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Coronation of Mary I of England

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Coronation of Mary I
Mary Tudor Shilling.jpg
Mary I of England depicted crowned on her shilling
Date1 October 1553
LocationWestminster Abbey, London, England
Participants

Mary I of England was crowned at Westminster Abbey on Sunday 1 October 1553. This was the first coronation of a queen regnant in England, a female ruler in her own right.[1] The ceremony was therefore transformed. Ritual and costume was interlinked. Contemporary records insist the proceedings were performed "according to the precedents", but mostly these were provisions made previously for queens-consort.[2]

Proclamation and the Oration gratulatory

Mary was proclaimed as Queen on 19 July 1553 by William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, setting aside the claims of Lady Jane Grey.[3]

Richard Taverner wrote an Oration gratulatory made upon the joyfull proclayming of the most noble Princes Quene Mary Quene of Englande, a pamphlet published by John Day describing the legitimacy of Mary's succession.[4] Writers addressed the challenges to rule that Mary had overcome. Thomas Watertoune published a ballad, An Invective against Treason, and a ballad by Leonard Stopes compared her bloodless struggle to the biblical stories of Judith and Holofernes and Esther and Haman.[5]

There was no English publication describing the coronation ceremony.[6] A narrative description of the coronation was published in Italian and Spanish versions. These texts have many similarities with descriptions produced by diplomats.[7] A Spanish narrative also gave an estimated cost of all the coronation events at 100,000 ducats.[8]

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William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1570)

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke (died 1570)

William Herbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, 1st Baron Herbert of Cardiff KG PC was a Tudor period nobleman, politician, and courtier.

Lady Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey

Lady Jane Grey, later known as Lady Jane Dudley and as the "Nine Days' Queen", was an English noblewoman who claimed the throne of England and Ireland from 10 July until 19 July 1553.

Richard Taverner

Richard Taverner

Richard Taverner was an English author and religious reformer.

John Day (printer)

John Day (printer)

John Day was an English Protestant printer. He specialised in printing and distributing Protestant literature and pamphlets, and produced many small-format religious books, such as ABCs, sermons, and translations of psalms. He found fame, however, as the publisher of John Foxe's Actes and Monuments, also known as the Book of Martyrs, the largest and most technologically accomplished book printed in sixteenth-century England.

Book of Judith

Book of Judith

The Book of Judith is a deuterocanonical book, included in the Septuagint and the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christian Old Testament of the Bible, but excluded from the Hebrew canon and assigned by Protestants to the apocrypha. It tells of a Jewish widow, Judith, who uses her beauty and charm to destroy an Assyrian general and save Israel from oppression. The surviving Greek manuscripts contain several historical anachronisms, which is why some Protestant scholars now consider the book non-historical: a parable, a theological novel, or perhaps the first historical novel. The name Judith, meaning "Praised" or "Jewess", is the feminine form of Judah.

Holofernes

Holofernes

In the deuterocanonical Book of Judith, Holofernes was an invading Assyrian general known for having been beheaded by Judith, a Hebrew widow who entered his camp and beheaded him while he was drunk.

Esther

Esther

Esther is the eponymous heroine of the Book of Esther. Set in the Persian Achaemenid Empire, it tells how king Ahasuerus seeks a new wife after his queen, Vashti, is deposed for disobeying him. Esther is chosen to fulfill this role due to her beauty. Ahasuerus' grand vizier, Haman, is offended by Esther's cousin and guardian, Mordecai, due to his refusal to prostrate himself before Haman. Consequently, Haman plots to have all the Jewish subjects of Persia killed, and convinces Ahasuerus to permit him to do so. However, Esther foils the plan by revealing Haman's eradication plans to Ahasuerus, who then has Haman executed and grants permission to the Jews to kill their enemies instead, as royal edicts cannot be revoked under Persian law.

Haman

Haman

Haman is the main antagonist in the Book of Esther, who according to the Hebrew Bible was an official in the court of the Persian empire under King Ahasuerus, commonly identified as Xerxes I but traditionally equated with Artaxerxes I or Artaxerxes II. As his epithet Agagite indicates, Haman was a descendant of Agag, the king of the Amalekites. Some commentators interpret this descent to be symbolic, due to his similar personality.

Ducat

Ducat

The ducat coin was used as a trade coin in Europe from the later Middle Ages from the 13th to 19th centuries. Its most familiar version, the gold ducat or sequin containing around 3.5 grams of 98.6% fine gold, originated in Venice in 1284 and gained wide international acceptance over the centuries. Similarly named silver ducatons also existed. The gold ducat circulated along with the Florentine florin and preceded the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar.

Plays and drama at the coronation

Mary I of England enthroned by angels
Mary I of England enthroned by angels

The revels accounts include fabric for costumes for a play to be performed during Mary's coronation feasts, which included a good and a bad angel with a personification of the Genus Humanum.[9] The troubles of the human race, Scarcity, Sickness, Feebleness and Deformity, were countered by Reason, Plenty, Verity, Self-Love, and Care.[10] These were probably understood as virtues residing in Mary's court and realm. No text of this morality play has yet been identified.[11] Mary made a warrant for the fabrics to Edward Waldegrave, Master of the Royal Wardrobe. His wife Frances dressed Mary after her anointing as queen.[12]

There is some doubt as to whether the Genus Humanum play was performed at the coronation. Mary gave Thomas Cawarden a warrant for performing a play at the coronation on 26 September, while she was at St James' Palace. The accounts for making the costumes include a note that the performance was deferred until Christmas.[13]

An anonymously authored play, Respublica, written for performance at Christmas presented some of issues in 1553 relating to Mary's accession and her relationship with Parliament.[14] Respublica has sometimes been attributed to Nicholas Udall, but its authorship and connection to court revels is disputed.[15] In the play, Mary is honoured as "Verity, the daughter of sage old Father Time". This echoes a motto used by Mary, Veritas Filia Temporis. The idea was of a "Truth" in opposition to Protestant reformers.[16]

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Mary I of England

Mary I of England

Mary I, also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents, was Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 and Queen of Spain from January 1556 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her vigorous attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. Her attempt to restore to the Church the property confiscated in the previous two reigns was largely thwarted by Parliament, but during her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions.

Edward Waldegrave

Edward Waldegrave

Sir Edward Waldegrave was an English courtier and Catholic recusant.

Royal Wardrobe

Royal Wardrobe

The Royal Wardrobe was a building located between Carter Lane and St Andrew's Church, just to the north of what is now Queen Victoria Street in the City of London, near Blackfriars. It was used as a storehouse for royal accoutrements, housing arms and clothing among other personal items of the Crown.

Anointing

Anointing

Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body.

Thomas Cawarden

Thomas Cawarden

Sir Thomas Cawarden of Bletchingley, Nonsuch Park and East Horsley (Surrey) was Master of the Revels to Henry VIII of England, Edward VI, and Mary I.

Nicholas Udall

Nicholas Udall

Nicholas Udall was an English playwright, cleric, schoolmaster, the author of Ralph Roister Doister, generally regarded as the first comedy written in the English language.

Master of the Revels

Master of the Revels

The Master of the Revels was the holder of a position within the English, and later the British, royal household, heading the "Revels Office" or "Office of the Revels". The Master of the Revels was an executive officer under the Lord Chamberlain. Originally he was responsible for overseeing royal festivities, known as revels, and he later also became responsible for stage censorship, until this function was transferred to the Lord Chamberlain in 1624. However, Henry Herbert, the deputy Master of the Revels and later the Master, continued to perform the function on behalf of the Lord Chamberlain until the English Civil War in 1642, when stage plays were prohibited. The office continued almost until the end of the 18th century, although with rather reduced status.

Royal Entry to London

Mary had been at Kenninghall in Norfolk and Framlingham in Suffolk. At Ipswich children presented her with a golden heart.[17] She met her sister Elizabeth at Wanstead.[18] Mary rode into London on 3 August 1553, in procession. On this occasion, according to Estienne Perlin, she wore violet velvet, "velours violet".[19] Wriothesley says she changed her clothes in a house in Whitechapel, to a rich apparel of "purple velvet French fashion, with sleeves of the same, her kirtle of purple satin all thick set with goldsmith work and great pearl, with her foresleeves of the same set with rich stones".[20] On this occasion, she entered the city at Aldgate.[21] She would make a formal Royal Entry or procession through the city on 30 September as a preliminary to her coronation.[22]

Coronation eve

Mary left St James' Palace by barge for the Tower of London on 28 September 1553.[23] The wardrobe accounts include sumptuous costume for Mary and her ladies for the reception on the "eve" of the coronation. Mary's robe and mantle were of gold and silver tissue.[24] The phrase refers to a ceremony before the coronation when the Knights of the Bath made their preparations and bathed, which took place "according to the old usage of England" at the Tower of London on 29 September. In the morning new knights were dubbed in the queen's chamber of presence by the Earl of Arundel, steward of the queen's household. He was given Mary's commission to make knights on this occasion.[25]

Edward VI's coronation accounts also include payments for a robe and mantle to wear at the creation of the Knights of the Bath.[26] The costume historian Janet Arnold proposed that Mary's tissue clothes were re-used by Elizabeth I at her coronation, after alterations, and may be depicted in a coronation portrait of Elizabeth.[27]

The coronation entry

Mary made her Royal Entry on 30 September in the afternoon. She came from the Tower in a chariot or litter to the Palace of Westminster. Princess Elizabeth and Anne of Cleves rode in another litter.[28] According to the French ambassador Antoine de Noailles and other diplomats, they were dressed in cloth of silver with robes or gowns in the French fashion.[29] Four ladies in waiting rode on horseback beside the litter, the Duchess of Norfolk, the Marchioness of Exeter, the Marchioness of Winchester, and the Countess of Arundel. The third chariot carried six ladies in waiting accompanied by ten ladies in crimson velvet riding on horseback including Mary Finch.[30]

More noblewomen and gentlewomen dressed in crimson satin followed on horseback with the maids of honour,[31] including Anne Basset, Anne Dormer, and the Mother of the Maids, Mistress Bayneham,[32] or, according to some sources, Mistress Poyntz,[33] or Mistress Morris.[34] With the maids, riding behind the three litters, were the serving gentlewomen known as chamberers, dressed in crimson damask. There were between 46 and 60 female riders in total. The windows of houses were decorated with tapestry or cloth of gold and cloth of silver.[35]

There were pageants with music and speeches. At Fenchurch Street, Genoese merchants staged a welcome salutation given by a young actor portraying a girl in a chair or throne suspended in the air. There were four giants. Latin inscriptions on the triumphal arches were recorded by Giovanni Francesco Commendone, a Papal diplomat, and the French ambassador Noailles.[36]

Hanse merchants made their pageant at Gracechurch Corner, with a mount and fountain running with wine. and an actor "flied down a rope" as the queen passed by. At the other end of the street, the Florentine merchants had built an arch with three entries, six actors above welcomed Mary, and on top a statue of an angel dressed in green appeared to play a trumpet.[37] This pageant depicted Queen Tomyris and Judith, and seems to have celebrated Mary's recent triumph over the Duke of Northumberland.[38] At St Paul's Cathedral, "Peter, a Dutchman", danced with streamers on the steeple.[39]

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Mary I of England

Mary I of England

Mary I, also known as Mary Tudor, and as "Bloody Mary" by her Protestant opponents, was Queen of England and Ireland from July 1553 and Queen of Spain from January 1556 until her death in 1558. She is best known for her vigorous attempt to reverse the English Reformation, which had begun during the reign of her father, Henry VIII. Her attempt to restore to the Church the property confiscated in the previous two reigns was largely thwarted by Parliament, but during her five-year reign, Mary had over 280 religious dissenters burned at the stake in the Marian persecutions.

Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I

Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death in 1603. Elizabeth was the last of the five House of Tudor monarchs and is sometimes referred to as the "Virgin Queen".

Byam Shaw

Byam Shaw

John Byam Liston Shaw, commonly known as Byam Shaw, was a British painter, illustrator, designer and teacher. He is not to be confused with his sons, Glen Byam Shaw, actor and theatre director, and James Byam Shaw, art historian and director of Colnaghi's, who both used "Byam Shaw" as a surname.

Kenninghall

Kenninghall

Kenninghall is a village and civil parish in Norfolk, England, with an area of 5.73 sq mi (14.8 km2) and a population of 950 at the 2011 census. It falls within the local government district of Breckland. Home to the kings of East Anglia, after the Norman invasion of 1066 William the Conqueror granted the estate to William of Albany and his heirs as a residence for the Chief Butler of England.

Norfolk

Norfolk

Norfolk is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in East Anglia in England. It borders Lincolnshire to the north-west, Cambridgeshire to the west and south-west, and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea, with The Wash to the north-west. The county town is the city of Norwich. With an area of 2,074 square miles (5,370 km2) and a population of 859,400, Norfolk is a largely rural county with a population density of 401 per square mile. Of the county's population, 40% live in four major built up areas: Norwich (213,000), Great Yarmouth (63,000), King's Lynn (46,000) and Thetford (25,000).

Framlingham Castle

Framlingham Castle

Framlingham Castle is a castle in the market town of Framlingham, Suffolk, England. An early motte and bailey or ringwork Norman castle was built on the Framlingham site by 1148, but this was destroyed (slighted) by Henry II of England in the aftermath of the Revolt of 1173–1174. Its replacement, constructed by Roger Bigod, the Earl of Norfolk, was unusual for the time in having no central keep, but instead using a curtain wall with thirteen mural towers to defend the centre of the castle. Despite this, the castle was successfully taken by King John in 1216 after a short siege. By the end of the 13th century, Framlingham had become a luxurious home, surrounded by extensive parkland used for hunting.

Ipswich

Ipswich

Ipswich is a port town and borough in Suffolk, England, of which it is the county town. The town is located in East Anglia about 9.9 mi (16 km) away from the mouth of the River Orwell and the North Sea. Ipswich is both on the Great Eastern Main Line railway and the A12 road; it is 67 mi (108 km) north-east of London, 45 mi (72 km) east-southeast of Cambridge and 40 mi (64 km) south of Norwich. Ipswich is surrounded by two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB): Suffolk Coast and Heaths and Dedham Vale.

Charles Wriothesley

Charles Wriothesley

Charles Wriothesley was a long-serving officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. He was the last member of a dynasty of heralds that started with his grandfather—Garter Principal King of Arms John Writhe.

Aldgate

Aldgate

Aldgate was a gate in the former defensive wall around the City of London. It gives its name to Aldgate High Street, the first stretch of the A11 road, which included the site of the former gate.

Accolade

Accolade

The accolade was the central act in the rite of passage ceremonies conferring knighthood in the Middle Ages. From about 1852, the term accolade was used much more generally to mean "praise" or "award" or "honour".

Henry Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel

Henry Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel

Henry Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel KG was an English nobleman, who over his long life assumed a prominent place at the court of all the later Tudor sovereigns, probably the only person to do so.

Janet Arnold

Janet Arnold

Janet Arnold was a British clothing historian, costume designer, teacher, conservator, and author. She is best known for her series of works called Patterns of Fashion, which included accurate scale sewing patterns, used by museums and theatres alike. She went on to write A Handbook of Costume, a book on the primary sources on costume study, and Queen Elizabeth's Wardrobe Unlock'd, as well as many other books.

Coronation

John Gage helped the Duchess of Norfolk carry Mary's train into Westminster Abbey
John Gage helped the Duchess of Norfolk carry Mary's train into Westminster Abbey
Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby carried the sword "curtana" symbolic of Mercy
Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby carried the sword "curtana" symbolic of Mercy
Mary was crowned by Stephen Gardiner
Mary was crowned by Stephen Gardiner

On 1 October, Mary arrived by barge at the privy stairs of the Old Palace of Westminster.[40] As Mary walked from Westminster Hall to the Abbey in the morning, three naked swords were carried before her. Two represented Justice, Spiritual justice, and Temporal justice. The third sword, the curtana, was carried by the Earl of Derby and represented Mercy. The great bearing sword was refurbished by the cutler John Ailande.[41] Anne of Cleves and Princess Elizabeth attended Mary as she processed into the Abbey. Countesses and noblewomen walked in pairs, holding their coronets.[42]

Mary was first seated in the Abbey in King Edward's chair
Mary was first seated in the Abbey in King Edward's chair

Mary's train was carried by the Lord Chamberlain, John Gage, and the Duchess of Norfolk. The quire of the Abbey was hung with tapestry and the floor was strewn with rushes. When Mary entered the Abbey, the Bishop declared the Queen's pardon for prisoners, excluding those in the Tower of London and some in the Marshalsea.[43] The exceptions included those who had supported Lady Jane Grey.[44]

The mount and St Edward's chair

Mary was led to King Edward's chair by two noblemen. After a short repose, she was joined by Stephen Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor, on the raised scaffold or mount in sight of the people. The chair was at the centre of the mount, draped with rich fabrics. On the back of the "white chair" were two carved lions on the corner posts and a fleur-de-lis topping the centre. Mary showed herself at the four corners of the mount.[45]

From the mount, Gardiner introduced Mary as queen, a part of the ceremony known as "recognition".[46] Edward VI had been carried to the corners of his dais on a little chair by ushers. The ushers who guarded Mary's chair were Masters George Tyrrel, John Norris, Dauncey and Lyggens, men who served as daily waiters in the queen's household.[47] Norris later compiled a treatise on ceremonial for gentlemen ushers.[48]

Gardiner asked for the people's assent, and they cried out in one voice "God save Queen Mary".[49]

The traverse

Mary then went to a richly draped chair at the high altar and made her offerings. George Day, Bishop of Chichester gave a sermon on the theme of obedience. Mary made her oaths, and the choir sang Veni Creator Spiritus.[50] When Mary was to be anointed,[51] according to some accounts, she went into a "traverse" on the right hand side of the high altar and was undressed by ladies of privy chamber. A traverse is usually a space curtained off under a canopy. A Spanish account calls it un lugar apartado, a space apart.[52] It has been suggested that the traverse was located in St Edward's Chapel.[53]

Mary was dressed in a different costume and, putting aside the mantle, was anointed by Stephen Gardiner within the traverse. Holy oil had been obtained by the Imperial ambassador Simon Renard from the Bishop of Arras. The stock of oil left over from the Protestant reign of Edward VI was considered unhallowed.[54] William Paget, 1st Baron Paget and three other barons held silver staves supporting a "paill" or canopy over her during the anointing. The canopy was to be made of gold "cloth of baudekin" lined with silk sarsenet, but crimson satin embroidered with gold was used instead.[55]

Three crowns and two sceptres

The Duke of Norfolk brought the three crowns, St Edward's Crown, the Imperial crown, and a crown newly made for Mary. Gardiner crowned Mary three times.[56] He gave her a ring for her "marrying finger" and the Master of the Jewelhouse brought a pair of bracelets set with precious stones and pearls.[57] The noblemen now put on their caps and coronets, which they had carried into the church.[58]

Gardiner and the earls made homage to Mary.[59] Mass was celebrated while Mary remained kneeling. She held the royal sceptre, which had been carried by the Earl of Arundel, and the consort's sceptre which was topped with a dove.[60][61] She entered the curtained traverse and reappeared in her coronation robe, carrying the sceptre and monde or orb. The ceremony in the Abbey was then complete and had lasted until nearly four or five o'clock.[62]

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John Gage (Tudor politician)

John Gage (Tudor politician)

Sir John Gage KG was an English courtier during the Tudor period. He held a number of offices, including Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (1542–1547), Comptroller of the Household (1540–1547), Constable of the Tower (1540–1556) and Lord Chamberlain (1553–1556).

Elizabeth Stafford, Duchess of Norfolk

Elizabeth Stafford, Duchess of Norfolk

Lady Elizabeth Stafford was an English aristocrat. She was the eldest daughter of Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham and Lady Eleanor Percy. By marriage she became Duchess of Norfolk. Her abusive marriage to Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, created a public scandal.

Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby

Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby

Edward Stanley, 3rd Earl of Derby KG was an English nobleman and politician. He succeeded his father as Lord of Mann until his death, and then was succeeded by his son.

Curtana

Curtana

Curtana, also known as the Sword of Mercy, is a ceremonial sword used at the coronation of British kings and queens. One of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, its end is blunt and squared to symbolise mercy.

Mercy

Mercy

Mercy is benevolence, forgiveness, and kindness in a variety of ethical, religious, social, and legal contexts.

Stephen Gardiner

Stephen Gardiner

Stephen Gardiner was an English Catholic bishop and politician during the English Reformation period who served as Lord Chancellor during the reign of Queen Mary I and King Philip.

Coronation Chair

Coronation Chair

The Coronation Chair, known historically as St Edward's Chair or King Edward's Chair, is an ancient wooden chair on which British monarchs sit when they are invested with regalia and crowned at their coronations. It was commissioned in 1296 by King Edward I to contain the coronation stone of Scotland—known as the Stone of Destiny—which had been captured from the Scots who kept it at Scone Abbey. The chair was named after Edward the Confessor, and was previously kept in his shrine at Westminster Abbey.

Lord Chamberlain

Lord Chamberlain

The Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords. The office organises all ceremonial activity such as garden parties, state visits, royal weddings, and the State Opening of Parliament. They also handle the Royal Mews and Royal Travel, as well as the ceremony around the awarding of honours.

Tower of London

Tower of London

The Tower of London, officially His Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, which is separated from the eastern edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest. The White Tower, which gives the entire castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression, inflicted upon London by the new Norman ruling class. The castle was also used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, although that was not its primary purpose. A grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under kings Richard I, Henry III, and Edward I in the 12th and 13th centuries. The general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite later activity on the site.

Marshalsea

Marshalsea

The Marshalsea (1373–1842) was a notorious prison in Southwark, just south of the River Thames. Although it housed a variety of prisoners, including men accused of crimes at sea and political figures charged with sedition, it became known, in particular, for its incarceration of the poorest of London's debtors. Over half the population of England's prisoners in the 18th century were in jail because of debt.

Bishop of Winchester

Bishop of Winchester

The Bishop of Winchester is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Winchester in the Church of England. The bishop's seat (cathedra) is at Winchester Cathedral in Hampshire. The Bishop of Winchester has always held ex officio the office of Prelate of the Most Noble Order of the Garter since its foundation in 1348, and Bishops of Winchester often held the positions of Lord Treasurer and Lord Chancellor ex officio. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the wealthiest English sees, and its bishops have included a number of politically prominent Englishmen, notably the 9th century Saint Swithun and medieval magnates including William of Wykeham and Henry of Blois.

Lord Chancellor

Lord Chancellor

The lord chancellor, formally the lord high chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest-ranking traditional minister among the Great Officers of State in Scotland and England in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the prime minister. The lord chancellor is appointed by the sovereign on the advice of the prime minister. Prior to their Union into the Kingdom of Great Britain, there were separate lord chancellors for the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland; there were lord chancellors of Ireland until 1922.

Banquet in Westminster Hall

After the ceremonies, there was a banquet in Westminster Hall.[63] According to the diplomat Simon Renard, Mary sat in the Coronation Chair with the Stone of Scone in the hall and rested her feet on two of her ladies in waiting.[64]

The champion

The Queen's Champion, Edward Dymoke, rode into the hall in full armour.[65] He threw down a glove and offered to challenge any who questioned Mary's right to rule.[66]

Dymoke's fee was a gold cup, which Mary passed to him filled with wine.[67] He was also given the horse and armour, 18 yards of crimson satin for livery clothes, and the food allowance of a baron.[68] Dymoke made a claim in November for a few weapons and a pair of gilt spurs which he had not yet received.[69]

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Simon Renard

Simon Renard

Simon Renard, Sieur of Bermont and Lieutenant of Aumont or Amont, was a Burgundian diplomat who served as an advisor to Emperor Charles V and his son Philip II of Spain, who were also counts of Burgundy. Renard had the court appointment of Master of Requests in Ordinary of the Emperor's household. He was ambassador of Spain in France and England. As ambassador to England he acquired an extraordinary degree of influence over Mary I of England, and until her marriage to Philip, which he promoted, he was thought by many to be controlling the English Government.

Coronation Chair

Coronation Chair

The Coronation Chair, known historically as St Edward's Chair or King Edward's Chair, is an ancient wooden chair on which British monarchs sit when they are invested with regalia and crowned at their coronations. It was commissioned in 1296 by King Edward I to contain the coronation stone of Scotland—known as the Stone of Destiny—which had been captured from the Scots who kept it at Scone Abbey. The chair was named after Edward the Confessor, and was previously kept in his shrine at Westminster Abbey.

Stone of Scone

Stone of Scone

The Stone of Scone —also known as the Stone of Destiny, and often referred to in England as The Coronation Stone—is an oblong block of red sandstone that has been used for centuries in the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland. It is also known as Jacob's Pillow Stone and the Tanist Stone, and as clach-na-cinneamhain in Scottish Gaelic.

King's Champion

King's Champion

The Honourable The King's Champion is an honorary and hereditary office in the Royal Household of the British sovereign. The champion's original role at the coronation of a British monarch was to challenge anyone who contested the new monarch's entitlement to the throne to trial by combat. Although this function was last enacted at the Coronation of George IV in 1821, the office continues to descend through the Dymoke family.

Dymoke

Dymoke

The Dymoke family of the Manor of Scrivelsby in the parish of Horncastle in Lincolnshire holds the feudal hereditary office of King's Champion. The functions of the Champion are to ride into Westminster Hall at the coronation banquet and challenge all comers who might impugn the King's title.

Costume

Details of fabrics bought or supplied for the coronation are known from records of the royal wardrobe and Mary's warrants or orders. There is also a list of fabrics and items with the order of ceremony prepared by the wardrobe. Chronicle accounts and diplomatic dispatches also describe some textiles and costume. The costume historian Janet Arnold published some of the wardrobe documents.[70] The ambassador Noailles wrote in August that Mary had put aside a "superstition" of the court of Edward VI and now her women wore brightly coloured clothes and jewellery, with wide sleeves in the French fashion.[71] In 1554, a Venetian diplomat, Giacomo Soranzo, reported that Mary wore on state occasions a gown and bodice, with wide hanging sleeves in the French fashion.[72]

A Genoese merchant wrote that Lady Jane Grey had worn green and white in July 1553, Tudor colours asserting her right to rule.[73] The variety of sources, and changes of costume made during the ceremony, has led to some confusion over the use of fabrics and colour, and consequent symbolism. Crimson was a traditional colour for the coronation of English monarchs. At the height of the ceremony, Mary changed into purple, a colour referenced by the writer John Seton.[74]

Two squires of honour at the Entry and coronation wore mantles of crimson velvet, worn baldric-wise off the shoulder, and hats of crimson tissue. They represented the Duchy of Gascony and Guyenne.[75] Described in narratives as gentlemen wearing ducal robes,[76] their presence represented Mary's claim to these territories.[77]

According to a chronicle, Mary wore a gown of blue velvet lined with powdered ermine on her way to the Abbey.[78] She owned a blue velvet gown at this time.[79] Other accounts say that she wore her Parliament robes of crimson velvet.[80] A manuscript listing her clothes for the day gives other details, and says that she wore her "common usual apparel" to go to her coronation at Westminster on the second day beneath her Parliament robes. Her collar was decorated with passamayne lace of Venice gold.[81] Passamayne was a kind of braid or woven lace, used as edging on garments or on the borders of skirts.[82]

On her head, Mary wore the heavy gold circlet studded with precious stones and pearls which she had worn on the previous day during her Royal Entry into the city of London.[83] The route from Westminster Hall into the Abbey was spread with blue velvet or multi-coloured woollen "ray-cloth". The wardrobe account says the blue cloth was used between the hall and the Abbey quire door.[84] The pulpit was draped with red worsted.[85]

Anointing and a change of costume

Elizabeth I used some of Mary's coronation clothes at her coronation in 1559
Elizabeth I used some of Mary's coronation clothes at her coronation in 1559

During the ceremony Mary withdrew into a traverse, a curtained space, using for robing and disrobing.[86] There she changed into a purple velvet mantle, and a purple velvet kirtle with a train furred with ermine, assisted by her ladies in waiting.[87] Mary was partly undressed for her anointing, during which she wore the Colobium Sindonis of silk taffeta. The newly made silk garment was described as a "tabard of white tarteryn", like that used at the coronation of her parents Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon in 1509,[88] or of white "sarsenet", worn over her gown.[89] After the anointing, she put on a purple velvet kirtle. Mistress Walgrave, (the wife of Edward Waldegrave), laced up her clothes, and Mary put on a mantle again. Lace with tags were provided for the kirtles and 24 yards of ribbon for girdles. Walgrave also handed linen gloves to the queen. Her shoes were "sabatons" of crimson cloth of gold lined with satin and dressed with Venice gold ribbon or gold passamyne lace.[90] The costume change was detailed in a schedule which describes this specially made "coronation mantle" and its lacework overmantle. This second mantle was mentioned in the published Spanish narrative accounts.[91]

Mary paid for the making of these new items furred with ermine and decorated with Venice gold lace, including the coronation mantle, from her own purse. The earls and countesses in attendance wore crimson velvet and gold coronets.[92]

Gentlewomen and chamberers

Some of Mary's gentlewomen and chamberers wore scarlet cloth gowns trimmed with "lettice", the winter fur of a weasel
Some of Mary's gentlewomen and chamberers wore scarlet cloth gowns trimmed with "lettice", the winter fur of a weasel

The ladies of Mary's household were dressed in three kinds of fabric, according to status, wearing at the Royal Entry crimson damask, satin, and velvet. Holinshed says the clothes of the riders at the Entry and their caparisons were of crimson satin.[93] Wardrobe accounts mention crimson velvet and crimson satin gowns for women for the eve of the Coronation.[94]

At the coronation, according to the French ambassador Noailles, the three grades of cloth worn were scarlet (a woollen cloth), satin, and crimson velvet.[95] Another narrative says her majesty's ladies in great numbers wore scarlet in the Abbey.[96]

Scarlet gowns furred with "lettice" fur were made "against our coronation" for Susan Clarencieux, Mrs Jerningham (Elizabeth Jerningham,[97] or her neice, later Mary Southwell), Mary Finch, Mistress Russell, Mistress Colborne, Sibilla Penne (a former nurse of Edward VI), and Mistress Sydney (a sister of Henry Sidney). Lettice is a grey weasel fur.[98] The historian John Strype described some members of this group as chamberers and provided a slightly different list of names and ranking, for the riders at the Entry. He includes Jane Dormer and Jane Russell.[99] Further wardrobe records show that Jane Russell (died 1558) was a chamberer at the coronation and was later a gentlewoman of Mary's privy chamber. She was the wife of William Russell, Sergeant of the Wine Cellar, and was to be rewarded for her advocacy of Mary's marriage.[100]

The warrant also includes costumes of tinsel for Will Somers and "Jane our woman foole". It is not clear if costume ordered for Jane at this time was intended for wearing at the coronation.[101] Jane and Lucretia, a tumbler, had been members of Mary's household in 1542.[102]

Reuse of coronation clothes by Elizabeth I

Several details of Mary's costume, the vocabulary used for fabrics, and the costume changes of Mary's coronation follow closely the order of her parents' coronation in 1509.[103]

When Elizabeth I was crowned in 1559, she reused some of Mary's clothes,[104] The costume historian Janet Arnold described how items in Elizabeth's inventory correspond with those in Mary's coronation wardrobe accounts, including the cloth of gold and silver mantle and a matching kirtle trimmed with ermine used at the Royal Entry, and the purple velvet mantle, kirtle and surcoat worn in the Abbey after the anointing. One of the documents from 1553 describes the "mantle and kirtle of white cloth of silver, the mantle of estate with a long train, furred through all with powdered ermines and a mantellace of white silk and gold, a kirtle of the same" and the "kirtle of purple velvet with a train, the train furred with ermines, edged about the skirt ... a mantle of the same called a coronation mantle with a long train".[105]

Some of Mary's gowns remained in Elizabeth's wardrobe and were detailed in inventories, including purple gowns and one of crimson satin sewed with pearls and garnets. It was not recorded if any of these were used at Mary's coronation.[106] It has been suggested that Mary wore the crimson satin gown with pearls at her Winchester wedding to Philip of Spain.[107]

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Source: "Coronation of Mary I of England", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronation_of_Mary_I_of_England.

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