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Dairy product

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All dairy products derive from milk
All dairy products derive from milk
Dairy products made from water buffalo milk, Philippines
Dairy products made from water buffalo milk, Philippines

Dairy products or milk products, also known as lacticinia, are food products made from (or containing) milk.[a][1] The most common dairy animals are cow, water buffalo, nanny goat, and ewe. Dairy products include common grocery store food items in the Western world such as yogurt, cheese and butter.[2][3] A facility that produces dairy products is known as a dairy.[b][4] Dairy products are consumed worldwide to varying degrees (see consumption patterns worldwide).[5] Some people avoid some or all dairy products either because of lactose intolerance, veganism, or other health reasons or beliefs.

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Milk

Milk

Milk is a white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest solid food. Immune factors and immune-modulating components in milk contribute to milk immunity. Early-lactation milk, which is called colostrum, contains antibodies that strengthen the immune system, and thus reduces the risk of many diseases. Milk contains many nutrients, including protein and lactose.

Water buffalo

Water buffalo

The water buffalo, also called the domestic water buffalo or Asian water buffalo, is a large bovid originating in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Today, it is also found in Europe, Australia, North America, South America and some African countries. Two extant types of water buffalo are recognized, based on morphological and behavioural criteria: the river buffalo of the Indian subcontinent and further west to the Balkans, Egypt and Italy and the swamp buffalo, found from Assam in the west through Southeast Asia to the Yangtze valley of China in the east.

Sheep

Sheep

Sheep or domestic sheep are domesticated, ruminant mammals typically kept as livestock. Although the term sheep can apply to other species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it almost always refers to domesticated sheep. Like all ruminants, sheep are members of the order Artiodactyla, the even-toed ungulates. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are also the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram, occasionally a tup, a castrated male as a wether, and a young sheep as a lamb.

Western world

Western world

The Western world, also known as the West, primarily refers to various nations and states in the regions of Australasia, Europe, and Northern America. The Western world is also called the Occident, in contrast to the Eastern world known as the Orient. Definitions for "Western world" vary according to context and perspectives. In the Global North–South categorization, the West is often correlated with Global North.

Yogurt

Yogurt

Yogurt is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures. Fermentation of sugars in the milk by these bacteria produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor. Cow's milk is the milk most commonly used to make yogurt. Milk from water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks are also used to produce yogurt. The milk used may be homogenized or not. It may be pasteurized or raw. Each type of milk produces substantially different results.

Cheese

Cheese

Cheese is a dairy product produced in wide ranges of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk. During production, milk is usually acidified and either the enzymes of rennet or bacterial enzymes with similar activity are added to cause the casein to coagulate. The solid curds are then separated from the liquid whey and pressed into finished cheese. Some cheeses have aromatic molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout.

Butter

Butter

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is a semi-solid emulsion at room temperature, consisting of approximately 80% butterfat. It is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, and used as a fat in baking, sauce-making, pan frying, and other cooking procedures.

Dairy

Dairy

A dairy is a place where milk is stored and where butter, cheese and other dairy products are made, or a place where those products are sold. It may be a room, a building or a larger establishment. In the United States, the word may also describe a dairy farm or the part of a mixed farm dedicated to milk for human consumption, whether from cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, horses or camels.

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by a decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea. These symptoms typically start thirty minutes to two hours after eating or drinking milk-based food. Their severity typically depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

Veganism

Veganism

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal product—particularly in diet—and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans, also known as "strict vegetarians", refrain from consuming meat, eggs, dairy products, and any other animal-derived substances. An ethical vegan is someone who not only follows a plant-based diet but extends the philosophy into other areas of their lives, opposes the use of animals for any purpose, and tries to avoid any cruelty and exploitation of all animals including humans. Another term is "environmental veganism", which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.

Production relationship graph

Milk products and production relationships

Types of dairy product

Milk

Condensed milk
Condensed milk

Milk is produced after optional homogenization or pasteurization, in several grades after standardization of the fat level, and possible addition of the bacteria Streptococcus lactis and Leuconostoc citrovorum. Milk can be broken down into several different categories based on type of product produced, including cream, butter, cheese, infant formula, and yogurt.

Milk varies in fat content. Skim milk is milk with zero fat, while whole milk products contain fat.

Milk is an ingredient in many confectioneries. Milk can be added to chocolate to produce milk chocolate.

Cream

Whipped cream
Whipped cream
Cream and fermented cream

Butter

Butter, mostly milk fat, produced by churning cream

  • Ghee also called, clarified butter, by gentle heating of butter and removal of the solid matter

Fermented

Kefir is a fermented probiotic dairy drink
Kefir is a fermented probiotic dairy drink

Fermented milk products include:

Yogurt

Yogurt, milk fermented by thermophilic bacteria, mainly Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus sometimes with additional bacteria, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus

Cheese

Cheese, produced by coagulating milk, separating curds from whey, and letting it ripen, generally with bacteria, and sometimes also with certain molds.

Custard

Frozen

Ice cream
Ice cream

Casein

  • Casein, milk proteins
  • Caseinates, sodium or calcium salts of casein
  • Milk protein concentrates and isolates
  • Whey protein concentrates and isolates, reduced lactose whey
  • Hydrolysates, milk treated with proteolytic enzymes to alter functionality
  • Mineral concentrates, byproduct of demineralizing whey

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List of dairy products

List of dairy products

This is a list of dairy products. A dairy product is food produced from the milk of mammals. A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory. Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats, sheep and camels, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.

Milk

Milk

Milk is a white liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the primary source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest solid food. Immune factors and immune-modulating components in milk contribute to milk immunity. Early-lactation milk, which is called colostrum, contains antibodies that strengthen the immune system, and thus reduces the risk of many diseases. Milk contains many nutrients, including protein and lactose.

Homogenization (chemistry)

Homogenization (chemistry)

Homogenization or homogenisation is any of several processes used to make a mixture of two mutually non-soluble liquids the same throughout. This is achieved by turning one of the liquids into a state consisting of extremely small particles distributed uniformly throughout the other liquid. A typical example is the homogenization of milk, wherein the milk fat globules are reduced in size and dispersed uniformly through the rest of the milk.

Condensed milk

Condensed milk

Condensed milk is cow's milk from which water has been removed. It is most often found with sugar added, in the form of sweetened condensed milk (SCM), to the extent that the terms "condensed milk" and "sweetened condensed milk" are often used interchangeably today. Sweetened condensed milk is a very thick, sweet product, which when canned can last for years without refrigeration if not opened. The product is used in numerous dessert dishes in many countries.

Evaporated milk

Evaporated milk

Evaporated milk, known in some countries as "unsweetened condensed milk", is a shelf-stable canned cow’s milk product where about 60% of the water has been removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar. Sweetened condensed milk requires less processing to preserve since the added sugar inhibits bacterial growth. The production process involves the evaporation of 60% of the water from the milk, followed by homogenization, canning, and heat-sterilization.

Added sugar

Added sugar

Added sugars or free sugars are sugar carbohydrates added to food and beverages at some point before their consumption. These include added carbohydrates, and more broadly, sugars naturally present in honey, syrup, and fruits. They can take multiple chemical forms, including sucrose, glucose (dextrose), and fructose.

Baked milk

Baked milk

Baked milk is a variety of boiled milk that has been particularly popular in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. It is made by simmering milk on low heat for eight hours or longer.

Caramelization

Caramelization

Caramelization is a process of browning of sugar used extensively in cooking for the resulting sweet nutty flavor and brown color. The brown colors are produced by three groups of polymers: caramelans (C24H36O18), caramelens (C36H50O25), and caramelins (C125H188O80). As the process occurs, volatile chemicals such as diacetyl are released, producing the characteristic caramel flavor.

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is a subregion of the European continent. As a largely ambiguous term, it has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, ethnic, cultural, and socio-economic connotations. The vast majority of the region is covered by Russia, which spans roughly 40% of the continent's landmass while accounting for approximately 15% of its total population.

Dulce de leche

Dulce de leche

Dulce de leche, also known as caramelized milk, milk candy or milk jam in English, is a confection from Latin America prepared by slowly heating sugar and milk over a period of several hours. The resulting substance, which takes on a spreadable, sauce-like consistency, derives its rich flavour and colour from non-enzymatic browning. It is typically used to top or fill other sweet foods.

Malai

Malai

Malai is a type of clotted cream, originating from the Indian subcontinent, used in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent, especially, in regards to sweets from the Indian subcontinent. It is made by heating non-homogenized whole milk to about 80 °C (180 °F) for about one hour and then cooling it. A thick yellowish layer of fat and coagulated proteins forms on the surface, which is skimmed off. The process is usually repeated to remove most of the fat.

Khoa

Khoa

Khoa, khoya, khowa or mawa is a dairy food widely used in the cuisines of the Indian subcontinent, encompassing India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is made of either dried whole milk or milk thickened by heating in an open iron pan. It is lower in moisture than typical fresh cheeses such as ricotta. It is made up of whole milk instead of whey.

Consumption patterns worldwide

Rates of dairy consumption vary widely worldwide. High-consumption countries consume more than 150 kilograms (330 lb) per capita per year. These countries are: Argentina, Armenia, Australia, Costa Rica, most European countries, Israel, Kyrgyzstan, North America and Pakistan. Medium-consumption countries consume 30 kilograms (66 lb) to 150 kg per capita per year. These countries are: India, Iran, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, Mongolia, New Zealand, North and Southern Africa, most of the Middle East, and most of Latin America and the Caribbean. Low-consumption countries consume under 30 kg per capita per year. These countries are: Senegal, most of Central Africa, and most of East and Southeast Asia.[5][6]

Lactose levels

For those with some degree of lactose intolerance, considering the amount of lactose in dairy products can be important to health.

Dairy product Amount of lactose
Milk Highest
Butter Minimal (made from milk fat)
Hard cheese Very low
Soft cheese More than hard cheese

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Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by a decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea. These symptoms typically start thirty minutes to two hours after eating or drinking milk-based food. Their severity typically depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

Lactose

Lactose

Lactose is a disaccharide sugar synthesized by galactose and glucose subunits and has the molecular formula C12H22O11. Lactose makes up around 2–8% of milk (by mass). The name comes from lac (gen. lactis), the Latin word for milk, plus the suffix -ose used to name sugars. The compound is a white, water-soluble, non-hygroscopic solid with a mildly sweet taste. It is used in the food industry.

Butter

Butter

Butter is a dairy product made from the fat and protein components of churned cream. It is a semi-solid emulsion at room temperature, consisting of approximately 80% butterfat. It is used at room temperature as a spread, melted as a condiment, and used as a fat in baking, sauce-making, pan frying, and other cooking procedures.

Cheese

Cheese

Cheese is a dairy product produced in wide ranges of flavors, textures, and forms by coagulation of the milk protein casein. It comprises proteins and fat from milk. During production, milk is usually acidified and either the enzymes of rennet or bacterial enzymes with similar activity are added to cause the casein to coagulate. The solid curds are then separated from the liquid whey and pressed into finished cheese. Some cheeses have aromatic molds on the rind, the outer layer, or throughout.

Intolerance and health research

Dairy products may upset the digestive system in individuals with lactose intolerance or a milk allergy.[7][8][9] People who experience lactose intolerance usually avoid milk and other lactose-containing dairy products, which may cause mild side effects, such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea.[7][8] Such individuals may use non-dairy milk substitutes.

Acne

Consumption of dairy products such as low-fat and whole milk have been associated with an increased acne risk, however, as of 2022 there is no conclusive evidence.[10][11][12]

Cancer

The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), World Cancer Research Fund International (WCRF) and Cancer Research UK have stated that there is strong evidence that consumption of dairy products decreases risk of colorectal cancer.[13][14][15] The AICR, WCRF and Prostate Cancer UK have stated that there limited but suggestive evidence that dairy products increase risk of prostate cancer.[13][14][16][17] The American Cancer Society (ACS) have stated that because dairy products "may lower the risk of some cancers and possibly increase the risk of others, the ACS does not make specific recommendations on dairy food consumption for cancer prevention."[18]

A 2019 review concluded that higher-quality research was needed to characterise valid associations between dairy consumption and risk of and/or cancer-related mortality.[19] A 2021 umbrella review found strong evidence that consumption of dairy products decreases risk of colorectal cancer.[20]

Gout

Consumption of dairy products is associated with a decreased risk of gout.[21]

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Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a common condition caused by a decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products. Those affected vary in the amount of lactose they can tolerate before symptoms develop. Symptoms may include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, flatulence, and nausea. These symptoms typically start thirty minutes to two hours after eating or drinking milk-based food. Their severity typically depends on the amount a person eats or drinks. Lactose intolerance does not cause damage to the gastrointestinal tract.

Milk allergy

Milk allergy

Milk allergy is an adverse immune reaction to one or more proteins in cow's milk. Among the possible symptoms is anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition that requires treatment with epinephrine, among other measures. However, symptoms may take hours to days to manifest, with symptoms including atopic dermatitis, inflammation of the esophagus, enteropathy involving the small intestine and proctocolitis involving the rectum and colon.

Side effect

Side effect

In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug. Developing drugs is a complicated process, because no two people are exactly the same, so even drugs that have virtually no side effects, might be difficult for some people. Also, it is difficult to make a drug that targets one part of the body but that does not affect other parts, the fact that increases the risk of side effects in the untargeted parts.

Milk substitute

Milk substitute

A milk substitute is any substance that resembles milk and can be used in the same ways as milk. Such substances may be variously known as non-dairy beverage, nut milk, grain milk, legume milk, mock milk and alternative milk.

Acne

Acne

Acne, also known as acne vulgaris, is a long-term skin condition that occurs when dead skin cells and oil from the skin clog hair follicles. Typical features of the condition include blackheads or whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, and possible scarring. It primarily affects skin with a relatively high number of oil glands, including the face, upper part of the chest, and back. The resulting appearance can lead to lack of confidence, anxiety, reduced self-esteem, and, in extreme cases, depression or thoughts of suicide.

American Institute for Cancer Research

American Institute for Cancer Research

The American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) is a large American cancer research organization associated with the World Cancer Research Fund umbrella organization.

Cancer Research UK

Cancer Research UK

Cancer Research UK (CRUK) is the world's largest independent cancer research organization. It is registered as a charity in the United Kingdom and Isle of Man, and was formed on 4 February 2002 by the merger of The Cancer Research Campaign and the Imperial Cancer Research Fund. Cancer Research UK conducts research using both its own staff and grant-funded researchers. It also provides information about cancer and runs campaigns aimed at raising awareness and influencing public policy.

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum. Signs and symptoms may include blood in the stool, a change in bowel movements, weight loss, and fatigue. Most colorectal cancers are due to old age and lifestyle factors, with only a small number of cases due to underlying genetic disorders. Risk factors include diet, obesity, smoking, and lack of physical activity. Dietary factors that increase the risk include red meat, processed meat, and alcohol. Another risk factor is inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Some of the inherited genetic disorders that can cause colorectal cancer include familial adenomatous polyposis and hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer; however, these represent less than 5% of cases. It typically starts as a benign tumor, often in the form of a polyp, which over time becomes cancerous.

Prostate Cancer UK

Prostate Cancer UK

Prostate Cancer UK is a prostate cancer research, awareness and support organisation which is a registered charity in England and Wales, as well as in Scotland.

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer

Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancerous tumor worldwide and is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system that surrounds the urethra just below the bladder. It is located in the hypogastric region of the abdomen. To give an idea of where it is located, the bladder is superior to the prostate gland as shown in the image The rectum is posterior in perspective to the prostate gland and the ischial tuberosity of the pelvic bone is inferior. Only men are prone to get prostate cancer owing to the presence of male reproductive organs. Most prostate cancers are slow growing. Cancerous cells may spread to other areas of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes. It may initially cause no symptoms. In later stages, symptoms include pain or difficulty urinating, blood in the urine, or pain in the pelvis or back. Benign prostatic hyperplasia may produce similar symptoms. Other late symptoms include fatigue, due to low levels of red blood cells.

American Cancer Society

American Cancer Society

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is a nationwide voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer. Established in 1913, the society is organized into six geographical regions of both medical and lay volunteers operating in more than 250 Regional offices throughout the United States. Its global headquarters is located in the American Cancer Society Center in Atlanta, Georgia. The ACS publishes the journals Cancer, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians and Cancer Cytopathology.

Gout

Gout

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a red, tender, hot and swollen joint, caused by the deposition of needle-like crystals of uric acid known as monosodium urate crystals. Pain typically comes on rapidly, reaching maximal intensity in less than 12 hours. The joint at the base of the big toe is affected (Podagra) in about half of cases. It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or kidney damage.

Avoidance on principle

Some groups avoid dairy products for non-health-related reasons. Some religions restrict or do not allow the consumption of dairy products. For example, some scholars of Jainism advocate not consuming any dairy products because dairy is perceived to involve violence against cows.[22] Orthodox Judaism requires that meat and dairy products not be served at the same meal, served or cooked in the same utensils, or stored together, as prescribed in Deuteronomy 14:21.[23]

Veganism is the avoidance of all animal products, including dairy products, most often due to the ethics regarding how dairy products are produced. The ethical reasons for avoiding meat and dairy products include how dairy is produced, how the animals are handled, and the environmental effect of dairy production.[24][25] According to a report of the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization in 2010 the dairy sector accounted for 4 percent of global man-made greenhouse gas emissions.[26][27]

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Jain vegetarianism

Jain vegetarianism

Jain vegetarianism is practised by the followers of Jain culture and philosophy. It is one of the most rigorous forms of spiritually motivated diet on the Indian subcontinent and beyond. The Jain cuisine is completely lacto-vegetarian and also excludes root and underground vegetables such as potato, garlic, onion etc., to prevent injuring small insects and microorganisms; and also to prevent the entire plant getting uprooted and killed. It is practised by Jain ascetics and lay Jains.

Veganism

Veganism

Veganism is the practice of abstaining from the use of animal product—particularly in diet—and an associated philosophy that rejects the commodity status of animals. An individual who follows the diet or philosophy is known as a vegan. Distinctions may be made between several categories of veganism. Dietary vegans, also known as "strict vegetarians", refrain from consuming meat, eggs, dairy products, and any other animal-derived substances. An ethical vegan is someone who not only follows a plant-based diet but extends the philosophy into other areas of their lives, opposes the use of animals for any purpose, and tries to avoid any cruelty and exploitation of all animals including humans. Another term is "environmental veganism", which refers to the avoidance of animal products on the premise that the industrial farming of animals is environmentally damaging and unsustainable.

Ethics of eating meat

Ethics of eating meat

Conversations regarding the ethics of eating meat are focused on whether or not it is moral to eat non-human animals. Ultimately, this is a debate that has been ongoing for millennia, and it remains one of the most prominent topics in food ethics.

Food and Agriculture Organization

Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) is an international organization that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and improve nutrition and food security. Its Latin motto, fiat panis, translates to "let there be bread." It was founded on 16 October 1945.

Source: "Dairy product", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dairy_product.

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References and notes

Notes

  1. ^ Milk always comes from a mammal.
  2. ^ or dairy factory

References

  1. ^ Gilman, Daniel Coit; Peck, Harry Thurston; Colby, Frank Moore (1907). The New International Encyclopædia. Dodd, Mead & Co. p. 474.
  2. ^ "Dairy | Clemson University, South Carolina". www.clemson.edu. Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  3. ^ "Is Butter a Dairy Product, and Does it Contain Lactose?". Authority Nutrition. 1 July 2016. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  4. ^ "Definition of DAIRY". www.merriam-webster.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  5. ^ a b "Dairy production and products: Milk and milk products". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016.
  6. ^ "WHO | 3. Global and regional food consumption patterns and trends". WHO. Archived from the original on 12 March 2019. Retrieved 18 March 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Lactose Intolerance". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, US National Institutes of Health. 2021. Retrieved 5 April 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Lactose intolerance". Genetics Home Reference. 8 February 2016. Archived from the original on 25 January 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  9. ^ "Milk Allergy – Food Allergy Research & Education". www.foodallergy.org. Archived from the original on 8 February 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2016.
  10. ^ Aghasi M, Golzarand M, Shab-Bidar S, Aminianfar A, Omidian M, Taheri F. (2018). "Dairy intake and acne development: A meta-analysis of observational studies". Clinical Nutrition. 38 (3): 1067–1075. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.015. PMID 29778512.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. ^ Dall'Oglio F, Nasca MR, Fiorentini F, Micali G. (2021). "Diet and acne: review of the evidence from 2009 to 2020". International Journal of Dermatology. 60 (6): 672–685. doi:10.1111/ijd.15390. PMID 33462816.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ Meixiong J, Ricco C, Vasavda C, Ho BK. (2022). "Diet and acne: A systematic review". JAAD International. 29 (7): 95–112. doi:10.1016/j.jdin.2022.02.012. PMID 35373155.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  13. ^ a b Clinton SK, Giovannucci EL, Hursting SD (2020). "The World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research Third Expert Report on Diet, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Cancer: Impact and Future Directions". The Journal of Nutrition. 150 (4): 663–671. doi:10.1093/jn/nxz268. PMID 31758189.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ a b "Meat, fish and dairy products and the risk of cancer". wcrf.org. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  15. ^ "Can milk and dairy products cause cancer?". cancerresearchuk.org. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  16. ^ "Diet, nutrition, physical activity and prostate cancer". wcrf.org. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  17. ^ "Which foods might increase my risk of prostate cancer?". prostatecanceruk.org. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  18. ^ "American Cancer Society Guideline for Diet and Physical Activity". cancer.org. Retrieved 24 January 2023.
  19. ^ Jeyaraman, Maya M; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Grant, Laurel; Farshidfar, Farnaz; Copstein, Leslie; Lys, Justin; Gottschalk, Tania; Desautels, Danielle; Czaykowski, Piotr; Pitz, Marshall; Zarychanski, Ryan (2019). "Dairy product consumption and development of cancer: an overview of reviews". BMJ Open. 9 (1): e023625. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2018-023625. ISSN 2044-6055. PMC 6352799. PMID 30782711.
  20. ^ Papadimitriou N, Markozannes G, Kanellopoulou A, Critselis E, Alhardan S, Karafousia V, Kasimis JC, Katsaraki C, Papadopoulou A, Zografou M, Lopez DS, Chan DSM, Kyrgiou M, Ntzani E, Cross AJ, Marrone MT, Platz EA, Gunter MJ, Tsilidis KK. (2021). "An umbrella review of the evidence associating diet and cancer risk at 11 anatomical sites". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 4579. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24861-8. PMC 8319326. PMID 34321471.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  21. ^ Singh JA, Reddy SG, Kundukulam J. (2011). "Risk factors for gout and prevention: a systematic review of the literature". Curr Opin Rheumatol. 23 (2): 192–202. doi:10.1097/BOR.0b013e3283438e13. PMID 21285714.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  22. ^ Wiley, K.L. (2004). Historical Dictionary of Jainism. Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series. Scarecrow Press. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-8108-6558-7. Retrieved 15 April 2019. In recent times, out of concern for the treatment of cows in commercial dairy farming, some Jains in the diaspora and in India now observe a vegan diet and discourage the use of dairy products in temple rituals.
  23. ^ "Kosher and Halal". Archived from the original on 17 March 2018.
  24. ^ "Ethical Reasons to Give Up Dairy Products – dummies". dummies. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  25. ^ "My year of eating ethically". The Independent. 30 June 2010. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2017.
  26. ^ "Dairy sector adds 4 percent to man-made emissions: FAO". Reuters. 20 April 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2019.
  27. ^ Moskin, Julia; Plumer, Brad; Lieberman, Rebecca; Weingart, Eden; Popovich, Nadja (30 April 2019). "Your Questions About Food and Climate Change, Answered". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
Further reading
  • Fuquay, John W. ed. Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences (2nd Edition, 4 vol 2011), comprehensive coverage.
  • Rankin, H. F. (1922) Imbucase: the Story of the B. C. I. C. of the Ministry of Food. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Press (B.C.I.C.=Butter and Cheese Imports Committee).

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