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Coulsdon North railway station

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Coulsdon North
Coulsdon North Railway Station.jpg
General information
LocationCoulsdon, Croydon Surrey
England
Coordinates51°19′14″N 0°08′04″W / 51.3206°N 0.1344°W / 51.3206; -0.1344Coordinates: 51°19′14″N 0°08′04″W / 51.3206°N 0.1344°W / 51.3206; -0.1344
Grid referenceTQ301596
Platforms4
Other information
StatusDisused
History
Original companyLondon, Brighton and South Coast Railway
Pre-groupingLondon, Brighton and South Coast Railway
Post-groupingSouthern Railway
Key dates
5 November 1899 (1899-11-05)Opened as Stoats Nest and Cane Hill
1 June 1911Renamed Coulsdon and Smitham Downs
9 July 1923Renamed Coulsdon West
1 August 1923Renamed Coulsdon North
3 October 1983 (1983-10-03)Closed
A 1905 Railway Clearing House map of lines around Coulsdon North railway station.
A 1905 Railway Clearing House map of lines around Coulsdon North railway station.

Coulsdon North is a closed railway station that served Coulsdon, Croydon, England, on the Brighton Main Line.

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Coulsdon

Coulsdon

Coulsdon, is a town in south London, England, within the London Borough of Croydon. Coulsdon was an ancient parish in the county of Surrey that included the settlements of Purley and Kenley. It was merged with Sanderstead in 1915 to form the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and has formed part of Greater London since 1965.

London Borough of Croydon

London Borough of Croydon

The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km2 (33.6 sq mi). It is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name; while other urban centres include Coulsdon, Purley, South Norwood, Norbury, New Addington and Thornton Heath. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, and from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. The borough is now one of London's leading business, financial and cultural centres, and its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre. Its population is 390,719, making it the Largest London borough and sixteenth largest English district.

Brighton Main Line

Brighton Main Line

The Brighton Main Line is a major railway line in the United Kingdom that links Brighton, on the south coast of England, with central London. In London the line has two branches, out of London Victoria and London Bridge stations respectively, which join up in Croydon and continue towards Brighton as one line. The line is electrified throughout using the third rail system.

Stoat's Nest

The first station in Coulsdon was opened by the London and Brighton Railway on 12 July 1841, named after a nearby settlement. It stood approximately at the junction of present-day Windermere Road and Stoat's Nest Road. Nothing remains of this station today. It was one mile south of Godstone Road station (later called Caterham Junction and then Purley), and was the first station to serve Epsom Downs Racecourse, some eight miles (13 km) distant.[1] It was in service until December 1856, when Godstone Road station reopened and the L&BR successor, the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) had its own route from Croydon to Epsom.

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Opening

The station was opened as "Stoats Nest and Cane Hill" on 5 November 1899 by the London, Brighton and South Coast Railway (LBSCR). It took its name partly from the nearby Cane Hill asylum and partly from the nearby Stoats Nest village. The station kept its name until 1911 when it became known as "Coulsdon and Smitham Downs".

The Coulsdon North station was built by the LBSCR and opened simultaneously with the widening to four tracks south of South Croydon and the opening of the Quarry Line, a "fast track" route which enabled the LBSCR's South Coast expresses to bypass the line through Redhill. At the time of the new Stoats Nest's opening, it was the second station operating in the area, Coulsdon South (then named "Coulsdon") having been opened by the SER on 1 October 1889.

The LBSCR equipped the new Stoats Nest station with four platforms: two on the Quarry Line and two terminal platforms with through access only to sidings beyond the station. It served as a through station for services from London Victoria to Brighton, as well as a terminus for services from Victoria via Streatham Common or Crystal Palace. The station also had a six-road carriage storage area just to its south.

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London, Brighton and South Coast Railway

London, Brighton and South Coast Railway

The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway was a railway company in the United Kingdom from 1846 to 1922. Its territory formed a rough triangle, with London at its apex, practically the whole coastline of Sussex as its base, and a large part of Surrey. It was bounded on its western side by the London and South Western Railway (L&SWR), which provided an alternative route to Portsmouth. On its eastern side the LB&SCR was bounded by the South Eastern Railway (SER)—later one component of the South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SE&CR)—which provided an alternative route to Bexhill, St Leonards-on-Sea, and Hastings. The LB&SCR had the most direct routes from London to the south coast seaside resorts of Brighton, Eastbourne, Worthing, Littlehampton and Bognor Regis, and to the ports of Newhaven and Shoreham-by-Sea. It served the inland towns and cities of Chichester, Horsham, East Grinstead and Lewes, and jointly served Croydon, Tunbridge Wells, Dorking and Guildford. At the London end was a complicated suburban and outer-suburban network of lines emanating from London Bridge and Victoria, and shared interests in two cross-London lines.

Redhill railway station

Redhill railway station

Redhill railway station serves the town of Redhill, Surrey, England. The station is a major interchange point on the Brighton Main Line, 22 miles 40 chains (36.2 km) measured from London Charing Cross. It is managed by Southern, and is also served by Thameslink and GWR.

Coulsdon South railway station

Coulsdon South railway station

Coulsdon South railway station serves Coulsdon in the London Borough of Croydon, and is in Travelcard Zone 6, on the Brighton Main Line. It is 17 miles 3 chains (27.42 km) measured from London Charing Cross. The station is served by Southern and by ThamesLink. It is the most southerly mainline station in London.

Brighton

Brighton

Brighton is a seaside resort and one of the two main areas of the City of Brighton and Hove in the county of East Sussex, England. It is located 47 mi (76 km) south of London.

Streatham Common railway station

Streatham Common railway station

Streatham Common railway station is in Streatham in south London, 6 miles 48 chains (10.6 km) from London Victoria, and in Travelcard Zone 3.

Crystal Palace railway station

Crystal Palace railway station

Crystal Palace railway station is a Network Rail and London Overground station in the London Borough of Bromley in south London. It is located in the Anerley area between the town centres of Crystal Palace and Penge, 8 miles 56 chains (14.0 km) from London Victoria. It is one of two stations built to serve the site of the 1851 exhibition building, the Crystal Palace, when it was moved from Hyde Park to Sydenham Hill after 1851.

Grouping

Following the grouping ordered by the Railways Act 1921, the new operator, the Southern Railway, changed the name of the station to "Coulsdon West" with effect from 9 July 1923. However, this name only lasted 22 days before being changed to "Coulsdon North" on 1 August 1923.

The effect of the grouping - entailing the merger of the SER and LBSCR - was that Coulsdon North lost its regular services on the Brighton Main Line . Nevertheless, the Southern Railway extended the LBSCR's AC overhead electric system powered at 6700 V to the station in 1925, only to announce a year later that all AC lines were to be converted to the 660 V DC used by the neighbouring London and South Western Railway. This entailed the conversion of Coulsdon North to third rail in September 1929. It was one of the last to move across from the old overhead electric system.

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Railways Act 1921

Railways Act 1921

The Railways Act 1921, also known as the Grouping Act, was an Act of Parliament enacted by the British government and intended to stem the losses being made by many of the country's 120 railway companies, by "grouping" them into four large companies dubbed the "Big Four". This was intended to move the railways away from internal competition, and retain some of the benefits which the country had derived from a government-controlled railway during and after the Great War of 1914–1918. The provisions of the Act took effect from the start of 1923.

Alternating current

Alternating current

Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction and changes its magnitude continuously with time in contrast to direct current (DC), which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, respectively, as when they modify current or voltage.

Direct current

Direct current

Direct current (DC) is one-directional flow of electric charge. An electrochemical cell is a prime example of DC power. Direct current may flow through a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for this type of current was galvanic current.

London and South Western Railway

London and South Western Railway

The London and South Western Railway was a railway company in England from 1838 to 1922. Originating as the London and Southampton Railway, its network extended to Dorchester and Weymouth, to Salisbury, Exeter and Plymouth, and to Padstow, Ilfracombe and Bude. It developed a network of routes in Hampshire, Surrey and Berkshire, including Portsmouth and Reading.

Third rail

Third rail

A third rail, also known as a live rail, electric rail or conductor rail, is a method of providing electric power to a railway locomotive or train, through a semi-continuous rigid conductor placed alongside or between the rails of a railway track. It is used typically in a mass transit or rapid transit system, which has alignments in its own corridors, fully or almost fully segregated from the outside environment. Third rail systems are usually supplied from direct current electricity.

Decline and closure

View south from the footbridge in 1968

The situation of Coulsdon North on the so-called "fast track" of the Quarry Line posed pathing problems, as the route had to give priority to express services heading for the South Coast. Accordingly, through services to the coast were withdrawn, and the fast platforms saw only occasional use for special trains. Furthermore, the opening of Smitham (now called Coulsdon Town) in 1904 had created three stations in the same area and, by the 1960s, the decline had begun to set in.[2] Only the terminal platforms were regularly used, for stopping trains from Victoria or London Bridge. Weekend passenger services were withdrawn in 1965, the goods yard was closed in 1968, and from May 1970, passenger services only operated at peak hours on weekdays. The station finally closed in 1983 as part of the resignalling of the Brighton main line.[3]

Last day at Coulsdon North
Last day at Coulsdon North

The last passenger train ran on the evening of Friday 30 September 1983, a special to East Croydon. The station and its sidings were officially closed as of Monday 3 October 1983. The station was demolished shortly afterwards.

During an archaeological excavation in March 1994, the arched foundation brickwork of the station subway was found.[4] The site of the station buildings has since been redeveloped with small industrial units. In 2006 the A23 Coulsdon Relief Road was constructed through its site. Only the station approach road, alongside which are a few sections of railway fencing, indicate its former site.

1907 accident

On 17 April 1907, a locomotive, operated under the instructions of the station master, overran its intended stop point, mortally injuring a local resident who without the train crew's knowledge was lying in the path of the train as part of filming by the Clarendon Film Company.[5]

1910 accident

On 29 January 1910 the Brighton to London Victoria express split in two when passing points at the station and the rear part of the train, consisting of two third-class carriages and a Pullman, derailed and crashed into the platform at 40 mph. Seven people were killed and eight seriously injured.[6] The US Consul General, Robert Wynne, was travelling in the Pullman but was unhurt.[7] The subsequent enquiry determined that one wheel of a carriage had become detached from its axle.[8]


Preceding station   Disused railways   Following station
Purley   British Rail
Southern Region

Brighton Main Line
  Terminus
or
Earlswood

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Pullman (car or coach)

Pullman (car or coach)

In the United States, Pullman was used to refer to railroad sleeping cars that were built and operated on most U.S. railroads by the Pullman Company from 1867 to December 31, 1968.

Robert Wynne

Robert Wynne

Robert John Wynne was an American who served as United States Postmaster General from 1904 to 1905, and as Consul General at the American embassy in the United Kingdom from 1905 to 1910. He was also a distinguished and popular journalist for a number of newspapers and magazines in the late 1800s.

Purley railway station

Purley railway station

Purley railway station is in the London Borough of Croydon on the Brighton Main Line, 13 miles 29 chains (21.50 km) measured from London Bridge, in Travelcard Zone 6. It is a junction, with branches to Caterham and Tattenham Corner.

Southern Region of British Railways

Southern Region of British Railways

The Southern Region was a region of British Railways from 1948 until 1992 when railways were re-privatised. The region ceased to be an operating unit in its own right in the 1980s. The region covered south London, southern England and the south coast, including the busy commuter belt areas of Kent, Sussex and Surrey. The region was largely based upon the former Southern Railway area.

Brighton Main Line

Brighton Main Line

The Brighton Main Line is a major railway line in the United Kingdom that links Brighton, on the south coast of England, with central London. In London the line has two branches, out of London Victoria and London Bridge stations respectively, which join up in Croydon and continue towards Brighton as one line. The line is electrified throughout using the third rail system.

Source: "Coulsdon North railway station", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coulsdon_North_railway_station.

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References
  1. ^ Turner, John Howard (1977). The London Brighton and South Coast Railway 1 Origins and Formation. London: Batsford. p. 166. ISBN 0-7134-0275-X.
  2. ^ "So-long Smitham!". Southern Electric Group. 16 May 2011. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2011.
  3. ^ Catford, Nick (17 May 2017). "Coulsdon North". Disused Stations.
  4. ^ "Archaeological digs from 1994". Archived from the original on 25 March 2005.
  5. ^ Cruttenden, M.J. (2013). "John Bromley, Station Master, and the Curious Events Surrounding His Demotion". newsletter of the Bluebell Railway Preservation Society. Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via All About My Father: The Story of the Bromley and Coppard Families.
  6. ^ "A very Short History of Coulsdon, Surrey, UK. Part 3". The Village of Old Coulsden. Archived from the original on 4 February 2012.
  7. ^ "Train Wreck Kills Eight in England; Express Crashes Into Stoats Nest Station on London and Brighton Line". The New York Times. 30 January 1910.
  8. ^ von Donop, Lt Col P.G. (1910). Board of Trade Report (PDF). HMSO.

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