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Copenhagen

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Copenhagen
København (Danish)
City of Copenhagen
Byen København
Copenhagen is located in Denmark
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Location within Denmark
Copenhagen is located in Scandinavia
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Location within Scandinavia
Copenhagen is located in Europe
Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 55°40′34″N 12°34′06″E / 55.67611°N 12.56833°E / 55.67611; 12.56833Coordinates: 55°40′34″N 12°34′06″E / 55.67611°N 12.56833°E / 55.67611; 12.56833
Country Denmark
Region Capital
MunicipalitiesCoat of arms of Copenhagen.svg Copenhagen
Dragør Kommune sjield.png Dragør
Coat of arms of Frederiksberg.svg Frederiksberg
Tårnby Kommune shield.png Tårnby
Area
 • City183.20 km2 (70.73 sq mi)
 • Urban
525.50 km2 (202.90 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,371.80 km2 (1,301.86 sq mi)
 • Øresund Region20,754.63 km2 (8,013.41 sq mi)
Highest elevation
91 m (299 ft)
Lowest elevation
1 m (3 ft)
Population
 (1st July 2022)[3][4][5][6]
 • City1,366,301
 • Density4,417.65/km2 (11,441.7/sq mi)
 • Urban
1,366,301
 • Urban density2,560.54/km2 (6,631.8/sq mi)
 • Metro
2,135,634
 • Metro density633.38/km2 (1,640.4/sq mi)
 • Øresund Region
4,136,082
 • Øresund Region density199.28/km2 (516.1/sq mi)
DemonymCopenhagener[7]
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal code
1050–1778, 2100, 2150, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2450, 2500
Area code(+45) 3
Websiteinternational.kk.dk

Copenhagen (/ˌkpənˈhɡən, -ˈhɑː-/ KOH-pən-HAY-gən, -⁠HAH- or /ˈkpənhɡən, -hɑː-/ KOH-pən-hay-gən, -⁠hah-.;[9] Danish: København [kʰøpm̩ˈhɑwˀn] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark, with a proper population of around 815,000, almost 1.4 million in the urban area,[10][11] and more than 2 million in the wider Copenhagen metropolitan area. The city is on the islands of Zealand and Amager, separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the Øresund strait. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.

Originally a Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century, it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions, defences, and armed forces. During the Renaissance the city served as the de facto capital of the Kalmar Union, being the seat of monarchy, governing the majority of the present day Nordic region in a personal union with Sweden and Norway ruled by the Danish monarch serving as the head of state. The city flourished as the cultural and economic centre of Scandinavia under the union for well over 120 years, starting in the 15th century up until the beginning of the 16th century when the union was dissolved with Sweden leaving the union through a rebellion. After a plague outbreak and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment. This included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre.

Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. The city is the cultural, economic and governmental centre of Denmark; it is one of the major financial centres of Northern Europe with the Copenhagen Stock Exchange. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology, pharmaceuticals and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks, promenades, and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle, Frederik's Church, Børsen and many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.

Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the football clubs F.C. Copenhagen and Brøndby IF. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.

Movia is the public mass transit company serving all of eastern Denmark, except Bornholm. The Copenhagen Metro, launched in 2002, serves central Copenhagen. Additionally, the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog (private railway), and the Coast Line network serve and connect central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2.5 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries.

Discover more about Copenhagen related topics

Copenhagen metropolitan area

Copenhagen metropolitan area

The Copenhagen metropolitan area or Metropolitan Copenhagen is a large commuter belt surrounding Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It includes Copenhagen Municipality, Frederiksberg and surrounding municipalities stretching westward across Zealand. It has a densely-populated core surrounded by suburban settlements.

Amager

Amager

Amager in the Øresund is Denmark's most densely populated island, with more than 212,000 inhabitants a small appendage to Zealand. The protected natural area of Naturpark Amager makes up more than one-third of the island's total area of 96 km2.

Clean technology

Clean technology

Clean technology, in short cleantech, is any process, product, or service that reduces negative environmental impacts through significant energy efficiency improvements, the sustainable use of resources, or environmental protection activities. Clean technology includes a broad range of technology related to recycling, renewable energy, information technology, green transportation, electric motors, green chemistry, lighting, grey water, and more. Environmental finance is a method by which new clean technology projects can obtain financing through the generation of carbon credits. A project that is developed with concern for climate change mitigation is also known as a carbon project.

Amalienborg

Amalienborg

Amalienborg is the official residence for the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Queen Magrethe ll lives here in winter and autumn. It consists of four identical classical palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard ; in the centre of the square is a monumental equestrian statue of Amalienborg's founder, King Frederick V.

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Minister's Office, and the Supreme Court of Denmark. Also, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables.

Børsen

Børsen

Børsen, also known as Børsbygningen, is a 17th-century stock exchange in the center of Copenhagen. The historic building is situated next to Christiansborg Palace, the seat of the Danish Parliament, on the island of Slotsholmen. Børsen, a popular tourist attraction, is most noted for its distinctive spire, shaped as the tails of four dragons twined together, reaching a height of 56 metres.

Copenhagen Business School

Copenhagen Business School

Copenhagen Business School often abbreviated and referred to as CBS, is a public university situated in Copenhagen, Denmark and is considered one of the most prestigious business schools in Western Europe and the world.

Brøndby IF

Brøndby IF

Brøndbyernes Idrætsforening (Danish pronunciation: [ˈpʁɶnˌpyˀɐnəs ˈitʁætsfɒˌe̝ˀne̝ŋ], usually abbreviated to Brøndby IF, is a professional association football club based in Brøndbyvester, Capital Region of Denmark. The club was founded in 1964 as a merger between two local clubs and was promoted to the Danish top-flight football league in 1981.

Copenhagen Marathon

Copenhagen Marathon

The Copenhagen Marathon is an annual marathon that takes place on the streets of Copenhagen, Denmark. Established in 1980, it is held in May and has around 10,000 participants. It is a World Athletics Bronze Label race.

Bornholm

Bornholm

Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of Poland.

Copenhagen Metro

Copenhagen Metro

The Copenhagen Metro is a 24/7 light rapid transit system in Copenhagen, Denmark, serving the municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby.

Copenhagen Airport

Copenhagen Airport

Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup is an international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, Zealand, the Øresund Region, and southern Sweden including Scania. It is the second largest airport in the Nordic countries.

Etymology

Copenhagen's name (København in Danish), reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce. The original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn [ˈkɔupˌmɑnːɑˌhɔvn] (cf. modern Icelandic: Kaupmannahöfn [ˈkʰœipˌmanːaˌhœpn̥], Faroese: Keypmannahavn), meaning 'merchants' harbour'. By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven".[12] The English chapman, German Kaufmann, Dutch koopman, Swedish köpman, Danish købmand, and Icelandic kaupmaður share a derivation from Latin caupo, meaning 'tradesman'. However, the English term for the city was adapted from its Low German name, Kopenhagen. Copenhagen's Swedish name is Köpenhamn, a direct translation of the mutually intelligible Danish name.

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Old Norse

Old Norse

Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian, is a stage of development of North Germanic dialects before their final divergence into separate Nordic languages. Old Norse was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements and chronologically coincides with the Viking Age, the Christianization of Scandinavia and the consolidation of Scandinavian kingdoms from about the 7th to the 15th centuries.

Icelandic language

Icelandic language

Icelandic is a North Germanic language spoken by about 314,000 people, the vast majority of whom live in Iceland, where it is the national language. Due to being a West Scandinavian language, it is most closely related to Faroese, western Norwegian dialects, and the extinct language, Norn.

Faroese language

Faroese language

Faroese is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 72,000 Faroe Islanders, around 53,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 23,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

Sound change

Sound change

A sound change, in historical linguistics, is a change in the pronunciation of a language. A sound change can involve the replacement of one speech sound by a different one or a more general change to the speech sounds that exist, such as the merger of two sounds or the creation of a new sound. A sound change can eliminate the affected sound, or a new sound can be added. Sound changes can be environmentally conditioned if the change occurs in only some sound environments, and not others.

Harbor

Harbor

A harbor, harbour, or haven is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked. The term harbor is often used interchangeably with port, which is a man-made facility built for loading and unloading vessels and dropping off and picking up passengers. Ports usually include one or more harbors. Alexandria Port in Egypt is an example of a port with two harbors.

Low German

Low German

Low German or Low Saxon is a West Germanic language variety spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the Netherlands. The dialect of Plautdietsch is also spoken in the Russian Mennonite diaspora worldwide.

Swedish language

Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken predominantly in Sweden and in parts of Finland. It has at least 10 million native speakers, the fourth most spoken Germanic language and the first among any other of its type in the Nordic countries overall.

History

Reconstruction of Copenhagen c. 1500
Reconstruction of Copenhagen c. 1500

Early history

Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have also led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century. The remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.

These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.[13] Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard.[14] The natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century.[15] The first habitations were probably centred on Gammel Strand (literally 'old shore') in the 11th century or even earlier.[16]

The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, meaning 'Merchants' Harbour' or, in the Danish of the time, Købmannahavn.[17] Traditionally, Copenhagen's founding has been dated to Bishop Absalon's construction of a modest fortress on the little island of Slotsholmen in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace stands today.[18] The construction of the fortress was in response to attacks by Wendish pirates who plagued the coastline during the 12th century.[19] Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Clemens Church had been built. Attacks by the Wends continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.[20]

Middle Ages

In 1186, a letter from Pope Urban III states that the castle of Hafn (Copenhagen) and its surrounding lands, including the town of Hafn, were given to Absalon, Bishop of Roskilde 1158–1191 and Archbishop of Lund 1177–1201, by King Valdemar I. On Absalon's death, the property was to come into the ownership of the Bishopric of Roskilde.[15] Around 1200, the Church of Our Lady was constructed on higher ground to the northeast of the town, which began to develop around it.[15]

As the town became more prominent, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League, and in 1368 successfully invaded during the Second Danish-Hanseatic War. As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.[19] In 1254, it received a charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen[21] who garnered support from the local fishing merchants against the king by granting them special privileges.[22] In the mid 1330s, the first land assessment of the city was published.[22]

With the establishment of the Kalmar Union (1397–1523) between Denmark, Norway and Sweden, by about 1416 Copenhagen had emerged as the capital of Denmark when Eric of Pomerania moved his seat to Copenhagen Castle.[23][20] The University of Copenhagen was inaugurated on 1 June 1479 by King Christian I, following approval from Pope Sixtus IV.[24] This makes it the oldest university in Denmark and one of the oldest in Europe. Originally controlled by the Catholic Church, the university's role in society was forced to change during the Reformation in Denmark in the late 1530s.[24]

16th and 17th centuries

The Tøjhus Museum, the former arsenalBørsen, the former stock exchange (completed in 1640)
The Tøjhus Museum, the former arsenal
The Tøjhus Museum, the former arsenalBørsen, the former stock exchange (completed in 1640)
Børsen, the former stock exchange (completed in 1640)

In disputes prior to the Reformation of 1536, the city which had been faithful to Christian II, who was Catholic, was successfully besieged in 1523 by the forces of Frederik I, who supported Lutheranism. Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall. After an extended siege from July 1535 to July 1536, during which the city supported Christian II's alliance with Malmö and Lübeck, it was finally forced to capitulate to Christian III. During the second half of the century, the city prospered from increased trade across the Baltic supported by Dutch shipping. Christoffer Valkendorff, a high-ranking statesman, defended the city's interests and contributed to its development.[15] The Netherlands had also become primarily Protestant, as were northern German states.

During the reign of Christian IV between 1588 and 1648, Copenhagen had dramatic growth as a city. On his initiative at the beginning of the 17th century, two important buildings were completed on Slotsholmen: the Tøjhus Arsenal and Børsen, the stock exchange. To foster international trade, the East India Company was founded in 1616. To the east of the city, inspired by Dutch planning, the king developed the district of Christianshavn with canals and ramparts. It was initially intended to be a fortified trading centre but ultimately became part of Copenhagen.[25] Christian IV also sponsored an array of ambitious building projects including Rosenborg Slot and the Rundetårn.[19] In 1658–1659, the city withstood a siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assault.[25]

By 1661, Copenhagen had asserted its position as capital of Denmark and Norway. All the major institutions were located there, as was the fleet and most of the army. The defences were further enhanced with the completion of the Citadel in 1664 and the extension of Christianshavns Vold with its bastions in 1692, leading to the creation of a new base for the fleet at Nyholm.[25][26]

18th century

A mansion at Amalienborg in Frederiksstaden, part of the Amalienborg Palace
A mansion at Amalienborg in Frederiksstaden, part of the Amalienborg Palace

Copenhagen lost around 22,000 of its population of 65,000 to the plague in 1711.[27] The city was also struck by two major fires that destroyed much of its infrastructure.[20] The Copenhagen Fire of 1728 was the largest in the history of Copenhagen. It began on the evening of 20 October, and continued to burn until the morning of 23 October, destroying approximately 28% of the city, leaving some 20% of the population homeless. No less than 47% of the medieval section of the city was completely lost. Along with the 1795 fire, it is the main reason that few traces of the old town can be found in the modern city.[28][29]

A substantial amount of rebuilding followed. In 1733, work began on the royal residence of Christiansborg Palace which was completed in 1745. In 1749, development of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden was initiated. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved in the Rococo style, its centre contained the mansions which now form Amalienborg Palace.[30] Major extensions to the naval base of Holmen were undertaken while the city's cultural importance was enhanced with the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.[31]

In the second half of the 18th century, Copenhagen benefited from Denmark's neutrality during the wars between Europe's main powers, allowing it to play an important role in trade between the states around the Baltic Sea. After Christiansborg was destroyed by fire in 1794 and another fire caused serious damage to the city in 1795, work began on the classical Copenhagen landmark of Højbro Plads while Nytorv and Gammel Torv were converged.[31]

19th century

On 2 April 1801, a British fleet under the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker attacked and defeated the neutral Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack.[32] He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of the Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreed.[33] Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar.[34] It was during this battle that Lord Nelson was said to have "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire.[35]

Gottlieb Bindesbøll's Thorvaldsen Museum
Gottlieb Bindesbøll's Thorvaldsen Museum
Danish soldiers returning to Copenhagen in 1849, after the First Schleswig War – painting by Otto Bache (1894)
Danish soldiers returning to Copenhagen in 1849, after the First Schleswig War – painting by Otto Bache (1894)

The Second Battle of Copenhagen (or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August – 5 September 1807) was from a British point of view a preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian population to yet again seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet.[36] But from a Danish point of view, the battle was a terror bombardment on their capital. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rockets (containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water) that randomly hit the city. Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirke, was destroyed by the sea artillery. Several historians consider this battle the first terror attack against a major European city in modern times.[37][38]

Slotsholmen canal, as seen from the Børsen building (c. 1900). In the background from left to right: Church of the Holy Ghost, Trinitatis Complex, St. Nicholas Church and Holmen Church.
Slotsholmen canal, as seen from the Børsen building (c. 1900). In the background from left to right: Church of the Holy Ghost, Trinitatis Complex, St. Nicholas Church and Holmen Church.

The British landed 30,000 men, they surrounded Copenhagen and the attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of the city.[39] The devastation was so great because Copenhagen relied on an old defence-line whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range artillery.[40]

Despite the disasters of the early 19th century, Copenhagen experienced a period of intense cultural creativity known as the Danish Golden Age. Painting prospered under C.W. Eckersberg and his students while C.F. Hansen and Gottlieb Bindesbøll brought a Neoclassical look to the city's architecture.[41] In the early 1850s, the ramparts of the city were opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes (Danish: Søerne) that bordered the old defences to the west. By the 1880s, the districts of Nørrebro and Vesterbro developed to accommodate those who came from the provinces to participate in the city's industrialization. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, as not only were the old ramparts out of date as a defence system but bad sanitation in the old city had to be overcome. From 1886, the west rampart (Vestvolden) was flattened, allowing major extensions to the harbour leading to the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen 1892–94.[42] Electricity came in 1892 with electric trams in 1897. The spread of housing to areas outside the old ramparts brought about a huge increase in the population. In 1840, Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 120,000 people. By 1901, it had some 400,000 inhabitants.[31]

20th century

Central Copenhagen in 1939
Central Copenhagen in 1939

By the beginning of the 20th century, Copenhagen had become a thriving industrial and administrative city. With its new city hall and railway station, its centre was drawn towards the west.[31] New housing developments grew up in Brønshøj and Valby while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the city of Copenhagen.[43] The northern part of Amager and Valby were also incorporated into the City of Copenhagen in 1901–02.[44]

As a result of Denmark's neutrality in the First World War, Copenhagen prospered from trade with both Britain and Germany while the city's defences were kept fully manned by some 40,000 soldiers for the duration of the war.[45]

In the 1920s there were serious shortages of goods and housing. Plans were drawn up to demolish the old part of Christianshavn and to get rid of the worst of the city's slum areas.[46] However, it was not until the 1930s that substantial housing developments ensued,[47] with the demolition of one side of Christianhavn's Torvegade to build five large blocks of flats.[46]

World War II

The RAF's bombing of the Gestapo headquarters in March 1945 was coordinated with the Danish resistance movement.
The RAF's bombing of the Gestapo headquarters in March 1945 was coordinated with the Danish resistance movement.
People celebrating the liberation of Denmark at Strøget in Copenhagen, 5 May 1945. Germany surrendered three days later.
People celebrating the liberation of Denmark at Strøget in Copenhagen, 5 May 1945. Germany surrendered three days later.

In Denmark during World War II, Copenhagen was occupied by German troops along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. German leader Adolf Hitler hoped that Denmark would be "a model protectorate"[48] and initially the Nazi authorities sought to arrive at an understanding with the Danish government. The 1943 Danish parliamentary election was also allowed to take place, with only the Communist Party excluded. But in August 1943, after the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were sunk in Copenhagen Harbor by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews, although most managed to escape to Sweden.[49]

In 1945 Ole Lippman, leader of the Danish section of the Special Operations Executive, invited the British Royal Air Force to assist their operations by attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, air vice-marshal Sir Basil Embry drew up plans for a spectacular precision attack on the Sicherheitsdienst and Gestapo building, the former offices of the Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building.[50]

The attack, known as "Operation Carthage", came on 22 March 1945, in three small waves. In the first wave, all six planes (carrying one bomb each) hit their target, but one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg Girls School. Because of this crash, four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the military target and aimed their bombs at the school, leading to the death of 123 civilians (of which 87 were schoolchildren).[50] However, 18 of the 26 political prisoners in the Shell Building managed to escape while the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed.[50]

On 8 May 1945 Copenhagen was officially liberated by British troops commanded by Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery who supervised the surrender of 30,000 Germans situated around the capital.[51]

Post-war decades

Shortly after the end of the war, an innovative urban development project known as the Finger Plan was introduced in 1947, encouraging the creation of new housing and businesses interspersed with large green areas along five "fingers" stretching out from the city centre along the S-train routes.[52][53] With the expansion of the welfare state and women entering the work force, schools, nurseries, sports facilities and hospitals were established across the city. As a result of student unrest in the late 1960s, the former Bådsmandsstræde Barracks in Christianshavn was occupied, leading to the establishment of Freetown Christiania in September 1971.[54]

Motor traffic in the city grew significantly and in 1972 the trams were replaced by buses. From the 1960s, on the initiative of the young architect Jan Gehl, pedestrian streets and cycle tracks were created in the city centre.[55] Activity in the port of Copenhagen declined with the closure of the Holmen Naval Base. Copenhagen Airport underwent considerable expansion, becoming a hub for the Nordic countries. In the 1990s, large-scale housing developments were realised in the harbour area and in the west of Amager.[47] The national library's Black Diamond building on the waterfront was completed in 1999.[56]

Gallery

21st century

Since the summer of 2000, Copenhagen and the Swedish city of Malmö have been connected by the Øresund Bridge, which carries rail and road traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan area spanning both nations. The bridge has brought about considerable changes in the public transport system and has led to the extensive redevelopment of Amager.[54] The city's service and trade sectors have developed while a number of banking and financial institutions have been established. Educational institutions have also gained importance, especially the University of Copenhagen with its 35,000 students.[57] Another important development for the city has been the Copenhagen Metro, the railway system which opened in 2002 with additions until 2007, transporting some 54 million passengers by 2011.[58]

On the cultural front, the Copenhagen Opera House, a gift to the city from the shipping magnate Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller on behalf of the A.P. Møller foundation, was completed in 2004.[59] In December 2009 Copenhagen gained international prominence when it hosted the worldwide climate meeting COP15.[60]

On 3 July 2022, three people were killed in a shooting at Field's mall in Copenhagen. Police chief inspector Søren Thomassen announced the arrest of a 22-year-old man and said that the police cannot rule out an act of terrorism.[61][62]

Discover more about History related topics

History of Copenhagen

History of Copenhagen

The history of Copenhagen dates back to the first settlement at the site in the 11th century. From the middle of the 12th century it grew in importance after coming into the possession of Bishop Absalon, and the city was fortified with a stone wall during the 13th century. The harbour and the excellent possibilities for herring fishing contributed to Copenhagen's growth and development into an important trading centre. It was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League as the Germans became aware of its expansion. In 1254, it received its charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen.

Kongens Nytorv

Kongens Nytorv

Kongens Nytorv is a public square in Copenhagen, Denmark, centrally located at the end of the pedestrian street Strøget. The largest square of the city, it was laid out by Christian V in 1670 in connection with a major extension of the fortified city, and has an equestrian statue of him at its centre. The initiative moved the centre of the city from the medieval area around Gammeltorv, at that time a muddy medieval marketplace, to a cobbled new square with a garden complex, inspired by the Royal city planning seen in Paris from the early 17th century.

Pilestræde

Pilestræde

Pilestræde is a street in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a side street to the pedestrianized shopping street Strøget and commonly associated with the newspaper publishing house Berlingske Media, which has its headquarters in the street.

Flint

Flint

Flint, occasionally flintstone, is a sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as the variety of chert that occurs in chalk or marly limestone. Flint was widely used historically to make stone tools and start fires.

Herring

Herring

Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family of Clupeidae.

Gammel Strand

Gammel Strand

Gammel Strand is a street and public square in central Copenhagen, Denmark. On the south side it borders on the narrow Slotsholmens Canal while the north side is lined by a row of brightly coloured houses from the 18th and 19th century. Across the canal, Thorvaldsens Museum and Christiansborg Palace are seen on the island Slotsholmen.

Saxo Grammaticus

Saxo Grammaticus

Saxo Grammaticus, also known as Saxo cognomine Longus, was a Danish historian, theologian and author. He is thought to have been a clerk or secretary to Absalon, Archbishop of Lund, the main advisor to Valdemar I of Denmark. He is the author of the Gesta Danorum, the first full history of Denmark, from which the legend of Amleth would come to inspire the story of Hamlet by Shakespeare.

Gesta Danorum

Gesta Danorum

Gesta Danorum is a patriotic work of Danish history, by the 12th-century author Saxo Grammaticus. It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark and is an essential source for the nation's early history. It is also one of the oldest known written documents about the history of Estonia and Latvia.

Danish language

Danish language

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by about six million people, principally in and around Denmark. Communities of Danish speakers are also found in Greenland, the Faroe Islands, and the northern German region of Southern Schleswig, where it has minority language status. Minor Danish-speaking communities are also found in Norway, Sweden, the United States, Canada, Brazil, and Argentina.

Absalon

Absalon

Absalon was a Danish statesman and prelate of the Catholic Church who served as the bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and church father of Denmark in the second half of the 12th century, and was the closest advisor of King Valdemar I of Denmark. He was a key figure in the Danish policies of territorial expansion in the Baltic Sea, Europeanization in close relationship with the Holy See, and reform in the relation between the Church and the public. He combined the ideals of Gregorian Reform with loyal support of a strong monarchical power.

Slotsholmen

Slotsholmen

Slotsholmen is an island in the harbour of Copenhagen, Denmark, and part of Copenhagen Inner City. The name is taken from the successive castles and palaces located on the island since Bishop Absalon constructed the city's first castle on the island in 1167 at the site where Christiansborg Palace lies today.

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Minister's Office, and the Supreme Court of Denmark. Also, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables.

Geography

Satellite image of Copenhagen
Satellite image of Copenhagen
The red line shows the approximate extent of the urban area of Copenhagen.
The red line shows the approximate extent of the urban area of Copenhagen.
Copenhagen metropolitan area.
Copenhagen metropolitan area.

Copenhagen is part of the Øresund Region, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm in Denmark and Scania in Sweden.[63] It is located on the eastern shore of the island of Zealand, partly on the island of Amager and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen faces the Øresund to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark from Sweden, and which connects the North Sea with the Baltic Sea. The Swedish city of Malmö and the town of Landskrona lie on the Swedish side of the sound directly across from Copenhagen.[64] By road, Copenhagen is 42 kilometres (26 mi) northwest of Malmö, Sweden, 85 kilometres (53 mi) northeast of Næstved, 164 kilometres (102 mi) northeast of Odense, 295 kilometres (183 mi) east of Esbjerg and 188 kilometres (117 mi) southeast of Aarhus by sea and road via Sjællands Odde.[65]

The city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring (Fæstningsringen) and kept as a partial green band around it.[66] Then come the late-19th- and early-20th-century residential neighbourhoods of Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro. The outlying areas of Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vigerslev, Vanløse, Brønshøj, Utterslev and Sundby followed from 1920 to 1960. They consist mainly of residential housing and apartments often enhanced with parks and greenery.[67]

Topography

The central area of the city consists of relatively low-lying flat ground formed by moraines from the last ice age while the hilly areas to the north and west frequently rise to 50 m (160 ft) above sea level. The slopes of Valby and Brønshøj reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft), divided by valleys running from the northeast to the southwest. Close to the centre are the Copenhagen lakes of Sortedams Sø, Peblinge Sø and Sankt Jørgens Sø.[67]

Copenhagen rests on a subsoil of flint-layered limestone deposited in the Danian period some 60 to 66 million years ago. Some greensand from the Selandian is also present. There are a few faults in the area, the most important of which is the Carlsberg fault which runs northwest to southeast through the centre of the city.[68] During the last ice age, glaciers eroded the surface leaving a layer of moraines up to 15 m (49 ft) thick.[69]

Geologically, Copenhagen lies in the northern part of Denmark where the land is rising because of post-glacial rebound.

Beaches

Kalvebod Bølge – public beach within the city
Kalvebod Bølge – public beach within the city

Amager Strandpark, which opened in 2005, is a 2 km (1 mi) long artificial island, with a total of 4.6 km (2.9 mi) of beaches. It is located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centre.[70] In Klampenborg, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from downtown Copenhagen, is Bellevue Beach. It is 700 metres (2,300 ft) long and has both lifeguards and freshwater showers on the beach.[71]

The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge, literally meaning Iceland's Quay, and has won international acclaim for its design.[72]

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Lolland-Falster

Lolland-Falster

Lolland-Falster is a common term for the two islands Lolland and Falster. The islands are only separated by the narrow strait Guldborgsund, and as such have traditionally been grouped together.

Bornholm

Bornholm

Bornholm is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of Poland.

Amager

Amager

Amager in the Øresund is Denmark's most densely populated island, with more than 212,000 inhabitants a small appendage to Zealand. The protected natural area of Naturpark Amager makes up more than one-third of the island's total area of 96 km2.

North Sea

North Sea

The North Sea lies between Great Britain, Norway, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the Atlantic Ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, covering 570,000 square kilometres (220,000 sq mi).

Baltic Sea

Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean that is enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden and the North and Central European Plain.

Malmö

Malmö

Malmö is the largest city in the Swedish county (län) of Scania (Skåne). It is the third-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Gothenburg, and the sixth-largest city in the Nordic region, with a municipal population of 350,647 in 2021. The Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people, and the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö and Copenhagen, is home to 4 million people.

Landskrona

Landskrona

Landskrona is a town in Scania, Sweden. Located on the shores of the Öresund, it occupies a natural port, which has lent the town at first military and subsequent commercial significance. Ferries operate from Landskrona to the island of Ven, and for many years there was also a connection to Copenhagen. Landskrona is part of the Øresund region.

Næstved

Næstved

Næstved is a town in the municipality of the same name, located in the southern part of the island of Zealand in Denmark.

Odense

Odense

Odense is the third largest city in Denmark and the largest city on the island of Funen. As of 1 January 2022, the city proper had a population of 180,863 while Odense Municipality had a population of 205,978, making it the fourth largest municipality in Denmark. Eurostat and OECD have used a definition for the Metropolitan area of Odense, which includes all municipalities in the Province of Funen, with a total population of 504,066 as of 1 July 2022

Esbjerg

Esbjerg

Esbjerg is a seaport town and seat of Esbjerg Municipality on the west coast of the Jutland peninsula in southwest Denmark. By road, it is 71 kilometres (44 mi) west of Kolding and 164 kilometres (102 mi) southwest of Aarhus. With an urban population of 71,698 it is the fifth-largest city in Denmark, and the largest in West Jutland.

Aarhus

Aarhus

Aarhus is the second-largest city in Denmark and the seat of Aarhus Municipality. It is located on the eastern shore of Jutland in the Kattegat sea and approximately 187 kilometres (116 mi) northwest of Copenhagen.

Fortification Ring, Copenhagen

Fortification Ring, Copenhagen

The Fortification Ring in Copenhagen, Denmark, is a collective name used to refer to the grounds where the city's old 17th-century fortifications used to lie, now surrounding the City Centre. Since the fortifications were decommissioned in 1870, the Fortification Ring has been dominated by a number of parks and distinctive greenspaces and it is still maintained and developed as a green belt within the city limits, running between the city centre and the -bro districts. The ramparts, bastions and moats of the former fortifications are still clearly seen in the topography. At Christianshavn and the citadel Kastellet, the fortifications have been preserved and remain intact.

Climate

Copenhagen is in the oceanic climate zone (Köppen: Cfb).[73] Its weather is subject to low-pressure systems from the Atlantic which result in unstable conditions throughout the year. Apart from slightly higher rainfall from July to September, precipitation is moderate. While snowfall occurs mainly from late December to early March, there can also be rain, with average temperatures around the freezing point.[74]

June is the sunniest month of the year with an average of about eight hours of sunshine a day. July is the warmest month with an average daytime high of 21 °C. By contrast, the average hours of sunshine are less than two per day in November and only one and a half per day from December to February. In the spring, it gets warmer again with four to six hours of sunshine per day from March to May. February is the driest month of the year.[75] Exceptional weather conditions can bring as much as 50 cm of snow to Copenhagen in a 24-hour period during the winter months[76] while summer temperatures have been known to rise to heights of 33 °C (91 °F).[77]

Because of Copenhagen's northern latitude, the number of daylight hours varies considerably between summer and winter. On the summer solstice, the sun rises at 04:26 and sets at 21:58, providing 17 hours 32 minutes of daylight. On the winter solstice, it rises at 08:37 and sets at 15:39 with 7 hours and 1 minute of daylight. There is therefore a difference of 10 hours and 31 minutes in the length of days and nights between the summer and winter solstices.[78]

Climate data for Copenhagen, Denmark (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1768–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.8
(53.2)
15.8
(60.4)
20.8
(69.4)
26.2
(79.2)
28.5
(83.3)
32.7
(90.9)
33.0
(91.4)
33.8
(92.8)
29.8
(85.6)
23.2
(73.8)
17.0
(62.6)
12.8
(55.0)
33.8
(92.8)
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
(38.1)
3.6
(38.5)
6.5
(43.7)
11.8
(53.2)
16.7
(62.1)
19.6
(67.3)
22.2
(72.0)
21.8
(71.2)
17.5
(63.5)
12.6
(54.7)
7.6
(45.7)
4.4
(39.9)
12.3
(54.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
(34.5)
1.4
(34.5)
3.5
(38.3)
7.7
(45.9)
12.5
(54.5)
15.6
(60.1)
18.1
(64.6)
17.7
(63.9)
13.9
(57.0)
9.8
(49.6)
5.5
(41.9)
2.5
(36.5)
9.1
(48.4)
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−0.9
(30.4)
0.7
(33.3)
4.2
(39.6)
8.6
(47.5)
11.9
(53.4)
14.3
(57.7)
14.1
(57.4)
10.8
(51.4)
7.1
(44.8)
3.3
(37.9)
0.5
(32.9)
6.2
(43.2)
Record low °C (°F) −26.3
(−15.3)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−18.5
(−1.3)
−8.8
(16.2)
−3.4
(25.9)
1.0
(33.8)
0.7
(33.3)
0.6
(33.1)
−3.2
(26.2)
−7.0
(19.4)
−15.2
(4.6)
−16.0
(3.2)
−26.3
(−15.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55
(2.2)
36
(1.4)
33
(1.3)
30
(1.2)
52
(2.0)
64
(2.5)
71
(2.8)
96
(3.8)
52
(2.0)
64
(2.5)
67
(2.6)
65
(2.6)
685
(26.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14.9 11.4 13.5 11.5 10.8 12.0 12.4 12.0 13.6 14.5 15.4 15.4 157.4
Average snowy days 5.9 4.4 4.1 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.7 3.9 21.4
Average relative humidity (%) 86 84 82 76 72 72 73 75 78 83 84 85 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 64 148 212 243 238 243 194 166 105 45 34 1,739
Percent possible sunshine 20 26 40 48 50 47 47 42 42 31 20 17 36
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 1 1 0 3
Source: DMI (precipitation days and snowy days 1971–2000, humidity 1961–1990),[79][80][81] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[82] and Weather Atlas[83]

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Frederiksberg Palace

Frederiksberg Palace

Frederiksberg Palace is a Baroque residence, located in Frederiksberg, Denmark, adjacent to the Copenhagen Zoo. It commands an impressive view over Frederiksberg Gardens, originally designed as a palace garden in the Baroque style. Constructed and extended from 1699 to 1735, the palace served as the royal family’s summer residence until the mid-19th century. Since 1869, it has housed the Royal Danish Military Academy.

Oceanic climate

Oceanic climate

An oceanic climate, also known as a marine climate, is the humid temperate climate sub-type in Köppen classification Cfb, typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, generally featuring cool summers and mild winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature. Oceanic climates can be found in both hemispheres generally between 45 and 63 latitude, most notably in northwestern Europe, northwestern America, as well as New Zealand.

Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894–1981) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification.

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's five oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi). It covers approximately 20% of Earth's surface and about 29% of its water surface area. It is known to separate the "Old World" of Africa, Europe and Asia from the "New World" of the Americas in the European perception of the World.

Precipitation

Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravitational pull from clouds. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, ice pellets, graupel and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates" or falls. Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but colloids, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers.

Sunshine duration

Sunshine duration

Sunshine duration or sunshine hours is a climatological indicator, measuring duration of sunshine in given period for a given location on Earth, typically expressed as an averaged value over several years. It is a general indicator of cloudiness of a location, and thus differs from insolation, which measures the total energy delivered by sunlight over a given period.

Ultraviolet index

Ultraviolet index

The ultraviolet index, or UV index, is an international standard measurement of the strength of the sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time. It is primarily used in daily and hourly forecasts aimed at the general public.

Danish Meteorological Institute

Danish Meteorological Institute

The Danish Meteorological Institute is the official Danish meteorological institute, administrated by the Ministry of Energy, Utilities and Climate. The institute makes weather forecasts and observations for Denmark, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands.

Administration

Copenhagen City Hall (right) on City Hall Square in the city centre
Copenhagen City Hall (right) on City Hall Square in the city centre

According to Statistics Denmark, the urban area of Copenhagen (Hovedstadsområdet) consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Albertslund, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup, Herlev, Hvidovre, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre, Tårnby and Vallensbæk as well as parts of Ballerup, Rudersdal and Furesø municipalities, along with the cities of Ishøj and Greve Strand.[7][84] They are located in the Capital Region (Region Hovedstaden). Municipalities are responsible for a wide variety of public services, which include land-use planning, environmental planning, public housing, management and maintenance of local roads, and social security. Municipal administration is also conducted by a mayor, a council, and an executive.[85]

Copenhagen Municipality is by far the largest municipality, with the historic city at its core. The seat of Copenhagen's municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall (Rådhus), which is situated on City Hall Square. The second largest municipality is Frederiksberg, an enclave within Copenhagen Municipality.

Copenhagen Municipality is divided into ten districts (bydele):[86] Indre By, Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vanløse, Brønshøj-Husum, Bispebjerg, Amager Øst, and Amager Vest. Neighbourhoods of Copenhagen include Slotsholmen, Frederiksstaden, Islands Brygge, Holmen, Christiania, Carlsberg, Sluseholmen, Sydhavn, Amagerbro, Ørestad, Nordhavnen, Bellahøj, Brønshøj, Ryparken, and Vigerslev.

Law and order

Most of Denmark's top legal courts and institutions are based in Copenhagen. A modern-style court of justice, Hof- og Stadsretten, was introduced in Denmark, specifically for Copenhagen, by Johann Friedrich Struensee in 1771.[87] Now known as the City Court of Copenhagen (Københavns Byret), it is the largest of the 24 city courts in Denmark with jurisdiction over the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør and Tårnby. With its 42 judges, it has a Probate Division, an Enforcement Division and a Registration and Notorial Acts Division while bankruptcy is handled by the Maritime and Commercial Court of Copenhagen.[88] Established in 1862, the Maritime and Commercial Court (Sø- og Handelsretten) also hears commercial cases including those relating to trade marks, marketing practices and competition for the whole of Denmark.[89] Denmark's Supreme Court (Højesteret), located in Christiansborg Palace on Prins Jørgens Gård in the centre of Copenhagen, is the country's final court of appeal. Handling civil and criminal cases from the subordinate courts, it has two chambers which each hear all types of cases.[90]

The Danish National Police and Copenhagen Police headquarters is situated in the Neoclassical-inspired Politigården building built in 1918–1924 under architects Hack Kampmann and Holger Alfred Jacobsen. The building also contains administration, management, emergency department and radio service offices.[91]

The Copenhagen Fire Department forms the largest municipal fire brigade in Denmark with some 500 fire and ambulance personnel, 150 administration and service workers, and 35 workers in prevention.[92] The brigade began as the Copenhagen Royal Fire Brigade on 9 July 1687 under King Christian V. After the passing of the Copenhagen Fire Act on 18 May 1868, on 1 August 1870 the Copenhagen Fire Brigade became a municipal institution in its own right.[93] The fire department has its headquarters in the Copenhagen Central Fire Station which was designed by Ludvig Fenger in the Historicist style and inaugurated in 1892.[94]

Environmental planning

Copenhagen is recognised as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world.[95] As a result of its commitment to high environmental standards, Copenhagen has been praised for its green economy, ranked as the top green city for the second time in the 2014 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI).[96][97] In 2001 a large offshore wind farm was built just off the coast of Copenhagen at Middelgrunden. It produces about 4% of the city's energy.[98] Years of substantial investment in sewage treatment have improved water quality in the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming with facilities at a number of locations.[99]

Middelgrunden offshore wind farm
Middelgrunden offshore wind farm

Copenhagen aims to be carbon-neutral by 2025. Commercial and residential buildings are to reduce electricity consumption by 20 percent and 10 percent respectively, and total heat consumption is to fall by 20 percent by 2025. Renewable energy features such as solar panels are becoming increasingly common in the newest buildings in Copenhagen. District heating will be carbon-neutral by 2025, by waste incineration and biomass. New buildings must now be constructed according to Low Energy Class ratings and in 2020 near net-zero energy buildings. By 2025, 75% of trips should be made on foot, by bike, or by using public transit. The city plans that 20–30% of cars will run on electricity or biofuel by 2025. The investment is estimated at $472 million public funds and $4.78 billion private funds.[100]

The city's urban planning authorities continue to take full account of these priorities. Special attention is given both to climate issues and efforts to ensure maximum application of low-energy standards. Priorities include sustainable drainage systems,[101] recycling rainwater, green roofs and efficient waste management solutions. In city planning, streets and squares are to be designed to encourage cycling and walking rather than driving.[102] Further, the city administration is working with smart city initiatives to improve how data and technology can be used to implement new solutions that support the transition toward a carbon-neutral economy. These solutions support operations covered by the city administration to improve e.g. public health, district heating, urban mobility and waste management systems. Smart city operations in Copenhagen are maintained by Copenhagen Solutions Lab, the city's official smart-city development unit under the Technical and Environmental Administration.

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Copenhagen City Hall

Copenhagen City Hall

Copenhagen City Hall is the headquarters of the Copenhagen City Council as well as the Lord mayor of the Copenhagen Municipality, Denmark. The building is situated on City Hall Square in central Copenhagen.

City Hall Square, Copenhagen

City Hall Square, Copenhagen

City Hall Square is a public square in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark, located in front of the Copenhagen City Hall. Its large size, central location, and affiliation with the city hall makes it a popular venue for a variety of events, celebrations and demonstrations. It is often used as a central point for measuring distances from Copenhagen.

Copenhagen Municipality

Copenhagen Municipality

Copenhagen Municipality, also known in English as the Municipality of Copenhagen, located in the Capital Region of Denmark, is the largest of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen, the other three being Dragør, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby. The Municipality of Copenhagen constitutes the historical city centre and the majority of its landmarks. It is the most populous in the country with a population of 652,564 inhabitants, and covers 86.4 square kilometres (33.4 sq mi) in area,. Copenhagen Municipality is located at the Zealand and Amager islands and totally surrounds Frederiksberg Municipality on all sides. The strait of Øresund lies to the east. The city of Copenhagen has grown far beyond the municipal boundaries from 1901, when Frederiksberg Municipality was made an enclave within Copenhagen Municipality. Frederiksberg has the largest population density of the municipalities of Denmark.

Frederiksberg Municipality

Frederiksberg Municipality

Frederiksberg Kommune is a municipality on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in Denmark. Part of the Capital Region of Denmark and the city of Copenhagen, it is surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality. The municipality, co-extensive with its seat, covers a total area of 8.71 km2 according to the Municipal Key Figures and has a population of 104,305 making it the smallest municipality in Denmark area-wise, the fifth most populous, and the most densely populated. Its mayor is Michael Vindfeldt from the Social Democrats serving from 1 January 2022.

Albertslund Municipality

Albertslund Municipality

Albertslund Municipality is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 23,04 km2, and has a population of 27,780. Its mayor is Steen Christiansen, a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) political party. As of 2010 the social democrats have 9 of the 21 seats in the city council.

Brøndby Municipality

Brøndby Municipality

Brøndby Kommune, a municipality in the former Copenhagen County, is on the east coast of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 20.85 km2 (8.05 sq mi), and has a total population of 35,094 (2019). Its mayor Kent Max Magelund, a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) political party.

Gentofte Municipality

Gentofte Municipality

Gentofte Kommune is a municipality in the Capital Region of Denmark on the east coast of the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. It covers an area of 25.54 km2 (9.86 sq mi), and has a total population of 74,548. Since 17 May 2021, its mayor has been Michael Fenger, a member of the Conservative People's Party.

Gladsaxe Municipality

Gladsaxe Municipality

Gladsaxe Kommune is a municipality near Copenhagen in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 25 km2 (10 sq mi), and has a total population of 69,681 (2019). Its mayor is Trine Græse, a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) political party.

Glostrup Municipality

Glostrup Municipality

Glostrup Kommune is a suburban municipality and town in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) approx. 10 km west of Copenhagen in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 13.31 km², and has a total population of 23,128 (2020). Its Zip code (Postnummer) is 2600. Its mayor as of 2022 is Kasper Damsgaard, a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokratiet) political party. The municipality was established in 1841 following the municipal reforms of the 1840s, ranking as a parish municipality (sognekommune) until 1950 when suburbanisation of Copenhagen inhabited the municipality and the status was changed to town municipality (købstadskommune). From 1947 to 1960 the population in the municipality doubled due to the expanding suburbs of Copenhagen, reaching the municipality in the post-war period. Glostrup was designated as a new suburb along the western Tåstrup-finger of the Copenhagen Finger Plan of 1947.

Herlev Municipality

Herlev Municipality

Herlev Kommune is a suburban municipality in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 12 km², and has a total population of 27,851. Its mayor is Thomas Gyldal Petersen, a member of the Social Democrats (Socialdemokraterne) political party. The former village Herlev is the largest settlement of the municipal and the site of the municipal council.

Hvidovre Municipality

Hvidovre Municipality

Hvidovre Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden near Copenhagen on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 22 km2, and has a total population of 53,416. Its mayor is Anders Wolf Andresen, a member of the Green Left political party.

Ballerup Municipality

Ballerup Municipality

Ballerup Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. It is located approximately 15 kilometers from central Copenhagen. The municipality covers an area of 34.09 km², and has a population of 48,231. It is also the name of the municipal seat, Ballerup.

Demographics and society

Population pyramid of Copenhagen Municipality in 2022
Population pyramid of Copenhagen Municipality in 2022

Population by ethnic background in 2022

  Danish (73.7%)
  Other European (12.9%)
  Asian (8.2%)
  African (3.0%)
  Others (2.2%)

Copenhagen is the most populous city in Denmark and one of the most populous in the Nordic countries. For statistical purposes, Statistics Denmark considers the City of Copenhagen (Byen København) to consist of the Municipality of Copenhagen plus three adjacent municipalities: Dragør, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby.[105] Their combined population stands at 763,908 (as of December 2016).[11]

The Municipality of Copenhagen is by far the most populous in the country and one of the most populous Nordic municipalities with 644,431 inhabitants (as of 2022).[7] There was a demographic boom in the 1990s and first decades of the 21st century, largely due to immigration to Denmark. According to figures from the first quarter of 2022, 73.7% of the municipality's population was of Danish descent,[104] defined as having at least one parent who was born in Denmark and has Danish citizenship. Much of the remaining 26.3% were of a foreign background, defined as immigrants (20.3%) or descendants of recent immigrants (6%).[104] There are no official statistics on ethnic groups. The adjacent table shows the most common countries of origin of Copenhagen residents. Largest foreign groups are Pakistanis (1.3%), Turks (1.2%), Iraqis (1.1%), Germans (1.0%) and Poles (1.0%).

According to Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen's urban area has a larger population of 1,280,371 (as of 1 January 2016).[7] The urban area consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg plus 16 of the 20 municipalities of the former counties Copenhagen and Roskilde, though five of them only partially.[84] Metropolitan Copenhagen has a total of 2,016,285 inhabitants (as of 2016).[7] The area of Metropolitan Copenhagen is defined by the Finger Plan.[106] Since the opening of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, commuting between Zealand and Scania in Sweden has increased rapidly, leading to a wider, integrated area. Known as the Øresund Region, it has 4.1 million inhabitants (of whom 2.7 million (August 2021) live in the Danish part of the region).[107]

Religion

The Church of Our Lady, situated on Frue Plads

A majority (56.9%) of those living in Copenhagen are members of the Lutheran Church of Denmark which is 0.6% lower than one year earlier according to 2019 figures.[108] The National Cathedral, the Church of Our Lady, is one of the dozens of churches in Copenhagen. There are also several other Christian communities in the city, of which the largest is Roman Catholic.[109]

Foreign migration to Copenhagen, rising over the last three decades, has contributed to increasing religious diversity; the Grand Mosque of Copenhagen, the first in Denmark, opened in 2014.[110] Islam is the second largest religion in Copenhagen, accounting for approximately 10% of the population.[111][112][113] While there are no official statistics, a significant portion of the estimated 175,000–200,000 Muslims in the country live in the Copenhagen urban area, with the highest concentration in Nørrebro and the Vestegnen.[114] There are also some 7,000 Jews in Denmark, most of them in the Copenhagen area where there are several synagogues.[115] It has a membership of 1,800 members.[116] There is a long history of Jews in the city, and the first synagogue in Copenhagen was built in 1684.[117] Today, the history of the Jews of Denmark can be explored at the Danish Jewish Museum in Copenhagen.

Quality of living

For a number of years, Copenhagen has ranked high in international surveys for its quality of life. Its stable economy together with its education services and level of social safety make it attractive for locals and visitors alike. Although it is one of the world's most expensive cities, it is also one of the most liveable with its public transport, facilities for cyclists and its environmental policies.[118] In elevating Copenhagen to "most liveable city" in 2013, Monocle pointed to its open spaces, increasing activity on the streets, city planning in favour of cyclists and pedestrians, and features to encourage inhabitants to enjoy city life with an emphasis on community, culture and cuisine.[119] Other sources have ranked Copenhagen high for its business environment, accessibility, restaurants and environmental planning.[120] However, Copenhagen ranks only 39th for student friendliness in 2012. Despite a top score for quality of living, its scores were low for employer activity and affordability.[121]

Discover more about Demographics and society related topics

Demographics of Denmark

Demographics of Denmark

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Denmark, including ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

List of urban areas in the Nordic countries

List of urban areas in the Nordic countries

This is a list of urban areas in the Nordic countries by population. The population is measured on a national level, independently by each country's statistical bureau. Statistics Sweden uses the term tätort, Statistics Finland also uses tätort in Swedish and taajama in Finnish, Statistics Denmark uses byområde (city), while Statistics Norway uses tettsted.

Copenhagen Municipality

Copenhagen Municipality

Copenhagen Municipality, also known in English as the Municipality of Copenhagen, located in the Capital Region of Denmark, is the largest of the four municipalities that constitute the City of Copenhagen, the other three being Dragør, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby. The Municipality of Copenhagen constitutes the historical city centre and the majority of its landmarks. It is the most populous in the country with a population of 652,564 inhabitants, and covers 86.4 square kilometres (33.4 sq mi) in area,. Copenhagen Municipality is located at the Zealand and Amager islands and totally surrounds Frederiksberg Municipality on all sides. The strait of Øresund lies to the east. The city of Copenhagen has grown far beyond the municipal boundaries from 1901, when Frederiksberg Municipality was made an enclave within Copenhagen Municipality. Frederiksberg has the largest population density of the municipalities of Denmark.

Dragør Municipality

Dragør Municipality

Dragør Kommune is a municipality in Region Hovedstaden on the southern coast of the island of Amager just east of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. The municipality covers an area of 18.41 km² (2013), and has a population of 14,494. Its mayor is Eik Dahl Bidstrup, a member of the agrarian liberal Venstre (Denmark).

Frederiksberg Municipality

Frederiksberg Municipality

Frederiksberg Kommune is a municipality on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in Denmark. Part of the Capital Region of Denmark and the city of Copenhagen, it is surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality. The municipality, co-extensive with its seat, covers a total area of 8.71 km2 according to the Municipal Key Figures and has a population of 104,305 making it the smallest municipality in Denmark area-wise, the fifth most populous, and the most densely populated. Its mayor is Michael Vindfeldt from the Social Democrats serving from 1 January 2022.

Municipalities of Denmark

Municipalities of Denmark

Denmark is divided into five regions, which contain 98 municipalities. The Capital Region has 29 municipalities, Southern Denmark 22, Central Denmark 19, Zealand 17 and North Denmark 11.

Immigration to Denmark

Immigration to Denmark

Denmark has seen a steady increase in immigration over the past 30 years, with the majority of new immigrants originating from non-Western countries. As of 2014, more than 8 percent of the population of Denmark consists of immigrants. As of Q2 of 2022, the population of immigrants is 652,495, excluding Danish born descendants of immigrants to Denmark. This recent shift in demographics has posed challenges to the nation as it attempts to address religious and cultural difference, employment gaps, education of both immigrants and their descendants, spatial segregation, crime rates and language abilities.

Danes

Danes

Danes are a North Germanic ethnic group and nationality native to Denmark and a modern nation identified with the country of Denmark. This connection may be ancestral, legal, historical, or cultural.

Ethnic group

Ethnic group

An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, ancestry, race, language, history, society, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. The term ethnicity is often times used interchangeably with the term nation, particularly in cases of ethnic nationalism.

Copenhagen County

Copenhagen County

Københavns Amt is a former county on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in eastern Denmark. It covered the municipalities in the metropolitan Copenhagen area, with the exception of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg. Effective January 1, 2007, the county was abolished and merged into Region Hovedstaden.

Copenhagen metropolitan area

Copenhagen metropolitan area

The Copenhagen metropolitan area or Metropolitan Copenhagen is a large commuter belt surrounding Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It includes Copenhagen Municipality, Frederiksberg and surrounding municipalities stretching westward across Zealand. It has a densely-populated core surrounded by suburban settlements.

Finger Plan

Finger Plan

The Finger Plan is an urban plan from 1947 which provides a strategy for the development of the Copenhagen metropolitan area, Denmark. According to the plan, Copenhagen is to develop along five 'fingers', centred on S-train commuter rail lines, which extend from the 'palm', that is the dense urban fabric of central Copenhagen. In between the fingers, green "wedges" are intended to provide land for agriculture and recreational purposes.

Economy

Copenhagen is the major economic and financial centre of Denmark. The city's economy is based largely on services and commerce. Statistics for 2010 show that the vast majority of the 350,000 workers in Copenhagen are employed in the service sector, especially transport and communications, trade, and finance, while less than 10,000 work in the manufacturing industries. The public sector workforce is around 110,000, including education and healthcare.[122] From 2006 to 2011, the economy grew by 2.5% in Copenhagen, while it fell by some 4% in the rest of Denmark.[123] In 2017, the wider Capital Region of Denmark had a gross domestic product (GDP) of €120 billion, and the 15th largest GDP per capita of regions in the European Union.[124]

The Crystal, headquarters of Nykredit bank
The Crystal, headquarters of Nykredit bank

Several financial institutions and banks have headquarters in Copenhagen, including Alm. Brand, Danske Bank, Nykredit and Nordea Bank Danmark. The Copenhagen Stock Exchange (CSE) was founded in 1620 and is now owned by Nasdaq, Inc. Copenhagen is also home to a number of international companies including A.P. Møller-Mærsk, Novo Nordisk, Carlsberg and Novozymes.[125] City authorities have encouraged the development of business clusters in several innovative sectors, which include information technology, biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, clean technology and smart city solutions.[126][127]

Scandinavian headquarters for the Swiss pharmaceutical company Ferring Pharmaceuticals
Scandinavian headquarters for the Swiss pharmaceutical company Ferring Pharmaceuticals

Life science is a key sector with extensive research and development activities. Medicon Valley is a leading bi-national life sciences cluster in Europe, spanning the Øresund Region. Copenhagen is rich in companies and institutions with a focus on research and development within the field of biotechnology,[128] and the Medicon Valley initiative aims to strengthen this position and to promote cooperation between companies and academia. Many major Danish companies like Novo Nordisk and Lundbeck, both of which are among the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies in the world, are located in this business cluster.[129]

Shipping is another import sector with Maersk, the world's largest shipping company, having their world headquarters in Copenhagen. The city has an industrial harbour, Copenhagen Port. Following decades of stagnation, it has experienced a resurgence since 1990 following a merger with Malmö harbour. Both ports are operated by Copenhagen Malmö Port (CMP). The central location in the Øresund Region allows the ports to act as a hub for freight that is transported onward to the Baltic countries. CMP annually receives about 8,000 ships and handled some 148,000 TEU in 2012.[130]

Copenhagen has some of the highest gross wages in the world.[131] High taxes mean that wages are reduced after mandatory deduction. A beneficial researcher scheme with low taxation of foreign specialists has made Denmark an attractive location for foreign labour. It is however also among the most expensive cities in Europe.[132][133]

Denmark's Flexicurity model features some of the most flexible hiring and firing legislation in Europe, providing attractive conditions for foreign investment and international companies looking to locate in Copenhagen.[134] In Dansk Industri's 2013 survey of employment factors in the ninety-six municipalities of Denmark, Copenhagen came in first place for educational qualifications and for the development of private companies in recent years, but fell to 86th place in local companies' assessment of the employment climate. The survey revealed considerable dissatisfaction in the level of dialogue companies enjoyed with the municipal authorities.[135]

Tourism

Tourism is a major contributor to Copenhagen's economy, attracting visitors due to the city's harbour, cultural attractions and award-winning restaurants. Since 2009, Copenhagen has been one of the fastest growing metropolitan destinations in Europe.[136] Hotel capacity in the city is growing significantly. From 2009 to 2013, it experienced a 42% growth in international bed nights (total number of nights spent by tourists), tallying a rise of nearly 70% for Chinese visitors.[136] The total number of bed nights in the Capital Region surpassed 9 million in 2013, while international bed nights reached 5 million.[136]

In 2010, it is estimated that city break tourism contributed to DKK 2 billion in turnover. However, 2010 was an exceptional year for city break tourism and turnover increased with 29% in that one year.[137] 680,000 cruise passengers visited the port in 2015.[138] In 2019 Copenhagen was ranked first among Lonely Planet's top ten cities to visit.[139] In October 2021, Copenhagen was shortlisted for the European Commission's 2022 European Capital of Smart Tourism award along with Bordeaux, Dublin, Florence, Ljubljana, La Palma de Mallorca and Valencia.[140]

Discover more about Economy related topics

Financial centre

Financial centre

A financial centre (BE), financial center (AE), or financial hub, is a location with a concentration of participants in banking, asset management, insurance or financial markets with venues and supporting services for these activities to take place. Participants can include financial intermediaries, institutional investors, and issuers. Trading activity can take place on venues such as exchanges and involve clearing houses, although many transactions take place over-the-counter (OTC), that is directly between participants. Financial centres usually host companies that offer a wide range of financial services, for example relating to mergers and acquisitions, public offerings, or corporate actions; or which participate in other areas of finance, such as private equity, hedge funds, and reinsurance. Ancillary financial services include rating agencies, as well as provision of related professional services, particularly legal advice and accounting services.

Capital Region of Denmark

Capital Region of Denmark

The Capital Region of Denmark is the easternmost administrative region of Denmark. The Capital Region has 29 municipalities and a regional council consisting of 41 elected members. As of 1 August 2021 the chairperson is Lars Gaardhøj, who is a member of the Social Democrats party of Denmark.

Nykredit

Nykredit

Dating back to 1851, Nykredit is one of Denmark's leading financial services companies with activities ranging from mortgage, retail and investment banking to insurance, leasing and fixed income trading and asset management.

Alm. Brand

Alm. Brand

Alm. Brand is a Danish financial services group operating within the markets for non-life, life and pension insurance.

Danske Bank

Danske Bank

Danske Bank A/S is a Danish multinational banking and financial services corporation. Headquartered in Copenhagen, it is the largest bank in Denmark and a major retail bank in the northern European region with over 5 million retail customers. Danske Bank was number 454 on the Fortune Global 500 list for 2011. The largest shareholder is A.P. Moller Holding connected to the Maersk family.

Nasdaq, Inc.

Nasdaq, Inc.

Nasdaq, Inc. is an American multinational financial services corporation that owns and operates three stock exchanges in the United States: the namesake Nasdaq stock exchange, the Philadelphia Stock Exchange, and the Boston Stock Exchange, and seven European stock exchanges: Nasdaq Copenhagen, Nasdaq Helsinki, Nasdaq Iceland, Nasdaq Riga, Nasdaq Stockholm, Nasdaq Tallinn, and Nasdaq Vilnius. It is headquartered in New York City, and its president and chief executive officer is Adena Friedman.

Maersk

Maersk

A.P. Møller – Mærsk A/S, also known simply as Maersk, is a Danish shipping company, active in ocean and inland freight transportation and associated services, such as supply chain management and port operation. Maersk was the largest container shipping line and vessel operator in the world from 1996 until 2022. The company is based in Copenhagen, Denmark, with subsidiaries and offices across 130 countries and around 83,000 employees worldwide in 2020.

Novo Nordisk

Novo Nordisk

Novo Nordisk A/S is a Danish multinational pharmaceutical company headquartered in Bagsværd, Denmark, with production facilities in nine countries, and affiliates or offices in five countries. Novo Nordisk is controlled by majority shareholder Novo Holdings A/S which holds approximately 25% of its shares and a relative majority (45%) of its voting shares.

Carlsberg Group

Carlsberg Group

Carlsberg A/S is a Danish multinational brewer. Founded in 1847 by J. C. Jacobsen, the company's headquarters is in Copenhagen, Denmark. Since Jacobsen's death in 1887, the majority owner of the company has been the Carlsberg Foundation. The company's flagship brand is Carlsberg. Other brands include Tuborg, Kronenbourg, Somersby cider, Holsten, Neptun, Russia's best-selling beer Baltika, Belgian Grimbergen, Fix, one of Greece's oldest brands and more than 500 local beers. The company employs around 41,000 people, primarily in Western Europe, Russia and Asia.

Novozymes

Novozymes

Novozymes A/S is a global biotechnology company headquartered in Bagsværd outside of Copenhagen, Denmark. The company's focus is the research, development and production of industrial enzymes, microorganisms, and biopharmaceutical ingredients.

Business cluster

Business cluster

A business cluster is a geographic concentration of interconnected businesses, suppliers, and associated institutions in a particular field. Clusters are considered to increase the productivity with which companies can compete, nationally and globally. Accounting is a part of the business cluster. In urban studies, the term agglomeration is used. Clusters are also important aspects of strategic management.

Biotechnology

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the integration of natural sciences and engineering sciences in order to achieve the application of organisms, cells, parts thereof and molecular analogues for products and services. The term biotechnology was first used by Károly Ereky in 1919, meaning the production of products from raw materials with the aid of living organisms.

Cityscape

The city skyline features many towers and spires.
The city skyline features many towers and spires.

The city's appearance today is shaped by the key role it has played as a regional centre for centuries. Copenhagen has a multitude of districts, each with its distinctive character and representing its own period. Other distinctive features of Copenhagen include the abundance of water, its many parks, and the bicycle paths that line most streets.[141]

Architecture

Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront lined by brightly coloured townhouses.The central square, Amagertorv, dates back to the Middle Ages.Developing skyline of the Ørestad district, located on the outskirts of CopenhagenClassic building in Copenhagen from around the 1890s. Areas like Vesterbro, Nørrebro and Østerbro were developed around 1890.
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront lined by brightly coloured townhouses.
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront lined by brightly coloured townhouses.The central square, Amagertorv, dates back to the Middle Ages.Developing skyline of the Ørestad district, located on the outskirts of CopenhagenClassic building in Copenhagen from around the 1890s. Areas like Vesterbro, Nørrebro and Østerbro were developed around 1890.
The central square, Amagertorv, dates back to the Middle Ages.
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront lined by brightly coloured townhouses.The central square, Amagertorv, dates back to the Middle Ages.Developing skyline of the Ørestad district, located on the outskirts of CopenhagenClassic building in Copenhagen from around the 1890s. Areas like Vesterbro, Nørrebro and Østerbro were developed around 1890.
Developing skyline of the Ørestad district, located on the outskirts of Copenhagen
Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront lined by brightly coloured townhouses.The central square, Amagertorv, dates back to the Middle Ages.Developing skyline of the Ørestad district, located on the outskirts of CopenhagenClassic building in Copenhagen from around the 1890s. Areas like Vesterbro, Nørrebro and Østerbro were developed around 1890.
Classic building in Copenhagen from around the 1890s. Areas like Vesterbro, Nørrebro and Østerbro were developed around 1890.

The oldest section of Copenhagen's inner city is often referred to as Middelalderbyen (the medieval city).[142] However, the city's most distinctive district is Frederiksstaden, developed during the reign of Frederick V. It has the Amalienborg Palace at its centre and is dominated by the dome of Frederik's Church (or the Marble Church) and several elegant 18th-century Rococo mansions.[143] The inner city includes Slotsholmen, a little island on which Christiansborg Palace stands and Christianshavn with its canals.[144] Børsen on Slotsholmen and Frederiksborg Palace in Hillerød are prominent examples of the Dutch Renaissance style in Copenhagen. Around the historical city centre lies a band of congenial residential boroughs (Vesterbro, Inner Nørrebro, Inner Østerbro) dating mainly from late 19th century. They were built outside the old ramparts when the city was finally allowed to expand beyond its fortifications.[145]

Sometimes referred to as "the City of Spires", Copenhagen is known for its horizontal skyline, broken only by the spires and towers of its churches and castles. Most characteristic of all is the Baroque spire of the Church of Our Saviour with its narrowing external spiral stairway that visitors can climb to the top.[146] Other important spires are those of Christiansborg Palace, the City Hall and the former Church of St. Nikolaj that now houses a modern art venue. Not quite so high are the Renaissance spires of Rosenborg Castle and the "dragon spire" of Christian IV's former stock exchange, so named because it resembles the intertwined tails of four dragons.[147]

Copenhagen is recognised globally as an exemplar of best practice urban planning.[148] Its thriving mixed use city centre is defined by striking contemporary architecture, engaging public spaces and an abundance of human activity. These design outcomes have been deliberately achieved through careful replanning in the second half of the 20th century.

Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen[149] both for Danish architecture and for works by international architects. For a few hundred years, virtually no foreign architects had worked in Copenhagen, but since the turn of the millennium the city and its immediate surroundings have seen buildings and projects designed by top international architects. British design magazine Monocle named Copenhagen the World's best design city 2008.[150]

Copenhagen's urban development in the first half of the 20th century was heavily influenced by industrialisation. After World War II, Copenhagen Municipality adopted Fordism and repurposed its medieval centre to facilitate private automobile infrastructure in response to innovations in transport, trade and communication.[151] Copenhagen's spatial planning in this time frame was characterised by the separation of land uses: an approach which requires residents to travel by car to access facilities of different uses.[152]

The boom in urban development and modern architecture has brought some changes to the city's skyline. A political majority has decided to keep the historical centre free of high-rise buildings, but several areas will see or have already seen massive urban development. Ørestad now has seen most of the recent development. Located near Copenhagen Airport, it currently boasts one of the largest malls in Scandinavia and a variety of office and residential buildings as well as the IT University and a high school.[153]

Parks, gardens and zoo

Rosenborg Castle and park in central Copenhagen
Rosenborg Castle and park in central Copenhagen

Copenhagen is a green city with many parks, both large and small. King's Garden (Kongens Have), the garden of Rosenborg Castle, is the oldest and most frequented of them all.[154] It was Christian IV who first developed its landscaping in 1606. Every year it sees more than 2.5 million visitors[155] and in the summer months it is packed with sunbathers, picnickers and ballplayers. It serves as a sculpture garden with both a permanent display and temporary exhibits during the summer months.[154] Also located in the city centre are the Botanical Gardens noted for their large complex of 19th-century greenhouses donated by Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen.[156] Fælledparken at 58 ha (140 acres) is the largest park in Copenhagen.[157]

It is popular for sports fixtures and hosts several annual events including a free opera concert at the opening of the opera season, other open-air concerts, carnival and Labour Day celebrations, and the Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix, a race for antique cars. A historical green space in the northeastern part of the city is Kastellet, a well-preserved Renaissance citadel that now serves mainly as a park.[158] Another popular park is the Frederiksberg Gardens, a 32-hectare romantic landscape park. It houses a colony of tame grey herons and other waterfowl.[159] The park offers views of the elephants and the elephant house designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster of the adjacent Copenhagen Zoo.[160] Langelinie, a park and promenade along the inner Øresund coast, is home to one of Copenhagen's most-visited tourist attractions, the Little Mermaid statue.[161]

In Copenhagen, many cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities such as sunbathing, reading and meditation. Assistens Cemetery, the burial place of Hans Christian Andersen, is an important green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro and a Copenhagen institution. The lesser known Vestre Kirkegaard is the largest cemetery in Denmark (54 ha (130 acres)) and offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, hedges, overgrown tombs, monuments, tree-lined avenues, lakes and other garden features.[162]

It is official municipal policy in Copenhagen that by 2015 all citizens must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes.[163] In line with this policy, several new parks, including the innovative Superkilen in the Nørrebro district, have been completed or are under development in areas lacking green spaces.[164]

Landmarks by district

Indre By

The historic centre of the city, Indre By or the Inner City, features many of Copenhagen's most popular monuments and attractions. The area known as Frederiksstaden, developed by Frederik V in the second half of the 18th century in the Rococo style, has the four mansions of Amalienborg, the royal residence, and the wide-domed Marble Church at its centre.[165] Directly across the water from Amalienborg, the 21st-century Copenhagen Opera House stands on the island of Holmen.[166] To the south of Frederiksstaden, the Nyhavn canal is lined with colourful houses from the 17th and 18th centuries, many now with lively restaurants and bars.[167] The canal runs from the harbour front to the spacious square of Kongens Nytorv which was laid out by Christian V in 1670. Important buildings include Charlottenborg Palace, famous for its art exhibitions, the Thott Palace (now the French embassy), the Royal Danish Theatre and the Hotel D'Angleterre, dated to 1755.[168] Other landmarks in Indre By include the parliament building of Christiansborg, the City Hall and Rundetårn, originally an observatory. There are also several museums in the area including Thorvaldsen Museum dedicated to the 18th-century sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen.[169] Closed to traffic since 1964, Strøget, one of the world's oldest and longest pedestrian streets, runs the 3.2 km (2.0 mi) from Rådhuspladsen to Kongens Nytorv. With its speciality shops, cafés, restaurants, and buskers, it is always full of life and includes the old squares of Gammel Torv and Amagertorv, each with a fountain.[170] Rosenborg Castle on Øster Voldgade was built by Christian IV in 1606 as a summer residence in the Renaissance style. It houses the Danish crown jewels and crown regalia, the coronation throne and tapestries illustrating Christian V's victories in the Scanian War.[171]

Christianshavn

Christianshavn lies to the southeast of Indre By on the other side of the harbour. The area was developed by Christian IV in the early 17th century. Impressed by the city of Amsterdam, he employed Dutch architects to create canals within its ramparts which are still well preserved today.[25] The canals themselves, branching off the central Christianshavn Canal and lined with house boats and pleasure craft are one of the area's attractions.[172] Another interesting feature is Freetown Christiania, a fairly large area which was initially occupied by squatters during student unrest in 1971. Today it still maintains a measure of autonomy. The inhabitants openly sell drugs on "Pusher Street" as well as their arts and crafts. Other buildings of interest in Christianshavn include the Church of Our Saviour with its spiralling steeple and the magnificent Rococo Christian's Church. Once a warehouse, the North Atlantic House now displays culture from Iceland and Greenland and houses the Noma restaurant, known for its Nordic cuisine.[173][174]

Vesterbro

Vesterbro, to the southwest of Indre By, begins with the Tivoli Gardens, the city's top tourist attraction with its fairground atmosphere, its Pantomime Theatre, its Concert Hall and its many rides and restaurants.[175] The Carlsberg neighbourhood has some interesting vestiges of the old brewery of the same name including the Elephant Gate and the Ny Carlsberg Brewhouse.[176] The Tycho Brahe Planetarium is located on the edge of Skt. Jørgens Sø, one of the Copenhagen lakes.[177] Halmtorvet, the old hay market behind the Central Station, is an increasingly popular area with its cafés and restaurants. The former cattle market Øksnehallen has been converted into a modern exhibition centre for art and photography.[178] Radisson Blu Royal Hotel, built by Danish architect and designer Arne Jacobsen for the airline Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS) between 1956 and 1960 was once the tallest hotel in Denmark with a height of 69.60 m (228.3 ft) and the city's only skyscraper until 1969.[179] Completed in 1908, Det Ny Teater (the New Theatre) located in a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej has become a popular venue for musicals since its reopening in 1994, attracting the largest audiences in the country.[180]

Nørrebro

Nørrebro to the northwest of the city centre has recently developed from a working-class district into a colourful cosmopolitan area with antique shops, non-Danish food stores and restaurants. Much of the activity is centred on Sankt Hans Torv[181] and around Rantzausgade. Copenhagen's historic cemetery, Assistens Kirkegård halfway up Nørrebrogade, is the resting place of many famous figures including Søren Kierkegaard, Niels Bohr, and Hans Christian Andersen but is also used by locals as a park and recreation area.[182]

Østerbro

Just north of the city centre, Østerbro is an upper middle-class district with a number of fine mansions, some now serving as embassies.[183] The district stretches from Nørrebro to the waterfront where The Little Mermaid statue can be seen from the promenade known as Langelinie. Inspired by Hans Christian Andersen's fairy tale, it was created by Edvard Eriksen and unveiled in 1913.[184] Not far from the Little Mermaid, the old Citadel (Kastellet) can be seen. Built by Christian IV, it is one of northern Europe's best preserved fortifications. There is also a windmill in the area.[185] The large Gefion Fountain (Gefionspringvandet) designed by Anders Bundgaard and completed in 1908 stands close to the southeast corner of Kastellet. Its figures illustrate a Nordic legend.[186]

Frederiksberg

Frederiksberg, a separate municipality within the urban area of Copenhagen, lies to the west of Nørrebro and Indre By and north of Vesterbro. Its landmarks include Copenhagen Zoo founded in 1869 with over 250 species from all over the world and Frederiksberg Palace built as a summer residence by Frederick IV who was inspired by Italian architecture. Now a military academy, it overlooks the extensive landscaped Frederiksberg Gardens with its follies, waterfalls, lakes and decorative buildings.[187] The wide tree-lined avenue of Frederiksberg Allé connecting Vesterbrogade with the Frederiksberg Gardens has long been associated with theatres and entertainment. While a number of the earlier theatres are now closed, the Betty Nansen Theatre and Aveny-T are still active.[188]

Amagerbro

Amagerbro (also known as Sønderbro) is the district located immediately south-east of Christianshavn at northernmost Amager. The old city moats and their surrounding parks constitute a clear border between these districts. The main street is Amagerbrogade which after the harbour bridge Langebro, is an extension of H. C. Andersens Boulevard and has a number of various stores and shops as well as restaurants and pubs.[189] Amagerbro was built up during the two first decades of the twentieth century and is the city's southernmost block built area with typically 4–7 floors. Further south follows the Sundbyøster and Sundbyvester districts.[190]

Other districts

Not far from Copenhagen Airport on the Kastrup coast, The Blue Planet completed in March 2013 now houses the national aquarium. With its 53 aquariums, it is the largest facility of its kind in Scandinavia.[191] Grundtvig's Church, located in the northern suburb of Bispebjerg, was designed by P.V. Jensen Klint and completed in 1940. A rare example of Expressionist church architecture, its striking west façade is reminiscent of a church organ.[192]

Discover more about Cityscape related topics

Bike path

Bike path

A bike path or a cycle path is a bikeway separated from motorized traffic and dedicated to cycling or shared with pedestrians or other non-motorized users. In the US a bike path sometimes encompasses shared use paths, "multi-use path", or "Class III bikeway" is a paved path that has been designated for use by cyclists outside the right of way of a public road. It may or may not have a center divider or stripe to prevent head-on collisions. In the UK, a shared-use footway or multi-use path is for use by both cyclists and pedestrians.

List of buildings in and around Copenhagen

List of buildings in and around Copenhagen

Copenhagen is the location of many notable buildings, representing a variety of eras as well as functions.

Nyhavn

Nyhavn

Nyhavn is a 17th-century waterfront, canal and entertainment district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Stretching from Kongens Nytorv to the harbour front just south of the Royal Playhouse, it is lined by brightly coloured 17th and early 18th century townhouses and bars, cafes and restaurants. The canal harbours many historical wooden ships.

Amagertorv

Amagertorv

Amagertorv is a public square in the district of Indre By in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Today it forms part of the Strøget pedestrian zone, and is often described as the most central square in Copenhagen. Second only to Gammeltorv, it is also one of the oldest, taking its name from the Amager farmers who in the Middle Ages came into town to sell their produce at the site.

Inner city

Inner city

The term inner city has been used, especially in the United States, as a euphemism for majority-minority lower-income residential districts that often refer to rundown neighborhoods, in a downtown or city centre area. Sociologists sometimes turn the euphemism into a formal designation by applying the term inner city to such residential areas, rather than to more geographically central commercial districts.

Frederiksstaden

Frederiksstaden

Frederiksstaden is a district in Copenhagen, Denmark. Constructed during the reign of Frederick V in the second half of the 18th century, it is considered to be one of the most important rococo complexes in Europe and was included in the 2006 Danish Culture Canon.

Frederick V of Denmark

Frederick V of Denmark

Frederick V was King of Denmark–Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from 6 August 1746 until his death in 1766. He was the son of Christian VI of Denmark and Sophie Magdalene of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.

Amalienborg

Amalienborg

Amalienborg is the official residence for the Danish royal family, and is located in Copenhagen, Denmark. Queen Magrethe ll lives here in winter and autumn. It consists of four identical classical palace façades with rococo interiors around an octagonal courtyard ; in the centre of the square is a monumental equestrian statue of Amalienborg's founder, King Frederick V.

Frederik's Church

Frederik's Church

Frederik's Church, popularly known as The Marble Church for its rococo architecture, is an Evangelical Lutheran church in Copenhagen, Denmark. The church forms the focal point of the Frederiksstaden district; it is located due west of Amalienborg Palace.

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg Palace

Christiansborg Palace is a palace and government building on the islet of Slotsholmen in central Copenhagen, Denmark. It is the seat of the Danish Parliament, the Danish Prime Minister's Office, and the Supreme Court of Denmark. Also, several parts of the palace are used by the Danish monarch, including the Royal Reception Rooms, the Palace Chapel and the Royal Stables.

Christianshavn

Christianshavn

Christianshavn is a neighbourhood in Copenhagen, Denmark. Part of the Indre By District, it is located on several artificial islands between the islands of Zealand and Amager and separated from the rest of the city centre by the Inner Harbour. It was founded in the early 17th century by Christian IV as part of his extension of the fortifications of Copenhagen. Originally, it was laid out as an independent privileged merchant's town with inspiration from Dutch cities but it was soon incorporated into Copenhagen proper. Dominated by canals, it is the part of Copenhagen with the most nautical atmosphere.

Børsen

Børsen

Børsen, also known as Børsbygningen, is a 17th-century stock exchange in the center of Copenhagen. The historic building is situated next to Christiansborg Palace, the seat of the Danish Parliament, on the island of Slotsholmen. Børsen, a popular tourist attraction, is most noted for its distinctive spire, shaped as the tails of four dragons twined together, reaching a height of 56 metres.

Culture

The Little Mermaid statue, an icon of the city and a popular tourist attraction
The Little Mermaid statue, an icon of the city and a popular tourist attraction

Apart from being the national capital, Copenhagen also serves as the cultural hub of Denmark and wider Scandinavia. Since the late 1990s, it has undergone a transformation from a modest Scandinavian capital into a metropolitan city of international appeal in the same league as Barcelona and Amsterdam.[193] This is a result of huge investments in infrastructure and culture as well as the work of successful new Danish architects, designers and chefs.[149][194] Copenhagen Fashion Week, the second largest fashion event in Northern Europe after London Fashion Week, takes place every year in February and August.[195][196]

Museums

Copenhagen has a wide array of museums of international standing. The National Museum, Nationalmuseet, is Denmark's largest museum of archaeology and cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures alike.[197] Denmark's National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst) is the national art museum with collections dating from the 12th century to the present. In addition to Danish painters, artists represented in the collections include Rubens, Rembrandt, Picasso, Braque, Léger, Matisse, Emil Nolde, Olafur Eliasson, Elmgreen and Dragset, Superflex and Jens Haaning.[198]

Another important Copenhagen art museum is the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek founded by second generation Carlsberg philanthropist Carl Jacobsen and built around his personal collections. Its main focus is classical Egyptian, Roman and Greek sculptures and antiquities and a collection of Rodin sculptures, the largest outside France. Besides its sculpture collections, the museum also holds a comprehensive collection of paintings of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist painters such as Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as well as works by the Danish Golden Age painters.[199]

Louisiana is a Museum of Modern Art situated on the coast just north of Copenhagen. It is located in the middle of a sculpture garden on a cliff overlooking Øresund. Its collection of over 3,000 items includes works by Picasso, Giacometti and Dubuffet.[200] The Danish Design Museum is housed in the 18th-century former Frederiks Hospital and displays Danish design as well as international design and crafts.[201]

Other museums include: the Thorvaldsens Museum, dedicated to the oeuvre of romantic Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen who lived and worked in Rome;[202] the Cisternerne museum, an exhibition space for contemporary art, located in former cisterns that come complete with stalactites formed by the changing water levels;[203] and the Ordrupgaard Museum, located just north of Copenhagen, which features 19th-century French and Danish art and is noted for its works by Paul Gauguin.[204]

Entertainment and performing arts

The Royal Danish Playhouse (left) and Opera House (background, right)
The Royal Danish Playhouse (left) and Opera House (background, right)

The new Copenhagen Concert Hall opened in January 2009. Designed by Jean Nouvel, it has four halls with the main auditorium seating 1,800 people. It serves as the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra and along with the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles is the most expensive concert hall ever built.[205] Another important venue for classical music is the Tivoli Concert Hall located in the Tivoli Gardens.[206] Designed by Henning Larsen, the Copenhagen Opera House (Operaen) opened in 2005. It is among the most modern opera houses in the world.[207] The Royal Danish Theatre also stages opera in addition to its drama productions. It is also home to the Royal Danish Ballet. Founded in 1748 along with the theatre, it is one of the oldest ballet troupes in Europe, and is noted for its Bournonville style of ballet.[208]

The Royal Danish Theatre main building
The Royal Danish Theatre main building

Copenhagen has a significant jazz scene that has existed for many years. It developed when a number of American jazz musicians such as Ben Webster, Thad Jones, Richard Boone, Ernie Wilkins, Kenny Drew, Ed Thigpen, Bob Rockwell, Dexter Gordon, and others such as rock guitarist Link Wray came to live in Copenhagen during the 1960s. Every year in early July, Copenhagen's streets, squares, parks as well as cafés and concert halls fill up with big and small jazz concerts during the Copenhagen Jazz Festival. One of Europe's top jazz festivals, the annual event features around 900 concerts at 100 venues with over 200,000 guests from Denmark and around the world.[209]

The largest venue for popular music in Copenhagen is Vega in the Vesterbro district. It was chosen as "best concert venue in Europe" by international music magazine Live. The venue has three concert halls: the great hall, Store Vega, accommodates audiences of 1,550, the middle hall, Lille Vega, has space for 500 and Ideal Bar Live has a capacity of 250.[210] Every September since 2006, the Festival of Endless Gratitude (FOEG) has taken place in Copenhagen. This festival focuses on indie counterculture, experimental pop music and left field music combined with visual arts exhibitions.[211]

For free entertainment one can stroll along Strøget, especially between Nytorv and Højbro Plads, which in the late afternoon and evening is a bit like an impromptu three-ring circus with musicians, magicians, jugglers and other street performers.[212]

Literature

Copenhagen's main public library
Copenhagen's main public library

Most of Denmarks's major publishing houses are based in Copenhagen. These include the book publishers Gyldendal and Akademisk Forlag and newspaper publishers Berlingske and Politiken (the latter also publishing books).[213][214] Many of the most important contributors to Danish literature such as Hans Christian Andersen (1805–1875) with his fairy tales, the philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813–1855) and playwright Ludvig Holberg (1684–1754) spent much of their lives in Copenhagen. Novels set in Copenhagen include Baby (1973) by Kirsten Thorup, The Copenhagen Connection (1982) by Barbara Mertz, Number the Stars (1989) by Lois Lowry, Miss Smilla's Feeling for Snow (1992) and Borderliners (1993) by Peter Høeg, Music and Silence (1999) by Rose Tremain, The Danish Girl (2000) by David Ebershoff, and Sharpe's Prey (2001) by Bernard Cornwell. Michael Frayn's 1998 play Copenhagen about the meeting between the physicists Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg in 1941 is also set in the city. On 15–18 August 1973, an oral literature conference took place in Copenhagen as part of the 9th International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences.[215]

The Royal Library, belonging to the University of Copenhagen, is the largest library in the Nordic countries with an almost complete collection of all printed Danish books since 1482. Founded in 1648, the Royal Library is located at four sites in the city, the main one being on the Slotsholmen waterfront.[216] Copenhagen's public library network has over 20 outlets, the largest being the Central Library (Københavns Hovedbibliotek) on Krystalgade in the inner city.[217]

Art

Interior of the National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst), combining new and old architecture
Interior of the National Gallery (Statens Museum for Kunst), combining new and old architecture

Copenhagen has a wide selection of art museums and galleries displaying both historic works and more modern contributions. They include Statens Museum for Kunst, i.e. the Danish national art gallery, in the Østre Anlæg park, and the adjacent Hirschsprung Collection specialising in the 19th and early 20th century. Kunsthal Charlottenborg in the city centre exhibits national and international contemporary art. Den Frie Udstilling near the Østerport Station exhibits paintings created and selected by contemporary artists themselves rather than by the official authorities. The Arken Museum of Modern Art is located in southwestern Ishøj.[218] Among artists who have painted scenes of Copenhagen are Martinus Rørbye (1803–1848),[219] Christen Købke (1810–1848)[220] and the prolific Paul Gustav Fischer (1860–1934).[221]

A number of notable sculptures can be seen in the city. In addition to The Little Mermaid on the waterfront, there are two historic equestrian statues in the city centre: Jacques Saly's Frederik V on Horseback (1771) in Amalienborg Square[222] and the statue of Christian V on Kongens Nytorv created by Abraham-César Lamoureux in 1688 who was inspired by the statue of Louis XIII in Paris.[223] Rosenborg Castle Gardens contains several sculptures and monuments including August Saabye's Hans Christian Andersen, Aksel Hansen's Echo, and Vilhelm Bissen's Dowager Queen Caroline Amalie.[224]

Copenhagen is believed to have invented the photomarathon photography competition, which has been held in the City each year since 1989.[225][226]

Cuisine

Noma is an example of Copenhagen's renowned experimental restaurants, and has gained three Michelin stars.
Noma is an example of Copenhagen's renowned experimental restaurants, and has gained three Michelin stars.

As of 2014, Copenhagen has 15 Michelin-starred restaurants, the most of any Scandinavian city.[227] The city is increasingly recognized internationally as a gourmet destination.[228] These include Den Røde Cottage, Formel B Restaurant, Grønbech & Churchill, Søllerød Kro, Kadeau, Kiin Kiin (Denmark's first Michelin-starred Asian gourmet restaurant), the French restaurant Kong Hans Kælder, Relæ, Restaurant AOC with two Stars, and Noma (short for Danish: nordisk mad, English: Nordic food) as well as Geranium with three. Noma was ranked as the Best Restaurant in the World by Restaurant in 2010, 2011, 2012, and again in 2014,[229] sparking interest in the New Nordic Cuisine.[230]

Apart from the selection of upmarket restaurants, Copenhagen offers a great variety of Danish, ethnic and experimental restaurants. It is possible to find modest eateries serving open sandwiches, known as smørrebrød – a traditional, Danish lunch dish; however, most restaurants serve international dishes.[231] Danish pastry can be sampled from any of numerous bakeries found in all parts of the city. The Copenhagen Bakers' Association (Danish: Københavns Bagerlaug) dates back to the 1290s and Denmark's oldest confectioner's shop still operating, Conditori La Glace, was founded in 1870 in Skoubogade by Nicolaus Henningsen, a trained master baker from Flensburg.[232]

Copenhagen has long been associated with beer. Carlsberg beer has been brewed at the brewery's premises on the border between the Vesterbro and Valby districts since 1847 and has long been almost synonymous with Danish beer production. However, recent years have seen an explosive growth in the number of microbreweries so that Denmark today has more than 100 breweries, many of which are located in Copenhagen. Some like Nørrebro Bryghus also act as brewpubs where it is also possible to eat on the premises.[233][234]

Nightlife and festivals

Copenhagen Pride Parade, 2008
Copenhagen Pride Parade, 2008

Copenhagen has one of the highest number of restaurants and bars per capita in the world.[235] The nightclubs and bars stay open until 5 or 6 in the morning, some even longer. Denmark has a very liberal alcohol culture and a strong tradition for beer breweries, although binge drinking is frowned upon and the Danish Police take driving under the influence very seriously.[236] Inner city areas such as Istedgade and Enghave Plads in Vesterbro, Sankt Hans Torv in Nørrebro and certain places in Frederiksberg are especially noted for their nightlife. Notable nightclubs include Bakken Kbh, ARCH (previously ZEN), Jolene, The Jane, Chateau Motel, KB3, At Dolores (previously Sunday Club), Rust, Vega Nightclub, Culture Box and Gefährlich, which also serves as a bar, café, restaurant, and art gallery.[237][238]

Copenhagen has several recurring community festivals, mainly in the summer. Copenhagen Carnival has taken place every year since 1982 during the Whitsun Holiday in Fælledparken and around the city with the participation of 120 bands, 2,000 dancers and 100,000 spectators.[239] Since 2010, the old B&W Shipyard at Refshaleøen in the harbour has been the location for Copenhell, a heavy metal rock music festival. Copenhagen Pride is a gay pride festival taking place every year in August. The Pride has a series of different activities all over Copenhagen, but it is at the City Hall Square that most of the celebration takes place. During the Pride the square is renamed Pride Square.[240] Copenhagen Distortion has emerged to be one of the biggest street festivals in Europe with 100,000 people joining to parties in the beginning of June every year.

Amusement parks

The Pantomime Theatre, opened in 1874, is the oldest building in the Tivoli Gardens.
The Pantomime Theatre, opened in 1874, is the oldest building in the Tivoli Gardens.

Copenhagen has the two oldest amusement parks in the world.[241][242]

Dyrehavsbakken, a fair-ground and pleasure-park established in 1583, is located in Klampenborg just north of Copenhagen in a forested area known as Dyrehaven. Created as an amusement park complete with rides, games and restaurants by Christian IV, it is the oldest surviving amusement park in the world.[241] Pierrot (Danish: Pjerrot), a nitwit dressed in white with a scarlet grin wearing a boat-like hat while entertaining children, remains one of the park's key attractions. In Danish, Dyrehavsbakken is often abbreviated as Bakken. There is no entrance fee to pay and Klampenborg Station on the C-line, is situated nearby.[243]

The Tivoli Gardens is an amusement park and pleasure garden located in central Copenhagen between the City Hall Square and the Central Station. It opened in 1843, making it the second-oldest amusement park in the world. Among its rides are the oldest still operating rollercoaster Rutschebanen from 1915 and the oldest ferris wheel still in use, opened in 1943.[244] Tivoli Gardens also serves as a venue for various performing arts and as an active part of the cultural scene in Copenhagen.[245]

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Barcelona

Barcelona

Barcelona is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the fifth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, the Ruhr area, Madrid, and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres high.

Amsterdam

Amsterdam

Amsterdam is the capital and most populous city of the Netherlands, with The Hague being the seat of government. It has a population of 921,402 within the city proper, 1,457,018 in the urban area and 2,480,394 in the metropolitan area. Located in the Dutch province of North Holland, Amsterdam is colloquially referred to as the "Venice of the North", for its large number of canals, now designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Copenhagen Fashion Week

Copenhagen Fashion Week

Copenhagen Fashion Week is an international fashion event, held twice a year in Copenhagen.

London Fashion Week

London Fashion Week

London Fashion Week (LFW) is a clothing trade show that takes place in London twice a year, in February and September. Showcasing over 250 designers to a global audience of influential media and retailers, it is one of the 'Big Four' fashion weeks, along with the New York, Milan and Paris.

List of museums in and around Copenhagen

List of museums in and around Copenhagen

The following is a list of museums in Copenhagen, including all of the Region Hovedstaden.

National Museum of Denmark

National Museum of Denmark

The National Museum of Denmark (Nationalmuseet) in Copenhagen is Denmark's largest museum of cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures, alike. The museum's main building is located a short distance from Strøget at the center of Copenhagen. It contains exhibits from around the world, from Greenland to South America. Additionally, the museum sponsors SILA - The Greenland Research Center at the National Museum of Denmark to further archaeological and anthropological research in Greenland.

Archaeology

Archaeology

Archaeology or archeology is the scientific study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, sites, and cultural landscapes. Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. It is usually considered an independent academic discipline, but may also be classified as part of anthropology, history or geography.

Cultural history

Cultural history

Cultural history combines the approaches of anthropology and history to examine popular cultural traditions and cultural interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past matter, encompassing the continuum of events about a culture.

Georges Braque

Georges Braque

Georges Braque was a major 20th-century French painter, collagist, draughtsman, printmaker and sculptor. His most notable contributions were in his alliance with Fauvism from 1905, and the role he played in the development of Cubism. Braque's work between 1908 and 1912 is closely associated with that of his colleague Pablo Picasso. Their respective Cubist works were indistinguishable for many years, yet the quiet nature of Braque was partially eclipsed by the fame and notoriety of Picasso.

Fernand Léger

Fernand Léger

Joseph Fernand Henri Léger was a French painter, sculptor, and filmmaker. In his early works he created a personal form of cubism which he gradually modified into a more figurative, populist style. His boldly simplified treatment of modern subject matter has caused him to be regarded as a forerunner of pop art.

Henri Matisse

Henri Matisse

Henri Émile Benoît Matisse was a French visual artist, known for both his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter. Matisse is commonly regarded, along with Pablo Picasso, as one of the artists who best helped to define the revolutionary developments in the visual arts throughout the opening decades of the twentieth century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture.

Emil Nolde

Emil Nolde

Emil Nolde was a German-Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, and was one of the first oil painting and watercolor painters of the early 20th century to explore color. He is known for his brushwork and expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear frequently in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones. His watercolors include vivid, brooding storm-scapes and brilliant florals.

Education

The main building of the University of Copenhagen
The main building of the University of Copenhagen

Copenhagen has over 94,000 students enrolled in its largest universities and institutions: University of Copenhagen (38,867 students),[246] Copenhagen Business School (20,000 students),[247] Metropolitan University College and University College Capital (10,000 students each),[248] Technical University of Denmark (7,000 students),[249] KEA (c. 4,500 students),[250] IT University of Copenhagen (2,000 students) and the Copenhagen campus of Aalborg University (2,300 students).[251]

The University of Copenhagen is Denmark's oldest university founded in 1479. It attracts some 1,500 international and exchange students every year. The Academic Ranking of World Universities placed it 30th in the world in 2016.[252]

The Technical University of Denmark is located in Lyngby in the northern outskirts of Copenhagen. In 2013, it was ranked as one of the leading technical universities in Northern Europe.[253] The IT University is Denmark's youngest university, a mono-faculty institution focusing on technical, societal and business aspects of information technology.[254]

The Danish Academy of Fine Arts has provided education in the arts for more than 250 years. It includes the historic School of Visual Arts, and has in later years come to include a School of Architecture, a School of Design and a School of Conservation.[255] Copenhagen Business School (CBS) is an EQUIS-accredited business school located in Frederiksberg.[256] There are also branches of both University College Capital and Metropolitan University College inside and outside Copenhagen.[257][258]

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University of Copenhagen

University of Copenhagen

The University of Copenhagen is a prestigious public research university in Copenhagen, Denmark. Founded in 1479, the University of Copenhagen is the second-oldest university in Scandinavia after Uppsala University, and ranks as one of the top universities in the Nordic countries, Europe and the world.

Copenhagen Business School

Copenhagen Business School

Copenhagen Business School often abbreviated and referred to as CBS, is a public university situated in Copenhagen, Denmark and is considered one of the most prestigious business schools in Western Europe and the world.

Metropolitan University College

Metropolitan University College

The Metropolitan University College, also referred to as Metropolitan UC or MUC, is a university college offering a range of bachelor's degree and academy profession degree programmes in Copenhagen, Denmark. All programmes are taught in Danish except for a bachelor's degree in Global Nutrition and Health. A range of courses and modules in English are available to exchange students.

University College Capital

University College Capital

University College Capital(Danish: Professionshøjskolen UCC) is one of eight new regional organizations of different study sites in Denmark offering bachelor courses of all kinds in Copenhagen and North Zealand.

Technical University of Denmark

Technical University of Denmark

The Technical University of Denmark, often simply referred to as DTU, is a polytechnic university and school of engineering. It was founded in 1829 at the initiative of Hans Christian Ørsted as Denmark's first polytechnic, and it is today ranked among Europe's leading engineering institutions. It is located in the town Kongens Lyngby, 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of central Copenhagen, Denmark.

IT University of Copenhagen

IT University of Copenhagen

The IT University of Copenhagen is a public university and research institution in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is specialized in the multidisciplinary study of information technology within computer science, business IT and digital design.

Aalborg University

Aalborg University

Aalborg University (AAU) is a Danish public university with campuses in Aalborg, Esbjerg, and Copenhagen founded in 1974. The university awards bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and PhD degrees in a wide variety of subjects within humanities, social sciences, information technology, design, engineering, exact sciences, and medicine.

Academic Ranking of World Universities

Academic Ranking of World Universities

The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), also known as the Shanghai Ranking, is one of the annual publications of world university rankings. The league table was originally compiled and issued by Shanghai Jiao Tong University in 2003, making it the first global university ranking with multifarious indicators.

Kongens Lyngby

Kongens Lyngby

Kongens Lyngby is the seat and commercial centre of Lyngby-Taarbæk Municipality in the northern suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. Lyngby Hovedgade is a busy shopping street and the site of a branch of Magasin du Nord as well as Lyngby Storcenter. The district is also home to several major companies, including COWI A/S, Bang & Olufsen, ICEpower a/s and Microsoft. The Technical University of Denmark relocated to Lyngby from central Copenhagen in the 1970s. Lyngby station is located on the Hillerød radial of Copenhagen's S-train network.

Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole

Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture or Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole is an institution of higher education in Copenhagen, Denmark under the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Schools of Architecture, Design and Conservation, which is the oldest architecture and art school in the world, for more than 250 years.

Danmarks Designskole

Danmarks Designskole

The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design, more commonly known as the Danish Design School is an institution of higher education in Copenhagen, Denmark, offering a five-year design education consisting of a three-year Bachelor programme and a two-year Master in design as well as conducting research within the fields of arts, crafts and design. Danmarks Designskole is an institution under the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education.

Frederiksberg Municipality

Frederiksberg Municipality

Frederiksberg Kommune is a municipality on the island of Zealand (Sjælland) in Denmark. Part of the Capital Region of Denmark and the city of Copenhagen, it is surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality. The municipality, co-extensive with its seat, covers a total area of 8.71 km2 according to the Municipal Key Figures and has a population of 104,305 making it the smallest municipality in Denmark area-wise, the fifth most populous, and the most densely populated. Its mayor is Michael Vindfeldt from the Social Democrats serving from 1 January 2022.

Sport

The city has a variety of sporting teams. The major football teams are the historically successful FC København[259] and Brøndby. FC København plays at Parken in Østerbro. Formed in 1992, it is a merger of two older Copenhagen clubs, B 1903 (from the inner suburb Gentofte) and KB (from Frederiksberg).[260] Brøndby plays at Brøndby Stadion in the inner suburb of Brøndbyvester. BK Frem is based in the southern part of Copenhagen (Sydhavnen, Valby). Other teams of more significant stature are FC Nordsjælland (from suburban Farum), Fremad Amager, B93, AB, Lyngby and Hvidovre IF.[261]

Copenhagen has several handball teams—a sport which is particularly popular in Denmark. Of clubs playing in the "highest" leagues, there are Ajax, Ydun, and HIK (Hellerup).[261] The København Håndbold women's club has recently been established.[262] Copenhagen also has ice hockey teams, of which three play in the top league, Rødovre Mighty Bulls, Herlev Eagles and Hvidovre Ligahockey all inner suburban clubs. Copenhagen Ice Skating Club founded in 1869 is the oldest ice hockey team in Denmark but is no longer in the top league.[263]

Rugby union is also played in the Danish capital with teams such as CSR-Nanok, Copenhagen Business School Sport Rugby, Frederiksberg RK, Exiles RUFC and Rugbyklubben Speed. Rugby league is now played in Copenhagen, with the national team playing out of Gentofte Stadion. The Danish Australian Football League, based in Copenhagen is the largest Australian rules football competition outside of the English-speaking world.[261][264]

Copenhagen Marathon, Copenhagen's annual marathon event, was established in 1980.[265] Round Christiansborg Open Water Swim Race is a 2-kilometre (1.2-mile) open water swimming competition taking place each year in late August.[266] This amateur event is combined with a 10-kilometre (6-mile) Danish championship.[267] In 2009 the event included a 10-kilometre (6-mile) FINA World Cup competition in the morning. Copenhagen hosted the 2011 UCI Road World Championships in September 2011, taking advantage of its bicycle-friendly infrastructure. It was the first time that Denmark had hosted the event since 1956, when it was also held in Copenhagen.[268]

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Association football

Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 players who primarily use their feet to propel a ball around a rectangular field called a pitch. The objective of the game is to score more goals than the opposite team by moving the ball beyond the goal line into a rectangular-framed goal defended by the opposing side. Traditionally, the game has been played over two 45 minute halves, for a total match time of 90 minutes. With an estimated 250 million players active in over 200 countries and territories, it is considered the world's most popular sport.

F.C. Copenhagen

F.C. Copenhagen

Football Club Copenhagen, commonly known as FC København, FC Copenhagen, Copenhagen or simply FCK, is a professional Danish football club in Copenhagen, Denmark. FCK was founded in 1992 as a superstructure on top of Kjøbenhavns Boldklub and Boldklubben 1903.

Brøndby IF

Brøndby IF

Brøndbyernes Idrætsforening (Danish pronunciation: [ˈpʁɶnˌpyˀɐnəs ˈitʁætsfɒˌe̝ˀne̝ŋ], usually abbreviated to Brøndby IF, is a professional association football club based in Brøndbyvester, Capital Region of Denmark. The club was founded in 1964 as a merger between two local clubs and was promoted to the Danish top-flight football league in 1981.

Kjøbenhavns Boldklub

Kjøbenhavns Boldklub

Kjøbenhavns Boldklub or KB is a Danish sports club based in Copenhagen. The club was founded 26 April 1876 on the grassy fields in outer Copenhagen which later became Fælledparken. Tennis has been played since 1883. The club hosted, in 1921, one of the early tennis majors: the World Covered Court Championships, won by William Laurentz that year. Today, along with the sports already mentioned, the club also has facilities for badminton, swimming and pétanque.

Brøndbyvester

Brøndbyvester

Brøndbyvester is a Danish town, seat and main settlement of the Brøndby Municipality, in the Region Hovedstaden. It is known for housing the stadium of football team Brøndby IF.

FC Nordsjælland

FC Nordsjælland

Football Club Nordsjælland, commonly known as FC Nordsjælland, Nordsjælland or FCN, is a professional Danish football team from the North Zealand town of Farum. Founded as Farum Boldklub from the merger of the town's two football clubs Farum IK and Stavnsholt BK in 1991, the club changed its name to FC Nordsjælland in 2003.

Farum

Farum

Farum is a town on the northeast of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark, 20 km northwest of Copenhagen. The town has a population of 20,312. The town is part of Furesø Municipality. Until 2006, it constituted Farum Municipality.

Fremad Amager

Fremad Amager

Boldklubben Fremad Amager is a Danish professional football club based in the district of Amager Vest, Copenhagen. As of the 2020–21 season, the club's senior men's team play in 1st Division, the second-tier of professional football in the country. The club consists of an amateur department and a professional section, that is wholly owned by Fremad Amager Elite ApS – a private limited company created on 2 December 2013, initially with 80/20% ownership split between the new investors and the remaining 20% by the members – and small portion by the club's amateur department. The club have primarily played their home games at Sundby Idrætspark since the stadium's inauguration in 1922. Fremad Amager's last spell in the highest football league in Denmark was in the autumn of 1994. Ever since the first participation in the first nationwide league tournament in 1927, and subsequent promotion in 1929, the club has spent the majority of its history – with the exception of two seasons – in the different divisional structures. The club reached the Danish Cup final in 1971–72 season while playing at the second highest league level, but lost against Vejle BK, who had also won the Danish championship in 1971. As a result, BK Fremad Amager participated in the 1972–73 European Cup Winners' Cup, but did not advance beyond the first round.

Akademisk Boldklub

Akademisk Boldklub

Akademisk Boldklub Gladsaxe is a Danish professional football club from Gladsaxe north of Copenhagen, currently playing at the 3rd highest level of Danish domestic football in the Danish 2nd Division group 1.

Hvidovre IF

Hvidovre IF

Hvidovre Idrætsforening, more commonly known as Hvidovre IF is a Danish professional football club based in Hvidovre. The club competes in the Danish 1st Division, the second tier of Danish football, and plays its home matches at the Hvidovre Stadion.

Copenhagen Marathon

Copenhagen Marathon

The Copenhagen Marathon is an annual marathon that takes place on the streets of Copenhagen, Denmark. Established in 1980, it is held in May and has around 10,000 participants. It is a World Athletics Bronze Label race.

Hellerup

Hellerup

Hellerup is a very affluent district of Gentofte Municipality in the suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. The most urban part of the district is centred on Strandvejen and is bordered by Østerbro to the south and the Øresund to the east. It comprises Tuborg Havn, the redeveloped brewery site of Tuborg Breweries, with the Waterfront Shopping Center, a marina and the headquarters of several large companies. Other parts of the district consist of single family detached homes. Local landmarks include the science centre Experimentarium and the art Øregaard Museum.

Transport

Aerial view of Copenhagen seen from an airplane departing from Copenhagen Airport
Aerial view of Copenhagen seen from an airplane departing from Copenhagen Airport

Airport

The greater Copenhagen area has a very well established transportation infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe. Copenhagen Airport, opened in 1925, is Scandinavia's largest airport, located in Kastrup on the island of Amager. It is connected to the city centre by metro and main line railway services.[269] October 2013 was a record month with 2.2 million passengers, and November 2013 figures reveal that the number of passengers is increasing by some 3% annually, about 50% more than the European average.[270]

Road, rail and ferry

Copenhagen has an extensive road network including motorways connecting the city to other parts of Denmark and to Sweden over the Øresund Bridge.[271] The car is still the most popular form of transport within the city itself, representing two-thirds of all distances travelled. This can however lead to serious congestion in rush hour traffic.[272] The Øresund train links Copenhagen with Malmö 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Copenhagen is also served by a daily ferry connection to Oslo in Norway.[273] In 2012, Copenhagen Harbour handled 372 cruise ships and 840,000 passengers.[273]

Map of the city's rail networks. Metro, S-train, Regional trains and Local trains.
Map of the city's rail networks. Metro, S-train, Regional trains and Local trains.

The Copenhagen S-Train, Copenhagen Metro and the regional train networks are used by about half of the city's passengers, the remainder using bus services. Nørreport Station near the city centre serves passengers travelling by main-line rail, S-train, regional train, metro and bus. Some 750,000 passengers make use of public transport facilities every day.[271] Copenhagen Central Station is the hub of the DSB railway network serving Denmark and international destinations.[274]

The Copenhagen Metro expanded radically with the opening of the City Circle Line (M3) on 29 September 2019.[275] The new line connects all inner boroughs of the city by metro, including the Central Station, and opens up 17 new stations[276] for Copenhageners. On 28 March 2020, the 2.2 km (1.4 mi) Nordhavn extension of the Harbour Line (M4) opened.[277] Running from Copenhagen Central Station, the new extension is a branch line of M3 Cityring to Østerport.[278] The M4 Sydhavn branch is expected to open in 2024.[279] The new metro lines are part of the city's strategy to transform mobility towards sustainable modes of transport such as public transport and cycling as opposed to automobility.[280]

Copenhagen is cited by urban planners for its exemplary integration of public transport and urban development. In implementing its Finger Plan, Copenhagen is considered the world's first example of a transit metropolis,[53] and areas around S-Train stations like Ballerup and Brøndby Strand are among the earliest examples of transit-oriented development.[281]

Cycling

The intense use of bicycles in Copenhagen illustrated here at the Christianshavn Metro Station
The intense use of bicycles in Copenhagen illustrated here at the Christianshavn Metro Station

Copenhagen has been rated as one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world since 2015, with bicycles outnumbering its inhabitants.[282][283][284] In 2012 some 36% of all working or studying city-dwellers cycled to work, school, or university. With 1.27 million km covered every working day by Copenhagen's cyclists (including both residents and commuters), and 75% of Copenhageners cycling throughout the year.[285] The city's bicycle paths are extensive and well used, boasting 400 kilometres (250 miles) of cycle lanes not shared with cars or pedestrians, and sometimes have their own signal systems – giving the cyclists a lead of a couple of seconds to accelerate.[284][286]

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Transport in Copenhagen

Transport in Copenhagen

Transport in Copenhagen and the surrounding area relies on a well established infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe thanks to its road and rail networks as well as its international airport. Thanks to its many cycle tracks, Copenhagen is considered to be one of the world's most bicycle-friendly cities. The metro and S-train systems are key features of the city's well-developed public transport facilities. Since July 2000, the Øresund Bridge has served as a road and rail link to Malmö in Sweden. The city is also served by ferry connections to Oslo in Norway while its award-winning harbour is an ever more popular port of call for cruise ships.

Copenhagen Airport

Copenhagen Airport

Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup is an international airport serving Copenhagen, Denmark, Zealand, the Øresund Region, and southern Sweden including Scania. It is the second largest airport in the Nordic countries.

Kastrup

Kastrup

Kastrup is a suburb of Copenhagen, Denmark, on the east coast of Amager in Tårnby Municipality. It is the site of Copenhagen Airport. In Danish, the airport is often called Kastrup Lufthavn or Københavns Lufthavn, Kastrup.

Øresund Bridge

Øresund Bridge

The Öresund or Øresund Bridge is a combined railway and motorway bridge across the Øresund strait between Denmark and Sweden. It is the longest in Europe with both roadway and railway combined in a single structure, running nearly 8 kilometres from the Swedish coast to the artificial island Peberholm in the middle of the strait. The crossing is completed by the 4-kilometre (2.5 mi) Drogden Tunnel from Peberholm to the Danish island of Amager.

Oslo

Oslo

Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. The municipality of Oslo had a population of 702,543 in 2022, while the city's greater urban area had a population of 1,064,235 in 2022, and the metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1,546,706 in 2021.

Copenhagen Metro

Copenhagen Metro

The Copenhagen Metro is a 24/7 light rapid transit system in Copenhagen, Denmark, serving the municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby.

S-train (Copenhagen)

S-train (Copenhagen)

The Copenhagen S-train, the S-train of Copenhagen, Denmark is a key part of public transport in the city. It is a hybrid urban-suburban rail serving most of the Copenhagen urban area, and is analogous to S-Bahn systems of Berlin, Vienna and Hamburg. The trains connect the Copenhagen inner city with Hillerød, Klampenborg, Frederikssund, Farum, Høje Taastrup and Køge. There are 170 km of double track with 86 S-train stations, of which eight are in neighbouring towns outside greater Copenhagen.

Copenhagen Central Station

Copenhagen Central Station

Copenhagen Central Station is the main railway station in Copenhagen, Denmark, and the largest railway station in Denmark. With more than 100,000 travellers every day, it is the second busiest station in Denmark after Nørreport station. It is located in central Copenhagen, situated between the districts of Indre By and Vesterbro with entrances from Bernstorffsgade, Banegårdspladsen, Reventlowsgade and access to platforms from Tietgensgade.

DSB (railway company)

DSB (railway company)

DSB, an abbreviation of Danske Statsbaner, is the largest Danish train operating company, and the largest in Scandinavia. While DSB is responsible for passenger train operation on most of the Danish railways, goods transport and railway maintenance are outside its scope. DSB runs a commuter rail system, called the S-train, in the area around the Danish capital, Copenhagen, that connects the different areas and suburbs in the greater metropolitan area. Between 2010 and 2017, DSB operated trains in Sweden.

City Circle Line

City Circle Line

The City Circle Line or M3 is a loop line of the Copenhagen Metro. It has been claimed by COWI A/S that the City Circle Line is the largest construction project to have taken place in Copenhagen during the last 400 years. The network's total length is 15.5 kilometres (9.6 mi) and has 17 stations. The line opened on 29 September 2019.

M4 (Copenhagen Metro)

M4 (Copenhagen Metro)

The M4 of the Copenhagen Metro connects Nordhavn in the north with Sydhavn in the south. The central part of the line shares tracks with the City Circle Line (M3).

Healthcare

Rigshospitalet is one of the largest hospitals in Denmark.
Rigshospitalet is one of the largest hospitals in Denmark.

Promoting health is an important issue for Copenhagen's municipal authorities. Central to its sustainability mission is its "Long Live Copenhagen" (Længe Leve København) scheme in which it has the goal of increasing the life expectancy of citizens, improving quality of life through better standards of health, and encouraging more productive lives and equal opportunities.[287] The city has targets to encourage people to exercise regularly and to reduce the number who smoke and consume alcohol.[287]

Copenhagen University Hospital forms a conglomerate of several hospitals in Region Hovedstaden and Region Sjælland, together with the faculty of health sciences at the University of Copenhagen; Rigshospitalet and Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen belong to this group of university hospitals.[288] Rigshospitalet began operating in March 1757 as Frederiks Hospital,[289] and became state-owned in 1903. With 1,120 beds, Rigshospitalet has responsibility for 65,000 inpatients and approximately 420,000 outpatients annually. It seeks to be the number one specialist hospital in the country, with an extensive team of researchers into cancer treatment, surgery and radiotherapy.[290] In addition to its 8,000 personnel, the hospital has training and hosting functions. It benefits from the presence of in-service students of medicine and other healthcare sciences, as well as scientists working under a variety of research grants. The hospital became internationally famous as the location of Lars von Trier's television horror mini-series The Kingdom. Bispebjerg Hospital was built in 1913, and serves about 400,000 people in the Greater Copenhagen area, with some 3,000 employees.[291] Other large hospitals in the city include Amager Hospital (1997),[292] Herlev Hospital (1976),[293] Hvidovre Hospital (1970),[294] and Gentofte Hospital (1927).[295]

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Healthcare in Denmark

Healthcare in Denmark

Healthcare in Denmark is largely provided by the local governments of the five regions, with coordination and regulation by central government, while nursing homes, home care, and school health services are the responsibility of the 98 municipalities. Some specialised hospital services are managed centrally.

Rigshospitalet

Rigshospitalet

Rigshospitalet is the largest public and teaching hospital in Copenhagen and the most highly specialised hospital in Denmark. The hospital's main building is a 16-storey functionalist highrise, one of the tallest structures in the central parts of the city. Rigshospitalet neighbours the Panum Building which houses the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen. As a teaching hospital it is part of the framework organisation Copenhagen University Hospital.

Copenhagen University Hospital

Copenhagen University Hospital

Copenhagen University Hospital is a conglomerate of several hospitals in Region Hovedstaden and Region Sjælland in Denmark, together with the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen.

Bispebjerg Hospital

Bispebjerg Hospital

Bispebjerg Hospital is one of the hospitals in the Capital Region of Denmark. Along with a number of other hospitals and the University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital forms part of the Copenhagen University Hospital.

Lars von Trier

Lars von Trier

Lars von Trier is a Danish filmmaker, actor, and lyricist. Trier's career has spanned more than four decades and his works have gained notoriety for his trademarks including European frequent actors, different thematic trilogies, handheld camerawork, upsetting subject matters, genre and technical innovation, confrontational examination of existential, social, and political issues, and his treatment of subjects such as mercy, sacrifice, and mental health.

Amager Hospital

Amager Hospital

Amager Hospital is located in Denmark on the island of Amager in Copenhagen. It was founded on April 1, 1997, with the merger of Skt. Elisabeth Hospital and Sundby Hospital. Administratively, Amager Hospital is maintained by Region Hovedstaden.

Herlev Hospital

Herlev Hospital

Herlev Hospital is a hospital in Herlev, Denmark, close to Copenhagen. The building is 120 metres (390 ft) tall and has 25 floors. It is famous for being Denmark's tallest building. Its modern, functional architecture in bright concrete, glass and bronze-colored aluminum gives a unique impression.

Hvidovre Hospital

Hvidovre Hospital

Hvidovre Hospital is a hospital in Hvidovre near Copenhagen in Denmark. It is administered by the Capital Region of Denmark.

Gentofte Hospital

Gentofte Hospital

Gentofte Hospital is located in Gentofte within Copenhagen in Denmark. Administratively, it is part of the hospital service of Region Hovedstaden. The hospital primarily serves the municipalities of Gentofte, Lyngby-Taarbæk, and Rudersdal, with a population of about 175,000.

Media

The Aller Media conglomerate building in Havneholm
The Aller Media conglomerate building in Havneholm

Many Danish media corporations are located in Copenhagen. DR, the major Danish public service broadcasting corporation consolidated its activities in a new headquarters, DR Byen, in 2006 and 2007. Similarly TV2, which is based in Odense, has concentrated its Copenhagen activities in a modern media house in Teglholmen.[296] The two national daily newspapers Politiken and Berlingske and the two tabloids Ekstra Bladet and BT are based in Copenhagen.[297] Kristeligt Dagblad is based in Copenhagen and is published six days a week.[298] Other important media corporations include Aller Media which is the largest publisher of weekly and monthly magazines in Scandinavia,[299] the Egmont media group[300] and Gyldendal, the largest Danish publisher of books.[301]

Copenhagen has a large film and television industry. Nordisk Film, established in Valby, Copenhagen in 1906 is the oldest continuously operating film production company in the world.[239] In 1992 it merged with the Egmont media group and currently runs the 17-screen Palads Cinema in Copenhagen. Filmbyen (movie city), located in a former military camp in the suburb of Hvidovre, houses several movie companies and studios. Zentropa is a film company, co-owned by Danish director Lars von Trier. He is behind several international movie productions as well and founded the Dogme Movement.[302] CPH:PIX is Copenhagen's international feature film festival, established in 2009 as a fusion of the 20-year-old NatFilm Festival and the four-year-old CIFF. The CPH:PIX festival takes place in mid-April. CPH:DOX is Copenhagen's international documentary film festival, every year in November. In addition to a documentary film programme of over 100 films, CPH:DOX includes a wide event programme with dozens of events, concerts, exhibitions and parties all over town.[303]

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Aller Media

Aller Media

Aller Media is a magazine publisher in the Nordic countries, headquartered in Copenhagen, Denmark. It publishes Elle, Cafe, Familie Journalen, Femina, Allers and Se og Hør.

DR (broadcaster)

DR (broadcaster)

DR, officially the Danish Broadcasting Corporation in English, is a Danish public-service radio and television broadcasting company. Founded in 1925 as a public-service organization, it is Denmark's oldest and largest electronic media enterprise. DR is a founding member of the European Broadcasting Union.

DR Byen

DR Byen

DR Byen is the headquarters of the Danish Broadcasting Corporation, DR, located in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Odense

Odense

Odense is the third largest city in Denmark and the largest city on the island of Funen. As of 1 January 2022, the city proper had a population of 180,863 while Odense Municipality had a population of 205,978, making it the fourth largest municipality in Denmark. Eurostat and OECD have used a definition for the Metropolitan area of Odense, which includes all municipalities in the Province of Funen, with a total population of 504,066 as of 1 July 2022

Politiken

Politiken

Politiken is a leading Danish daily broadsheet newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus in Copenhagen, Denmark. It was founded in 1884 and played a role in the formation of the Danish Social Liberal Party. Since 1970 it has been independent of the party but maintains a liberal stance. It now runs an online newspaper, politiken.dk. The paper's design has won several international awards, and a number of its journalists have won the Cavling Prize.

Berlingske

Berlingske

Berlingske, previously known as Berlingske Tidende, is a Danish national daily newspaper based in Copenhagen. It is considered a newspaper of record for Denmark. First published on 3 January 1749, Berlingske is Denmark's, as well as the Nordic region's, oldest continually operating newspaper and among the oldest newspapers in the world.

Ekstra Bladet

Ekstra Bladet

Ekstra Bladet is a Danish tabloid newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus in Copenhagen. It was founded in 1904 as an evening edition to Politiken. In 1905 the newspaper was established in its own right and has since focused on investigative journalism, news, sports and entertainment. It has been described as a sensationalistic newspaper. Since July 2021, Henrik Qvortrup has been editor-in-chief.

B.T. (tabloid)

B.T. (tabloid)

B.T. is a Danish tabloid newspaper which offers general news about various subjects such as sports, politics and current affairs. B.T. will be 100% digital by 2023, after more than a hundred years in the printing press.

Kristeligt Dagblad

Kristeligt Dagblad

Kristeligt Dagblad is a Danish newspaper in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Media conglomerate

Media conglomerate

A media conglomerate, media group, or media institution is a company that owns numerous companies involved in mass media enterprises, such as music, television, radio, publishing, motion pictures, theme parks, or the Internet. According to the magazine The Nation, "Media conglomerates strive for policies that facilitate their control of the markets around the world."

Gyldendal

Gyldendal

Gyldendalske Boghandel, Nordisk Forlag A/S, usually referred to simply as Gyldendal is a Danish publishing house.

Nordisk Film

Nordisk Film

Nordisk Film A/S is a Danish entertainment company established in 1906 in Copenhagen by filmmaker Ole Olsen. It is the fourth-oldest film studio in the world behind the Gaumont Film Company, Pathé, and Titanus, and the oldest studio to be continuously active.

Twin towns – sister cities

Copenhagen is twinned with:

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List of twin towns and sister cities in Denmark

List of twin towns and sister cities in Denmark

This is a list of municipalities of Denmark which have standing links to local communities in other countries known as "town twinning" or "sister cities".

Sister city

Sister city

A sister city or a twin town relationship is a form of legal or social agreement between two geographically and politically distinct localities for the purpose of promoting cultural and commercial ties.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. With an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometres (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two special administrative regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Beijing

Beijing

Beijing, alternatively romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China. It is the center of power and development of the country. Beijing is the world's most populous national capital city, with over 21 million residents and the second largest in the country after Shanghai. It is located in Northern China, and is governed as a municipality under the direct administration of the State Council with 16 urban, suburban, and rural districts. Beijing is mostly surrounded by Hebei Province with the exception of neighboring Tianjin to the southeast; together, the three divisions form the Jingjinji megalopolis and the national capital region of China.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also includes overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, giving it one of the largest discontiguous exclusive economic zones in the world. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people.

Marseille

Marseille

Marseille is the prefecture of the French department of Bouches-du-Rhône and capital of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region. Situated in the Provence region of southern France, it is located on the coast of the Gulf of Lion, part of the Mediterranean Sea, near the mouth of the Rhône river. Its inhabitants are called Marseillais.

Iceland

Iceland

Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean and in the Arctic Ocean. Iceland is the most sparsely populated country in Europe. Iceland's capital and largest city is Reykjavík, which is home to over 65% of the population. Iceland is the biggest part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge that rises above sea level, and its central volcanic plateau is erupting almost constantly. The interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields, mountains, and glaciers, and many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a temperate climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence keep summers chilly, and most of its islands have a polar climate.

Honorary citizens

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Copenhagen are:

Date Name Notes
21 November 1838 Bertel Thorvaldsen (1770–1844) Danish sculptor[307]

While honorary citizenship is no longer granted in Copenhagen, three people have been awarded the title of honorary Copenhageners (æreskøbenhavnere).

Date Name Notes
16 June 1967 Poul Reumert (1883–1968) Danish actor
16 June 1967 Victor Borge (1909–2000) Danish comedian
16 June 1967 Steen Eiler Rasmussen (1898–1990) Danish architect

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Honorary citizenship

Honorary citizenship

Honorary citizenship is a status bestowed by a city or other government on a foreign or native individual whom it considers to be especially admirable or otherwise worthy of the distinction. The honour usually is symbolic and does not confer any change to citizenship or nationality.

Bertel Thorvaldsen

Bertel Thorvaldsen

Bertel Thorvaldsen was a Danish and Icelandic sculptor and medalist of international fame, who spent most of his life (1797–1838) in Italy. Thorvaldsen was born in Copenhagen into a working-class Danish/Icelandic family, and was accepted to the Royal Danish Academy of Art at the age of eleven. Working part-time with his father, who was a wood carver, Thorvaldsen won many honors and medals at the academy. He was awarded a stipend to travel to Rome and continue his education.

Poul Reumert

Poul Reumert

Poul Reumert was a Danish stage and film actor. An incredibly skilled theater actor who made a name for himself in major roles such as Elverhoj, Genboerne and Flegermusen. He debuted after theater school in 1902.

Victor Borge

Victor Borge

Børge Rosenbaum, known professionally as Victor Borge, was a Danish-American comedian, conductor, and pianist who achieved great popularity in radio and television in both North America and Europe. His blend of music and comedy earned him the nicknames "The Clown Prince of Denmark", "The Unmelancholy Dane", and "The Great Dane".

Steen Eiler Rasmussen

Steen Eiler Rasmussen

Steen Eiler Rasmussen, Hon. FAIA was a Danish architect and urban planner who was a professor at the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, and a prolific writer of books and poetry. He was made a Royal Designer for Industry by the British Royal Society of Arts in 1947.

Source: "Copenhagen", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copenhagen.

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See also
Footnotes
Citations
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Copenhagen City - Driving in Denmark

References
Further reading
External links