 1.98 Increase 2.00 Increase 2.13 Increase 2.06 Decrease 2.08 Increase
Southwest Region 1.42 1.36 Decrease 1.38 Increase 1.38 Steady 1.42 Increase 1.44 Increase
Blagoevgrad 1.46 1.46 Steady 1.45 Decrease 1.50 Increase 1.62 Increase 1.61 Decrease
Kyustendil 1.33 1.63 Increase 1.75 Increase 1.76 Increase 1.95 Increase 1.77 Decrease
Pernik 1.35 1.62Increase 1.66 Increase 1.73 Increase 1.68 Decrease 1.54 Decrease
Sofia 1.45 1.74 Increase 1.73 Decrease 1.80 Increase 1.91 Increase 1.90 Decrease
Sofia (city) 1.39 1.27 Decrease 1.29 Increase 1.26 Decrease 1.28 Increase 1.33 Increase
South Central Region 1.50 1.61 Increase 1.65 Increase 1.65 Steady 1.66 Increase 1.59 Decrease
Kardzhali 1.49 1.64 Increase 1.66 Increase 1.70 Increase 1.74 Increase 1.49 Decrease
Pazardzhik 1.58 1.72 Increase 1.75 Increase 1.85 Increase 1.81 Decrease 1.70 Decrease
Plovdiv 1.49 1.56 Increase 1.60 Increase 1.61 Increase 1.60 Decrease 1.58 Decrease
Smolyan 1.33 1.45 Increase 1.47 Increase 1.40 Decrease 1.49 Increase 1.49 Steady
Haskovo 1.53 1.70Increase 1.75 Increase 1.62 Decrease 1.71 Increase 1.59 Decrease
Bulgaria 1.49 1.54Increase 1.56 Increase 1.56 Steady 1.58 Increase 1.560 Decrease

Regional differences

As of 2017, the municipality of Nikolaevo has the highest crude birth rate with 18.6‰, followed by Tvarditsa (16.7‰) and Kaynardzha (15.7‰). All these municipalities have relatively large Romani populations.

Top 20 municipalities with the highest birth rate (2017)[33]
Municipality Birth rate (‰)
Nikolaevo Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 18.6
Tvarditsa Municipality, Sliven Province 16.7
Kaynardzha Municipality, Silistra Province 15.7
Gurkovo Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 14.6
Yablanitsa Municipality, Lovech Province 14.2
Nikola Kozlevo Municipality, Shumen Province 13.4
Kotel Municipality, Sliven Province 13.2
Straldzha Municipality, Yambol Province 13.1
Simeonovgrad Municipality, Haskovo Province 12.5
Chelopech Municipality, Sofia Province 12.4
Maglizh Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 12.4
Sliven Municipality, Sliven Province 12.2
Nova Zagora Municipality, Sliven Province 12.1
Bratya Daskalovi Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 12.1
Ihtiman Municipality, Sofia Province 12.0
Dolni Dabnik Municipality, Pleven Province 11.8
Pavel Banya Municipality, Stara Zagora Province 11.6
Lukovit Municipality, Lovech Province 11.6
Rakovski Municipality, Plovdiv Province 11.5
Kameno Municipality, Burgas Province 11.4
Top 20 municipalities with the lowest birth rate (2017)[33]
Nedelino Municipality, Smolyan Province 5.7
Hisarya Municipality, Plovdiv Province 5.6
Kocherinovo Municipality, Kyustendil Province 5.6
Devin Municipality, Smolyan Province 5.5
Gramada Municipality, Vidin Province 5.5
Svoge Municipality, Sofia Province 5.5
Godech Municipality, Sofia Province 5.4
Apriltsi Municipality, Lovech Province 5.3
Novo Selo Municipality, Vidin Province 5.0
Chepelare Municipality, Smolyan Province 4.9
Zemen Municipality, Pernik Province 4.9
Hitrino Municipality, Shumen Province 4.8
Chiprovtsi Municipality, Montana Province 4.7
Borovo Municipality, Ruse Province 4.5
Belene Municipality, Pleven Province 4.4
Tryavna Municipality, Gabrovo Province 4.2
Boynitsa Municipality, Vidin Province 4.0
Nevestino Municipality, Kyustendil Province 3.8
Banite Municipality, Smolyan Province 3.2
Georgi Damyanovo Municipality, Montana Province 3.1

On the other hand, the municipalities of Georgi Damyanovo, Banite and Nevestino have a extremely low birth rates. These municipalities are almost exclusively inhabited by ethnic Bulgarians.

Teenage pregnancy

Bulgaria has one of the highest share of teenage pregnancy in Europe. Nevertheless, this number is declining rapidly in recent years.

Number of teenage mothers in Bulgaria in the period 1990-2017[34]
Year 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2017
All live births in Bulgaria 105,180 71,967 73,679 69,886 75,513 65,950 63,955
Mothers aged under twenty 22,518 16,278 12,787 10,625 8,411 6,274 6,038
Share of teenage mothers Increase 21.4% Increase22.6% Decrease 17.4% Decrease 15.2% Decrease 11.1% Decrease 9.5% Decrease 9.4%

The ten municipalities with the largest absolute number of teenage mothers are: Sliven (373), Sofia (339), Plovdiv (245), Pazardzhik (161), Stara Zagora (141), Nova Zagora (131), Burgas (108), Yambol (106), Haskovo (96) and Varna (86).[35]

Top ten municipalities with the highest share of mothers aged under twenty (2017)[33]
Municipality All live births Births to mothers aged under twenty % of all live births
Bolyarovo Municipality 25 10 40.0%
Gramada Municipality 10 4 40.0%
Bratya Daskalovi Municipality 98 37 37.8%
Nikolaevo Municipality 82 31 37.8%
Gurkovo Municipality 73 27 37.0%
Kaynardzha Municipality 80 29 36.3%
Maglizh Municipality 121 43 35.5%
Yablanitsa Municipality 82 29 35.4%
Ihtiman Municipality 205 71 34.6%
Dimovo Municipality 65 22 33.8%

Discover more about Birth rates and fertility related topics

Bulgarians

Bulgarians

Bulgarians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeast Europe.

Romani people in Bulgaria

Romani people in Bulgaria

Romani people in Bulgaria constitute Europe's densest gypsy minority. The Romani people in Bulgaria may speak Bulgarian, Turkish or Romani, depending on the region.

Montana Province

Montana Province

Montana Province is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia in the southwest and Romania in the north. It spreads its area between the Danube river and the Balkan Mountains. As of February 2011, the province has a population of 148,098 inhabitants, on territory of 3,635.5 km2 (1,403.7 sq mi). It was named after its administrative centre the city of Montana.

Severozapaden Planning Region

Severozapaden Planning Region

Severozapaden, is a region of Bulgaria. The capital is the city of Pleven. The region has the lowest-ranked economy in Bulgaria and the European Union, with a GDP per capita (PPS) of €9,300 or 31% of EU28 average (2017). It includes five administrative divisions or oblasts: Vidin Province, Vratsa Province, Montana Province, Lovech Province and Pleven Province.

Lovech Province

Lovech Province

Lovech Province is one of the 28 provinces of Bulgaria, lying at the northern centre of the country. It is named after its main city - Lovech. As of December 2009, the population of the area is 151,153.

Pleven Province

Pleven Province

Pleven Province is a province located in central northern Bulgaria, bordering the Danube river, Romania and the Bulgarian provinces of Vratsa, Veliko Tarnovo and Lovech. It is divided into 11 subdivisions, called municipalities, that embrace a territory of 4,653.32 km2 (1,796.66 sq mi) with a population, as of February 2011, of 269 752 inhabitants. The province's capital is the city of Pleven.

Severen Tsentralen Planning Region

Severen Tsentralen Planning Region

Severen Tsentralen Planning Region is a planning region of Bulgaria, encompassing five Bulgarian provinces: Ruse, Veliko Tarnovo, Gabrovo, Targovishte and Razgrad.

Gabrovo Province

Gabrovo Province

Gabrovo Province is a small province lying at the geographical centre of Bulgaria. It is named after its main town - Gabrovo. In 2009 the total population of the area is 130,001.

Razgrad Province

Razgrad Province

Razgrad Province is a province in Northeastern Bulgaria, geographically part of the Ludogorie region. It is named after its administrative and industrial centre - the town of Razgrad. As of December 2009, the Province has a total population of 132,740 inhabitants on a territory of 2,639.7 km2 (1,019.2 sq mi) that is divided into 7 municipalities.

Ruse Province

Ruse Province

Ruse Province, or Rusenska Oblast is a province in northern Bulgaria, named after its main city, Ruse, neighbouring Romania via the Danube. It is divided into 8 municipalities with a total population, as of February 2011, of 235,252 inhabitants.

Silistra Province

Silistra Province

Silistra Province is a province of Bulgaria, named after its main city - Silistra. It is divided into seven municipalities with a total population, as of December 2009, of 127,659. The province is part of Southern Dobrudja, which was part of Romania until 1940.

Severoiztochen Planning Region

Severoiztochen Planning Region

Severoiztochen Planning Region is a planning region in Bulgaria.The region includes four provinces: Targovishte Province, Varna Province, Shumen Province and Dobrich Province.

Life expectancy at birth

Historical development of life expectancy in Bulgaria
Historical development of life expectancy in Bulgaria
Total population: Increase 74.83 years
Male: Increase 71.37 years
Female: Increase 78.39 years (2016-2018 est.)[1]

Average life expectancy at age 0 of the total population.[36]

Period Life expectancy in
Years
1950–1955 62.33
1955–1960 Increase 66.78
1960–1965 Increase 70.28
1965–1970 Increase 70.91
1970–1975 Increase 71.07
1975–1980 Increase 71.10
1980–1985 Increase 71.24
1985–1990 Increase 71.39
1990–1995 Decrease 71.11
1995–2000 Decrease 70.97
2000–2005 Increase 72.19
2005–2010 Increase 73.13
2010–2015 Increase 74.25
2016–2018 Increase 74.83

Kardzhali Province and Sofia City have the highest life expectancy with 76.6 years for both sexes. The lowest life expectancy is recorded in the Northwestern provinces like Montana (72.7 years), Vratsa (72.8 years) and Vidin (72.9 years).[37]

Discover more about Life expectancy at birth related topics

Life expectancy

Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, current age, and other demographic factors like sex. The most commonly used measure is life expectancy at birth (LEB), which can be defined in two ways. Cohort LEB is the mean length of life of a birth cohort and can be computed only for cohorts born so long ago that all their members have died. Period LEB is the mean length of life of a hypothetical cohort assumed to be exposed, from birth through death, to the mortality rates observed at a given year.

Kardzhali Province

Kardzhali Province

Kardzhali Province is a province of southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece with the Greek regional units of Xanthi, Rhodope, and Evros to the south and east. It is 3209.1 km2 in area. Its main city is Kardzhali.

Severozapaden Planning Region

Severozapaden Planning Region

Severozapaden, is a region of Bulgaria. The capital is the city of Pleven. The region has the lowest-ranked economy in Bulgaria and the European Union, with a GDP per capita (PPS) of €9,300 or 31% of EU28 average (2017). It includes five administrative divisions or oblasts: Vidin Province, Vratsa Province, Montana Province, Lovech Province and Pleven Province.

Montana Province

Montana Province

Montana Province is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia in the southwest and Romania in the north. It spreads its area between the Danube river and the Balkan Mountains. As of February 2011, the province has a population of 148,098 inhabitants, on territory of 3,635.5 km2 (1,403.7 sq mi). It was named after its administrative centre the city of Montana.

Vratsa Province

Vratsa Province

Vratsa Province is a Bulgarian province located in the northwestern part of the country, between Danube river in the north and Stara Planina mountain in the south. It is named after its main town - Vratsa. As of 2016, the province has a population of 170 367 inhabitants, on territory of 3,619.7 km2 (1,397.6 sq mi).

Vidin Province

Vidin Province

Vidin Province is the northwesternmost province of Bulgaria. It borders Serbia to the west and Romania to the northeast. Its administrative centre is the city of Vidin on the Danube river. The area is divided into 11 municipalities. As of December 2009, the province has a population of 108,067 inhabitants.

Infant mortality rate

Total: Positive decrease 5.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2018)[1]
Male: Positive decrease 6.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2018)
Female: Positive decrease 5.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018)

Projections

The following forecast for the future population is an official estimate of the National Statistical Institute of Bulgaria.[38]

Year Population
2015 7,159,819
2020 6,950,436
2025 6,734,989
2030 6,519,217
2035 6,311,454
2040 6,115,526
2045 5,929,267
2050 5,748,061
2055 5,567,060
2060 5,384,040

Demographic statistics

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review.[39]

  • One birth every 8 minutes
  • One death every 5 minutes
  • One net migrant every 111 minutes
  • Net loss of one person every 11 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[40]

Population pyramid of Bulgaria by age and sex in 1950
Population pyramid of Bulgaria by age and sex in 1950
Population
6,519,789 (Sept 2021 cens)
6,919,180 (July 2021 est.)
7,057,504 (July 2018 est.)
Ethnic groups
Bulgarian 76.9%, Turkish 8%, Romani 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Russian, Armenian, and Vlach), other (unknown) 10% (2011 est.)
note: Romani populations are usually underestimated in official statistics and may represent 9–11% of Bulgaria's population
Languages
Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Romani 3.8%, other 0.7%, unspecified 10.5% (2011 est.)
Religions
Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim 7.8%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Jewish) 1.7%, none 3.7%, unspecified 27.4% (2011 est.)
Age structure
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
Population pyramid of Bulgaria in 2017
0-14 years: 14.52% (male 520,190 /female 491,506)
15-24 years: 9,4% (male 340,306 /female 312,241
25-54 years:42.87% (male 1,538,593 /female 1,448,080)
55-64: 13.15% (male 433,943 /female 482,784)
65 years and over: 20.06% (male 562,513 /female 835,065) (2020 est.)
0-14 years: 14.6% (male 530,219 /female 500,398)
15-24 years: 9.43% (male 346,588 /female 318,645)
25-54 years: 43.12% (male 1,565,770 /female 1,477,719)
55-64 years: 13.3% (male 442,083 /female 496,888)
65 years and over: 19.54% (male 557,237 /female 821,957) (2018 est.)
Median age
total: 43.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 20
male: 41.9 years
female: 45.6 years (2020 est.)
total: 43 years. Country comparison to the world: 22nd
male: 41.2 years
female: 44.9 years (2018 est.)
Birth rate
8.15 births/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 218th
8.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 215th
Death rate
14.52 deaths/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 3th
14.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 4th
Total fertility rate
1.49 children born/woman (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world:204th
1.47 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 201st
Net migration rate
-0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2021 est.) Country compy to the world:115
Population growth rate
-0.67% (2021 est.) Country comparison to the world: 229th
Mother's mean age at first birth
27.1 years (2017 est.)
Dependency ratios
total dependency ratio: 56.6 (2020 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 23 (2020 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 33.6 (2020 est.)
potential support ratio: 3 (2020 est.)
Urbanization
urban population: 75.7% of total population (2020)

.rate of urbanization: -0.22% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

potential support ratio: 3.3 (2015 est.)
Life expectancy at birth
total population: 75.3 years. Country comparison to the world: 122th
male: 72.08 years
female: 78.73 years (2021 est.)
Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)

total population: 98.4%
male: 98.7%
female: 98.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)
total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 12.7%. Country comparison to the world: 108th
male: 13.2%
female: 11.9% (2018 est.)

Sex ratio

Of the total 7,364,570 as of 2011, 3,586,571 are males and 3,777,999 are females, or there are 1,053 women for every 1,000 men.

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Demographic policies

Bias among ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Bias among ethnic groups in Bulgaria

The progressive decrease of the Bulgarian population is hindering economic growth and welfare improvement, and the management measures taken to mitigate the negative consequences do not address the essence of the problem. The Government Program for the period 2017 - 2021 is the first one that aims at overturning the trend. The program also identifies the priority means for achieving this goal: measures to increase the birth rate, reduce youth emigration, and build up regulatory and institutional capacity to implement a modern immigration policy tailored to the needs of the Bulgarian business.[41][42]

Ethnic groups

Population of Bulgaria according to ethnic group 1900–1956
Ethnic
group
census 1900 census 1905 census 1910 census 1920 census 1926 census 1934 census 1946 census 1956
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Bulgarians[43] 2,888,219 77.1 3,203,810 79.4 3,518,756 81.1 4,036,056 83.3 4,557,706 83.2 5,204,217 85.6 5,903,580 84.0 6,506,541 85.5
Turks[43] 531,240 14.2 488,010 12.1 465,641 10.7 520,339 10.7 577,552 10.5 591,193 9.7 675,500 9.6 656,025 8.6
Roma[43] 89,549 2.4 99,004 2.5 122,296 2.8 98,451 2.0 134,844 2.5 149,385 2.5 170,011 2.4 197,8651 2.6
Russians 1,685 0.0 3,275 0.2 2,505 0.2 9,080 0.2 19,706 0.4 11,928 0.2 13,200 0.2 10,551 0.1
Armenians 14,581 0.4 14,178 12,932 0.3 11,509 0.2 27,332 0.5 25,963 0.4 21,637 0.3 21,954 0.3
Sarakatsani 6,128 0.2 7,251 0.2 3,075 2,866 2,085 0.0
Macedonians - - - - - - [44] 169,5442 2.4 187,7892 2.5
Greeks 66,635 1.8 63,487 1.6 43,275 1.0 42,074 0.9 10,564 0.2 9,601 0.2 3,623 7,437 0.1
Jews 33,661 0.9 37,663 0.9 40,133 0.9 43,209 0.9 46,558 0.8 48,565 0.8 44,209 0.6 6,027 0.1
Romanians 71,063 1.9 75,773 1.9 79,429 1.8 57,312 1.2 69,080 1.2 16,504 0.3 2,459 3,749 0.0
Tatars 18,884 0.5 17,942 0.4 18,228 0.4 4,905 6,191 0.1 8,133 5,993 0.1
Gagauzes 10,175 0.3 9,329 3,669 4,362 0.1
Others 15,602 13,199 0.2
Undeclared 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 -
Total 3,744,283 4,035,575 4,337,513 4,846,971 5,528,741 6,077,939 7,029,349 7,613,709
1 According to x files of the state, the number of the Romani was reduced by 25,000 in 1956.[45]

2There are strong indications that in the 1946 and the 1956 census the population was forced to list as ethnic Macedonians against their will by the communist government in accordance with an agreement with Yugoslavia.[46][47]

Population of Bulgaria according to nationality group 1965–2011
Nationalities census 1965 census 1975 census 1985 census 1992[48] census 2001[49] census 20111[43] census 2021
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Bulgarians[43] 7,231,243 87.9 7,930,024 90.9 ~ 8,000,000 89.0 7,271,185 85.7 6,655,210 83.9 5,664,624 76.92 5,118,494 78.51
Turks[43] 780,928 9.5 730,728 8.4 ~ 800,000 9.0 800,052 9.4 746,664 9.4 588,318 7.99 508,378 7.8
Roma[43] 148,874 1.8 18,323 0.2 313,396 3.7 370,908 4.7 325,343 4.42 266,720 4.09
Russians 10,815 0.1 17,139 0.2 15,595 0.2 9,978 0.14
Armenians 20,282 0.2 14,526 0.2 13,677 0.2 10,832 0.1 6,552 0.09
"Vlachs" (Aromanians and Romanians) 5,159 0.1 10,566 0.1 3,684 0.05
Sarakatsani 5,144 0.1 4,107 0.1 2,556 0.03
Ukrainians 1,864 0.0 2,489 0.0 1,789 0.02
Macedonians 9,632 0.1 10,803 0.1 5,071 0.1 1,654 0.02
Greeks 8,241 0.1 4,930 0.1 3,408 0.0 1,379 0.02
Jews 5,108 0.1 3,076 3,461 0.0 1,363 0.0 1,162 0.02
Romanians 2,491 0.0 1,088 0.0 891 0.01
Tatars 6,430 0.1 5,963 0.1 4,515 0.1 1,803 0.0
Gagauzes 1,478 0.0 540 0.0 40 0.0
Others 25,131 ~ 150,000 2.0 23,542 0.3 12,342 0.2 19,659 0.27 72,006 1.1
Undeclared 0 0 8,481 0.1 86,915 1.1 736,981 10.01 554,191 8.5
Total 8,227,966 8,727,771 8,948,649 8,487,317 7,932,984 7,364,570 6,519,789
1 The 2011 percentage of the ethnic groups is calculated only from those who answered the optional question on ethnicity (6,680,980 in total) and does not include around 750,000 people who did not answer the question or 10% from the population.

2 Note that the distinction between Sarakatsani and Greeks, and between Vlachs and both Aromanians and Romanians, is fluid. Sarakatsani were counted as Greeks in the 1900, 1920, 1926, 1934, and 1965 censuses.

Estimate based on the 2011 census.

  • Bulgarians: 6,065,000 - 82.36%
  • Roma/Gypsies: 750,000 - 10.18%
  • Turks: 440,000 - 5.98%
  • Armenians: 30,000 - 0.41%
  • Vlachs: 15,000 - 0.20%
  • Russians: 11,000 - 0.15%
  • Sarakatsani: 10,000 - 0.14%
  • Others: 41,560 - 0.56%


The following table shows the ethnic composition of all Provinces of Bulgaria according to the 2011 census(% from the declared):

Ethnic structure of the entire population (7,364,570) by most detailed cadastral division according to the 2011 census
Ethnic structure of the entire population (7,364,570) by most detailed cadastral division according to the 2011 census
Distribution of the ethnic groups by municipalities according to the 2011 census within those who answered the question (6,680,000)
Distribution of the ethnic groups by municipalities according to the 2011 census within those who answered the question (6,680,000)
Distribution of Turks according to the 2001 census
Distribution of Turks according to the 2001 census
Province Ethnicity Ethnicity Ethnicity
Bulgarian Turkish Roma
Blagoevgrad Province 89% 6% 3%
Burgas Province 80% 13% 5%
Dobrich Province 75% 13% 9%
Gabrovo Province 92% 6% 1%
Haskovo Province 79% 13% 7%
Kardzhali Province 30% 66%
Kyustendil Province 93% 0% 6%
Lovech Province 91% 3% 4%
Montana Province 86% 0% 13%
Pazardzhik Province 84% 6% 8%
Pernik Province 96% 0% 3%
Pleven Province 91% 4% 4%
Plovdiv Province 87% 6% 5%
Razgrad Province 43% 50% 5%
Ruse Province 81% 13% 4%
Shumen Province 59% 30% 8%
Silistra Province 57% 36% 5%
Sliven Province 77% 10% 12%
Smolyan Province 91% 5% 0%
Sofia City 96% 1% 2%
Sofia Province 91% 0% 7%
Stara Zagora Province 86% 5% 8%
Targovishte Province 55% 36% 7%
Varna Province 87% 7% 3%
Veliko Tarnovo Province 90% 7% 2%
Vidin Province 91% 0% 8%
Vratsa Province 93% 0% 6%
Yambol Province 87% 3% 8%
Source (2011 census):[50]

Discover more about Ethnic groups related topics

Bulgarians in Bulgaria

Bulgarians in Bulgaria

Bulgarians are the main ethnic group in Bulgaria, according to the census of the population in 2011 they are 6,000,000 people, or 86% of the country's population.

Bulgarian Turks

Bulgarian Turks

Bulgarian Turks are a Turkish ethnic group from Bulgaria. In 2011, there were 588,318 Bulgarians of Turkish descent, roughly 8.8% of the population, making them the country's largest ethnic minority. Bulgarian Turks also comprise the largest single population of Turks in the Balkans. They primarily live in the southern province of Kardzhali and the northeastern provinces of Shumen, Silistra, Razgrad and Targovishte. There is also a diaspora outside Bulgaria in countries such as Turkey, Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway and Romania, the most significant of which are the Bulgarian Turks in Turkey.

Romani people in Bulgaria

Romani people in Bulgaria

Romani people in Bulgaria constitute Europe's densest gypsy minority. The Romani people in Bulgaria may speak Bulgarian, Turkish or Romani, depending on the region.

Russians in Bulgaria

Russians in Bulgaria

Russians form the fourth largest ethnic group in Bulgaria, numbering 31,679 in 2019, and mostly living in the large urban centres, such as Sofia, Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas. Although the largest wave of Russian settlers arrived following the events surrounding the October Revolution and the Russian Civil War, compact groups of Russians had been living in Bulgaria for centuries before that.

Armenians in Bulgaria

Armenians in Bulgaria

Armenians are the fifth largest minority, after Russians, in Bulgaria, numbering 6,552 according to the 2011 census, down from 10,832 in 2001, while Armenian organizations estimate up to 80,000. Armenians have lived in the Balkans since no later than the 5th century, when they moved there as part of the Byzantine cavalry. Since then, the Armenians have had a continuous presence in Bulgarian lands and have often played an important part in the history of Bulgaria from early Medieval times until the present.

Ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria

Ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria

Ethnic Macedonians in Bulgaria are a group in Bulgaria concentrated within Blagoevgrad Province and the capital Sofia. According to the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee in 1998, their number ranged from 15,000 to 25,000. In 2006, per the personal evaluation of a leading local ethnic Macedonian activist Stojko Stojkov, they counted already between 5,000 and 10,000 people. The 1992 census indicated 10,830 Macedonians, but in the 2001 census this figure had decreased to 5,071. However in the 2011 Bulgarian census only 1,654 people declared themselves to be ethnic Macedonians. They are not recognised as an ethnic minority but were recognised as such between 1946 and 1958.

Greeks in Bulgaria

Greeks in Bulgaria

Greeks in Bulgaria constitute the eighth-largest ethnic minority in Bulgaria. They number 1,356 according to the 2011 census. They are estimated at around 25,000 by Greek organizations and around 28,500 by the Greek government. These larger estimates include the Sarakatsani community, the descendants of the post-WWII Greek emigrants, and other Greek citizens living in Bulgaria as students, businessmen, consorts etc. Today, Greeks mostly live in the large urban centres like Sofia and Plovdiv, but also in the coastal zone.

Jews

Jews

Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, although its observance varies from strict to none.

Romanians

Romanians

The Romanians are a Romance-speaking ethnic group. Sharing a common Romanian culture and ancestry, and speaking the Romanian language, they live primarily in Romania and Moldova. The 2011 Romanian census found that just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians.

People's Republic of Bulgaria

People's Republic of Bulgaria

The People's Republic of Bulgaria was the official name of Bulgaria, when it was a socialist republic from 1946 to 1990, ruled by the Bulgarian Communist Party (BCP) together with its coalition partner, the Bulgarian Agrarian People's Union. Bulgaria was closely allied with the Soviet Union during the Cold War, being part of Comecon as well as a member of the Warsaw Pact. The Bulgarian resistance movement during World War II deposed the Kingdom of Bulgaria administration in the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944 which ended the country's alliance with the Axis powers and led to the People's Republic in 1946.

Bulgarians

Bulgarians

Bulgarians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeast Europe.

Aromanians in Bulgaria

Aromanians in Bulgaria

The Aromanians in Bulgaria, commonly known as "Vlachs" and under several other names, are a non-recognized Aromanian ethnic minority in Bulgaria. There are an estimated 2,000 to 3,000 Aromanians in Bulgaria, although estimates coming from Bulgarian Aromanians themselves raise this number to 6,000. They live in the Western Rhodopes, the Blagoevgrad, Pazardzhik, Plovdiv and Sofia provinces and in the city of Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria itself. More precisely, the Aromanians of Bulgaria are concentrated in the villages of Anton and Dorkovo and on the cities and towns of Blagoevgrad, Dupnitsa, Peshtera, Rakitovo, Samokov, Sofia and Velingrad, as well as on parts of the aforementioned provinces located in the Balkan Mountains. Some also live on the towns of Bratsigovo and Pirdop and on the cities of Plovdiv and Pazardjik, as well as on the Rila mountain range.

Languages

Distribution of the mother tongues by municipalities according to the 2011 census
Distribution of the mother tongues by municipalities according to the 2011 census
Distribution of languages of Bulgaria (2001) [51]
Bulgarian
84.5%
Turkish
9.6%
Roma (Gypsy)
4.1%
others
0.9%
undeclared
0.9%
Population of Bulgaria according to mother tongue 1880–1892
Mother
tongue
census 1880[52][53] census 1887[54] census 1892[55]
Number % Number % Number %
Bulgarian 1,345,507 67.0 2,326,250 73.7 2,505,326 75.7
Turkish/Gagauz 527,284 26.3 607,331 19.3 569,728 17.2
"Vlach" 49,070 2.4
Romanian 62,628 1.9
Roma 37,600 1.9 50,291 1.6 52,132 1.6
Ladino 14,020 0.7 27,531 0.8
Tatar 12,376 0.6 16,290 0.5
Greek 11,152 0.6 58,326 1.8 58,518 1.8
Armenian 3,837 6,445 0.2
Serbo-Croatian 1,894
Serbian 818
German/Yiddish 1,280
German 3,620
Russian 1,123 928
Albanian 530
Italian 515 803
Hungarian 220
Czech 174
French 164 356
Arab 97
Polish 92
English 64
Circassian 63
Persian 58
Others 402 4,425
Unknown 1,165
Total 2,007,919 3 154 375 3,310,713
Territory (km2) 63,752 95,223 95,223

The 2001 census defines an ethnic group as a "community of people, related to each other by origin and language, and close to each other by mode of life and culture"; and one's mother tongue as "the language a person speaks best and usually uses for communication in the family (household)".[56] According to the 2011 census, among the Bulgarians 99.4% indicate Bulgarian as a mother tongue, 0.3% - Turkish, 0.1% - Roma and 0.1% others; among Turks 96.6% have pointed the Turkish as a mother tongue and 3.2% - Bulgarian; among the Roma 85% indicate Roma language as a mother tongue, 7.5% - Bulgarian, 6.7% - Turkish and 0.6% - Romanian.

Discover more about Languages related topics

Languages of Bulgaria

Languages of Bulgaria

The official language of Bulgaria is Bulgarian, which is spoken natively by 85% of the country's population. Other major languages are Turkish (9.1%), and Romani (4.2%). There are smaller numbers of speakers of Western Armenian, Aromanian, Romanian, Crimean Tatar, Gagauz and Balkan Gagauz, Macedonian and English. Bulgarian Sign Language has an estimated 37,000 signers.

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian language

Bulgarian is an Eastern South Slavic language spoken in Southeastern Europe, primarily in Bulgaria. It is the language of the Bulgarians.

Romani language

Romani language

Romani is an Indo-Aryan macrolanguage of the Romani communities. According to Ethnologue, seven varieties of Romani are divergent enough to be considered languages of their own. The largest of these are Vlax Romani, Balkan Romani (600,000), and Sinte Romani (300,000). Some Romani communities speak mixed languages based on the surrounding language with retained Romani-derived vocabulary – these are known by linguists as Para-Romani varieties, rather than dialects of the Romani language itself.

Oghuz languages

Oghuz languages

The Oghuz languages are a sub-branch of the Turkic language family, spoken by approximately 108 million people. The three languages with the largest number of speakers are Turkish, Azerbaijani and Turkmen, which, combined, account for more than 95% of speakers.

Romanian language

Romanian language

Romanian is the official and main language of Romania and the Republic of Moldova. As a minority language it is spoken by stable communities in the countries surrounding Romania, and by the large Romanian diaspora. In total it is spoken by 28-29 million people as an L1+L2, of whom 23-24 millions are native speakers. In Europe, Romanian is rated as a medium level language, occupying the tenth position among thirty-seven official languages.

Tatar language

Tatar language

Tatar is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, as well as Siberia. It should not be confused with Crimean Tatar or Siberian Tatar, which are closely related but belong to different subgroups of the Kipchak languages.

Greek language

Greek language

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Italy, southern Albania, and other regions of the Balkans, the Black Sea coast, Asia Minor, and the Eastern Mediterranean. It has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning at least 3,400 years of written records. Its writing system is the Greek alphabet, which has been used for approximately 2,800 years; previously, Greek was recorded in writing systems such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Armenian language

Armenian language

Armenian is an Indo-European language and an independent branch of that family of languages. It is the official language of Armenia. Historically spoken in the Armenian Highlands, today Armenian is widely spoken throughout the Armenian diaspora. Armenian is written in its own writing system, the Armenian alphabet, introduced in 405 AD by the priest Mesrop Mashtots. The total number of Armenian speakers worldwide is estimated between 5 and 7 million.

Serbian language

Serbian language

Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official and national language of Serbia, one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and co-official in Montenegro and Kosovo. It is a recognized minority language in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.

German language

German language

German is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and the Italian province of South Tyrol. It is also a co-official language of Luxembourg and Belgium, as well as a national language in Namibia. Outside Germany, it is also spoken by German communities in France (Bas-Rhin), Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary (Sopron).

Russian language

Russian language

Russian Russian [ˈruskʲɪj jɪˈzɨk] is an East Slavic language mainly spoken across Russia. It is the native language of the Russians, and belongs to the Indo-European language family. It is one of four living East Slavic languages, and is also a part of the larger Balto-Slavic languages. Besides Russia itself, Russian is an official language in Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, and is used widely as a lingua franca throughout Ukraine, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and to some extent in the Baltic states. It was the de facto language of the former Soviet Union, and continues to be used in public life with varying proficiency in all of the post-Soviet states.

Albanian language

Albanian language

Albanian is an Indo-European language and an independent branch of that family of languages. It is spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and by the Albanian diaspora, which is generally concentrated in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other modern Indo-European language.

Religion

Bulgaria's traditional religion according to the constitution is the Orthodox Christianity, while Bulgaria is a secular state too. Since the last two censuses (2001 and 2011) provide widely divergent results, they are both shown in the table below. It is noteworthy that over a fifth of the population chose not to respond to this question in the 2011 census.

Religious structure of Bulgaria according to the 2011 census.
Religious structure of Bulgaria according to the 2011 census.
Muslim areas in Bulgaria according to the 2001 census
Muslim areas in Bulgaria according to the 2001 census
2001[57] 2011[12][58]
Orthodox Christian 82.6% 59.4%
Muslim 12.2% 7.8% (7.4% Sunni; 0.4% Shia)
Catholic 0.6% 0.7%
Protestant 0.5% 0.9%
Other 0.2% 0.15%
None 3.9% 9.3%
No response - 21.8%

The results of the Bulgarian 2011 Census, in which the indication of answer regarding the question for confession was optional, are as follows:[59]

Group Population % of declared % of total
Orthodoxy 4,374,135 76.0% 59.4%
Undeclared 1,606,269 - 21.8%
Irreligion 682,162 11.8% 9.3%
Islam 577,139 10.0% 7.8%
Protestantism 64,476 1.1% 0.9%
Roman Catholicism 48,945 0.8% 0.7%
Oriental Orthodoxy 1,715 0.0% 0.0%
Jews 706 0.0% 0.0%
Others 9,023 0.2% 0.1%
Figure of percentage - 5,758,301 7,364,570
Municipalities where the prevalence is Bulgarian Muslim according to the 2001 census
Municipalities where the prevalence is Bulgarian Muslim according to the 2001 census

The results of the Bulgarian 2001 Census by ethnic groups, the latest census in which the indication of identification (whether by confession or as irreligious) in the question for confession was obligatory, are as follows:[60][61]

Ethnic groups
by confession
Total Bulgarians Turks Roma Others
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Orthodoxy 6,552,751 82.6 6,315,938 94.9 5,425 0.7 180,326 48.6 51,062
Islam 966,978 12.2 131,531 2.0 713,024 95.5 103,436 27.9 18,987
Irreligion 308,116 3.9 151,008 2.3 23,146 3.1 59,669 16.1
Roman Catholicism 43,811 0.6 37,811 0.6 2,561 0.3
Protestantism 42,308 0.5 14,591 0.2 2,066 0.3 24,651 6.6 1,000
Others 14,937 0.2 4,331 0.1 442 0.1
Total population 7,928,901 100.0 6,655,210 100.0 746,664 100.0 370,908 100.0 100.0
Population of Bulgaria according to religion 1900 - 2021
Religion census 1900 census 1910 census 1920 census 1926 census 1934 census 1992 census 2001 census 2011 census 2021
Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %
Orthodoxy 3,019,999 80.6 3,643,918 84.0 4,062,097 83.8 4,569,074 83.4 5,128,890 84.4 7,274,592 85.7 6,552,751 82.6 4,374,135 59.4 4,091,780 62.8
Islam 643,300 17.2 602,078 13.8 690,734 14.2 789,296 14.4 821,298 13.5 1,110,295 13.0 966,978 12.2 577,139 7.8 638,708 9.8
Protestantism 4,524 0.1 6,335 0.1 5,617 0.1 6,735 0.1 8,371 0.1 21,878 0.2 42,308 0.5 64,476 1.1 69,852 1.7
Roman Catholicism 28,569 0.8 32,150 0.7 34,072 0.7 40,347 0.7 45,704 0.7 53,074 0.6 43,811 0.5 48,945 0.8 38,709 0.9
Jews 33,663 0.9 40,067 0.9 43,232 0.9 46,431 0.8 48,398 0.8 2,580 0.0 706 0.0 1,736 0.0
Armenian Apostolic Church 13,809 0.4 12,259 0.3 10,848 0.2 25,402 0.5 23,476 0.4 9,672 0.1 1,715 0.0 5,002 0.1
Others 326 0.0 14,937 0.2 9,023 0.2 6,451 0.1
Irreligion 682,162 9.3 305,102 4.7
Undeclared 93 0.0 308,116 3.9 1,606,269 21.8 1,348,522 20.7
Total 3,744,283 4,337,513 4,846,971 5,478,741 6,077,939 8,487,317 7,928,901 7,364,570 6,519,789

Discover more about Religion related topics

Religion in Bulgaria

Religion in Bulgaria

Religion in Bulgaria has been dominated by Christianity since its adoption as the state religion in 865. The dominant form of the religion is Eastern Orthodox Christianity within the fold of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. During the Ottoman rule of the Balkans, Sunni Islam spread to the territories of Bulgaria, and it remains a significant minority today. The Catholic Church has roots in the country since the Middle Ages, and Protestantism arrived in the 19th century; both of them remain very small minorities. Today, a significant part of the Bulgarians are not religious, or believers who do not identify with any specific religion, and Bulgaria has been the cradle of some new religions, notably the Neo-Theosophical movement of Dunovism.

Bulgarian Orthodox Church

Bulgarian Orthodox Church

The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, legally the Patriarchate of Bulgaria, is an autocephalous Orthodox jurisdiction. It is the oldest Slavic Orthodox church, with some 6 million members in Bulgaria and between 1.5 and 2 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand and Asia. It was recognized as autocephalous in 1945 by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Secular state

Secular state

A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularity, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion. A secular state claims to treat all its citizens equally regardless of religion, and claims to avoid preferential treatment for a citizen based on their religious beliefs, affiliation or lack of either over those with other profiles.

Eastern Orthodox Church

Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptized members. It operates as a communion of autocephalous churches, each governed by its bishops via local synods. The church has no central doctrinal or governmental authority analogous to the head of the Roman Catholic Church—the Pope—but the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is recognized by them as primus inter pares, which may be explained as a representative of the church. As one of the oldest surviving religious institutions in the world, the Eastern Orthodox Church has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern and Southeastern Europe. The Eastern Orthodox Church officially calls itself the Orthodox Catholic Church.

Irreligion

Irreligion

Irreligion or nonreligion is the absence or rejection of religion, or indifference to it. Irreligion takes many forms, ranging from the casual and unaware to full-fledged philosophies such as atheism and agnosticism, secular humanism and antitheism. Social scientists tend to define irreligion as a purely naturalist worldview that excludes a belief in anything supernatural. The broadest and loosest definition, serving as an upper limit, is the lack of religious identification, though many non-identifiers express metaphysical and even religious beliefs. The narrowest and strictest is subscribing to positive atheism.

Islam in Bulgaria

Islam in Bulgaria

Islam in Bulgaria is a minority religion and the second largest religion in the country after Christianity. According to the 2021 Census, the total number of Muslims in Bulgaria stood at 638,708 corresponding to 10.8% of the population. According to a 2017 estimate, Muslims make up 15% of the population. Ethnically, Muslims in Bulgaria are Turks, Bulgarians and Roma, living mainly in parts of northeastern Bulgaria and in the Rhodope Mountains.

Protestantism in Bulgaria

Protestantism in Bulgaria

Protestantism is the third largest religious grouping in Bulgaria after Eastern Orthodoxy and Islam. In the census of 2011, a total of 64,476 people declared themselves to be Protestants of different denominations, up from 42,308 in the previous census in 2001 and from 21,878 in 1992. The marked rise in the number of Protestants in the last two decades is partly due to a boom in conversions among the Bulgarian Roma. In 2001, the two largest ethnic group among the Bulgarian Protestants were the Bulgarians and the Romani with some 25,000 members each.

Pomaks

Pomaks

Pomaks are Bulgarian-speaking Muslims inhabiting northwestern Turkey, Bulgaria and northeastern Greece. The c. 220,000 strong ethno-confessional minority in Bulgaria is recognized officially as Bulgarian Muslims by the government. The term has also been used as a wider designation, including also the Slavic Muslim populations of North Macedonia and Albania.

Bulgarians in Bulgaria

Bulgarians in Bulgaria

Bulgarians are the main ethnic group in Bulgaria, according to the census of the population in 2011 they are 6,000,000 people, or 86% of the country's population.

Migration

In relation to internal migration, according to the 1910 census, 300,000 or almost 10% of the ethnic Bulgarians were born in another Bulgarian municipality than the one they were enumerated in. The same data shows that the foreign-born ethnic Bulgarians numbered 78,000, or 2% of them, most numerous of whom were the 61,000 Ottoman-born, 9,000 Romanian-born and by less than 2,000 Austro-Hungarian, Serbian and Russian-born.[62] By the 1926 census, there had been 253,000 refugees with granted households and land or citizenship but with many more in towns of uncertain number. 35% came from Eastern Thrace, 30% came from Greek Macedonia, another 18% from Western Thrace, 8% from Dobruja, 4% from the Western Outlands, 3% from Asia Minor, and 2% from North Macedonia. They constituted 6% of the country's population. In 1940, 70,000 Bulgarians were exchanged from Northern Dobruja. The total number of refugees in 1878-1940 is estimated at between 700,000 and 1,200,000.[63]

According to the 2011 census Russian citizens are the most numerous foreigners - 11 991, followed by 8 444 EU citizens (UK- 2 605, Greece - 1 253, Germany- 848, Poland - 819 and Italy - 456), citizens of Ukraine - 3 064, North Macedonia - 1 091, Moldova - 893 and Serbia - 569. 22.8% of them are from Asia, mostly from Turkey. Those with dual Bulgarian and other citizenship were 22 152, or 0.3% of the population. Of them persons with Bulgarian and Russian citizenship were 5 257 (23.7%), followed by persons with Bulgarian and Turkish citizenship - 4 282 (19.3%), Bulgarian and citizenship of the USA- 1 725 (7.8%). There are at least 17,527 Refugees of the Syrian Civil War with applications in Bulgaria. In 2001-2015 185,447 people applied for Bulgarian citizenship and 116,222 were provided with. 113,647 were granted on grounds of proven Bulgarian ancestry, including 59,968 North Macedonia citizens. 29,218 were Moldovan citizens, 5930 Ukrainians, 5374 Serbians, 5194 Russians, 3840 Israeli, 2192 Albanians, 692 Turks and others.[64] In 2016, 12,880 foreigners were naturalized, including 6196 Macedonians.[65]

Nationality groups 2011[66] 2021
Number % Number %
Bulgaria Bulgarians 7,327,847 99.50% 6,459,248 99.07%
Foreigners 36,723 0.50% 60,541 0.93%
European Union EU-27 8,444 0.11% 10,549 0.16%
Other European 18,413 0.15% 35,901 0.55%
Africa 429 0.01% 940 0.01%
Central and South America 338 0.00% 518 0.01%
North America 588 0.01% 776 0.01%
Asia 8,403 0.11% 10,466 0.16%
Oceania 62 0.00% 88 0.00%
Stateless 46 0.00% 1,303 0.02%
Total 7,364,570 6,519,789

Population by country of birth:[67]

2011 2013 2015 2019[68]
European Union Bulgaria 7,290,666 7,188,273 7,077,389 6,951,482
Total foreign-born 78,621 96,113 123,803 168,516
 Russia 18,725 19,533 24,416 31,679
 Turkey 3,955 6,227 9,284 11,702
 Syria 1,250 1,298 8,318 14,080
European Union Greece 4,928 7,377 7,166 8,563
 Ukraine 5,877 6,084 7,039 10,115
European Union Germany 2,083 3,638 5,533 9,334
 UK 3,042 5,066 6,738 9,992
European Union Spain 1,558 4,065 5,240 7,098
European Union Romania 6,045 5,380 4,612 4,556
European Union Italy 1,082 2,261 2,830 3,790
 North Macedonia 2,426 2,384 2,742 3,595
 USA 1,180 2,023 2,431 3,153
 Moldova 1,893 1,996 2,363 2,990
 Serbia 2,306 2,246 2,318 2,879
 Azerbaijan 2,152 1,871 1,886 2,103
European Union France 562 1,255 1,781 2,614
European Union Poland 1,196 1,443 1,648 2,043
 Armenia 1,472 1,422 1,565 1,840
 Kazakhstan 970 1,067 1,515 2,101
European Union Belgium 410 1,009 1,481 2,199
 China 860 929 1,236 1,447
European Union Czech Republic 924 1,028 1,186 1,514
European Union Austria 1,512
 Albania 1,134 1,078 1,130 1,348
European Union Netherlands 298 735 1,040 1,522
European Union Cyprus 244 679 1,008 1,372
Unknown 144 166 1,006

Foreigners by nationality:

2011 2015
Total 36,723 65,622
 Russia 11,991 17,943
 Turkey 2,741 8,157
 Syria 729 7,508
 Ukraine 3,064 3,874
 UK 2,605 3,693
Unknown 2,538
European Union Greece 1,253 2,094
Stateless 1,875
 North Macedonia 1,091 1,289
European Union Germany 848 1,266
 Armenia 1,167 1,175
 China 749 1,147
 Moldova 893 1,018
European Union Poland 819 978
 USA 876
European Union Italy 456 815
 Serbia 569 813
 Iraq 706 806
 Kazakhstan 712

Discover more about Migration related topics

Immigration to Bulgaria

Immigration to Bulgaria

A process of immigration of ethnic non-Bulgarians to Bulgaria began after the country's liberation from Ottoman rule and the restoration of the Bulgarian state in 1878. The first wave of immigrants, mainly from Central and Eastern Europe, brought skills needed in the creation of the new state. Later groups to arrive were Armenian refugees, White Russians, and foreign students. Since the fall of Communism and Bulgaria's entry to the European Union, immigration has increased, with many arriving legally or illegally from less developed countries, and since 2011 the country has been on a migration route used by Syrian refugees.

Ottoman Empire

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire, also known as the Turkish Empire, was an empire that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia, and Northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Turkoman tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Macedonia (Greece)

Macedonia (Greece)

Macedonia is a geographic and former administrative region of Greece, in the southern Balkans. Macedonia is the largest and second-most-populous Greek geographic region, with a population of 2.36 million in 2020. It is highly mountainous, with most major urban centres such as Thessaloniki and Kavala being concentrated on its southern coastline. Together with Thrace, and sometimes also Thessaly and Epirus, it is part of Northern Greece. Greek Macedonia encompasses entirely the southern part of the wider region of Macedonia, making up 51% of the total area of that region. Additionally, it forms part of Greece's borders with three countries: Bulgaria to the northeast, North Macedonia to the north, and Albania to the northwest.

Dobruja

Dobruja

Dobruja or Dobrudja is a historical region in the Balkans that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania. It is situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea, and includes the Danube Delta, Romanian coast, and the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast. The territory of Dobruja is made up of Northern Dobruja, which is part of Romania, and Southern Dobruja, which is part of Bulgaria.

North Macedonia

North Macedonia

North Macedonia, officially the Republic of North Macedonia, is a country in Southeast Europe. It gained independence in 1991 as one of the successor states of Yugoslavia. It is a landlocked country bordering Kosovo to the northwest, Serbia to the north, Bulgaria to the east, Greece to the south, and Albania to the west. It constitutes approximately the northern third of the larger geographical region of Macedonia. Skopje, the capital and largest city, is home to a quarter of the country's 1.83 million people. The majority of the residents are ethnic Macedonians, a South Slavic people. Albanians form a significant minority at around 25%, followed by Turks, Romani, Serbs, Bosniaks, Aromanians and a few other minorities.

Population exchange between Bulgaria and Romania

Population exchange between Bulgaria and Romania

The population exchange between Bulgaria and Romania was a population exchange carried out in 1940 after the transfer of Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria by Romania. It involved 103,711 Romanians, Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians living in Southern Dobruja and 62,278 Bulgarians from Northern Dobruja. After this operation, the application of a population exchange in other cases such as Transylvania was considered.

Northern Dobruja

Northern Dobruja

Northern Dobruja is the part of Dobruja within the borders of Romania. It lies between the lower Danube river and the Black Sea, bordered in the south by Southern Dobruja, which is part of Bulgaria.

East Thrace

East Thrace

East Thrace or Eastern Thrace, also known as Turkish Thrace or European Turkey, is the part of Turkey that is geographically a part of Southeast Europe. It accounts for 3.4% of Turkey's land area but comprises 15% of its total population. The largest city of the region is Istanbul, which straddles the Bosporus between Europe and Asia. East Thrace is of historic importance as it is next to a major sea trade corridor and constitutes what remains of the once-vast Ottoman region of Rumelia. It is currently also of specific geostrategic importance because the sea corridor, which includes two narrow straits, provides access to the Mediterranean Sea from the Black Sea for the navies of five countries: Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, and Georgia. The region also serves as a future connector of existing Turkish, Bulgarian, and Greek high-speed rail networks.

Romania

Romania

Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeast Europe. It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, and the Black Sea to the southeast. It has a predominantly temperate-continental climate, and an area of 238,397 km2 (92,046 sq mi), with a population of around 19 million. Romania is the twelfth-largest country in Europe and the sixth-most populous member state of the European Union. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest, followed by Iași, Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Constanța, Craiova, Brașov, and Galați.

Serbia

Serbia

Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans. It shares land borders with Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest, and claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. Serbia with Kosovo has about 8.6 million inhabitants. Its capital Belgrade is also the largest city.

Russia

Russia

Russia, or the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest country in the world, covering over 17,098,246 square kilometres (6,601,670 sq mi), and encompassing one-eighth of Earth's inhabitable landmass. Russia extends across eleven time zones and shares land boundaries with fourteen countries, more than any other country but China. It is the world's ninth-most populous country and Europe's most populous country, with a population of 146 million people. The country's capital and largest city is Moscow, the largest city entirely within Europe. Saint Petersburg is Russia's cultural centre and second-largest city. Other major urban areas include Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod, and Kazan.

Ukraine

Ukraine

Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi). Prior to the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, it was the eighth-most populous country in Europe, with a population of around 41 million people. It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. Ukraine's official and national language is Ukrainian; most people are also fluent in Russian.

Age structure

0–14 years: Decrease 13.2%
15–65 years: Increase 68.3%
65 years and over: Increase 18.5% (Census 2011)[12]

At the 2011 census the largest decadal age group of the identified as Romani people is the 0–9 years old or 21% of them, the same age group accounted for 10% of the Turks and 7% of the Bulgarians.[69] Experts estimate that the Romani in some provinces make up 40% of all aged between 0 and 9 years.[70] Amongst those who did not answer the question on ethnic group lowest is the share of people aged 60+ years.

Children aged up to nine years old by ethnic structure per province(% from the declared)
Province Ethnicity Ethnicity Ethnicity
Bulgarian Turkish Roma
Bulgaria 72.9% 10.6% 12.0%
Blagoevgrad Province 80.9% 7.3% 7.8%
Burgas Province 68.5% 16.2% 9.7%
Dobrich Province 56.9% 17.1% 18.9%
Gabrovo Province 85.0% 8.2% 3.8%
Haskovo Province 62.7% 16.5% 16.7%
Kardzhali Province 23.8% 67.8% 2.7%
Kyustendil Province 79.4% 0.0% 16.1%
Lovech Province 78.0% 3.6% 14.8%
Montana Province 66.8% 0.1% 29.0%
Pazardzhik Province 67.3% 8.7% 16.7%
Pernik Province 90.3% 0.1% 7.5%
Pleven Province 78.5% 4.4% 13.5%
Plovdiv Province 74.1% 9.3% 11.9%
Razgrad Province 33.9% 50.0% 10.2%
Ruse Province 72.2% 15.1% 8.9%
Shumen Province 45.5% 31.5% 17.6%
Silistra Province 38.2% 43.1% 14.4%
Sliven Province 55.0% 11.6% 28.3%
Smolyan Province 87.6% 5.0% 1.9%
Sofia City 92.2% 0.5% 3.6%
Sofia Province 77.1% 0.2% 18.8%
Stara Zagora Province 68.3% 7.3% 19.9%
Targovishte Province 39.6% 38.0% 15.5%
Varna Province 79.2% 8.9% 7.0%
Veliko Tarnovo Province 79.9% 11.0% 4.4%
Vidin Province 74.3% 0.1% 20.6%
Vratsa Province 80.3% 0.4% 15.6%
Yambol Province 62.4% 5.8% 26.7%
Source (2011 census):[43]

% ethnic declaration of total population aged 0-9 (2011 census)[69][71]

  Bulgarians (62.0%)
  unanswered (14.9%)
  Romani (10.2%)
  Turks (9.0%)
  No identity (3.4%)
  Other (0.5%)

Bulgarian children constitute the majority of all children in 23 out of 28 provinces. They constitute more than ninety percent of all children in two provinces: Sofia (city) (92%) and Pernik Province (90%).

Turkish children constitute the majority in Kardzhali Province (68% of self-declared) and Razgrad Province (50% of self-declared); they also constitute the largest group of all children in Silistra Province (43%).

Roma children constitute 12% of all children in Bulgaria and more than a quarter in three provinces: Montana (29%), Sliven (28%) and Yambol (27%).

Bulgaria is ageing rapidly, especially in some remote rural areas.

Age Structure (2011)
Under working age (0 – 17) Working age (18 – 64) Above working age (65 and over)
1 172 208 (16.0%) 4 789 967 (65.1%) 1 389 059 (18.9%)
Age Structure (2017)[72]
Under working age (0 – 17) Working age (18 – 64) Above working age (65 and over)
1 065 993 (15.1%) 4 248 503 (60.3%) 1 735 538 (24.6%)

The ageing of the population leads to an increase of the median age. The median age is 43.6 as of 2017, up from 40.4 years in 2001.[73]

Discover more about Age structure related topics

Bulgarians

Bulgarians

Bulgarians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeast Europe.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria covers a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), and is the sixteenth-largest country in Europe. Sofia is the nation's capital and largest city; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.

Blagoevgrad Province

Blagoevgrad Province

Blagoevgrad Province, also known as Pirin Macedonia or Bulgarian Macedonia, is a province (oblast) of southwestern Bulgaria. It borders four other Bulgarian provinces to the north and east, the Greek region of Macedonia to the south, and North Macedonia to the west. The province has 14 municipalities with 12 towns. Its principal city is Blagoevgrad, while other significant towns include Bansko, Gotse Delchev, Melnik, Petrich, Razlog, Sandanski, and Simitli.

Burgas Province

Burgas Province

Burgas Province is a province in southeastern Bulgaria, including the southern Bulgarian Black Sea Coast. The province is named after its administrative and industrial centre, the city of Burgas, the fourth biggest town in the country. It is the largest province by area, embracing a territory of 7,748.1 km2 (2,991.6 sq mi) that is divided into 13 municipalities with a total population, as of December 2009, of 422,319 inhabitants.

Dobrich Province

Dobrich Province

Dobrich Province is a province in northeastern Bulgaria, part of Southern Dobruja geographical region. It is bounded on east by the Black Sea, on south by Varna Province, on west by Šumen and Silistra provinces, on the north by Romania. It is divided into 8 municipalities. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 186,016. The province was part of Romania between 1913 and 1940.

Gabrovo Province

Gabrovo Province

Gabrovo Province is a small province lying at the geographical centre of Bulgaria. It is named after its main town - Gabrovo. In 2009 the total population of the area is 130,001.

Haskovo Province

Haskovo Province

Haskovo Province is a province in southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece and Turkey to the southeast, comprising parts of the Thracian valley along the river Maritsa. It is named after its administrative and industrial centre - the city of Haskovo. The province embraces a territory of 5,533.3 km2 (2,136.4 sq mi) that is divided into 11 municipalities with a total population, as of December 2009, of 256,408 inhabitants.

Kardzhali Province

Kardzhali Province

Kardzhali Province is a province of southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece with the Greek regional units of Xanthi, Rhodope, and Evros to the south and east. It is 3209.1 km2 in area. Its main city is Kardzhali.

Kyustendil Province

Kyustendil Province

Kyustendil Province is a province in southwestern Bulgaria, extending over an area of 3,084.3 km2 (1,190.9 sq mi), and with a population of 163,889. It borders on the provinces of Sofia, Pernik, and Blagoevgrad; to the west, its limits coincide with the state borders between Bulgaria and North Macedonia, and between Bulgaria and the Republic of Serbia. The administrative center of the Province is Kyustendil.

Lovech Province

Lovech Province

Lovech Province is one of the 28 provinces of Bulgaria, lying at the northern centre of the country. It is named after its main city - Lovech. As of December 2009, the population of the area is 151,153.

Montana Province

Montana Province

Montana Province is a province in northwestern Bulgaria, bordering Serbia in the southwest and Romania in the north. It spreads its area between the Danube river and the Balkan Mountains. As of February 2011, the province has a population of 148,098 inhabitants, on territory of 3,635.5 km2 (1,403.7 sq mi). It was named after its administrative centre the city of Montana.

Pazardzhik Province

Pazardzhik Province

Pazardzhik Province is a province in Southern Bulgaria, named after its administrative and industrial centre - the city of Pazardzhik. The territory is 4,456.9 km2 (1,720.8 sq mi) that is divided into 12 municipalities with a total population of 275,548 inhabitants, as of February 2011.

Education

Map of Romani students in schools in BulgariaChart of completed degrees by ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Map of Romani students in schools in Bulgaria
Map of Romani students in schools in BulgariaChart of completed degrees by ethnic groups in Bulgaria
Chart of completed degrees by ethnic groups in Bulgaria

% of the native language of children in 1st grade in 2011[74]

  Bulgarian (52%)
  another language (48%)

Over 98% of the population is literate, the males being more literate than the females.

According to the 2011 census, about 112,778 people aged nine or more are illiterate. There are considerable differences in the share of illiterate persons amongst the three main ethnic groups. Amongst the Bulgarian ethnic group the share of illiterate is 0.5%, amongst the Turkish - 4.7% and amongst the Roma ethnic group - 11.8%.[75] About 81 thousand people aged seven or more never visited school.[76]

Unemployment

Chart of unemployment and poverty rate by ethnic groups
Chart of unemployment and poverty rate by ethnic groups

The median unemployment for the country in 2011 was 10.1%.

The number of unemployed people declined to 207 thousand people (or around 6.2% of the population) in 2017.[77]

Most unemployed people are aged 15 to 24 years old.

The unemployment rate in rural areas (around 10.0%) is nearly two times higher than the unemployment rate in urban areas (approximately 5.1%).

Vidin Province has the highest unemployment rate with almost one fifth of its labour force being unemployed. The provinces of Shumen (15.9%), Silistra (12.5%) and Targovishte (12.4%) have also very high unemployment rates.

Discover more about Unemployment related topics

Other statistics

Home ownership

According to Eurostat, 82.3% per cent of the population live in privately owned and owner-occupied homes, ranking it as 12th highest in ownership globally.[78] It is down from a recent peak of 87.6% in 2008, and has been steadily falling since.[78]

Internet penetration

The number of Internet users has increased rapidly since 2000—from 430,000 their number grew to 1.55 million in 2004, and 3.4 million (48 per cent penetration rate) in 2010.[79] Bulgaria has the third-fastest average Broadband Internet speed in the world after South Korea and Romania with an average speed of 1,611 kbit/s.[80][81]

Mobile phone adoption

Currently there are three active mobile phone operators—Mtel, Telenor and Vivacom, Mtel is the largest one with 5.2 million users as of 2010,[82] Telenor has 3,9 million as of 2007 and Vivacom over 1 million.

HIV

Bulgaria's HIV rate is among the lowest in the world, being 0.1% or 3,800 infected as of 2009.

Discover more about Other statistics related topics

Eurostat

Eurostat

Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg. Eurostat’s main responsibilities are to provide statistical information to the institutions of the European Union (EU) and to promote the harmonisation of statistical methods across its member states and candidates for accession as well as EFTA countries. The organisations in the different countries that cooperate with Eurostat are summarised under the concept of the European Statistical System.

List of countries by home ownership rate

List of countries by home ownership rate

This is a list of countries and territories by home ownership rate, which is the ratio of owner-occupied units to total residential units in a specified area.

Telenor

Telenor

Telenor ASA is a Norwegian majority state-owned multinational telecommunications company headquartered at Fornebu in Bærum, close to Oslo. It is one of the world's largest mobile telecommunications companies with operations worldwide, but focused in Scandinavia and Asia. It has extensive broadband and TV distribution operations in four Nordic countries, and a 10-year-old research and business line for machine-to-machine technology. Telenor owns networks in 8 countries.

Vivacom

Vivacom

Vivacom is the largest telecommunications company in Bulgaria and a former state-owned incumbent operator. The company is headquartered in Sofia, Bulgaria and employs around 5,900 people, owning a mature distribution network with around 230 branded retail outlets and alternative sale points.

List of countries by HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate

List of countries by HIV/AIDS adult prevalence rate

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, varies in prevalence from nation to nation. Listed here are the prevalence rates among adults in various countries, based on data from various sources, largely the CIA World Factbook.

Urbanization

Most Bulgarians (72.5 per cent) reside in urban areas. Approximately one-sixth of them live in Sofia, which has a population exceeding 1,200,000 people.

Urban population: Increase 5,338,261 or 72.5% of total population (Census 2011)[12]
Rural: 2,026,309 or 27.5%
Rate of urbanization: -0.3% annual rate of change (2005–10 est.)

Source: "Demographics of Bulgaria", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_Bulgaria.

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Notes
  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
References
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