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Consolidated Steel Corporation

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Consolidated Steel Corporation (formed 18 December 1928[1]) was an American steel and shipbuilding business. Consolidated built ships during World War II in two locations: Wilmington, California and Orange, Texas. It was created in 1929 by the merger of Llewellyn Iron Works, Baker Iron Works and Union Iron Works,[2] all of Los Angeles. The company entered the shipbuilding business in 1939.[3]

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World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global conflict that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries, including all of the great powers, fought as part of two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. Many participants threw their economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind this total war, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. Aircraft played a major role, enabling the strategic bombing of population centres and the only two nuclear weapons ever used in war.

Orange, Texas

Orange, Texas

Orange is a city and the county seat of Orange County, Texas, United States. As of the 2020 census, the city population was 19,324. It is the easternmost city in Texas, located on the Sabine River at the border with Louisiana, and is 113 miles (182 km) from Houston. Orange is part of the Beaumont−Port Arthur Metropolitan Statistical Area. Founded in 1836, it is a deep-water port to the Gulf of Mexico.

Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, often referred to by its initials L.A., is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Southern California. Los Angeles is also the largest city in the state of California and the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, as well as one of the world's most populous megacities. With a population of roughly 3.9 million residents within the city limits as of 2020, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, being the home of the Hollywood film industry, and its sprawling metropolitan area. The city lies in a basin in Southern California adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and north into the San Fernando Valley, with the city bordering the San Gabriel Valley to its east. It covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2), and is the county seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million residents as of 2022.

Orange shipyard

Orange shipyard in 1945, Levingston Shipbuilding Company just below the upper bend
Orange shipyard in 1945, Levingston Shipbuilding Company just below the upper bend

The Orange, Texas shipyard lay on the banks of the Sabine River at (30°05′11″N 93°43′28″W / 30.086351°N 93.72434°W / 30.086351; -93.72434[4]), a few miles upstream of the Sabine Pass that grants access to the Gulf of Mexico (Pennsylvania Shipyards, Inc. in Beaumont, Texas made use of it as well). It was expanded in 1940 when Consolidated Steel was awarded destroyer contracts from the U.S. Navy. They were the Orange Car & Steel Company and Southern Dry Dock & Shipbuilding Company before the war. After the war the yard became a U.S. Steel fabrication plant. Steel sold to Signal International and then sold to Westport Orange Shipyard, LLC. At its peak durning the war, it employed 20,000 people. The first ship launched was the destroyer USS Aulick on March 2, 1942. The last ship launched was the destroyer USS Carpenter on December 28, 1945. United States Naval Station Orange was the overseer of the Navy projects.[5][6]

Contracts for 12 Fletchers were authorized with the Two-Ocean Navy Act and placed later in 1940[7] Fletchers were produced no more than 6 concurrently. Gearings were produced no more than 10 concurrently. There were 6 slipways that could built one destroyer or destroyer escort and there were 2 side launching ways that could each build 2 destroyers or 3 destroyer escorts. The stern-first launching ways must obviously have been there first, see also launch photographs e.g. [8][9][10]

Levingston Shipbuilding Company and Weaver Shipyards round up the landscape of WW2 shipbuilding in Orange.

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Levingston Shipbuilding Company

Levingston Shipbuilding Company

Levingston Shipbuilding Company was a shipbuilding company at Orange, Texas on the Sabine River founded by George Levingston. During World War II Levingston Shipbuilding Company built ships for the United States Naval Station Orange also on the Sabine River]. George Levingston also purchased major shares of Joseph Weaver and Son Shipyard, also on the Sabine River. The company was started by Samuel H. Levingston in 1859.

Sabine Pass

Sabine Pass

Sabine Pass is the natural outlet of Sabine Lake into the Gulf of Mexico. It borders Jefferson County, Texas, and Cameron Parish, Louisiana.

Gulf of Mexico

Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States; on the southwest and south by the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Campeche, Yucatan, and Quintana Roo; and on the southeast by Cuba. The Southern U.S. states of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida, which border the Gulf on the north, are often referred to as the "Third Coast" of the United States.

Beaumont, Texas

Beaumont, Texas

Beaumont is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Texas. It is the seat of government of Jefferson County, within the Beaumont–Port Arthur metropolitan statistical area, located in Southeast Texas on the Neches River about 85 miles (137 km) east of Houston. With a population of 115,282 at the 2020 census, Beaumont is the largest incorporated municipality by population near the Louisiana border. Its metropolitan area was the 10th largest in Texas in 2019, and 132nd in the United States.

U.S. Steel

U.S. Steel

United States Steel Corporation, more commonly known as U.S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, with production operations primarily in the United States of America and in Central Europe. The company produces and sells steel products, including flat-rolled and tubular products for customers in industries across automotive, construction, consumer, electrical, industrial equipment, distribution, and energy. Operations also include iron ore and coke production facilities.

Signal International

Signal International

Signal International, LLC is a Mobile, Alabama based marine construction firm specializing in the construction of large ocean going structures such as offshore drilling rigs, production platforms and barges. The company also has operations in Pascagoula, Mississippi, and Orange, Texas. The company filed for bankruptcy on July 12, 2015 following settlements on lawsuits alleging human trafficking and violating H2B visa conditions for migrant workers.

USS Aulick (DD-569)

USS Aulick (DD-569)

USS Aulick (DD-569) was an American Fletcher-class destroyer, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Commodore John H. Aulick (1787–1873).

Two-Ocean Navy Act

Two-Ocean Navy Act

The Two-Ocean Navy Act, also known as the Vinson-Walsh Act, was a United States law enacted on July 19, 1940, and named for Carl Vinson and David I. Walsh, who chaired the Naval Affairs Committee in the House and Senate respectively. The largest naval procurement bill in U.S. history, it increased the size of the United States Navy by 70%.

Fletcher-class destroyer

Fletcher-class destroyer

The Fletcher class was a class of destroyers built by the United States during World War II. The class was designed in 1939, as a result of dissatisfaction with the earlier destroyer leader types of the Porter and Somers classes. Some went on to serve during the Korean War and into the Vietnam War.

Destroyer

Destroyer

In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, manoeuvrable, long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy, or battle group and defend them against powerful short-range attackers. They were originally developed in 1885 by Fernando Villaamil for the Spanish Navy as a defense against torpedo boats, and by the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904, these "torpedo boat destroyers" (TBDs) were "large, swift, and powerfully armed torpedo boats designed to destroy other torpedo boats". Although the term "destroyer" had been used interchangeably with "TBD" and "torpedo boat destroyer" by navies since 1892, the term "torpedo boat destroyer" had been generally shortened to simply "destroyer" by nearly all navies by the First World War.

Gearing-class destroyer

Gearing-class destroyer

The Gearing class was a series of 98 destroyers built for the U.S. Navy during and shortly after World War II. The Gearing design was a minor modification of the Allen M. Sumner class, whereby the hull was lengthened by 14 ft (4.3 m) at amidships, which resulted in more fuel storage space and increased the operating range.

USS Corry (DD-817)

USS Corry (DD-817)

USS Corry (DD/DDR-817) was a Gearing-class destroyer of the United States Navy, the third Navy ship named for Lieutenant Commander William M. Corry, Jr. (1889–1920), a naval aviator who was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor.

Wilmington shipyard

Wilmington shipyard (right) Western Pipe and Steel yard[12] (left), the Los Angeles Shipbuilding Company yard is just out of frame at the bottom left corner
Wilmington shipyard (right) Western Pipe and Steel yard[12] (left), the Los Angeles Shipbuilding Company yard is just out of frame at the bottom left corner

The Consolidated Steel Wilmington shipyard (33°46′04″N 118°16′21″W / 33.76767°N 118.27254°W / 33.76767; -118.27254) in Wilmington, California was an emergency yard built in 1941 in the Port of Los Angeles West Basin after Consolidated Steel was awarded Maritime Commission contracts. At its peak, it employed 12,000 people, working on eight shipways on the 95-acre facility at 1100 W Harry Bridges Blvd, Wilmington. Production peaked on May 29, 1944, when it launched three large ships in only a 2+12-hour period. Later that year, the yard delivered its 500th vessel of the war. The yard was built as a temporary facility and, like most such war plants, it was closed after the war ended.

Together, the shipyards ranked Consolidated 29th among United States corporations in the value of wartime production contracts.[13]

Sources disagree on the division of labor between the Wilmington and Long Beach yards.

  • 47 C1-B in Wilmington, 18 in Long Beach. 36 C1-M-AV1 in W., 19 in L.B. [14]
  • 58 C1-B in Wilmington, 7 in Long Beach, 55 C1-M-AV1 in W.: [15]
  • 18 C1-B, 2 P2 in Long Beach after June 1940 (exclusive of 412 ... 415): contract sources given below
  • 52 C1-B in Wilmington, 9 in LB (Lloyd's)

Fifteen of the C1-B were built with steam turbines supplied by Joshua Hendy Iron Works ("JH") instead of those built by Westinghouse ("WH"). Hendy also provided the 36 triple expansion steam engines that went into the patrol frigates.

List of contracts:[16][17]

Contract No. Description Type Price
MCc 412 1 C-1B, full scantling, turbine Lump sum $2,150,814.96
MCc 413 $2,248,486.96
MCc 414 $2,248,486.96
MCc 415 $2,386,408.97
MCc 1275 1 P1-S2-L2, twin screw transport, turbine $5,808,149.22
MCc 1276 $5,760,072.99
MCc 1953 and 1675 Acquisition and installation of plant equipment Cost only $13,133,630.60
MCc 1520 4 C-1B, full scantling, turbine Price minus complex
MCc 1790 9 C-1B, full scantling, turbine
MCc 1791 9 C-1B, full scantling, tubine
MCc 1792 8 C-1B, full scantling, turbine
MCc 2235 4 C-1B, full scantling, rurbine
MCc 7713 18 C-1B, full scantling, turbine; 13 troopships; 2 uncompleted hopital ships
MCc 7714 6 C-1B full scantling, turbine, 1 uncompleted hospital ship
MCc 8524 18 S2-S2-AQ-1 steel escort
MCc 15951 32 S4-SE2-BD1
MCc 26055 27 C1-M-AV1
DA MCc 857 30 C1-M-AV1 (28 delivered)
MCc 34768 10 C2-S-B1 (10 delivered), 6 R2-S-BV1 (0 delivered) Selective price

Ships built:[18]

Yard# USMC# Owner Name Keel laid Launched Delivered
1358 2817 States Marine Corp. Messenger 10 Jul 45 20 Oct 45 6 Feb 46
1359 2818 Grace Line Spitfire 27 Jul 45 9 Nov 45 22 Feb 46
1360 2819 States Marine Corp. Ocean Rover 8 Aug 45 29 Nov 45 15 Mar 46
1361 2820 National Eagle 20 Aug 45 21 Dec 45 2 Apr 46
1362 2821 Mountain Wave 24 Aug 45 15 Jan 46 18 Apr 46
1363 2822 Carrier Dove 4 Sep 45 19 Feb 46 7 May 46
1364 2823 Agwilines Twilight 15 Sep 45 5 Mar 46 24 May 46
1365 2824 Wild Ranger 8 Oct 45 28 Mar 46 14 Jun 46
1366 2825 Crest of the Wave 22 Oct 45 17 Apr 46 28 jun 46
1367 2868 Golden Light 9 Nov 45 29 Apr 46 10 Jul 46
Yard# Name Keel laid Launched
519 Long Beach 19 Mar 43 5 May 43 528 Orange 7 Jul 43 6 Aug 43
520 Belfast 26 Mar 43 20 May 43 529 Corpus Christi 17 Jul 43 17 Aug 43
521 Glendale 6 Apr 43 29 May 43[83] 530 Hutchinson 27 Aug 43
522 San Pedro 17 Apr 43 11 Jun 43 531 Bisbee 7 Sep 43
523 Coronado 6 May 43 17 Jun 43 532 Gallup 18 Aug 43 17 Sep 43
524 Ogden 21 May 43 23 Jun 43 533 Rockford 28 Aug 43 27 Sep 43
525 Eugene 12 Jun 43 6 Jul 43 534 Muskogee 18 Sep 43 18 Oct 43
526 El Paso 18 Jun 43 16 Jul 43 535 Carson City 28 Sep 43 13 Nov 43
527 Van Buren 24 Jun 43 27 Jul 43 536 Burlington 7 Dec 43
Yard# Name Keel laid Launched Yard# Name Keel laid Launched
720 Gilliam 30 Nov 43 28 Mar 44 736 Cleburne 27 Sep 44
721 Appling 9 Apr 44 737 Colusa 7 Oct 44
722 Audrain 1 Dec 43 21 Apr 44 738 Cortland 12 Jul 44 18 Oct 44
723 Banner 24 Jan 44 3 May 44 739 Crenshaw 27 Oct 44
724 Barrow 28 Jan 44 11 May 44 740 Crittenden 31 Jul 44 6 Nov 44
725 Berrien 23 Feb 44 20 May 44 741 Cullman 17 Nov 44
726 Bladen 8 Mar 44 31 May 44 742 Dawson 29 Aug 44 27 Nov 44
727 Bracken 13 Mar 44 10 Jun 44 743 Eickhart 5 Dec 44
728 Briscoe 29 Mar 44 19 Jun 44 744 Fallon 28 Sep 44 14 Dec 44
729 Brule 10 Apr 44 30 Jun 44 745 Fergus 24 Dec 44
730 Burleson 22 Apr 44 11 Jul 44 746 Fillmore 4 Jan 45
731 Butte 4 May 44 20 Jul 44 747 Garrard 28 Oct 44 13 Jan 45
732 Carlisle 12 May 44 30 Jul 44 748 Gasconade 7 Nov 44 23 Jan 45
733 Carteret 15 Aug 44 749 Geneva 31 Jan 45
734 Catron 28 Aug 44 750 Niagara 20 Nov 44 10 Feb 45
735 Clarendon 12 Sep 44 751 Presidio 6 Dec 44 17 Feb 45

Bethlehem San Pedro and California Shipbuilding were located nearby on Terminal Island.

See also: California during World War II#Ship building

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Port of Los Angeles

Port of Los Angeles

The Port of Los Angeles is a seaport managed by the Los Angeles Harbor Department, a unit of the City of Los Angeles. It occupies 7,500 acres (3,000 ha) of land and water with 43 miles (69 km) of waterfront and adjoins the separate Port of Long Beach. Promoted as "America's Port", the port is located in San Pedro Bay in the San Pedro and Wilmington neighborhoods of Los Angeles, approximately 20 miles (32 km) south of downtown.

Joshua Hendy Iron Works

Joshua Hendy Iron Works

The Joshua Hendy Iron Works was an American engineering company that existed from the 1850s to the late 1940s. It was at one time a world leader in mining technology and its equipment was used in the construction of the Panama Canal, amongst other major projects. The company went on to serve many different markets during the course of its existence, but is perhaps best remembered today for its contribution to the American shipbuilding industry during World War II.

Type C1 ship

Type C1 ship

Type C1 was a designation for cargo ships built for the United States Maritime Commission before and during World War II. Total production was 493 ships built from 1940 to 1945. The first C1 types were the smallest of the three original Maritime Commission designs, meant for shorter routes where high speed and capacity were less important. Only a handful were delivered prior to Pearl Harbor. But many C1-A and C1-B ships were already in the works and were delivered during 1942. Many were converted to military purposes including troop transports during the war.

SS Mormachawk (1942)

SS Mormachawk (1942)

SS Mormachawk was a United States cargo vessel and troop ship during the Second World War operated by Moore-McCormack Lines as agents of the War Shipping Administration (WSA) from completion 14 December 1942 until placed in reserve after the war September 1946. The ship remained in the Columbia River reserve fleet at Astoria, Oregon until sold for scrapping in 1964.

SS Mormacgull

SS Mormacgull

Two ships of Moore-McCormack have borne the name MormacgullSS Mormacgull (1939) was launched in 1939 as a Type C2 ship. She was acquired by the US Navy in 1941 as an Arcturus-class attack cargo ship and renamed USS Alcyone. She was decommissioned in 1946, sold into civilian service in 1947 as the Star Alcyone and scrapped in 1969. SS Mormacgull (1943) was launched in 1943 as a Type C1-B ship. She was renamed Mormacreed in 1946 and was transferred to the National Defense Reserve Fleet in 1959. She was scrapped in 1970.

SS Mormaclark

SS Mormaclark

Two ships of Moore-McCormack have borne the name MormaclarkSS Mormaclark was launched in 1939 as a Type C2 ship. She was acquired by the US Navy in 1941 as an Arcturus-class attack cargo ship and renamed USS Betelgeuse. She was decommissioned in 1946, sold into civilian service in 1947 as the Star Betelgeuze and scrapped in 1972. SS Mormaclark was launched in 1942 as a Type C1-B ship. She was transferred to the National Defense Reserve Fleet in 1959 and scrapped in 1970.

USS Hope (AH-7)

USS Hope (AH-7)

USS Hope (AH-7) was a Comfort-class hospital ship launched under Maritime Commission contract by Consolidated Steel Corporation, Wilmington, California, 30 August 1943; sponsored by Miss Martha L. Floyd; acquired by the Navy the same day for conversion to a hospital ship by U.S. Naval Dry Dock, Terminal Island, Calif.; and commissioned 15 August 1944.

Type C2 ship

Type C2 ship

Type C2 ships were designed by the United States Maritime Commission (MARCOM) in 1937–38. They were all-purpose cargo ships with five holds, and U.S. shipyards built 328 of them from 1939 to 1945. Compared to ships built before 1939, the C2s were remarkable for their speed and fuel economy. Their design speed was 15.5 knots (28.7 km/h), but some could make 19 knots (35 km/h) on occasion. The first C2s were 459 feet (140 m) long, 63 feet (19 m) broad, and 40 feet (12 m) deep, with a 25-foot (8 m) draft. Later ships varied somewhat in size. Some, intended for specific trade routes, were built with significant modifications in length and capacity.

Long Beach shipyard

Long Beach shipyard in 1944
Long Beach shipyard in 1944

The former Long Beach Shipbuilding Company yard was the first Consolidated Steel facility to become operational.

On Liberty Fleet Day, September 27, 1941, the yard launched SS Alcoa Polaris, a C1-B type cargo vessel, as one of the fourteen ships launched nationwide on the same day to show the magnitude of the shipbuilding program.[84][85]

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Maywood plant

Landing craft mechanized were constructed to completion 25 miles from the shore and their motors and integrity of hulls tested on site in a large water tank.[104]

After the war

Shortly after the end of the war, in 1945, Consolidated Steel bought the assets of the Western Pipe and Steel Company of California, another wartime shipbuilding firm, for a sum in excess of $6.2 million. The WPS assets along with some other assets of Consolidated were sold in 1948 for over $17 million to the Columbia Steel Company, a division of US Steel, which formed a new division known as the Consolidated Western Steel Corporation to manage them. The former President and Chairman of Consolidated Steel's board, Alden G. Roach, became President of Consolidated Western. Consolidated Western was later merged directly into the parent company, US Steel.

After the sale to Columbia, the remaining assets of Consolidated Steel were folded into a new company known as Consolidated Liquidating Corporation, which was dissolved on February 29, 1952.[105]

Baker Iron Works

The Baker Iron Works had its start at Los Angeles, California, about 1874,[106][107] when Milo Stannard Baker (1828-1894) acquired a small machine shop there. The business, begun on a small scale as M.S. Baker & Company, grew quite rapidly.

A much larger facility was erected in 1886 and in June of that year the business was incorporated as the Baker Iron Works with capital stock of $75,000. Five Directors were named: Milo S. Baker, E.H. Booth, Charles F. Kimball, Fred L. Baker (Milo's son), and H.T. Neuree.

Less than a year later, Baker erected a $15,000 building [equivalent to $300,000 in today's buying power] on Buena Vista Street near College.

Baker Iron Works had a great many different products, manufacturing mining, milling, pumping, hoisting, oil and well drilling machinery, streetcars, boilers, oven and heating furnaces, as well as a line of architectural iron. It seems to have been especially noteworthy for steam boiler fabrication, installation and maintenance.

According to one authority, in 1889 Baker produced the first locomotive built in Los Angeles, designed by Milo's son Fred, vice president of the firm.

Another authority {106} says Baker built horse cars and perhaps street cars for Los Angeles, Pasadena and other communities in the Los Angeles area and that they built some larger cars for the Santa Ana & Orange Motor Road in 1898. According to this authority, after Pacific Electric bought this line, the cars were revamped and continued in service until 1920. It is claimed that in the early 1890s, Street Railway Journal reportedly ranked Baker "among the principal car builders on the Pacific Coast."

In 1887, Baker constructed six street cars for the City & Central Street Railway. {107}

According to an article in the 1 January 1890 issue of the Los Angeles Times, the Baker Works then occupied some 25,000 square feet (2,300 m2) and provided employment to 75 men. A large variety of manufacturing was being done. The foundry was making iron and brass castings to fit nearly all kinds of machinery for mining and milling purposes, besides pumping plants for large and small waterworks, and steam plants for all the variety of uses to which steam was put. They manufactured their own boilers. They were also manufacturing oil-boring tools and rigs, and constructing elevators—both passenger and freight—in all varieties: hydraulic steam or hand. It was claimed by the newspaper that Baker had installed nearly all the first class passenger elevators in Southern California. The article said they manufacture street-cars and did other railroad work to order and claimed to make the best gang plows and road and field rollers that could be obtained anywhere. They also installed heating and ventilating plants for public buildings, both steam, hot water and hot air. And they did architectural iron-work. Milo S. Baker was then President, J.E. Sills was Vice-President and Treasurer, and Fred L. Baker (Milo's son) was Secretary and Plant Superintendent.

In 1891, Baker was awarded the contract to build the Santa Ana Water Works. In six months, for a total price of $58,000, Baker put in nine miles (14 km) of street mains, sixty fire hydrants and gates valves, one reservoir 10×78×78 feet (3.0×23.8×23.8 m), build one fire-proof power house, two sixty-horsepower (45 kW) boilers and brick stock, two 10 by 16 by 10+12 by 10 feet (3.0 m × 4.9 m × 3.2 m × 3.0 m) compound condensing engines of 2,060,000 US gallons (7,800 m3) capacity every 24 hours, All this complete and functioning: truly a "turn-key" operation. {109}

After the turn of the 20th century, Baker seems to have specialized in steel fabrication and elevator building. Fred L.Baker headed the company as president after his father's death.[106] Over the next 30 years they did the steel work and/or elevators for—among many others— Los Angeles' first skyscraper, the twelve-story Union Trust Building, the Public Service Building, the Queen of Angels Hospital, the YWCA Hotel, the United Artists-California Petroleum Building, the University of California at Westwood, The Masonic Temple at Glendale, the Los Angeles-First National Bank at Glendale, the Los Angeles-First National Bank at Hollywood and the University of Redlands at Redlands.

Erection of the Hotel Alexandria from prefabricated materials.[106]

Fred L. Baker acted as president of the Los Angeles Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. The keels for the first 3 ships hastily laid down in the yard in July 1917 were fabricated in the Baker Iron Works shops.[108]

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Fred L. Baker

Fred L. Baker

Fred L. Baker was an industrialist, business owner, shipbuilder, president of the Automobile Club of Southern California and member of the Los Angeles City Council. One of his ships caught fire and sank on its maiden voyage between Los Angeles and Honolulu.

Locomotive

Locomotive

A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is usually rather referred to as a multiple unit, motor coach, railcar or power car; the use of these self-propelled vehicles is increasingly common for passenger trains, but rare for freight.

Pacific Electric

Pacific Electric

The Pacific Electric Railway Company, nicknamed the Red Cars, was a privately owned mass transit system in Southern California consisting of electrically powered streetcars, interurban cars, and buses and was the largest electric railway system in the world in the 1920s. Organized around the city centers of Los Angeles and San Bernardino, it connected cities in Los Angeles County, Orange County, San Bernardino County and Riverside County.

Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper that started publishing in Los Angeles in 1881. Based in the LA-adjacent suburb of El Segundo since 2018, it is the sixth-largest newspaper by circulation in the United States. The publication has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes. It is owned by Patrick Soon-Shiong and published by the Times Mirror Company. The newspaper’s coverage emphasizes California and especially Southern California stories.

Horsepower

Horsepower

Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done, usually in reference to the output of engines or motors. There are many different standards and types of horsepower. Two common definitions used today are the mechanical horsepower, which is about 745.7 watts, and the metric horsepower, which is approximately 735.5 watts.

Skyscraper

Skyscraper

A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable building having multiple floors. Modern sources currently define skyscrapers as being at least 100 metres (330 ft) or 150 metres (490 ft) in height, though there is no universally accepted definition. Skyscrapers are very tall high-rise buildings. Historically, the term first referred to buildings with between 10 and 20 stories when these types of buildings began to be constructed in the 1880s. Skyscrapers may host offices, hotels, residential spaces, and retail spaces.

Queen of Angels Hospital

Queen of Angels Hospital

The Queen of Angels Hospital was a private hospital complex located at 2301 Bellevue Avenue in the Echo Park neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. The 404-bed hospital was founded in 1926 by the Franciscan Sisters of the Sacred Heart and built by architect Albert C. Martin, Sr. The hospital served the local community and ran a nursing school. After its closure, the hospital served as a film set for the local film and television industry. The property was eventually sold to the Assembly of God church and is now known as the Dream Center.

Masonic Temple

Masonic Temple

A Masonic Temple or Masonic Hall is, within Freemasonry, the room or edifice where a Masonic Lodge meets. Masonic Temple may also refer to an abstract spiritual goal and the conceptual ritualistic space of a meeting.

Glendale, California

Glendale, California

Glendale is a city in the San Fernando Valley and Verdugo Mountains regions of Los Angeles County, California, United States. At the 2020 U.S. Census the population was 196,543, up from 191,719 at the 2010 census, making it the fourth-largest city in Los Angeles County and the 24th-largest city in California. It is located about 10 miles (16 km) north of downtown Los Angeles.

Hollywood, Los Angeles

Hollywood, Los Angeles

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the U.S. film industry and the people associated with it. Many notable film studios, such as Columbia Pictures, Walt Disney Studios, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros., and Universal Pictures, are located near or in Hollywood.

Redlands, California

Redlands, California

Redlands is a city in San Bernardino County, California, United States. As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 73,168, up from 68,747 at the 2010 census. The city is located approximately 45 miles (72 km) west of Palm Springs and 63 miles (101 km) east of Los Angeles.

Hotel Alexandria

Hotel Alexandria

The Hotel Alexandria is a historic building constructed as a luxury hotel at the beginning of the 20th century in what was then the heart of downtown Los Angeles. As the business center of the city moved gradually westward, the hotel decayed and gradually devolved into a single room occupancy (SRO) hotel housing long-term, low income residents and gained a reputation for crime and being unsafe.

Source: "Consolidated Steel Corporation", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consolidated_Steel_Corporation.

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Footnotes
  1. ^ Investigation of Shipyard Profits. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1946. p. 531.
  2. ^ "Consolidated Steel Corporation, Long Beach and Wilmington CA". Archived from the original on 2009-02-15.
  3. ^ Investigation of Shipyard Profits. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1946. p. 532.
  4. ^ "Eighth Naval District (Cochrane Collection)".
  5. ^ Orange, Texas shipbuilding record
  6. ^ Historical marker Orange shipyard
  7. ^ "Index to Vol. 23".
  8. ^ "Destroyer Photo Index DD-569 USS AULICK".
  9. ^ "Destroyer Photo Index DD-573 USS HARRISON".
  10. ^ "Destroyer Photo Index DD-579 USS WILLIAM D. PORTER".
  11. ^ http://shipbuildinghistory.com/smallships/lcil.htm
  12. ^ not to be confused with the primary shipbuilding facility in San Francisco
  13. ^ Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p.619
  14. ^ A Statistical Summary of Shipbuilding Under the U.S. Maritime Commission During World War II. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1949.
  15. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com Wilmington shipyard
  16. ^ Investigation of Shipyard Profits. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1946. pp. 532–541.
  17. ^ Alphabetical listing of major war supply contracts, cumulative, June 1940 through September 1945, Vol1. Civilian production administration, Industrial statistics division. 1946.
  18. ^ shipbuildinghistory.com Wilmington shipyard
  19. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". April 1943. p. 90. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  20. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". April 1943. p. 90. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  21. ^ "Cape Lilibeo (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  22. ^ "The Log". March 1944. p. 108. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  23. ^ "The Log". May 1944. p. 36. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  24. ^ "Cape Edmond (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  25. ^ "Cape San Diego (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  26. ^ "Cape Junction (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  27. ^ "Cape Possession (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  28. ^ "Cape Tryon (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  29. ^ "The Log". April 1944. p. 94. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  30. ^ "Cape Archway (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  31. ^ "Cape Catoche (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  32. ^ "Cape Kumukaki (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  33. ^ "Cape Kildare (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  34. ^ "Cape Domingo (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  35. ^ "Cape Chalmers (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  36. ^ "Cape Alexander (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  37. ^ "Cape Isabel (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  38. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". July 1943. p. 94. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  39. ^ "Cape Victory (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  40. ^ "Cape Constance (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  41. ^ "Cape Georgia (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  42. ^ "Cape Martin (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  43. ^ "Cape Cumberland (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  44. ^ "Cape Meredith (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  45. ^ "Cape Stephens (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  46. ^ "Cape Greig (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  47. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". May 1943. p. 95. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  48. ^ "Cape Meares (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  49. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". May 1943. p. 95. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  50. ^ "Cape San Juan (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  51. ^ "Cape Elizabeth (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  52. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". April 1943. p. 90. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  53. ^ "Cape Johnson (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  54. ^ "Cape Ann (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  55. ^ "Cape Mendocino (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  56. ^ "Cape Cleare (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  57. ^ "Cape Perpetua (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  58. ^ "Cape Trinity (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  59. ^ "Alcoa Pegasus (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  60. ^ "Alcoa Pointer (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  61. ^ "Alcoa Puritan (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  62. ^ "Alcoa Pilgrim (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  63. ^ "Alcoa Partner (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  64. ^ "Cape Newenham (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  65. ^ "Cape May (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  66. ^ "Cape Romain (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  67. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". January 1943. p. 104. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  68. ^ "Cape Planter (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  69. ^ "Solon Turman (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  70. ^ "Fred Morris (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  71. ^ "Jean Lykes (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  72. ^ "Nancy Lykes (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  73. ^ "Mormactern (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  74. ^ "Mormaclark (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  75. ^ "Mormacgull (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  76. ^ "Mormacdove (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  77. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". June 1942. p. 73. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  78. ^ "Mormacwren (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  79. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". June 1942. p. 73. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  80. ^ "Mormachawk (1942) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  81. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". June 1942. p. 41. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  82. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". July 1946. p. 56. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  83. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". July 1943. p. 94. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  84. ^ Pacific American Steamship Association; Shipowners Association of the Pacific Coast (March 1942). "Consolidated Delivers Alcoa Polaris". Pacific Marine Review. San Francisco: J.S. Hines: 51. Retrieved 19 December 2020.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  85. ^ Maritime Administration. "Alcoa Polaris". Ship History Database Vessel Status Card. U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  86. ^ a b The Log, July 1941, p. 42
  87. ^ a b c d "Pacific Marine Review". January 1942. p. 118. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  88. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". December 1940. p. 26. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  89. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". January 1942. p. 47. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  90. ^ "Cape Orange (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  91. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". December 1943. p. 102. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  92. ^ "Cape Spear (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  93. ^ "Cape John (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  94. ^ "The Log". April 1944. p. 94. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  95. ^ "Cape Lambert (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  96. ^ "Cape Saunders (1944) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  97. ^ "Cape Friendship (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  98. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". July 1943. p. 94. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  99. ^ "Cape Sandy (1943) - Lloyds Register of Ships".
  100. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". November 1944. p. 116. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  101. ^ a b c "Pacific Marine Review". February 1945. p. 118. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  102. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". March 1945. p. 181. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  103. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". November 1944. p. 117. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  104. ^ "The Log". May 1944. p. 60. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  105. ^ The information for this section comes from Findlaw.com Archived 2013-09-29 at the Wayback Machine (registration required). An HTML version of the relevant document can be read here.
  106. ^ a b c The United States of America, Appellant, Vs. United States Steel Corporation Et Al. Appeal from the District Court of the United States for the District of New Jersey; Testimony of Fred L. Baker. 1916.
  107. ^ "Baker Iron Works".
  108. ^ "Pacific Marine Review". December 1918. p. 116. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
References

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