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Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre)

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Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre)
नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (एकता केन्द्र)
Founded20 November 1990
Dissolved2001
Merger ofCPN (Mashal)
CPN (Fourth Convention)
PWO
CPN (Janamukhi)
Succeeded byCPN (Unity Centre–Masal)
Electoral frontSamyukta Janamorcha Nepal
IdeologyCommunism
Marxism–Leninism
Political positionFar-left

The Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre) was a communist party in Nepal. CPN (UC) was formed on 19–20 November 1990 through the merger of Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal), Communist Party of Nepal (Fourth Convention), Proletarian Workers Organisation, and Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi). Soon thereafter, a group led by Baburam Bhattarai and Shital Kumar, who had left Communist Party of Nepal (Masal), joined the party.[1] Samyukta Janamorcha Nepal was set up as the open mass front of the party.

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Communist party

Communist party

A communist party is a political party that seeks to realize the socio-economic goals of communism. The term communist party was popularized by the title of The Manifesto of the Communist Party (1848) by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. As a vanguard party, the communist party guides the political education and development of the working class (proletariat). As a ruling party, the communist party exercises power through the dictatorship of the proletariat. Vladimir Lenin developed the idea of the communist party as the revolutionary vanguard, when the socialist movement in Imperial Russia was divided into ideologically opposed factions, the Bolshevik faction and the Menshevik faction. To be politically effective, Lenin proposed a small vanguard party managed with democratic centralism which allowed centralized command of a disciplined cadre of professional revolutionaries. Once a policy was agreed upon, realizing political goals required every Bolshevik's total commitment to the agreed-upon policy.

Nepal

Nepal

Nepal, formerly the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is mainly situated in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, bordering the Tibet Autonomous Region of China to the north, and India in the south, east, and west, while it is narrowly separated from Bangladesh by the Siliguri Corridor, and from Bhutan by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Nepal is a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual, multi-religious and multi-cultural state, with Nepali as the official language. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and the largest city.

Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal)

Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Mashal) was an underground communist party in Nepal. CPN (Mashal) was formed in November 1984, following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal (Masal). The new party was founded at a congress in Gorakhpur, India. It was difficult to identify any major ideological difference between the two factions, and probably the split was caused by dissatisfaction with Singh's authoritarian leadership methods. Mohan Baidya became general secretary of the new party. Other Central Committee members elected at the Gorakhpur conference were Chitra Bahadur K.C., Ramsingh Shris, Bhairav Regmi, Govindsingh Thapa, Pushpa Kamal Dahal, Khambasingh Kubar, Bachaspati Devkota, C.P. Gajurel, Dev Gurung, Ishwari Dahal, Bishnu Pokhrel and Bhakta Bahadur Shrestha.

Communist Party of Nepal (Fourth Convention)

Communist Party of Nepal (Fourth Convention)

The Communist Party of Nepal was a communist party in Nepal 1974–1990. It was the major communist group in Nepal during the latter part of the 1970s, but gradually lost influence due to internal disputes. The party actively participated in the struggle for democracy in 1990, and its leader took part in writing the Nepalese Constitution. It later merged with other forces to form the Communist Party of Nepal, out of which the Communist Party of Nepal emerged.

Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi)

Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Janamukhi) was a communist splinter group in Nepal. The party was led by Rupchandra Bista. A group around Ram Narayan Bidari broke away from the party, and joined the Communist Party of Nepal in 1990.

Baburam Bhattarai

Baburam Bhattarai

Baburam Bhattarai, also known by his nom de guerre Laaldhwoj, is a Nepalese politician and former Prime Minister, who presently serves as leader of the Nepal Socialist Party.

Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (historical)

Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (historical)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) was a communist party in Nepal. CPN (Masal) was formed in 1983, following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal. The party was led by Mohan Bikram Singh.

History

In 1991, the party held its first convention. It adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution" and that the party would remain an underground party.

In 1992, in a situation of economic crisis and chaos, with spiralling prices as a result of implementation of changes in policy of the new Congress government, SJM and CPN (UC) stepped up their political agitation. A Joint People's Agitation Committee was set up together with the Communist Party of Nepal (Masal), the Nepal Communist League and the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist). A general strike was called for 6 April.

Violent incidents began to occur on the evening ahead of the strike. The Joint People's Agitation Committee had called for a 30-minute lights out in the capital, and violence erupted outside Bir Hospital when activists tried to enforce the 'lights out'. At dawn on 6 April, clashes between strike activists and police outside a police station in Pulchok (Patan) left two activists dead. Later in the day, a mass rally of the Agitation Committee at Tundikhel in the capital Kathmandu was attacked by police forces. As a result, riots broke out, and the Nepal Telecommunications building was set on fire. Police opened fire at the crowd, killing several persons. The Human Rights Organisation of Nepal estimated that 14 people, including several on-lookers, had been killed in police firing.[2]

In 1994, a group led by Bhattarai and Pushpa Kamal Dahal broke away from CPN (UC) and formed a parallel CPN-UC. In 1996 that group took the name Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). At the party convention held in Chitwan 16–18 December 2001, CPN (UC) decided to merge with Communist Party of Nepal (Masal).[3] The merger became effective in early 2002, and the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre–Masal) was formed.

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Nepali Congress

Nepali Congress

The Nepali Congress is the largest social democratic political party in Nepal. As per the results of recent local election, Nepali Congress stands as the single largest party of Nepal in local levels. It is the current ruling party of Nepal since July 2021. With more than one million active members, the party remains the largest party in Nepal by membership and is the only mass based party in Nepal.

Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (historical)

Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (historical)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) was a communist party in Nepal. CPN (Masal) was formed in 1983, following a split in the Communist Party of Nepal. The party was led by Mohan Bikram Singh.

Nepal Communist League

Nepal Communist League

The Nepal Communist League was a communist organisation in Nepal. NCL was led by Shambhuram Shrestha. Shrestha, who had been a central secretariat member of the original Communist Party of Nepal, broke away from Man Mohan Adhikari's faction in the mid-1970s.

Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist)

Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist–Maoist), abbreviated CPN (MLM), was a minor communist party in Nepal. The party was as founded in 1981 by Krishna Das Shrestha. Initially known as the Nepal Marxist-Leninist Party, Shrestha had broken away from the Bagmati District Committee, which functioned semiautonomously, of the Communist Party of Nepal in 1969. Krishna Das Shrestha was the party president.

Hartal

Hartal

Hartal is a term in many Indian languages for a strike action that was first used during the Indian independence movement of the early 20th century. A hartal is a mass protest, often involving a total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, and courts of law, and a form of civil disobedience similar to a labour strike. In addition to being a general strike, it involves the voluntary closure of schools and places of business. It is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to reverse an unpopular or unacceptable decision. A hartal is often used for political reasons, for example by an opposition party protesting against a governmental policy or action.

Bir Hospital

Bir Hospital

Bir Hospital is the oldest and one of the busiest hospitals in Nepal. It is located at the center of Kathmandu city. The hospital is run by the National Academy of Medical Sciences, a government agency since 2003.

Kathmandu

Kathmandu

Kathmandu, officially Kathmandu Metropolitan City, is the capital and the most populous city of Nepal with 845,767 inhabitants living in 105,649 households in 2021 and 2.9 million people in its urban agglomeration. It is located in the Kathmandu Valley, a large valley in the high plateaus in central Nepal, at an altitude of 1,400 metres.

Pushpa Kamal Dahal

Pushpa Kamal Dahal

Pushpa Kamal Dahal, also widely known by his nom de guerre Prachanda, meaning "fierce", is a Nepalese politician who served as Prime Minister of Nepal from 2008 to 2009 and again from 2016 to 2017.

Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (1999)

Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (1999)

The Communist Party of Nepal (Masal) (1999) was a communist party in Nepal led by Deena Nath Sharma. It was formed on April 6, 1999, by activists splitting away from the Communist Party of Nepal (Masal). Sharma's faction called for the boycott of elections and urged its followers to support the armed struggle being led by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The party was later absorbed by the Maoists, Sharma becoming a member of their politburo.

Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre–Masal)

Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre–Masal)

The Communist Party of Nepal , abbreviated CPN (UC–M) was an underground communist party in Nepal. The CPN (UC–M) was formed in 2002 through the merger of Communist Party of Nepal and Communist Party of Nepal (Masal).

Source: "Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_of_Nepal_(Unity_Centre).

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References
  1. ^ क्रान्तीकारी नेपाल :: नेपाल कम्युनिस्ट पार्टी इतिहास :: January :: 2006 Archived 2006-02-12 at the Wayback Machine
  2. ^ Hoftun, Martin, William Raeper and John Whelpton. People, politics and ideology: Democracy and Social Change in Nepal. Kathmandu: Mandala Book Point, 1999. p. 189
  3. ^ Unity Centre and Masal to Unite - Nepali Times

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