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David (son of Heraclius)

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Tiberius
Emperor of the Romans
Byzantine co-emperor
ReignSeptember/October – November 641
PredecessorHeraclonas
SuccessorConstans II
Co-emperorsHeraclonas and Constans II
BornDavid
7 November 630
DynastyHeraclian Dynasty
FatherHeraclius
MotherMartina

David (Greek: Δαυίδ; fl. 630–641) was one of three co-emperors of Byzantium for a few months in late 641 (or until early 642), and had the regnal name Tiberius. David was the son of Emperor Heraclius and his wife and niece Empress Martina. He was born after the emperor and empress had visited Jerusalem and his given name reflects a deliberate attempt to link the imperial family with the Biblical David. The David Plates, which depict the life of King David, may likewise have been created for the young prince or to commemorate his birth. David was given the senior court title caesar in 638, in a ceremony during which he received the kamelaukion cap previously worn by his older brother Heraclonas.

After the death of Emperor Heraclius in February 641, when David was 10 years old, a power struggle ensued between different branches of the imperial family. As part of a compromise, David was raised to be co-emperor, ruling with his brother Heraclonas and their nephew Constans II. The Byzantine state faced serious challenges while Tiberius was co-emperor, with the ongoing Muslim conquest of Egypt and continuing religious strife over monothelitism and other Christological doctrines. All three emperors were children and the Empress Dowager Martina acted as regent. Martina was deeply unpopular due to her incestuous relationship with Heraclius, her unconventional habits, and her ambition. Her regime was deposed in a rebellion, probably by January 642. She and her sons were exiled to Rhodes and, in an early example of Byzantine political mutilation, Martina's tongue was cut out and the noses of her sons were cut off. There is no further historical record of Tiberius, and some historians speculate that he and his family lived out the rest of their lives peacefully.

Four of the David Plates depict (clockwise) David's being summoned by the prophet Samuel, being anointed by him, receiving Saul's armor, and battling Goliath. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Four of the David Plates depict (clockwise) David's being summoned by the prophet Samuel, being anointed by him, receiving Saul's armor, and battling Goliath. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Four of the David Plates depict (clockwise) David's being summoned by the prophet Samuel, being anointed by him, receiving Saul's armor, and battling Goliath. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Four of the David Plates depict (clockwise) David's being summoned by the prophet Samuel, being anointed by him, receiving Saul's armor, and battling Goliath. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Four of the David Plates depict (clockwise) David's being summoned by the prophet Samuel, being anointed by him, receiving Saul's armor, and battling Goliath. From the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek is the stage of the Greek language between the end of classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

Byzantine Empire

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire remained the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. The terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" were coined after the end of the realm; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire, and to themselves as Romans—a term which Greeks continued to use for themselves into Ottoman times. Although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from its earlier incarnation because it was centered on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, and characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity.

Heraclius

Heraclius

Heraclius, was Eastern Roman emperor from 610 to 641. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.

Avunculate marriage

Avunculate marriage

An avunculate marriage is a marriage with a parent's sibling or with one's sibling's child—i.e., between an uncle or aunt and their niece or nephew. Such a marriage may occur between biological (consanguine) relatives or between persons related by marriage (affinity). In some countries, avunculate marriages are prohibited by law, while in others marriages between such biological relatives are both legal and common, though now far less common.

Martina (empress)

Martina (empress)

Martina was an empress of the Byzantine Empire, the second wife of her uncle the emperor Heraclius, and regent in 641 with her son. She was a daughter of Maria, Heraclius' sister, and a certain Martinus. Maria and Heraclius were children of Heraclius the Elder and his wife Epiphania according to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem

Jerusalem is a city in Western Asia. Situated on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, it is one of the oldest cities in the world and is considered to be a holy city for the three major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both Israelis and Palestinians claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power. Because of this dispute, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

David

David

David was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the United Kingdom of Israel. In the Books of Samuel, he is described as a young shepherd and harpist who gains fame by slaying Goliath, a champion of the Philistines, in southern Canaan. David becomes a favourite of Saul, the first king of Israel; he also forges a notably close friendship with Jonathan, a son of Saul. However, under the paranoia that David is seeking to usurp the throne, Saul attempts to kill David, forcing the latter to go into hiding and effectively operate as a fugitive for several years. After Saul and Jonathan are both killed in battle against the Philistines, a 30-year-old David is anointed king over all of Israel and Judah. Following his rise to power, David conquers the city of Jerusalem and establishes it as Israel's capital, subsequently taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city to be the central point of worship in the Israelite religion.

David Plates

David Plates

The David Plates are a set of nine silver plates, in three sizes, stamped between 613 and 630. The plates were created in Constantinople, each depicting a scene from the life of the Hebrew king David, and associated with the reign of Emperor Heraclius (610-641). Following their discovery in Karavas in 1902, the David Plates have been considered key additions to early Byzantine secular art. It is also noted that the David Plates were found amongst the Second Cyprus Treasure. Casual laborers from the village of Karavas found the David Plates as they were quarrying the ruins for construction stones. The finders, however, failed to report what they had discovered to the Cypriot authorities. When authorities learned of their taking they confiscated three of the David Plates alongside a pair of cross-monogram plates, and other jewelry held today in the Museum of Antiquities in Nicosia. The rest of the discovery was smuggled from Cyprus and traded to a dealer located in Paris. Most of this hoard was bought by J. Pierpont Morgan and was later given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City by his heirs in 1917, where they currently remain.

Heraclonas

Heraclonas

Heraclius, known by the diminutive Heraclonas or Heracleonas, and sometimes called Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina. His father had stipulated in his will that both of his sons, Heraclonas and Constantine III, should rule jointly upon his death. Heraclius also specified that his wife, Martina, was to be called "Mother and Empress" insofar as she might have influence at court as well. The emperor Heraclius died in February 641 from edema. When Martina made the late Emperor's will public she faced staunch resistance to her playing any active role in government, but both Heraclonas and Constantine were proclaimed joint-emperors in February 641 without incident. After Constantine died of tuberculosis in May 641, Heraclonas became sole emperor, under the regency of his mother due to his young age. He reigned until October or November 641, when he was overthrown by Valentinus, a general and usurper of Armenian extract, who installed Constans II, the son of Constantine III. Valentinus had Heraclonas' nose cut off, then exiled him to Rhodes, where he is believed to have died in the following year.

Constans II

Constans II

Constans II, nicknamed "the Bearded", was the Eastern Roman emperor from 641 to 668. Constans was the last attested emperor to serve as consul, in 642, although the office continued to exist until the reign of Leo VI the Wise. His religious policy saw him steering a middle line in disputes between the Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibited discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ under the Type of Constans in 648. His reign coincided with Muslim invasions under Mu'awiya I in the late 640s to 650s. Constans was the first Roman emperor to visit Rome since the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, and the last emperor to visit Rome while it was still held by the Empire.

Monothelitism

Monothelitism

Monothelitism, or monotheletism, is a theological doctrine in Christianity, that holds Christ as having only one will. The doctrine is thus contrary to dyothelitism, a Christological doctrine that holds Christ as having two wills. Historically, monothelitism was closely related to monoenergism, a theological doctrine that holds Jesus Christ as having only one energy. Both doctrines were at the center of Christological disputes during the 7th century.

Christology

Christology

In Christianity, Christology, translated literally from Greek as "the study of Christ", is a branch of theology that concerns Jesus. Different denominations have different opinions on questions like whether Jesus was human, divine, or both, and as a messiah what his role would be in the freeing of the Jewish people from foreign rulers or in the prophesied Kingdom of God, and in the salvation from what would otherwise be the consequences of sin.

Under the reign of Heraclius

David was the son of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and Empress Martina, his wife and niece. According to the Chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor, David was born on 7 November, 630, the same day as his nephew Constans II.[1][2] Earlier that year, David's parents had been in Jerusalem with David in utero. While his siblings received traditional dynastic names, that of David seems to have been chosen deliberately for symbolic value out of a desire to link the imperial family with the Biblical David.[3][4][5] Byzantine art historian Cecily Hennessy points out that the birth of David occurred after several children of Heraclius and Martina had been born malformed or died in infancy. The occasion may have been a cause for commemoration. Heraclius had a set of silver plates known as the David Plates created, most likely in either 629 or 630. Hennessy suggests that since the plates present iconography of the Biblical David as a boy, they may have been "made for the young prince David".[6] Heraclius had produced two children by Fabia Eudokia (Eudoxia Epiphania and Emperor Constantine III) and at least nine with Martina, most of whom were sickly, and four of whom died in infancy.[7][8][note 1]

David was made caesar under Heraclius on 4 July 638,[note 2] elevated from his previous status of despotes (an honorific usually reserved for sons of the reigning emperor), while his older brother Heraclonas was promoted from caesar to co-emperor.[13][14] The ceremony took place in the chapel of Saint Stephen at the Palace of Daphne. A description of the ceremony is preserved in De Ceremoniis which says that the kamelaukion (caesar cap) of Heraclonas was removed from his head and replaced with the imperial crown. The same kamelaukion was then placed on David's head and the ceremony proceeded as follows in a translation by Byzantine scholar Walter Kaegi:[13][15]

There was prayer for the despotes David as the kamelaukion was placed on his head as he ascended to the rank of Caesar. That having been done, the most glorious Patricians were summoned according to custom, and they entered the Augusteum and received the great emperor and his sons, the Caesar being present. All ex-consuls and those with ranks as high as illustres departed and stood on the steps of the forecourt. The gates of the armory were opened and all of the standards (signa) and scholae and demes [factions] entered. The Patriarch exited with them [the emperor and his sons]. And with everyone acclaiming them, the emperor and his sons departed for the Great Church.[13][15]

Kaegi notes that this solemn celebration papered over tensions between branches of the imperial family and also served as an occasion for "pageantry at Constantinople in an otherwise doleful era".[16] The Byzantine scholar Andreas Stratos emphasizes that the measures were intended to ensure a regular line of succession for the family of Heraclius.[17] The high number of titled princes under Heraclius had not been seen since the days of Constantine the Great.[18]

At a later ceremony focused on Heraclius's daughters as well as his sons, David was hailed by name along with other members of the imperial family, David Caesar, tu vincas, literally "David Caesar, may you be victorious". The Latin phrase tu vincas in the Greek text is an echo of Roman heritage and earlier times.[19] Kaegi comments that "Heraclius and his family made a point of showing themselves to their subjects in ways that matched public expectations even as illness and age was taking its toll on Heraclius himself."[19]

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Heraclius

Heraclius

Heraclius, was Eastern Roman emperor from 610 to 641. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.

Martina (empress)

Martina (empress)

Martina was an empress of the Byzantine Empire, the second wife of her uncle the emperor Heraclius, and regent in 641 with her son. She was a daughter of Maria, Heraclius' sister, and a certain Martinus. Maria and Heraclius were children of Heraclius the Elder and his wife Epiphania according to the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor.

Avunculate marriage

Avunculate marriage

An avunculate marriage is a marriage with a parent's sibling or with one's sibling's child—i.e., between an uncle or aunt and their niece or nephew. Such a marriage may occur between biological (consanguine) relatives or between persons related by marriage (affinity). In some countries, avunculate marriages are prohibited by law, while in others marriages between such biological relatives are both legal and common, though now far less common.

Theophanes the Confessor

Theophanes the Confessor

Theophanes the Confessor was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy who became a monk and chronicler. He served in the court of Emperor Leo IV the Khazar before taking up the religious life. Theophanes attended the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 and resisted the iconoclasm of Leo V the Armenian, for which he was imprisoned. He died shortly after his release.

Constans II

Constans II

Constans II, nicknamed "the Bearded", was the Eastern Roman emperor from 641 to 668. Constans was the last attested emperor to serve as consul, in 642, although the office continued to exist until the reign of Leo VI the Wise. His religious policy saw him steering a middle line in disputes between the Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibited discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ under the Type of Constans in 648. His reign coincided with Muslim invasions under Mu'awiya I in the late 640s to 650s. Constans was the first Roman emperor to visit Rome since the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, and the last emperor to visit Rome while it was still held by the Empire.

David

David

David was, according to the Hebrew Bible, the third king of the United Kingdom of Israel. In the Books of Samuel, he is described as a young shepherd and harpist who gains fame by slaying Goliath, a champion of the Philistines, in southern Canaan. David becomes a favourite of Saul, the first king of Israel; he also forges a notably close friendship with Jonathan, a son of Saul. However, under the paranoia that David is seeking to usurp the throne, Saul attempts to kill David, forcing the latter to go into hiding and effectively operate as a fugitive for several years. After Saul and Jonathan are both killed in battle against the Philistines, a 30-year-old David is anointed king over all of Israel and Judah. Following his rise to power, David conquers the city of Jerusalem and establishes it as Israel's capital, subsequently taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city to be the central point of worship in the Israelite religion.

Cecily Hennessy

Cecily Hennessy

Cecily Jane Hennessy, FSA, is the Academic Director of Christie's Education, London. She has promoted studies on the imagery of children and is an authority on the representation of children, adolescents and the family in Byzantium.

David Plates

David Plates

The David Plates are a set of nine silver plates, in three sizes, stamped between 613 and 630. The plates were created in Constantinople, each depicting a scene from the life of the Hebrew king David, and associated with the reign of Emperor Heraclius (610-641). Following their discovery in Karavas in 1902, the David Plates have been considered key additions to early Byzantine secular art. It is also noted that the David Plates were found amongst the Second Cyprus Treasure. Casual laborers from the village of Karavas found the David Plates as they were quarrying the ruins for construction stones. The finders, however, failed to report what they had discovered to the Cypriot authorities. When authorities learned of their taking they confiscated three of the David Plates alongside a pair of cross-monogram plates, and other jewelry held today in the Museum of Antiquities in Nicosia. The rest of the discovery was smuggled from Cyprus and traded to a dealer located in Paris. Most of this hoard was bought by J. Pierpont Morgan and was later given to the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City by his heirs in 1917, where they currently remain.

Fabia Eudokia

Fabia Eudokia

Eudokia or Eudocia, originally named Fabia, was a Greek woman who became Byzantine empress as the first wife of Heraclius from 610 to her death. She was a daughter of Rogas, a landowner in the Exarchate of Africa, according to Theophanes the Confessor.

Eudoxia Epiphania

Eudoxia Epiphania

Eudoxia Epiphania was the only daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius and his first wife Eudokia. She was born at Constantinople on July 7, 611 CE, baptized on August 15, and crowned October 4 of the same year.

Heraclonas

Heraclonas

Heraclius, known by the diminutive Heraclonas or Heracleonas, and sometimes called Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina. His father had stipulated in his will that both of his sons, Heraclonas and Constantine III, should rule jointly upon his death. Heraclius also specified that his wife, Martina, was to be called "Mother and Empress" insofar as she might have influence at court as well. The emperor Heraclius died in February 641 from edema. When Martina made the late Emperor's will public she faced staunch resistance to her playing any active role in government, but both Heraclonas and Constantine were proclaimed joint-emperors in February 641 without incident. After Constantine died of tuberculosis in May 641, Heraclonas became sole emperor, under the regency of his mother due to his young age. He reigned until October or November 641, when he was overthrown by Valentinus, a general and usurper of Armenian extract, who installed Constans II, the son of Constantine III. Valentinus had Heraclonas' nose cut off, then exiled him to Rhodes, where he is believed to have died in the following year.

Palace of Daphne

Palace of Daphne

The Palace of Daphne was one of the major wings of the Great Palace of Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire. According to George Codinus, it was named after a statue of the nymph Daphne, brought from Rome. The exact layout and appearance of the palace is unclear, since it lies under the Sultan Ahmed Mosque, and the only surviving evidence comes from literary sources. Jonathan Bardill, however, has suggested that the peristyle with mosaics adjoining an apsed hall, excavated by the Walker Trust excavations in 1935-7 and 1952-4, could be the Augusteus of the Daphne Palace.

Succession struggle

Heraclius died on 11 February 641. His will declared that Constantine III and Heraclonas would co-rule the empire with both of them regarding Martina as "mother and empress".[20] Popular opinion in Byzantium was strongly against Martina because of her incestuous relationship with Heraclius, her unconventional habits, such as the fact she often traveled with the army, and her ambition; the populace and elites of the Byzantine Empire believed she was putting pressure on Heraclius in an attempt to have her own sons secure the succession, rather than Constantine.[21]

Historian Lynda Garland has described Martina as "probably the most detested empress of all time".[22] The Byzantine Senate accepted Constantine III and Heraclonas as co-emperors, but rejected any role for Martina in the government.[23][24][25] Emperor Constantine III was chronically ill and took measures to ensure that he would be succeeded by his own offspring rather than those of Martina. He sent a vast sum of money to general Valentinus, asking him to oppose Martina and her children and ensure the succession for his own sons.[26] Constantine died after a short reign, in April or May 641. His cause of death was likely tuberculosis, but the accusation that Martina poisoned him was later officially propagated, by Constans II.[22][27][28] At this point, an eleven-year-old Heraclonas was left as the sole emperor with his mother as regent and de facto ruler.[26][27][28]

Martina took measures to mitigate the hostility of the army, but her regime remained deeply unpopular.[29] In the autumn of 641 Valentinus led his troops to Chalcedon in opposition to Martina and Heraclonas. A mob rose up in Constantinople, demanding that Constans II be crowned as emperor. Heraclonas agreed and crowned his nephew.[30][31][32] The coronation of Constans II did not calm the riots in Constantinople which next led to Patriarch Pyrrhus resigning his office.[33] According to John of Nikiû, David and his younger brother Martinus were involved in banishing Pyrrhus to the Exarchate of Africa. However, the two princes were too young at the time to have taken an active role in any banishment, and the account by John of Nikiû is so contradictory that no safe conclusions can be drawn from it.[34]

Martina was in a difficult situation and resorted to negotiations with Valentinus, whose army was still in Chalcedon.[33] She offered the military donatives (monetary gifts given to the army to secure their loyalty), and offered Valentinus the title of Count of the Excubitors.[28][31][33] As part of a compromise, David was raised to co-emperor with the regnal name Tiberius, ruling with his brother Heraclonas and their nephew Constans II. All three emperors were children, and the Empress Dowager Martina acted as regent.[33][35]

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Lynda Garland

Lynda Garland

Lynda Garland is a scholar and professor at the University of Queensland. Her research focuses on females images in the Late Antiquity period and Byzantine Society.

Valentinus (usurper)

Valentinus (usurper)

Valentinus was a Byzantine general and usurper.

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections show no symptoms, in which case it is known as latent tuberculosis. Around 10% of latent infections progress to active disease which, if left untreated, kill about half of those affected. Typical symptoms of active TB are chronic cough with blood-containing mucus, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. It was historically referred to as consumption due to the weight loss associated with the disease. Infection of other organs can cause a wide range of symptoms.

Chalcedon

Chalcedon

Chalcedon was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari and it is now a district of the city of Istanbul named Kadıköy. The name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotus's Histories, Xenophon's Hellenica, Arrian's Anabasis, and other works. Except for the Maiden's Tower, almost no above-ground vestiges of the ancient city survive in Kadıköy today; artifacts uncovered at Altıyol and other excavation sites are on display at the Istanbul Archaeological Museum.

Heraclonas

Heraclonas

Heraclius, known by the diminutive Heraclonas or Heracleonas, and sometimes called Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina. His father had stipulated in his will that both of his sons, Heraclonas and Constantine III, should rule jointly upon his death. Heraclius also specified that his wife, Martina, was to be called "Mother and Empress" insofar as she might have influence at court as well. The emperor Heraclius died in February 641 from edema. When Martina made the late Emperor's will public she faced staunch resistance to her playing any active role in government, but both Heraclonas and Constantine were proclaimed joint-emperors in February 641 without incident. After Constantine died of tuberculosis in May 641, Heraclonas became sole emperor, under the regency of his mother due to his young age. He reigned until October or November 641, when he was overthrown by Valentinus, a general and usurper of Armenian extract, who installed Constans II, the son of Constantine III. Valentinus had Heraclonas' nose cut off, then exiled him to Rhodes, where he is believed to have died in the following year.

Pyrrhus of Constantinople

Pyrrhus of Constantinople

Pyrrhus was the ecumenical patriarch of Constantinople from 20 December 638 to 29 September 641, and again from 9 January to 1 June 654.

John of Nikiû

John of Nikiû

John of Nikiû was an Egyptian Coptic bishop of Nikiû (Pashati) in the Nile Delta and general administrator of the monasteries of Upper Egypt in 696. He is the author of a Chronicle extending from Adam to the end of the Muslim conquest of Egypt. John of Nikiû's Chronicle contains important historical details otherwise unknown.

Martinus (son of Heraclius)

Martinus (son of Heraclius)

Martinus or Marinus was caesar of the Byzantine Empire from c. 638–September/October 641. Martinus was the son of Emperor Heraclius and Empress Martina. Under Heraclius, Martinus was elevated to caesar in c. 638. Heraclius left the Byzantine Empire to two of Martinus' brothers, Constantine III and Heraklonas; Constantine soon died of tuberculosis, though some of his partisans alleged that he was poisoned by Martina. One such partisan, Valentinus, led troops to Chalcedon to force Martina to make Constans II, the son of Constantine, co-emperor. Valentinus seized Constantinople regardless in September/October 641, and deposed Martina, Heraklonas, and Martinus, and cut off Martinus' nose and emasculated him, before exiling him to Rhodes.

Exarchate of Africa

Exarchate of Africa

The Exarchate of Africa was a division of the Byzantine Empire centered around Carthage, Tunisia, that encompassed its possessions on the Western Mediterranean. Ruled by an exarch (viceroy), it was established by the Emperor Maurice in the late 580s and survived until the Muslim conquest of the Maghreb in the late 7th century. It was, along with the Exarchate of Ravenna, one of two exarchates established following the western reconquests under Emperor Justinian I to administer the territories more effectively.

Tiberius as co-emperor

The coronation of David took place in late September or early October of 641, the new emperor being a ten-year-old boy.[24][33][36] David assumed the name Tiberius upon his coronation.[34][36] The adoption of one of the traditional regnal names was common among seventh- and eighth-century Byzantine emperors: other examples include Apsimarus/Tiberius III (698), Bardanes/Philippicus (711), Artemius/Anastasius (713), Basilius/Tiberius (718), and Petasius/Tiberius (728).[37]

The most important primary source for the period preceding the reign of Tiberius is Nicephorus, but that account breaks off as Tiberius is crowned, leaving his short reign attested only by sparse and contradictory sources.[38] One dubious source is the Synodicon Vetus, where Tiberius is attested as the recipient of a papal letter:[39]

In addition, the thrice-blessed Pope John of Rome – for he had succeeded the monothelete Honorius – assembled a divine and sacred synod and, anathematizing Sergius, Cyrus, and Pyrrhus, proclaimed two natures and energies in our Master and God Jesus Christ, and afterward he sent a decree of orthodoxy to David and Heraclius, the sons of Heraclius.[39]

The "epsilon" coin, which Hahn suggests was minted under Heraclonas, Tiberius and Constans II
The "epsilon" coin, which Hahn suggests was minted under Heraclonas, Tiberius and Constans II

The editors of the 1979 edition of the Synodicon Vetus, John M. Duffy and John Parker, note that the account becomes confused in this area, and the letter was more likely sent to Constantine III and Heraclonas.[39] Christological controversy was rife at this time, and Martina enthusiastically supported Monothelitism.[29]

Numismatists in the nineteenth century suggested that Tiberius was portrayed on certain copper coins, but these identifications were later shown to be mistaken.[38][40][41] Some coins were presumably minted during his reign; Byzantine numismatist Wolfgang R. O. Hahn points out that mints sometimes resort to type immobilisé, continuing to use old motifs even after the emperor depicted has already died or lost power. Since there were multiple emperors in 641, the mints may have resorted to reusing a depiction of three co-emperors originally intended to signify Heraclius, Constantine III and Heraclonas. Hahn points to a coin with this depiction which bears an epsilon on its back, as well as the Heraclius monogram. One possibility is that the epsilon represents "ἕτερος", "the second", referring to "Heraclius II", meaning Heraclonas, whose name is a diminutive of his birth name Heraclius, and that this three-emperor coin has been made to represent Heraclonas and his co-emperors, Constans II and Tiberius. Alternatively, and with the same result, epsilon (the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet) could signify the fifth year of a lustrum cycle, which here would apply to the 15th indiction beginning on 1 September 641.[42]

Some fragmentary Egyptian papyrus documents from 641 contain dating clauses that scholars have taken to refer to David, giving the number of years since he was raised to caesar.[43][44] The Muslim conquest of Egypt was ongoing at this time, which would end with the negotiated surrender of Egypt to the Rashidun Caliphate.[29][45] Martina and her sons took a relatively moderate stance toward the Muslims, likely out of fear that any intensification of the fighting would further jeopardize the regime.[46][47]

Map of the Byzantine Empire (orange, possessing Anatolia, North Africa, and much of Italy) in 650, showing the Rashidun Caliphate (green, possessing Egypt, the Levant, and much of the Middle East), after the loss of Egypt and other territories to Muslim conquest
Map of the Byzantine Empire (orange, possessing Anatolia, North Africa, and much of Italy) in 650, showing the Rashidun Caliphate (green, possessing Egypt, the Levant, and much of the Middle East), after the loss of Egypt and other territories to Muslim conquest

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Philippicus

Philippicus

Philippicus was Byzantine emperor from 711 to 713. He took power in a coup against the unpopular emperor Justinian II, and was deposed in a similarly violent manner nineteen months later. During his brief reign, Philippicus supported monothelitism in Byzantine theological disputes, and saw conflict with the First Bulgarian Empire and the Umayyad Caliphate.

Basil Onomagoulos

Basil Onomagoulos

Basil Onomagoulos was a Byzantine official who was declared rival emperor in Sicily in 717, taking the regnal name Tiberius.

Nikephoros I of Constantinople

Nikephoros I of Constantinople

Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I was a Byzantine writer and patriarch of Constantinople from 12 April 806 to 13 March 815.

Pope

Pope

The pope, also known as supreme pontiff, Roman pontiff or sovereign pontiff, is the bishop of Rome, head of the worldwide Catholic Church, and has also served as the head of state or sovereign of the Papal States and later the Vatican City State since the eighth century. From a Catholic viewpoint, the primacy of the bishop of Rome is largely derived from his role as the apostolic successor to Saint Peter, to whom primacy was conferred by Jesus, who gave Peter the Keys of Heaven and the powers of "binding and loosing", naming him as the "rock" upon which the Church would be built. The current pope is Francis, who was elected on 13 March 2013.

Pope Honorius I

Pope Honorius I

Pope Honorius I was the bishop of Rome from 27 October 625 to his death. He was active in spreading Christianity among Anglo-Saxons and attempted to convince the Celts to calculate Easter in the Roman fashion. He is chiefly remembered for his correspondence with Patriarch Sergius I of Constantinople over the latter's monothelite teachings. Honorius was posthumously anathematized, initially for subscribing to monothelitism, and later only for failing to end it. The anathema against Honorius I became one of the central arguments against the doctrine of papal infallibility.

Cyrus of Alexandria

Cyrus of Alexandria

Cyrus of Alexandria was a Melchite patriarch of the see of Alexandria in the 7th century, one of the originators of monothelitism and the last Byzantine prefect of Egypt. He died in Alexandria on March 21, 642.

Heraclonas

Heraclonas

Heraclius, known by the diminutive Heraclonas or Heracleonas, and sometimes called Heraclius II, was the son of Heraclius and his niece Martina. His father had stipulated in his will that both of his sons, Heraclonas and Constantine III, should rule jointly upon his death. Heraclius also specified that his wife, Martina, was to be called "Mother and Empress" insofar as she might have influence at court as well. The emperor Heraclius died in February 641 from edema. When Martina made the late Emperor's will public she faced staunch resistance to her playing any active role in government, but both Heraclonas and Constantine were proclaimed joint-emperors in February 641 without incident. After Constantine died of tuberculosis in May 641, Heraclonas became sole emperor, under the regency of his mother due to his young age. He reigned until October or November 641, when he was overthrown by Valentinus, a general and usurper of Armenian extract, who installed Constans II, the son of Constantine III. Valentinus had Heraclonas' nose cut off, then exiled him to Rhodes, where he is believed to have died in the following year.

Constans II

Constans II

Constans II, nicknamed "the Bearded", was the Eastern Roman emperor from 641 to 668. Constans was the last attested emperor to serve as consul, in 642, although the office continued to exist until the reign of Leo VI the Wise. His religious policy saw him steering a middle line in disputes between the Orthodoxy and Monothelitism by refusing to persecute either and prohibited discussion of the natures of Jesus Christ under the Type of Constans in 648. His reign coincided with Muslim invasions under Mu'awiya I in the late 640s to 650s. Constans was the first Roman emperor to visit Rome since the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, and the last emperor to visit Rome while it was still held by the Empire.

Christology

Christology

In Christianity, Christology, translated literally from Greek as "the study of Christ", is a branch of theology that concerns Jesus. Different denominations have different opinions on questions like whether Jesus was human, divine, or both, and as a messiah what his role would be in the freeing of the Jewish people from foreign rulers or in the prophesied Kingdom of God, and in the salvation from what would otherwise be the consequences of sin.

Monothelitism

Monothelitism

Monothelitism, or monotheletism, is a theological doctrine in Christianity, that holds Christ as having only one will. The doctrine is thus contrary to dyothelitism, a Christological doctrine that holds Christ as having two wills. Historically, monothelitism was closely related to monoenergism, a theological doctrine that holds Jesus Christ as having only one energy. Both doctrines were at the center of Christological disputes during the 7th century.

Numismatist

Numismatist

A numismatist is a specialist in numismatics. Numismatists include collectors, specialist dealers, and scholars who use coins and other currency in object-based research. Although use of the term numismatics was first recorded in English in 1799, people had been collecting and studying coins long before this, all over the world.

Epsilon

Epsilon

Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel IPA: [e̞] or IPA: [ɛ̝]. In the system of Greek numerals it also has the value five. It was derived from the Phoenician letter He . Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, and Cyrillic Е, È, Ё, Є and Э.

Downfall

Though it is known that the rule of Martina and her sons was brief, both the timing and circumstances of their downfall are related in confusing and contradictory ways by the primary sources. According to Sebeos they were deposed by Valentinus when he marched on Constantinople to put Constans II on the throne.[28][31][48] Theophanes states they were ousted by the Senate, and there is some evidence to suggest that the Senate acted following riots instigated by the aristocratic Blue faction.[49][50] A seventh-century inscription found in the walls of Byzantium references the role that the Blues had within this insurrection, saying "The fortune of Constantine our God-protected ruler and of the Blues is victorious."[51] John of Nikiû has the most detailed account of the downfall, but his story is regarded as improbable and unreliable. John relates that Martina and her sons had formed an alliance with the Bulgar ruler Kubrat and a military leader named David with the intention to deny the throne to the descendants of Constantine III. Following this, a military leader named Theodore led a rebellion and first defeated David, Martina's ally, and then marched against Constantinople where he overthrew Martina's regime.[52]

The sources all report that some manner of the Byzantine practice of mutilating defeated enemies to prevent them from reclaiming the throne was undertaken at the defeat of Martina and her sons,[34][53][54] possibly the first time such occurred,[55] although they disagree on the exact nature of these mutilations. Theophanes says that the tongue of Martina and the nose of Heraclonas were cut off. John of Nikiû reports that Theodore "had Martina and her three sons, Heraclius, David, and Martinus, escorted forth with insolence, and he stripped them of the imperial crown, and he had their noses cut off, and he sent them in exile to Rhodes."[34][53][54] George Ostrogorsky and John Haldon date the deposition of Martina's sons to the end of September 641;[56][57] Warren Treadgold to c. 5 November 641,[58] while Stratos argued for January 642, accepting Theophanes' account that Heraclius died in March.[59] There is no further historical record of Tiberius. Stratos speculates that Martina and her family simply lived out the rest of their lives peacefully on Rhodes.[60]

Discover more about Downfall related topics

Sebeos

Sebeos

Sebeos was a 7th-century Armenian bishop and historian.

Bulgarians

Bulgarians

Bulgarians are a nation and South Slavic ethnic group native to Bulgaria and Southeast Europe.

Kubrat

Kubrat

Kubrat was the ruler of the Onogur–Bulgars, credited with establishing the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria in ca. 632. His name derived from the Turkic words qobrat — "to gather", or qurt, i.e. "wolf".

Political mutilation in Byzantine culture

Political mutilation in Byzantine culture

Mutilation was a common method of punishment for criminals in the Byzantine Empire, but it also had a role in the empire's political life. By blinding a rival, one would not only restrict his mobility but also make it almost impossible for him to lead an army into battle, then an important part of taking control of the empire. Castration was also used to eliminate potential opponents. In the Byzantine Empire, for a man to be castrated meant that he was no longer a man—half-dead, "life that was half death". Castration also eliminated any chance of heirs being born to threaten either the emperor’s or the emperor's children's place at the throne. Other mutilations were the severing of the nose (rhinotomy), or the amputating of limbs.

Glossectomy

Glossectomy

A glossectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the tongue. It is performed in order to curtail malignant growth such as oral cancer. Often only a portion of the tongue needs to be removed, in which case the procedure is called a partial removal, or hemiglossectomy. A midline glossectomy is a surgical reduction of the size of the base of the tongue, sometimes used to treat sleep apnea.

Rhinectomy

Rhinectomy

A rhinectomy is the surgical removal of a nose. If only part of the nose is removed it is called a partial rhinectomy, while entire nose removal is called a total rhinectomy. Often, a nose prosthesis is required for rehabilitation.

George Ostrogorsky

George Ostrogorsky

Georgiy Aleksandrovich Ostrogorskiy, known in Serbian as Georgije Aleksandrovič Ostrogorski and English as George Alexandrovich Ostrogorsky, was a Russian-born Yugoslavian historian and Byzantinist who was widely known for his achievements in Byzantine studies. He was a professor at the University of Belgrade.

John Haldon

John Haldon

John F. Haldon FBA is a British historian, and Shelby Cullom Davis '30 Professor of European History emeritus, professor of Byzantine history and Hellenic Studies emeritus, as well as former director of the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Iran and Persian Gulf Studies at Princeton University.

Warren Treadgold

Warren Treadgold

Warren T. Treadgold is an American historian and specialist in Byzantine studies. He is the National Endowment for the Humanities Professor of Byzantine Studies at Saint Louis University. His interest in the political, economic, military, social, and cultural history of the Byzantine Empire extends to the Byzantine historians themselves. Treadgold has also taught at UCLA, Stanford, Hillsdale, Berkeley, and Florida International University.

Theophanes the Confessor

Theophanes the Confessor

Theophanes the Confessor was a member of the Byzantine aristocracy who became a monk and chronicler. He served in the court of Emperor Leo IV the Khazar before taking up the religious life. Theophanes attended the Second Council of Nicaea in 787 and resisted the iconoclasm of Leo V the Armenian, for which he was imprisoned. He died shortly after his release.

Heraclius

Heraclius

Heraclius, was Eastern Roman emperor from 610 to 641. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.

Source: "David (son of Heraclius)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_(son_of_Heraclius).

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Notes
  1. ^ The number and order of Heraclius's children by Martina is unsure, some sources saying nine children[9] and others ten.[10]
  2. ^ John Haldon gives the date as 7 July 638,[11] but Constantine VII's De Ceremoniis clearly records 4 July.[12]
References

Primary sources

Citations

  1. ^ Mango & Scott 1997, p. 465.
  2. ^ Stratos 1968, p. 264.
  3. ^ Alexander 1977, pp. 233–234.
  4. ^ Zahnd 2008, pp. 80–83.
  5. ^ Drijvers 2002, p. 185.
  6. ^ Hennessy 2001, p. 131.
  7. ^ Bellinger & Grierson 1992, p. 385.
  8. ^ Moore 1997.
  9. ^ Alexander 1977, p. 230.
  10. ^ Spatharakis 1976, p. 19.
  11. ^ Haldon 1990, p. 51.
  12. ^ De Ceremoniis II 27
  13. ^ a b c Kaegi 2003, pp. 265–266.
  14. ^ Stratos 1972, p. 140.
  15. ^ a b Reiskius 1829, pp. 627–628.
  16. ^ Kaegi 2003, p. 266.
  17. ^ Stratos 1972, p. 141.
  18. ^ Humphreys 2019, p. 33.
  19. ^ a b Kaegi 2003, p. 268.
  20. ^ Garland 2002, pp. 64–65.
  21. ^ Garland 2002, p. 63.
  22. ^ a b Garland 2000.
  23. ^ Treadgold 1997, pp. 306–307.
  24. ^ a b PmbZ, Heraklonas (#2565/corr.).
  25. ^ Garland 2002, p. 65.
  26. ^ a b Garland 2002, p. 66.
  27. ^ a b Treadgold 1997, pp. 308–309.
  28. ^ a b c d Bellinger & Grierson 1992, p. 390.
  29. ^ a b c Garland 2002, p. 67.
  30. ^ Garland 2002, pp. 67–68.
  31. ^ a b c Treadgold 1997, p. 309.
  32. ^ Stratos 1972, pp. 88 & 179.
  33. ^ a b c d e Garland 2002, p. 68.
  34. ^ a b c d PmbZ, David (#1241 /corr.).
  35. ^ Stratos 1975, pp. 189–190.
  36. ^ a b Stratos 1972, p. 199.
  37. ^ Hahn 1981, p. 179.
  38. ^ a b Stratos 1972, p. 200.
  39. ^ a b c Duffy & Parker 1979, p. 114.
  40. ^ Sabatier 1862, p. 290.
  41. ^ Wroth 1908, p. 243.
  42. ^ Hahn 1981, pp. 87–88.
  43. ^ Zuckerman 2010.
  44. ^ Gonis 2008.
  45. ^ Kaegi 1998, p. 61.
  46. ^ Kaegi 1998, p. 47.
  47. ^ Haldon 2016, p. 32.
  48. ^ Stratos 1972, p. 201.
  49. ^ Stratos 1972, pp. 200–203.
  50. ^ Garland 2002, pp. 69–70.
  51. ^ Stratos 1972, p. 203.
  52. ^ Stratos 1972, pp. 200–201.
  53. ^ a b Charles 1916, p. 197.
  54. ^ a b Garland 2002, p. 70.
  55. ^ Moore 1996.
  56. ^ Haldon 1990, p. 52.
  57. ^ Ostrogorsky 1963, p. 95.
  58. ^ Treadgold 1990, pp. 431–433.
  59. ^ Stratos 1972, pp. 201–203.
  60. ^ Stratos 1972, p. 205.

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