Get Our Extension
Enjoying Wikipedia Content? DONATE TO WIKIPEDIA

Climate change mitigation

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way

Climate change mitigation is about reducing greenhouse gas emissions or removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere.[1]: 2239  The main goal of all climate change mitigation activities is to limit global warming, in accordance with the Paris Agreement.[2]: 1–64  The use of fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas) for energy, as well as agriculture and land use, certain industrial processes like cement production,[3] and deforestation increase the concentration of greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane.[4] Greenhouse gas concentration can be reduced by conserving energy and by switching to clean energy. Solar and wind energy are among clean energy substitutes for fossil fuels in electricity production.[5] Variable availability of sunshine and wind is addressed by energy storage and improved electrical grids, including long-distance electricity transmission, demand management and diversification of renewables. As low-emission energy is more widely available, transportation and heating can increasingly rely on these sources.[6]: 1  Energy efficiency is improved using heat pumps and electric vehicles. If industrial processes must create carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage reduces net emissions.[3]

Methane has more short-term impact as a greenhouse gas than much longer-lived carbon dioxide gas. Methane, which is mainly released during fossil fuel production and by agriculture, can be reduced by limiting dairy product and meat production.[7] Carbon dioxide can be removed from the atmosphere through afforestation, reforestation, carbon sequestration and direct air capture.

Climate change mitigation policies include: carbon pricing by carbon taxes and carbon emission trading, easing regulations for renewable energy deployment, reductions of fossil fuel subsidies, and divestment from fossil fuel finance, and subsidies for clean energy.[8] Current policies are estimated to produce global warming of about 2.7 °C by 2100.[9] This warming is significantly above the 2015 Paris Agreement's goal of limiting global warming to well below 2 °C and preferably to 1.5 °C.[10][11]

Discover more about Climate change mitigation related topics

Carbon sink

Carbon sink

A carbon sink is anything, natural or otherwise, that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period and thereby removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Atmosphere

Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer of gas or layers of gases that envelop a planet, and is held in place by the gravity of the planetary body. A planet retains an atmosphere when the gravity is great and the temperature of the atmosphere is low. A stellar atmosphere is the outer region of a star, which includes the layers above the opaque photosphere; stars of low temperature might have outer atmospheres containing compound molecules.

Climate change

Climate change

In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate change in a broader sense also includes previous long-term changes to Earth's climate. The current rise in global average temperature is more rapid than previous changes, and is primarily caused by humans burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use, deforestation, and some agricultural and industrial practices increase greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat that the Earth radiates after it warms from sunlight. Larger amounts of these gases trap more heat in Earth's lower atmosphere, causing global warming.

Coal

Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Vast deposits of coal originate in former wetlands called coal forests that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times. However, many significant coal deposits are younger than this and originate from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) or carbon capture and sequestration is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) before it enters the atmosphere, transporting it, and storing it (carbon sequestration) for centuries or millennia. Usually the CO2 is captured from large point sources, such as a chemical plant or biomass power plant, and then stored in an underground geological formation. The aim is to prevent the release of CO2 from heavy industry with the intent of mitigating the effects of climate change. CO2 has been injected into geological formations for several decades for enhanced oil recovery and after separation from natural gas, but this has been criticised for producing more emissions when the gas or oil is burned.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature.

Carbon dioxide removal

Carbon dioxide removal

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR), also known as negative CO2 emissions, is a process in which carbon dioxide gas is removed from the atmosphere and sequestered for long periods of time. Similarly, greenhouse gas removal (GGR) or negative greenhouse gas emissions is the removal of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from the atmosphere by deliberate human activities, i.e., in addition to the removal that would occur via natural carbon cycle or atmospheric chemistry processes. In the context of net zero greenhouse gas emissions targets, CDR is increasingly integrated into climate policy, as a new element of mitigation strategies. CDR and GGR methods are also known as negative emissions technologies (NET), and may be cheaper than preventing some agricultural greenhouse gas emissions.

Afforestation

Afforestation

Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover. Many government and non-governmental organizations directly engage in afforestation programs to create forests and increase carbon capture. Afforestation is an increasingly sought-after method to fight climate concerns, as it is known to increase the soil quality and organic carbon levels into the soil, avoiding desertification. Afforestation is mainly done for conservational and commercial purposes.The rate of net forest loss decreased substantially over the period 1990–2020 due to a reduction in deforestation in some countries, plus increases in forest area in others through afforestation and the natural expansion of forests. A 2019 study of the global potential for tree restoration showed that there is space for at least 9 million km2 of new forests worldwide, which is a 25% increase from current conditions. This forested area could store up to 205 gigatons of carbon or 25% of the atmosphere's current carbon pool by reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and introducing more O2.

Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process of storing carbon in a carbon pool. Carbon dioxide is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical, and physical processes. These changes can be accelerated through changes in land use and agricultural practices, such as converting crop land into land for non-crop fast growing plants. Artificial processes have been devised to produce similar effects, including large-scale, artificial capture and sequestration of industrially produced CO2 using subsurface saline aquifers, reservoirs, ocean water, aging oil fields, or other carbon sinks, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, enhanced weathering, direct air capture and water capture when combined with storage.

Carbon price

Carbon price

Carbon pricing, also known as cap and trade (CAT) or emissions trading scheme (ETS), is a method for nations to reduce global warming. The cost is applied to greenhouse gas emissions in order to encourage polluters to reduce the combustion of coal, oil and gas – the main driver of climate change. The method is widely agreed and considered to be efficient. Carbon pricing seeks to address the economic problem that emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) are a negative externality – a detrimental product that is not charged for by any market.

Carbon tax

Carbon tax

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon emissions required to produce goods and services. Carbon taxes are intended to make visible the "hidden" social costs of carbon emissions, which are otherwise felt only in indirect ways like more severe weather events. In this way, they are designed to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by increasing prices of the fossil fuels that emit them when burned. This both decreases demand for goods and services that produce high emissions and incentivizes making them less carbon-intensive. In its simplest form, a carbon tax covers only CO2 emissions; however, it could also cover other greenhouse gases, such as methane or nitrous oxide, by taxing such emissions based on their CO2-equivalent global warming potential. When a hydrocarbon fuel such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas is burned, most or all of its carbon is converted to CO2. Greenhouse gas emissions cause climate change, which damages the environment and human health. This negative externality can be reduced by taxing carbon content at any point in the product cycle. Carbon taxes are thus a type of Pigovian tax.

Carbon emission trading

Carbon emission trading

Emission trading (ETS) for carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GHG) is a form of carbon pricing; also known as cap and trade (CAT) or carbon pricing. It is an approach to limit climate change by creating a market with limited allowances for emissions. This can lower competitiveness of fossil fuels and accelerate investments into low carbon sources of energy such as wind power and photovoltaics. Fossil fuels are the main driver for climate change. They account for 89% of all CO2 emissions and 68% of all GHG emissions.

Overview

Global greenhouse gas emission scenarios, based on policies and pledges as of 11/21
Global greenhouse gas emission scenarios, based on policies and pledges as of 11/21

Definition

The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report defines climate change mitigation as "A human intervention to reduce emissions or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases".[1]: 2239 

In contrast solar radiation management only limits global warming rather than climate change as a whole (for example it does not limit ocean acidification), and is almost[12] never described as climate mitigation but is said to be categorically different.[13]

Goals

The overall goal of climate change mitigation is: "to preserve a biosphere which can sustain human civilization and the complex of ecosystem services which surround and support it. This means reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions towards net zero to limit the warming, with global goals agreed in the Paris Agreement."[2]: 1–64 

Co-benefits

There are also co-benefits of climate change mitigation. For example, in the transport sector, possible co-benefits of mitigation strategies include: air quality improvements, health benefits,[14] equitable access to transportation services, reduced traffic congestion, and reduced material demand.[15]: SPM-41  The increased use of green and blue infrastructure can reduce the urban heat island effect and heat stress on people, which will improve the mental and physical health of urban dwellers.[16]: TS-66  Climate change mitigation might also lead to less inequality and poverty.[17]

Mitigation measures may have many health co-benefits – potential measures can not only mitigate future health impacts from climate change but also improve health directly.[18] Globally the cost of limiting warming to 2 °C is less than the value of the extra years of life due to cleaner air - and in India and China much less.[19] Air quality improvement is a near-term benefit among the many societal benefits from climate change mitigation, including substantial health benefits. Studies suggest that demand-side climate change mitigation solutions have largely beneficial effects on 18 constituents of well-being.[20][21]

Risks and negative side effects

Impacts of mitigation measures can also have negative side effects. This is highly context-specific and can also depend on the scale of the intervention.[16]: TS-133  In agriculture and forestry, mitigation measures can affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.[16]: TS-87  In the area of renewable energies, mining for metals and minerals can increase mining threats to conservation areas.[22] To address one of these issues, there is research into ways to recycle solar panels and electronic waste in order to create a source for materials that would otherwise need to be mined.[23][24]

Discussions about risks and negative side effects of mitigation measures can "lead to deadlock or a sense that there are intractable obstacles to taking action".[24]

Approaches

If CO2 emissions would only stop growing this would not stabilize the GHG concentration in the atmosphere.[25]Stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at a constant level would require emissions to be effectively eliminated.[25]
If CO2 emissions would only stop growing this would not stabilize the GHG concentration in the atmosphere.[25]
If CO2 emissions would only stop growing this would not stabilize the GHG concentration in the atmosphere.[25]Stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at a constant level would require emissions to be effectively eliminated.[25]
Stabilizing the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at a constant level would require emissions to be effectively eliminated.[25]

Climate change mitigation is all about reducing and recapturing greenhouse gas emissions. Greenhouse gases are primarily carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases.[15]: Figure SPM.1 

The approaches that are being used fall into the following categories:

Although there is no single pathway to limit global warming to 1.5 or 2 °C,[26] most scenarios and strategies see a major increase in the use of renewable energy in combination with increased energy efficiency measures to generate the needed greenhouse gas reductions.[27] To reduce pressures on ecosystems and enhance their carbon sequestration capabilities, changes would also be necessary in agriculture and forestry,[28] such as preventing deforestation and restoring natural ecosystems by reforestation.[29] Scenarios that limit global warming to 1.5 °C typically project the large-scale use of carbon dioxide removal methods over the 21st century.[30] There are concerns, though, about over-reliance on these technologies, and environmental impacts.[31]

Timescales

Tools for mitigation vary in the timescales needed for them to have an impact on emissions.[32] For example most countries can rapidly implement solar or wind power as they are mature technologies,[33] which allows coal-fired powers plant to be retired[34] or fewer gas-fired power plants to be built (exceptions may include Russia as gas is so cheap there).[35] The mitigation tools that can yield the most emissions reductions in the short time remaining before 2030 are solar energy, reduced conversion of forests and other ecosystems, wind energy, carbon sequestration in agriculture, followed by the group of ecosystem restoration, afforestation, and reforestation.[15]: 50  Elimination of certain other sources of emissions, such as those during cement production,[3] will require research, technology development, and conversion or replacement of facilities, and therefore will take much longer.

Discover more about Overview related topics

IPCC Sixth Assessment Report

IPCC Sixth Assessment Report

The Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the sixth in a series of reports which assess scientific, technical, and socio-economic information concerning climate change. Three Working Groups have been working on the following topics: The Physical Science Basis (WGI); Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (WGII); Mitigation of Climate Change (WGIII). Of these, the first study was published in 2021, the second report February 2022, and the third in April 2022. The final synthesis report is due to be finished by early 2023.

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect, contributing to climate change. Most is carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. The largest emitters include coal in China and large oil and gas companies, many state-owned by OPEC and Russia. Human-caused emissions have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by about 50% over pre-industrial levels. The growing levels of emissions have varied, but it was consistent among all greenhouse gases (GHG). Emissions in the 2010s averaged 56 billion tons a year, higher than ever before.

Carbon sink

Carbon sink

A carbon sink is anything, natural or otherwise, that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period and thereby removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Greenhouse gas

Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases.

Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the reduction in the pH value of the Earth’s ocean. Between 1751 and 2021, the pH value of the ocean surface is estimated to have decreased from approximately 8.25 to 8.14. The root cause of ocean acidification are the human-caused carbon dioxide emissions which have led to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels of more than 410 ppm (in 2020). The oceans absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. This leads to the formation of carbonic acid which dissociates into a bicarbonate ion (HCO−3) and a hydrogen ion (H+). The free hydrogen ions (H+) decrease the ocean pH of the ocean, causing "acidification" (this does not mean that seawater is acidic yet; it is still alkaline, with a pH higher than 8). The lowered pH causes a decrease in the concentration of carbonate ions, which are the main building block for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) shells and skeletons. It also lowers carbonate mineral saturation states. Marine calcifying organisms, like mollusks, oysters and corals, are particularly affected by this as they rely on calcium carbonate to build shells and skeletons.

Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality is a state of net-zero carbon dioxide emissions. This can be achieved by balancing emissions of carbon dioxide with its removal or by eliminating emissions from society. The term is used in the context of carbon dioxide-releasing processes associated with transportation, energy production, agriculture, and industry.

Effects of climate change

Effects of climate change

The effects of climate change span the impacts on physical environment, ecosystems and human societies due to human-caused climate change. The future impact of climate change depends on how much nations reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. Effects that scientists predicted in the past—loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves—are now occurring. The changes in climate are not uniform across the Earth. In particular, most land areas have warmed faster than most ocean areas, and the Arctic is warming faster than most other regions. The regional changes vary: at high latitudes it is the average temperature that is increasing, while for the oceans and tropics it is in particular the rainfall and the water cycle where changes are observed. Global warming changes regional climate via the melting of ice, changes in the hydrological cycle and changing currents in the oceans.

Co-benefits of climate change mitigation

Co-benefits of climate change mitigation

Co-benefits of climate change mitigation are the positive benefits related to mitigation measures which reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks. The beneficial or adverse impacts of deploying climate-change mitigation measures are highly context-specific and also depend on the scale. With regards to the transport sector, possible co-benefits of mitigation strategies include: air quality improvements, health benefits, equitable access to transportation services, reduced traffic congestion, and reduced material demand. For example, measures promoting walkable urban areas can create health co-benefits from cleaner air and benefits from enhanced mobility. The increased use of green and blue infrastructure can reduce the urban heat island effect and heat stress on people, which will improve the mental and physical health of urban dwellers. Country-specific co-benefits can include biodiversity conservation, ecosystem services, and livelihoods.

Air pollution

Air pollution

Air pollution is the contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. There are many different types of air pollutants, such as gases, particulates, and biological molecules. Air pollution can cause diseases, allergies, and even death to humans; it can also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment or built environment. Air pollution can be caused by both human activities and natural phenomena.

Green infrastructure

Green infrastructure

Green infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure refers to a network that provides the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. The main components of this approach include stormwater management, climate adaptation, the reduction of heat stress, increasing biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water, and healthy soils, as well as more anthropocentric functions, such as increased quality of life through recreation and the provision of shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Green infrastructure also serves to provide an ecological framework for social, economic, and environmental health of the surroundings. More recently scholars and activists have also called for green infrastructure that promotes social inclusion and equality rather than reinforcing pre-existing structures of unequal access to nature-based services.

Blue space

Blue space

Blue space in urban planning and design comprises all the areas dominated by surface waterbodies or watercourses. In conjunction with greenspace, it may help in reducing the risks of heat-related illness from high urban temperatures . Substantial urban waterbodies naturally exist as integral features of the geography of many cities because of their historical geopolitical significance, i.e. the River Thames in London.

Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia

Hyperthermia, also known simply as overheating, is a condition in which an individual's body temperature is elevated beyond normal due to failed thermoregulation. The person's body produces or absorbs more heat than it dissipates. When extreme temperature elevation occurs, it becomes a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment to prevent disability or death. Almost half a million deaths are recorded every year from hyperthermia.

Greenhouse gas emissions

2020 Worldwide CO2 emissions (by region, per capita); variwide diagram
2020 Worldwide CO2 emissions (by region, per capita); variwide diagram

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect, contributing to climate change. Most is carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. Human-caused emissions have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by about 50% over pre-industrial levels. Emissions in the 2010s averaged 56 billion tons a year, higher than ever before.[36]

Accounting of greenhouse gas emissions by sector can be done in different ways. An established method by Our World in Data groups them as follows (data for 2016): Energy (electricity, heat and transport): 73.2%, direct industrial processes: 5.2%, waste: 3.2%, agriculture, forestry and land use: 18.4%.[4]

Electricity generation and transport are major emitters, the largest single source being coal-fired power stations with 20% of GHG.[37] Deforestation and other changes in land use also emit carbon dioxide and methane. The largest source of anthropogenic methane emissions is agriculture, closely followed by gas venting and fugitive emissions from the fossil-fuel industry. The largest agricultural methane source is livestock. Agricultural soils emit nitrous oxide partly due to fertilizers. The problem of fluorinated gases from refrigerants has been politically solved now so many countries have ratified the Kigali Amendment.[38]

Current emission rates are on average 6.5 tonnes per person per year (with large variations from one country to another).[39]

By type of greenhouse gas

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the dominant emitted greenhouse gas, while methane (CH4) emissions almost have the same short-term impact.[40] Nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gases (F-Gases) play a minor role.

Fugitive emissions from the fossil fuel industry are estimated to have been the largest source of methane in 2021.[41] The largest agricultural methane source is livestock. Livestock and manure are 5.8% of all GHG emissions,[4] although this depends on the time horizon used for the global warming potential of the respective gas. It can be reduced by reductions in dairy products and meat consumption.[7][42]

GHG emissions are measured in CO2 equivalents determined by their global warming potential (GWP), which depends on their lifetime in the atmosphere. There are widely-used greenhouse gas accounting methods that convert volumes of methane, nitrous oxide and other greenhouse gases to carbon dioxide equivalents. Estimations largely depend on the ability of oceans and land sinks to absorb these gases. Short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) including methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), tropospheric ozone and black carbon persist in the atmosphere for a period ranging from days to 15 years; whereas carbon dioxide can remain in the atmosphere for millennia.[43]

Needed emissions cuts

Latest estimates

The annual "Emissions Gap Report" by UNEP stated in 2022: "To get on track for limiting global warming to 1.5°C, global annual GHG emissions must be reduced by 45 per cent compared with emissions projections under policies currently in place in just eight years, and they must continue to decline rapidly after 2030, to avoid exhausting the limited remaining atmospheric carbon budget."[44]: xvi  The report also points out that the world should focus on "broad-based economy-wide transformations" instead of focusing on incremental change.[44]: xvi 

In 2022, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released its Sixth Assessment Report on climate change, warning that greenhouse gas emissions must peak before 2025 at the latest and decline 43% by 2030, in order to likely limit global warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F).[45][46] Secretary-general of the United Nations, António Guterres, clarified that for this "Main emitters must drastically cut emissions starting this year".[47]

Estimates from 2018

An earlier estimate in 2018 had found that in order to limit global warming to less than 1.5 °C with a high likelihood of success, global greenhouse gas emissions needs to be net-zero by 2050, or by 2070 with a 2 °C target.[48] This requires far-reaching, systemic changes on an unprecedented scale in energy, land, cities, transport, buildings, and industry.[49]

Also in 2018 it was estimated that if emissions remain on the current level of 42 GtCO2, the carbon budget for 1.5 °C could be exhausted in 2028.[50] In 2018, the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C said that limiting warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) would require decreasing net CO2 emissions by around 45% by 2030 from the level of 2010 and reach net zero by 2050. For limiting global warming to below 2 °C (3.6 °F), CO2 emissions should decline by 25% by 2030 and by 100% by 2075. Non-CO2 emissions need to be strongly reduced at similar levels in both scenarios.[51]

Emissions and economic growth

Economic growth is a key driver of CO2 emissions.[52]: 707 [53] As the economy expands, demand for energy and energy-intensive goods increases, pushing up CO2 emissions. On the other hand, economic growth may drive technological change and increase energy efficiency. Economic growth may be associated with specialization in certain economic sectors. If specialization is in energy-intensive sectors, specifically carbon energy sources, then there will be a strong link between economic growth and emissions growth. If specialization is in less energy-intensive sectors, e.g. the services sector, then there might be a weak link between economic growth and emissions growth.

Much of the literature focuses on the "environmental Kuznets curve" (EKC) hypothesis, which posits that at early stages of development, pollution per capita and GDP per capita move in the same direction. Beyond a certain income level, emissions per capita will decrease as GDP per capita increase, thus generating an inverted-U shaped relationship between GDP per capita and pollution. However, the econometrics literature did not support either an optimistic interpretation of the EKC hypothesis – i.e., that the problem of emissions growth will solve itself – or a pessimistic interpretation – i.e., that economic growth is irrevocably linked to emissions growth.[52] Instead, it was suggested that there was some degree of flexibility between economic growth and emissions growth.[54]

Discover more about Greenhouse gas emissions related topics

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities strengthen the greenhouse effect, contributing to climate change. Most is carbon dioxide from burning fossil fuels: coal, oil, and natural gas. The largest emitters include coal in China and large oil and gas companies, many state-owned by OPEC and Russia. Human-caused emissions have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide by about 50% over pre-industrial levels. The growing levels of emissions have varied, but it was consistent among all greenhouse gases (GHG). Emissions in the 2010s averaged 56 billion tons a year, higher than ever before.

Greenhouse effect

Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is a process that occurs when energy from a planet's host star goes through its atmosphere and heats the planet's surface, but greenhouse gases in the atmosphere prevent some of the heat from returning directly to space, resulting in a warmer planet. Earth's natural greenhouse effect keeps the planet from having the below freezing temperature that it would have if there were no greenhouse gases. Additionally, human-caused increases in greenhouse gases trap greater amounts of heat, causing the Earth to grow warmer over time.

Climate change

Climate change

In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate change in a broader sense also includes previous long-term changes to Earth's climate. The current rise in global average temperature is more rapid than previous changes, and is primarily caused by humans burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use, deforestation, and some agricultural and industrial practices increase greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat that the Earth radiates after it warms from sunlight. Larger amounts of these gases trap more heat in Earth's lower atmosphere, causing global warming.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature.

Fossil fuel

Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a hydrocarbon-containing material formed naturally in the Earth's crust from the remains of dead plants and animals that is extracted and burned as a fuel. The main fossil fuels are coal, crude oil and natural gas. Fossil fuels may be burned to provide heat for use directly, to power engines, or to generate electricity. Some fossil fuels are refined into derivatives such as kerosene, gasoline and propane before burning. The origin of fossil fuels is the anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules created by photosynthesis. The conversion from these materials to high-carbon fossil fuels typically require a geological process of millions of years.

Coal

Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Vast deposits of coal originate in former wetlands called coal forests that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times. However, many significant coal deposits are younger than this and originate from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere

Carbon dioxide is an important trace gas in Earth's atmosphere. It is an integral part of the carbon cycle, a biogeochemical cycle in which carbon is exchanged between the Earth's oceans, soil, rocks and the biosphere. Plants and other photoautotrophs use solar energy to produce carbohydrate from atmospheric carbon dioxide and water by photosynthesis. Almost all other organisms depend on carbohydrate derived from photosynthesis as their primary source of energy and carbon compounds. CO2 absorbs and emits infrared radiation at wavelengths of 4.26 μm (2,347 cm−1) and 14.99 μm (667 cm−1) and consequently is a greenhouse gas that plays a significant role in influencing Earth's surface temperature through the greenhouse effect.

Electricity generation

Electricity generation

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its delivery to end users or its storage.

Coal-fired power station

Coal-fired power station

A coal-fired power station or coal power plant is a thermal power station which burns coal to generate electricity. Worldwide, there are about 8,500 coal-fired power stations totaling over 2,000 gigawatts capacity. They generate about a third of the world's electricity, but cause many illnesses and early deaths, mainly from air pollution.

Deforestation

Deforestation

Deforestation or forest clearance is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests at present. This is one-third less than the forest cover before the expansion of agriculture, a half of that loss occurring in the last century. Between 15 million to 18 million hectares of forest, an area the size of Bangladesh, are destroyed every year. On average 2,400 trees are cut down each minute.

Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

Agriculture contributes towards climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and by the conversion of non-agricultural land such as forests into agricultural land. In 2019 the IPCC reported that 13%-21% of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses came specifically from the Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses Sector (AFOLU). Emissions from agriculture of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide make up to half of the greenhouse-gases produced by the overall food industry, or 80% of agricultural emissions. Animal husbandry is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions.

Gas venting

Gas venting

Gas venting, more specifically known as natural-gas venting or methane venting, is the intentional and controlled release of gases containing alkane hydrocarbons - predominately methane - into earth's atmosphere. It is a widely used method for disposal of unwanted gases which are produced during the extraction of coal and crude oil. Such gases may lack value when they are not recyclable into the production process, have no export route to consumer markets, or are surplus to near-term demand. In cases where the gases have value to the producer, substantial amounts may also be vented from the equipment used for gas collection, transport, and distribution.

Energy systems

Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.[55]
Coal, oil, and natural gas remain the primary global energy sources even as renewables have begun rapidly increasing.[55]

The energy system, which includes the use and delivery of energy, is the main emitter of CO2.[56]: 6–6  Reducing energy sector emissions is therefore essential to limit warming.[56]: 6–6  Rapid and deep reductions in the CO2 and GHG emissions from energy system are needed to limit global warming to well below 2 °C.[56]: 6–3  Recommended measures includes: "reduced fossil fuel consumption, increased production from low- and zero carbon energy sources, and increased use of electricity and alternative energy carriers".[56]: 6–3 

Wind and solar power are outcompeting coal, oil and gas in energy production
Wind and solar power are outcompeting coal, oil and gas in energy production

The competitiveness of renewable energy is a key to a rapid deployment. In 2020, onshore wind and solar photovoltaics were the cheapest source for new bulk electricity generation in many regions.[57] Storage requirements cause additional costs. A carbon price can increase the competitiveness of renewable energy.

Low-carbon energy sources

Wind and sun can be sources for large amounts of low-carbon energy at competitive production costs. But even in combination, generation of variable renewable energy fluctuates a lot. This can be tackled by extending grids over large areas with a sufficient capacity or by using energy storage (see also: forms of grid energy storage) and by other means. Load management of industrial energy consumption can help to balance the production of renewable energy production and its demand. Electricity production by biogas and hydro power can follow the energy demand. Both can be driven by variable energy prices.

The deployment of renewable energy would have to be accelerated six-fold though to stay under the 2 °C target.[58]

Solar energy

The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.[59]
The 150 MW Andasol solar power station is a commercial parabolic trough solar thermal power plant, located in Spain. The Andasol plant uses tanks of molten salt to store solar energy so that it can continue generating electricity for 7.5 hours after the sun has stopped shining.[59]

Wind power

The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.
The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm is an 845 megawatt (MW) nameplate capacity, wind farm in the US state of Oregon, each turbine is a nameplate 2 or 2.5 MW electricity generator.

Regions in the higher northern and southern latitudes have the highest potential for wind power.[62] Offshore wind power currently has a share of about 10% of new installations.[63] Offshore wind farms are more expensive but the units deliver more energy per installed capacity with less fluctuations. In most regions, wind power generation is higher in the winter when PV output is low. For this reason, combinations of wind and solar power are recommended.

Hydro power

The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world
The 22,500 MW nameplate capacity Three Gorges Dam in the People's Republic of China, the largest hydroelectric power station in the world

Hydroelectricity plays a leading role in countries like Brazil, Norway and China.[64] but there are geographical limits and environmental issues.[65] Tidal power can be used in coastal regions.

Bioenergy

Biogas plants can provide dispatchable electricity generation, and heat when needed.[66] A common concept is the co-fermentation of energy crops mixed with manure in agriculture. Burning plant-derived biomass releases CO2, but it has still been classified as a renewable energy source in the EU and UN legal frameworks because photosynthesis cycles the CO2 back into new crops. How a fuel is produced, transported and processed has a significant impact on lifecycle emissions.[67] Renewable biofuels are starting to be used in aviation.

Other low-carbon energy sources

Nuclear power

A comparison of price changes for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources
A comparison of price changes for energy from nuclear fission and from other sources

In most 1.5 °C pathways of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C the share of nuclear power is increased.[68] The main advantage of nuclear energy is the ability to deliver large amounts of base load when renewable energy is not available.[69]

On the other hand, environmental and security risks could outweigh the benefits. As of 2019, no country has found a solution to nuclear waste which can cause future damage and costs over more than one million years.[70][71] Separated plutonium and enriched uranium could be used for nuclear weapons, which is considered to be a strategical motivation for countries to promote nuclear power. The according risks are comparable to climate change.[72][71][73][74] The Fukushima disaster is estimated to cost taxpayers ~$187 billion[75] and radioactive waste management is estimated to cost the EU ~$250 billion by 2050.[76]

The construction of new nuclear reactors currently takes about 10 years, substantially longer than scaling up the deployment of wind and solar. The largest drawback of nuclear energy is often considered to be the large construction costs when compared to alternatives of sustainable energy sources whose costs are decreasing and which are the fastest-growing source of electricity generation.[77][78][79][80] Nuclear power avoided 2–3% of total global GHG emissions in 2021. China is building a significant number of new power plants, albeit significantly fewer reactors than originally planned. As of 2019 the cost of extending nuclear power plant lifetimes is competitive with other electricity generation technologies, including new solar and wind projects.[81] New projects are reported to be highly dependent on public subsidies.[82]

Nuclear fusion research, in the form of the ITER and other experimental projects, is underway but fusion energy is not likely to be commercially widespread before 2050.[83][84][85]

Natural gas for fossil fuel switching

Switching from coal to natural gas has advantages in terms of sustainability. For a given unit of energy produced, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of natural gas are around 40 times the emissions of wind or nuclear energy but are much less than coal. Natural gas produces around half the emissions of coal when used to generate electricity and around two-thirds the emissions of coal when used to produce heat. Reducing methane leaks in the process of extracting and transporting natural gas could further decrease its climate impact.[86] Natural gas produces less air pollution than coal.[87]

Switching from coal to natural gas reduces emissions in the short term and thus contributes to climate change mitigation. However, in the long term it does not provide a path to net-zero emissions. Developing natural gas infrastructure risks carbon lock-in and stranded assets, where new fossil infrastructure either commits to decades of carbon emissions, or has to be written off before it makes a profit.[88][89]

Energy storage

Wind energy and photovoltaics can deliver large amounts of electric energy but not at any time and place. One approach is the conversation into storable forms of energy. This generally leads to losses in efficiency.

For storage requirements up to a few days, pumped hydro (PHES), compressed air (CAES) and Li-on batteries are most cost effective depending on charging rhythm. For 2040, a more significant role for Li-on and hydrogen is projected.[90] Li-on batteries are widely used in battery storage power stations and are starting to be used in vehicle-to-grid storage.[91] They provide a sufficient round-trip efficiency of 75–90 %.[92] Their production can cause environmental problems.[93] Levelized costs for battery storage have drastically fallen.[57]

Hydrogen may be useful for seasonal energy storage.[94] Thermal energy in the conversion process can be used for district heating. The concept of solar hydrogen is discussed for remote desert projects where grid connections to demand centers are not available.[95] Because it has more energy per unit volume sometimes it may be better to use hydrogen in ammonia.[96]

Energy grids

Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.
Sketch of a possible super grid. The red squares represent the total surfaces needed for solar collectors of Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) plants to provide the present electricity demands.

Long-distance power lines help to minimize storage requirements. A continental transmission network can smoothen local variations of wind energy. With a global grid, even photovoltaics could be available all day and night. The strongest high-voltage direct current (HVDC) connections are quoted with losses of only 1.6% per 1000 km[97] with a clear advantage compared to alternating current (AC) grids. HVDC is currently only used for point-to-point connections. Meshed HVDC grids may be used to connect offshore wind in future.[98]

A super grid in the US in combination with renewable energy could reduce GHG emissions by 80%.[99]

Electricity demand management

Instead of expanding grids and storage for more power, electricity demand can be adjusted on the consumer side. This can flatten demand peaks. Traditionally, the energy system has treated consumer demand as fixed. Instead, data systems can combine with advanced software to pro-actively manage demand and respond to energy market prices.[100]

Time of use tariffs are a common way to motivate electricity users to reduce their peak load consumption. On a household level, charging electric vehicles or running heat pumps combined with hot water storage when wind or sun energy are available reduces electricity costs.

Dynamic demand plans have devices passively shut off when stress is sensed on the electrical grid. This method may work very well with thermostats, when power on the grid sags a small amount, a low power temperature setting is automatically selected reducing the load on the grid. Consumers need to have a smart meter in order for the utility to calculate credits. Smart Scheduling of activities and processes can adjust demand to fluctuating supply.[101][102] Refrigerators or heat pumps can reduce their consumption when clouds pass over solar installations.

Demand response devices can receive all sorts of messages from the grid. The message could be a request to use a low power mode similar to dynamic demand, to shut off entirely during a sudden failure on the grid, or notifications about the current and expected prices for power. This allows electric cars to recharge at the least expensive rates independent of the time of day. Vehicle-to-grid uses a car's battery to supply the grid temporarily.[103][104]

Energy conservation and efficiency

Global primary energy demand exceeded 161,000 TWh in 2018.[105] This refers to electricity, transport and heating including all losses. In transport and electricity production, fossil fuel usage has a low efficiency of less than 50%. Large amounts of heat in power plants and in motors of vehicles are wasted. The actual amount of energy consumed is significantly lower at 116,000 TWh.[106]

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing the amount of service used (for example, by driving less). Energy conservation is at the top of the sustainable energy hierarchy.[107] Energy can be conserved by reducing wastage and losses, improving efficiency through technological upgrades, and improved operations and maintenance.

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the process of reducing the amount of energy required to provide products and services. Improved energy efficiency in buildings ("green buildings"), industrial processes and transportation could reduce the world's energy needs in 2050 by one third, and thus help reduce global emissions of greenhouse gases.[108] For example, insulating a building allows it to use less heating and cooling energy to achieve and maintain thermal comfort. Improvements in energy efficiency are generally achieved by adopting a more efficient technology or production process[109] or by application of commonly accepted methods to reduce energy losses.

Discover more about Energy systems related topics

Energy system

Energy system

An energy system is a system primarily designed to supply energy-services to end-users. Taking a structural viewpoint, the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report defines an energy system as "all components related to the production, conversion, delivery, and use of energy". The field of energy economics includes energy markets and treats an energy system as the technical and economic systems that satisfy consumer demand for energy in the forms of heat, fuels, and electricity.

Energy transition

Energy transition

The energy transition is the ongoing process of replacing fossil fuels with low carbon energy sources. More generally, an energy transition is a significant structural change in an energy system regarding supply and consumption. The current transition to sustainable energy is largely driven by a recognition that global greenhouse-gas emissions must be brought to zero. Since fossil fuels are the largest single source of carbon emissions, the quantity that can be produced is limited by the Paris Agreement of 2015 to keep global warming below 1.5 °C. Over 70% of our global greenhouse gas emissions result from the energy sector, for transport, heating, and industrial use. Wind power and solar photovoltaic systems (PV) have the greatest potential to mitigate climate change. Since the late 2010s, the renewable energy transition is also driven by the rapidly increasing competitiveness of both. Another motivation for the transition is to limit other environmental impact of the energy industry.

Low-carbon economy

Low-carbon economy

A low-carbon economy (LCE) or decarbonised economy is an economy based on energy sources that produce low levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions due to human activity are the dominant cause of observed climate change since the mid-20th century. Continued emission of greenhouse gases will cause long-lasting changes around the world, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive, and irreversible effects for people and ecosystems. Shifting to a low-carbon economy on a global scale could bring substantial benefits both for developed and developing countries. Many countries around the world are designing and implementing low-emission development strategies (LEDS). These strategies seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas emissions and increasing resilience to the effects of climate change.

Fossil fuel phase-out

Fossil fuel phase-out

Fossil fuel phase-out is the gradual reduction of the use and production of fossil fuels to zero. It is part of the ongoing renewable energy transition. Current efforts in fossil fuel phase-out involve replacing fossil fuels with sustainable energy sources in sectors such as transport and heating. Alternatives to fossil fuels include electrification, green hydrogen and biofuel. Phase-out policies include both demand-side and supply-side constraints. Whereas demand-side approaches seek to reduce fossil-fuel consumption, supply-side initiatives seek to constraint production to accelerate the pace of energy transition and reduction in emissions.

Natural gas

Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons consisting primarily of methane in addition to various smaller amounts of other higher alkanes. Usually low levels of trace gases like carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and helium are also present. Natural gas is colorless and odorless, so odorizers such as mercaptan, which smells like sulfur or rotten eggs, are commonly added to natural gas supplies for safety so that leaks can be readily detected.

Renewable energy

Renewable energy

Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale. It includes sources such as sunlight, wind, the movement of water, and geothermal heat. Although most renewable energy sources are sustainable, some are not. For example, some biomass sources are considered unsustainable at current rates of exploitation. Renewable energy often provides energy for electricity generation to a grid, air and water heating/cooling, and stand-alone power systems. Renewable energy technology projects are typically large-scale, but they are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development. Renewable energy is often deployed together with further electrification, which has several benefits: electricity can move heat or objects efficiently, and is clean at the point of consumption. In addition, electrification with renewable energy is more efficient and therefore leads to significant reductions in primary energy requirements.

Carbon price

Carbon price

Carbon pricing, also known as cap and trade (CAT) or emissions trading scheme (ETS), is a method for nations to reduce global warming. The cost is applied to greenhouse gas emissions in order to encourage polluters to reduce the combustion of coal, oil and gas – the main driver of climate change. The method is widely agreed and considered to be efficient. Carbon pricing seeks to address the economic problem that emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHG) are a negative externality – a detrimental product that is not charged for by any market.

Renewable energy commercialization

Renewable energy commercialization

Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years. First-generation technologies, which are already mature and economically competitive, include biomass, hydroelectricity, geothermal power and heat. Second-generation technologies are market-ready and are being deployed at the present time; they include solar heating, photovoltaics, wind power, solar thermal power stations, and modern forms of bioenergy. Third-generation technologies require continued R&D efforts in order to make large contributions on a global scale and include advanced biomass gasification, hot-dry-rock geothermal power, and ocean energy. As of 2012, renewable energy accounts for about half of new nameplate electrical capacity installed and costs are continuing to fall.

Renewable energy debate

Renewable energy debate

Policy makers often debate the constraints and opportunities of renewable energy.

Energy storage

Energy storage

Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time to reduce imbalances between energy demand and energy production. A device that stores energy is generally called an accumulator or battery. Energy comes in multiple forms including radiation, chemical, gravitational potential, electrical potential, electricity, elevated temperature, latent heat and kinetic. Energy storage involves converting energy from forms that are difficult to store to more conveniently or economically storable forms.

Load management

Load management

Load management, also known as demand-side management (DSM), is the process of balancing the supply of electricity on the network with the electrical load by adjusting or controlling the load rather than the power station output. This can be achieved by direct intervention of the utility in real time, by the use of frequency sensitive relays triggering the circuit breakers, by time clocks, or by using special tariffs to influence consumer behavior. Load management allows utilities to reduce demand for electricity during peak usage times, which can, in turn, reduce costs by eliminating the need for peaking power plants. In addition, some peaking power plants can take more than an hour to bring on-line which makes load management even more critical should a plant go off-line unexpectedly for example. Load management can also help reduce harmful emissions, since peaking plants or backup generators are often dirtier and less efficient than base load power plants. New load-management technologies are constantly under development — both by private industry and public entities.

Biogas

Biogas

Biogas is a mixture of gases, primarily consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide, produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste and food waste. It is a renewable energy source.

Mitigation approaches by sector

Buildings

The buildings sector accounts for 23% of global energy-related CO2 emissions.[110] About half of the energy is used for space and water heating.[111] Building insulation can reduce the primary energy demand significantly. Efficient electric heating and cooling loads may also provide a flexible resource that can participate in demand response to integrate variable renewable resources into the grid. Solar water heating uses the thermal energy directly. Sufficiency measures include moving to smaller houses when the needs of households change, mixed use of spaces and the collective use of devices.[16]: 71  New buildings can be constructed using passive solar building design, low-energy building, or zero-energy building techniques.In addition, it is possible to design buildings that are more energy-efficient to cool by using lighter-coloured, more reflective materials in the development of urban areas.

Heat pumps

Outside unit of an air source heat pump
Outside unit of an air source heat pump

Heat pumps are an example of electrified heating with high efficiency. A modern heat pump typically produces around three to five times more thermal energy than electrical energy consumed, depending on the coefficient of performance and the outside temperature.[112] It uses an electrically driven compressor that extracts heat energy from outdoor air or ground sources and moves that heat to the space to be warmed. In the summer months, the cycle can be reversed for air conditioning.

Cooling

Refrigeration and air conditioning account for about 10% of global CO2 emissions caused by fossil fuel-based energy production and the use of fluorinated gases. Alternative cooling systems, such as passive cooling building design and installing passive daytime radiative cooling surfaces, can reduce air conditioning use. Suburbs and cities in hot and arid climates can significantly reduce energy consumption from cooling with daytime radiative cooling.[113]

The energy consumption for cooling is expected to rise significantly due to increasing heat and availability of devices in poorer countries. Of the 2.8 billion people living in the hottest parts of the world, only 8% currently have air conditioners, compared with 90% of people in the US and Japan.[114] By combining energy efficiency improvements with the transition away from super-polluting refrigerants, the world could avoid cumulative greenhouse gas emissions of up to 210–460 GtCO2e over the next four decades. [115] A shift to renewable energy in the cooling sector comes with two advantages: Solar energy production with mid-day peaks corresponds with the load required for cooling. Additionally, cooling has a large potential for load management in the electric grid.

Cities

Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars.[116]
Bicycles have almost no carbon footprint compared to cars.[116]

Cities have big potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. They emitted 28 GtCO2-eq in 2020 of combined CO2 and CH4 emissions.[16]: TS-61  This was "through the production and consumption of goods and services".[16]: TS-61  Climate-smart urban planning aims to reduce sprawl to reduce the distance travelled, thus lowering emissions from transportation. It supports mixed use of space, transit, walking, cycling, sharing vehicles can reduce urban emissions. Urban forestry, lakes and other blue and green infrastructure can reduce emissions directly and indirectly by reduced energy demand for cooling.[16]: TS-66  Personal cars are extremely inefficient at moving passengers, while public transport and bicycles are many times more efficient in an urban context. Switching from cars by improving walkability and cycling infrastructure is either free or beneficial to a country's economy as a whole.[117]

Transport

Transportation emissions account for 15% of emissions worldwide.[118] Increasing the use of public transport, low-carbon freight transport and cycling are important components of transport decarbonization.[119][120]

Electric vehicles and environmentally friendly rail help to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. In most cases, electric trains are more efficient than air transport and truck transport.[121] Other efficiency means include improved public transport, smart mobility, carsharing and electric hybrids. Fossil-fuel powered passenger cars can be converted to electric propulsion. The production of alternative fuel without GHG emissions is only possible with high conversion losses. Furthermore, moving away from a car-dominated transport system towards low-carbon advanced public transport system is important.[122]

Heavyweight, large personal vehicles (such as cars) require a lot of energy to move and take up much urban space.[123][124] Several alternatives modes of transport are available to replace these. The European Union has made smart mobility part of its European Green Deal[125] and in smart cities, smart mobility is also important.[126]

Electric vehicles

Between a quarter and three-quarters of cars on the road by 2050 are forecast to be electric vehicles. EVs use 38 megajoules per 100 km in comparison to 142 megajoules per 100 km for ICE cars.[127] Hydrogen can be a solution for long-distance transport by trucks and hydrogen-powered ships where batteries alone are too heavy.[128][129]

GHG emissions depend on the amount of green energy being used for battery or fuel cell production and charging. In a system mainly based on electricity from fossil fuels, emissions of electric vehicles can even exceed those of diesel combustion.[130]

Shipping

In the shipping industry, the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a marine bunker fuel is driven by emissions regulations. Ship operators have to switch from heavy fuel oil to more expensive oil-based fuels, implement costly flue gas treatment technologies or switch to LNG engines.[131] Methane slip, when gas leaks unburned through the engine, lowers the advantages of LNG. Maersk, the largest container shipping line and vessel operator in the world, warns of stranded assets when investing into transitional fuels like LNG.[132] The company lists green ammonia as one of the preferred fuel types of the future and has announced the first carbon-neutral vessel on the water by 2023, running on carbon-neutral methanol.[133]

Hybrid and all electric ferries are suitable for short distances. Norway's goal is an all electric fleet by 2025.[134] The E-ferry Ellen, which was developed in an EU-backed project, is in operation in Denmark.

Air travel

Between 1940 and 2018, aviation CO2 emissions grew from 0.7% to 2.65% of all CO2 emissions.[135]
Between 1940 and 2018, aviation CO2 emissions grew from 0.7% to 2.65% of all CO2 emissions.[135]

Jet airliners contribute to climate change by emitting carbon dioxide (CO2), the best understood greenhouse gas, and, with less scientific understanding, nitrogen oxides, contrails and particulates. Their radiative forcing is estimated at 1.3–1.4 that of CO2 alone, excluding induced cirrus cloud with a very low level of scientific understanding. In 2018, global commercial operations generated 2.4% of all CO2 emissions.[136]

While the aviation industry is more fuel efficient, overall emissions have risen as the volume of air travel has increased. By 2020, aviation emissions were 70% higher than in 2005 and they could grow by 300% by 2050.[137]

Aviation's environmental footprint can be reduced by better fuel economy in aircraft or Air Traffic Control and flight routes can be optimized to lower non-CO2 effects on climate from NO
x
, particulates or contrails. Aviation biofuel, emissions trading and carbon offsetting, part of the ICAO's CORSIA, can lower CO2 emissions. Aviation usage can be lowered by short-haul flight bans, train connections, personal choices and aviation taxation and subsidies. Fuel-powered aircraft may be replaced by hybrid electric aircraft and electric aircraft or by hydrogen-powered aircraft.

In aviation, current 180 Mt of CO2 emissions (11% of emissions in transport) are expected to rise in most projections, at least until 2040. Aviation biofuel and hydrogen can only cover a small proportion of flights in the coming years. The market entry for hybrid-driven aircraft on regional scheduled flights is projected after 2030, for battery-powered aircraft after 2035.[138] In October 2016, the 191 nations of the ICAO established the Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA), requiring operators to purchase carbon offsets to cover their emissions above 2020 levels, starting from 2021. This is voluntary until 2027.

Agriculture

As 25% of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) are coming from agriculture and land use, it is impossible to limit temperature rise to 1.5 degrees without addressing the emissions from agriculture.

With 21% of the global methane emissions, cattle are a major driver on global warming.[139]: 6  When rainforests are cut and the land is converted for grazing, the impact is even higher. This results in up to 335 kg CO2eq emissions for the production of 1 kg beef in Brazil when using a 30-year time horizon.[140] Other livestock, manure management and rice cultivation also produce relevant GHG emissions, in addition to fossil fuel combustion in agriculture.

Investment in improving and scaling up the production of dairy and meat alternatives leads to big greenhouse gas reductions compared with other investments.[141] Also, photovoltaic-driven microbial protein production could use 10 times less land for an equivalent amount of protein compared to soybean cultivation.[142]

Agricultural changes may require complementary laws and policies to drive and support dietary shifts, including changes in pet food,[143] increases in organic food products,[144][145][146] and substantial reductions of meat-intake (food miles usually do not play a large role).[147][148][149]

Important mitigation options for reducing the greenhouse gas emissions from livestock include genetic selection,[150][151] introduction of methanotrophic bacteria into the rumen,[152][153] vaccines, feeds,[154] toilet-training,[155] diet modification and grazing management.[156][157][158] Other options include just using ruminant-free alternatives instead, such as milk substitutes and meat analogues. Non-ruminant livestock, such as poultry, emits far less.[159]

In the United States, soils account for about half of agricultural GHGs while agriculture, forestry and other land use emits 24%.[160] The US EPA says soil management practices that can reduce the emissions of nitrous oxide (N
2
O
) from soils include fertilizer usage, irrigation, and tillage.

Methane emissions in rice cultivation can be cut by implementing an improved water management, combining dry seeding and one drawdown, or a perfect execution of a sequence of wetting and drying. This results in emission reductions of up to 90% compared to full flooding and even increased yields.[161]

Industry

Cement production

Bioconcrete is one possibility,[162] but because no technology for mitigation is mature yet CCS will be needed at least in the short-term.[163]

Iron and steel production

Blast furnaces could be replaced by hydrogen direct reduced iron and electric arc furnaces.[164]

Waste management

Improving waste management is often the responsibility of local government.[165]

Discover more about Mitigation approaches by sector related topics

Green building

Green building

Green building refers to both a structure and the application of processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from planning to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition. This requires close cooperation of the contractor, the architects, the engineers, and the client at all project stages. The Green Building practice expands and complements the classical building design concerns of economy, utility, durability, and comfort. Green building also refers to saving resources to the maximum extent, including energy saving, land saving, water saving, material saving, etc., during the whole life cycle of the building, protecting the environment and reducing pollution, providing people with healthy, comfortable and efficient use of space, and being in harmony with nature Buildings that live in harmony. Green building technology focuses on low consumption, high efficiency, economy, environmental protection, integration and optimization.’

Renewable heat

Renewable heat

Renewable heat is an application of renewable energy referring to the generation of heat from renewable sources; for example, feeding radiators with water warmed by focused solar radiation rather than by a fossil fuel boiler. Renewable heat technologies include renewable biofuels, solar heating, geothermal heating, heat pumps and heat exchangers. Insulation is almost always an important factor in how renewable heating is implemented.

Electric heating

Electric heating

Electric heating is a process in which electrical energy is converted directly to heat energy at around 100% efficiency, using rather cheap devices. Common applications include space heating, cooking, water heating and industrial processes. An electric heater is an electrical device that converts an electric current into heat. The heating element inside every electric heater is an electrical resistor, and works on the principle of Joule heating: an electric current passing through a resistor will convert that electrical energy into heat energy. Most modern electric heating devices use nichrome wire as the active element; the heating element, depicted on the right, uses nichrome wire supported by ceramic insulators.

Demand response

Demand response

Demand response is a change in the power consumption of an electric utility customer to better match the demand for power with the supply. Until the 21st century decrease in the cost of pumped storage and batteries electric energy could not be easily stored, so utilities have traditionally matched demand and supply by throttling the production rate of their power plants, taking generating units on or off line, or importing power from other utilities. There are limits to what can be achieved on the supply side, because some generating units can take a long time to come up to full power, some units may be very expensive to operate, and demand can at times be greater than the capacity of all the available power plants put together. Demand response seeks to adjust the demand for power instead of adjusting the supply.

Passive solar building design

Passive solar building design

In passive solar building design, windows, walls, and floors are made to collect, store, reflect, and distribute solar energy, in the form of heat in the winter and reject solar heat in the summer. This is called passive solar design because, unlike active solar heating systems, it does not involve the use of mechanical and electrical devices.

Air source heat pump

Air source heat pump

An air source heat pump (ASHP) is a type of heat pump that can absorb heat from outside a structure and release it inside using the same vapor-compression refrigeration process and much the same equipment as air conditioners but used in the opposite direction. Unlike an air conditioning unit, most ASHPs are reversible and are able to either warm or cool buildings and in some cases also provide domestic hot water.

Heat pump

Heat pump

A heat pump is a device that can heat a building by transferring thermal energy from the outside using the refrigeration cycle. Many heat pumps can also operate in the opposite direction, cooling the building by removing heat from the enclosed space and rejecting it outside. Units that only provide cooling are called air conditioners.

Coefficient of performance

Coefficient of performance

The coefficient of performance or COP of a heat pump, refrigerator or air conditioning system is a ratio of useful heating or cooling provided to work (energy) required. Higher COPs equate to higher efficiency, lower energy (power) consumption and thus lower operating costs.

Passive cooling

Passive cooling

Passive cooling is a building design approach that focuses on heat gain control and heat dissipation in a building in order to improve the indoor thermal comfort with low or no energy consumption. This approach works either by preventing heat from entering the interior or by removing heat from the building.

Passive daytime radiative cooling

Passive daytime radiative cooling

Passive daytime radiative cooling (PDRC) is a renewable cooling method proposed as a solution to global warming of enhancing terrestrial heat flow to outer space through the installation of thermally-emissive surfaces on Earth that require zero energy consumption or pollution. Because all materials in nature absorb more heat during the day than at night, PDRC surfaces are designed to be high in solar reflectance and strong in longwave infrared (LWIR) thermal radiation heat transfer through the atmosphere's infrared window to cool temperatures during the daytime. It is also referred to as passive radiative cooling (PRC), daytime passive radiative cooling (DPRC), radiative sky cooling (RSC), photonic radiative cooling, and terrestrial radiative cooling. PDRC differs from solar radiation management because it increases radiative heat emission rather than merely reflecting the absorption of solar radiation.

Refrigeration

Refrigeration

The term refrigeration refers to the process of removing heat from an enclosed space or substance for the purpose of lowering the temperature. Refrigeration can be considered an artificial, or human-made, cooling method.

Air conditioning

Air conditioning

Air conditioning, often abbreviated as A/C or AC, is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space to achieve a more comfortable interior environment and in some cases also strictly controlling the humidity of internal air. Air conditioning can be achieved using a mechanical 'air conditioner' or alternatively a variety of other methods, including passive cooling or ventilative cooling. Air conditioning is a member of a family of systems and techniques that provide heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC). Heat pumps are similar in many ways to air conditioners, but use a reversing valve to allow them to both heat and also cool an enclosed space.

Preserving and enhancing carbon sinks

About 58% of CO2 emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
About 58% of CO2 emissions have been absorbed by carbon sinks, including plant growth, soil uptake, and ocean uptake (2020 Global Carbon Budget).
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land
World protected area map with total percentage of each country under protection, where countries in lighter colors have more protected land

Terminology

Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) is defined as "Anthropogenic activities removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and durably storing it in geological, terrestrial, or ocean reservoirs, or in products. It includes existing and potential anthropogenic enhancement of biological or geochemical CO2 sinks and direct air carbon dioxide capture and storage (DACCS), but excludes natural CO2 uptake not directly caused by human activities."[1]

The terminology in this area is still evolving. The term “geoengineering” (or climate engineering) is sometimes used in the scientific literature for both CDR (carbon dioxide removal) or SRM (solar radiation management or solar geoengineering), if the techniques are used at a global scale.[2]: 6–11  The terms geoengineering or climate engineering are no longer used in IPCC reports.[1]

Land-based mitigation options are referred to as "AFOLU mitigation options" in the 2022 IPCC report on mitigation. The abbreviation stands for "agriculture, forestry and other land use"[15]: 37  The report described the economic mitigation potential from relevant activities around forests and ecosystems as follows: "the conservation, improved management, and restoration of forests and other ecosystems (coastal wetlands, peatlands, savannas and grasslands)". A high mitigation potential is found for reducing deforestation in tropical regions. The economic potential of these activities has been estimated to be 4.2 to 7.4 Giga tons of CO2 equivalents per year.[15]: 37 

Forests

Conservation

Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.
Transferring land rights to indigenous inhabitants is argued to efficiently conserve forests.

About 95% of deforestation occurs in the tropics, where it is mostly driven by the clearing of land for agriculture.[166]

Transferring rights over land from public domain to its indigenous inhabitants, who have had a stake for millennia in preserving the forests that they depend on, is argued to be a cost-effective strategy to conserve forests.[167] This includes the protection of such rights entitled in existing laws, such as the Forest Rights Act in India, where concessions to land continue to go mostly to powerful companies.[167] The transferring of such rights in China, perhaps the largest land reform in modern times, has been argued to have increased forest cover.[168][169] Granting title of the land has shown to have two or three times less clearing than even state run parks, notably in the Brazilian Amazon. Even while the largest cause of deforestation in the world's second largest rainforest in the Congo is smallholder agriculture and charcoal production, areas with community concessions have significantly less deforestation as communities are incentivized to manage the land sustainably, even reducing poverty.[170] Conservation methods that exclude humans, called "fortress conservation", and even evict inhabitants from protected areas often lead to more exploitation of the land as the native inhabitants then turn to work for extractive companies to survive.[168]

Afforestation

Afforestation is the establishment of trees where there was previously no tree cover. Scenarios for new plantations covering up to 4000 Mha (6300 x 6300 km) calculate with a cumulative physical carbon biosequestration of more than 900 GtC (2300 GtCO2) until 2100.[171] However, these are not considered a viable alternative to aggressive emissions reduction,[172] as the plantations would need to be so large, they would eliminate most natural ecosystems or reduce food production.[173] One example is the Trillion Tree Campaign.[174][175]

Restoration

Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.[176][177]
Helping existing roots and tree stumps regrow even in long deforested areas is argued to be more efficient than planting trees. Lack of legal ownership to trees by locals is the biggest obstacle preventing regrowth.[176][177]

Reforestation is the restocking of existing depleted forests or where there was once recently forests. Reforestation could save at least 1 GtCO2/year, at an estimated cost of $5–15/tCO2.[178] Restoring all degraded forests all over the world could capture about 205 GtC (750 GtCO2).[179] With increased intensive agriculture and urbanization, there is an increase in the amount of abandoned farmland. By some estimates, for every acre of original old-growth forest cut down, more than 50 acres of new secondary forests are growing.[180][181] Promoting regrowth on abandoned farmland could offset years of carbon emissions.[182][183]

Planting new trees can be expensive, especially for the poor who often live in areas of deforestation, and can be a risky investment as, for example, studies in the Sahel have found that 80 percent of planted trees die within two years.[176] Instead, helping native species sprout naturally is much cheaper and more likely to survive, with even long deforested areas still containing an "underground forest" of living roots and tree stumps that are still able to regenerate. This could include pruning and coppicing the tree to accelerate its growth and that also provides woodfuel, which is otherwise a major source of deforestation. Such practices, called farmer-managed natural regeneration, are centuries old but the biggest obstacle towards implementing natural regrowth of trees are legal ownership of the trees by the state, often as a way of selling such timber rights to business people, leading to seedlings being uprooted by locals who saw them as a liability. Legal aid for locals[184][185] and pressure to change the law such as in Mali and Niger where ownership of trees to residents was allowed has led to what has been called the largest positive environmental transformation in Africa, with it being possible to discern from space the border between Niger and the more barren land in Nigeria, where the law has not changed.[176][177]

Proforestation is promoting forests to capture their full ecological potential.[186] This is a mitigation strategy as secondary forests that have regrown in abandoned farmland are found to have less biodiversity than the original old-growth forests and original forests store 60% more carbon than these new forests.[180] Strategies include rewilding and establishing wildlife corridors.[187][188]

Soils

Globally, protecting healthy soils and restoring the soil carbon sponge could remove 7.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere annually, which is more than the annual emissions of the US.[189][190] Trees capture CO2 while growing above ground and exuding larger amounts of carbon below ground. Trees contribute to the building of a soil carbon sponge. The carbon formed above ground is released as CO2 immediately when wood is burned. If dead wood remains untouched, only some of the carbon returns to the atmosphere as decomposition proceeds.[189]

Farming methods

Methods that enhance carbon sequestration in soil include no-till farming, residue mulching and crop rotation, all of which are more widely used in organic farming than in conventional farming.[191][192] Because only 5% of US farmland currently uses no-till and residue mulching, there is a large potential for carbon sequestration.[193][194]

Farming can deplete soil carbon and render soil incapable of supporting life. However, conservation farming can protect carbon in soils, and repair damage over time.[195] The farming practice of cover crops has been recognized as climate-smart agriculture.[196] Best management practices for European soils were described to increase soil organic carbon: conversion of arable land to grassland, straw incorporation, reduced tillage, straw incorporation combined with reduced tillage, ley cropping system and cover crops.[197]

Regenerative agriculture includes conservation tillage, diversity, rotation and cover crops, minimizing physical disturbance and supporting biosequestration.[198][199] It has other benefits like improving the state of the soil and consequently yields.[200]

Wetlands

Wetlands perform two important functions in relation to climate change. They have mitigation effects through their ability to sink carbon, converting a greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide) to solid plant material through the process of photosynthesis, and also through their ability to store and regulate water.[201][202] Wetlands store approximately 44.6 million tonnes of carbon per year globally.[203]

Wetlands such as swamps[204] and peatlands[205][206] have lower oxygen levels dissolved than in the air and so oxygen reliant decomposition of organic matter by microbes into CO2 is decreased. Depending on their characteristics, some wetlands are a significant source of methane emissions[207] and some are also emitters of nitrous oxide.[208][209]

Peatlands

Peatland globally covers just 3% of the land's surface[210] but stores up to 550 gigatonnes of carbon, representing 42% of all soil carbon and exceeds the carbon stored in all other vegetation types, including the world's forests.[211] The threat to peatlands include draining the areas for agriculture and cutting down trees for lumber as the trees help hold and fix the peatland.[212][213][214] Additionally, peat is often sold for compost.[215] Restoration of degraded peatlands can be done by blocking drainage channels in the peatland, and allowing natural vegetation to recover.[187][216]

(A) untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, one of the largest sinks of carbon.
(A) untrawled seamount and (B) a trawled seamount. Bottom trawling has destroyed many coastal habitats, one of the largest sinks of carbon.

Coastal wetlands

Mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses make up the majority of the ocean's vegetated habitats but only equal 0.05% of the plant biomass on land and stash carbon 40 times faster than tropical forests.[187] Bottom trawling, dredging for coastal development and fertilizer runoff have damaged coastal habitats. Notably, 85% of oyster reefs globally have been removed in the last two centuries. Oyster reefs clean the water and make other species thrive, thus increasing biomass in that area. In addition, oyster reefs mitigate the effects of climate change by reducing the force of waves from hurricanes and reduce the erosion from rising sea levels.[217]

Ocean-based options

In principle, carbon can be stored in ocean reservoirs. This can be done with "ocean-based mitigation systems" including ocean fertilization, ocean alkalinity enhancement or enhanced weathering.[218]: 12–36  Blue carbon management is partly an ocean-based method and partly a land-based method.[218]: 12–37  Most of these options could also help to reduce ocean acidification which is the drop in pH value caused by increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations.[219]

The current assessment of potential for ocean-based mitigation options is in 2022 that they have only "limited current deployment", but "moderate to large future mitigation potentials" in future.[218]: 12–4 

In total, "ocean-based methods have a combined potential to remove 1–100 gigatons of CO2 per year".[16]: TS-94  Their costs are in the order of USD40–500 per ton of CO2.

For example, enhanced weathering could remove 2–4 gigatons of CO2 per year. This technology comes with a cost of 50-200 USD per ton of CO2.[16]: TS-94  Enhanced weathering is a process that aims to accelerate the natural weathering by spreading finely ground silicate rock, such as basalt, onto surfaces which speeds up chemical reactions between rocks, water, and air. It removes removes carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere, permanently storing it in solid carbonate minerals or ocean alkalinity.[220]

Discover more about Preserving and enhancing carbon sinks related topics

Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process of storing carbon in a carbon pool. Carbon dioxide is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical, and physical processes. These changes can be accelerated through changes in land use and agricultural practices, such as converting crop land into land for non-crop fast growing plants. Artificial processes have been devised to produce similar effects, including large-scale, artificial capture and sequestration of industrially produced CO2 using subsurface saline aquifers, reservoirs, ocean water, aging oil fields, or other carbon sinks, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, enhanced weathering, direct air capture and water capture when combined with storage.

Land use, land-use change, and forestry

Land use, land-use change, and forestry

Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF), also referred to as Forestry and other land use (FOLU), is defined by the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat as a "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercial uses, land-use change, and forestry activities."

Climate engineering

Climate engineering

Climate engineering is a term used for both carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM), also called solar geoengineering, when applied at a planetary scale. However, they have very different geophysical characteristic which is why the IPCC no longer uses this overarching term. Carbon dioxide removal approaches are part of climate change mitigation. Solar geoengineering involves reflecting some sunlight back to space. All forms of geoengineering are not a standalone solution to climate change, but need to be coupled with other forms of climate change mitigation. Another approach to geoengineering is to increase the Earth's thermal emittance through passive radiative cooling.

Solar geoengineering

Solar geoengineering

Solar geoengineering, or solar radiation modification (SRM), is a type of climate engineering in which sunlight would be reflected back to outer space to limit or reverse human-caused climate change. It is not a substitute for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but would act as a temporary measure to limit warming while emissions of greenhouse gases are reduced and carbon dioxide is removed. The most studied methods of SRM are stratospheric aerosol injection and marine cloud brightening.

Deforestation

Deforestation

Deforestation or forest clearance is the removal of a forest or stand of trees from land that is then converted to non-forest use. Deforestation can involve conversion of forest land to farms, ranches, or urban use. The most concentrated deforestation occurs in tropical rainforests. About 31% of Earth's land surface is covered by forests at present. This is one-third less than the forest cover before the expansion of agriculture, a half of that loss occurring in the last century. Between 15 million to 18 million hectares of forest, an area the size of Bangladesh, are destroyed every year. On average 2,400 trees are cut down each minute.

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006

The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers Act, 2006, is a key piece of forest legislation passed in India on 18 December 2006. It has also been called the Forest Rights Act, the Tribal Rights Act, the Tribal Bill, and the Tribal Land Act. The law concerns the rights of forest-dwelling communities to land and other resources, denied to them over decades as a result of the continuance of colonial forest laws in India.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 23 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Land reform

Land reform

Land reform is a form of agrarian reform involving the changing of laws, regulations, or customs regarding land ownership. Land reform may consist of a government-initiated or government-backed property redistribution, generally of agricultural land. Land reform can, therefore, refer to transfer of ownership from the more powerful to the less powerful, such as from a relatively small number of wealthy or noble owners with extensive land holdings to individual ownership by those who work the land. Such transfers of ownership may be with or without compensation; compensation may vary from token amounts to the full value of the land.

Congolian rainforests

Congolian rainforests

The Congolian rainforests are a broad belt of lowland tropical moist broadleaf forests which extend across the basin of the Congo River and its tributaries in Central Africa. They are the only major rainforests which absorb more carbon than they emit.

Fortress conservation

Fortress conservation

Fortress conservation is a conservation model based on the belief that biodiversity protection is best achieved by creating protected areas where ecosystems can function in isolation from human disturbance. Its implementation has been criticized for human rights abuses against indigenous inhabitants when creating and maintaining protected areas.

Afforestation

Afforestation

Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover. Many government and non-governmental organizations directly engage in afforestation programs to create forests and increase carbon capture. Afforestation is an increasingly sought-after method to fight climate concerns, as it is known to increase the soil quality and organic carbon levels into the soil, avoiding desertification. Afforestation is mainly done for conservational and commercial purposes.The rate of net forest loss decreased substantially over the period 1990–2020 due to a reduction in deforestation in some countries, plus increases in forest area in others through afforestation and the natural expansion of forests. A 2019 study of the global potential for tree restoration showed that there is space for at least 9 million km2 of new forests worldwide, which is a 25% increase from current conditions. This forested area could store up to 205 gigatons of carbon or 25% of the atmosphere's current carbon pool by reducing CO2 in the atmosphere and introducing more O2.

Biosequestration

Biosequestration

Biosequestration or biological sequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by continual or enhanced biological processes.

Engineering based methods of removing carbon dioxide

Direct air capture

Direct air capture is a process of capturing CO2 directly from the ambient air (as opposed to capturing from point sources) and generating a concentrated stream of CO2 for sequestration or utilization or production of carbon-neutral fuel and windgas.[221] Artificial processes vary, and concerns have been expressed about the long-term effects of some of these processes.[222]

Carbon capture and storage

Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas
Schematic showing both terrestrial and geological sequestration of carbon dioxide emissions from a large point source, for example burning natural gas

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a method to mitigate climate change by capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as cement factories or biomass power plants, and subsequently storing it away safely instead of releasing it into the atmosphere. The IPCC estimates that the costs of halting global warming would double without CCS.[223] Norway's Sleipner gas field, beginning in 1996, stores almost a million tons of CO2 a year to avoid penalties in producing natural gas with unusually high levels of CO2.[224][225]

Taking into account direct and indirect emissions, industry is the sector with the highest share of global emissions.
Taking into account direct and indirect emissions, industry is the sector with the highest share of global emissions.

Discover more about Engineering based methods of removing carbon dioxide related topics

Direct air capture

Direct air capture

Direct air capture (DAC) is a process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) directly from the ambient air (as opposed to capturing from point sources, such as a cement factory or biomass power plant) and generating a concentrated stream of CO2 for sequestration or utilization or production of carbon-neutral fuel and windgas. Carbon dioxide removal is achieved when ambient air makes contact with chemical media, typically an aqueous alkaline solvent or sorbents. These chemical media are subsequently stripped of CO2 through the application of energy (namely heat), resulting in a CO2 stream that can undergo dehydration and compression, while simultaneously regenerating the chemical media for reuse.

Point source pollution

Point source pollution

A point source of pollution is a single identifiable source of air, water, thermal, noise or light pollution. A point source has negligible extent, distinguishing it from other pollution source geometries. The sources are called point sources because in mathematical modeling, they can be approximated as a mathematical point to simplify analysis. Pollution point sources are identical to other physics, engineering, optics, and chemistry point sources and include:Air pollution from an industrial source Water pollution from factories, power plants, municipal sewage treatment plants and some farms. The U.S. Clean Water Act also defines municipal separate storm sewer systems and industrial stormwater discharges as point sources. Noise pollution from a jet engine Disruptive seismic vibration from a localized seismic study Light pollution from an intrusive street light Radio emissions from an interference-producing electrical device

Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration

Carbon sequestration is the process of storing carbon in a carbon pool. Carbon dioxide is naturally captured from the atmosphere through biological, chemical, and physical processes. These changes can be accelerated through changes in land use and agricultural practices, such as converting crop land into land for non-crop fast growing plants. Artificial processes have been devised to produce similar effects, including large-scale, artificial capture and sequestration of industrially produced CO2 using subsurface saline aquifers, reservoirs, ocean water, aging oil fields, or other carbon sinks, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage, biochar, enhanced weathering, direct air capture and water capture when combined with storage.

Carbon capture and utilization

Carbon capture and utilization

Carbon capture and utilization (CCU) is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) to be recycled for further usage. Carbon capture and utilization may offer a response to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions from major stationary (industrial) emitters. CCU differs from carbon capture and storage (CCS) in that CCU does not aim nor result in permanent geological storage of carbon dioxide. Instead, CCU aims to convert the captured carbon dioxide into more valuable substances or products; such as plastics, concrete or biofuel; while retaining the carbon neutrality of the production processes.

Carbon-neutral fuel

Carbon-neutral fuel

Carbon-neutral fuel is fuel which produces no net-greenhouse gas emissions or carbon footprint. In practice, this usually means fuels that are made using carbon dioxide (CO2) as a feedstock. Proposed carbon-neutral fuels can broadly be grouped into synthetic fuels, which are made by chemically hydrogenating carbon dioxide, and biofuels, which are produced using natural CO2-consuming processes like photosynthesis.

Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) or carbon capture and sequestration is the process of capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) before it enters the atmosphere, transporting it, and storing it (carbon sequestration) for centuries or millennia. Usually the CO2 is captured from large point sources, such as a chemical plant or biomass power plant, and then stored in an underground geological formation. The aim is to prevent the release of CO2 from heavy industry with the intent of mitigating the effects of climate change. CO2 has been injected into geological formations for several decades for enhanced oil recovery and after separation from natural gas, but this has been criticised for producing more emissions when the gas or oil is burned.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature.

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage

Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is the process of extracting bioenergy from biomass and capturing and storing the carbon, thereby removing it from the atmosphere. The carbon in the biomass comes from the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) which is extracted from the atmosphere by the biomass when it grows. Energy is extracted in useful forms (electricity, heat, biofuels, etc.) as the biomass is utilized through combustion, fermentation, pyrolysis or other conversion methods. Some of the carbon in the biomass is converted to CO2 or biochar which can then be stored by geologic sequestration or land application, respectively, enabling carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and making BECCS a negative emissions technology (NET).

Sleipner gas field

Sleipner gas field

The Sleipner gas field is a natural gas field in the block 15/9 of the North Sea, about 250 kilometres (160 mi) west of Stavanger, Norway. Two parts of the field are in production, Sleipner West, and Sleipner East (1981). The field produces natural gas and light oil condensates from sandstone structures about 2,500 metres (8,200 ft) below sea level. It is operated by Equinor. The field is named after the steed Sleipnir in Norse mythology.

Demand management and social aspects

The IPCC Sixth Assessment Report pointed out in 2022: "To enhance well-being, people demand services and not primary energy and physical resources per se. Focusing on demand for services and the different social and political roles people play broadens the participation in climate action."[16]: TS-98  The report explains that behavior, lifestyle, and cultural change have a high mitigation potential in some sectors, particularly when complementing technological and structural change.[226]: 5–3 

Mitigation options that reduce demand for products or services are helping people make personal choices to reduce their carbon footprint, for example in their choice of transport options or their diets.[226]: 5–3  This means there are many social aspects with the demand-side mitigation actions. For example, people with high socio-economic status often contribute more to greenhouse gas emissions than those from a lower socio-economic status. By reducing their emissions and promoting green policies, these people could become "role models of low-carbon lifestyles".[226]: 5–4  However, there are many psychological variables that influence motivation of people to reduce their demand such as awareness and perceived risk. Government policies can support or hinder demand-site mitigation options. For example, public policy can promote circular economy concepts which would support climate change mitigation.[226]: 5–6  Reducing GHG emissions is linked to sharing economy and circular economy.

It has been estimated that only 0.12% of all funding for climate-related research is spent on the social science of climate change mitigation.[227] Vastly more funding is spent on natural science studies of climate change and considerable sums are also spent on studies of impact of and adaptation to climate change.[227]

Lifestyle changes

The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.[228]
The emissions of the richest 1% of the global population account for more than twice the combined share of the poorest 50%.[228]

Individual action on climate change can include personal choices in many areas, such as diet, travel, household energy use, consumption of goods and services, and family size. People who wish to reduce their carbon footprint (particularly those in high income countries with high consumption lifestyles), can take "high-impact" actions, such as avoiding frequent flying and petrol fuelled cars, eating mainly a plant-based diet, having fewer children,[229] using clothes and electrical products for longer,[230] and electrifying homes.[231][232] Excessive consumption is more to blame for climate change than population increase.[233] High consumption lifestyles have a greater environmental impact, with the richest 10% of people emitting about half the total lifestyle emissions.[234][235]

Dietary change

Avoiding meat and dairy foods has been called "the single biggest way" an individual can reduce their environmental impact.[236] The widespread adoption of a vegetarian diet could cut food-related greenhouse gas emissions by 63% by 2050.[237] China introduced new dietary guidelines in 2016 which aim to cut meat consumption by 50% and thereby reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 1 billion tonnes by 2030.[238] Overall, food accounts for the largest share of consumption-based GHG emissions with nearly 20% of the global carbon footprint. Almost 15% of all anthropogenic GHG emissions has been attributed to the livestock sector.[232]

A shift towards plant-based diets would help to mitigate climate change.[239] In particular, reducing meat consumption would help to reduce methane emissions.[240] If high-income nations switched to a plant-based diet, vast amounts of land used for animal agriculture could be allowed to return to their natural state, which in turn has the potential to sequester 100 billion tons of CO2 by the end of the century.[241][242]

Population growth

Since 1950, world population has tripled.[243]
Since 1950, world population has tripled.[243]

Population growth results in higher greenhouse gas emissions in most regions, particularly Africa.[56]: 6–11  However, economic growth has a bigger effect than population growth.[226]: 6–11  It is the rising incomes, changes in consumption and dietary patterns, together with population growth, which causes pressure on land and other natural resources, and leads to more greenhouse gas emissions and less carbon sinks.[244]: 117  Scholars have pointed out that "In concert with policies that end fossil fuel use and incentivize sustainable consumption, humane policies that slow population growth should be part of a multifaceted climate response."[245] It is known that "advances in female education and reproductive health, especially voluntary family planning, can contribute greatly to reducing world population growth".[226]: 5–35 

Personal carbon trading

Some forms of personal carbon trading (carbon rationing) could be an effective component of climate change mitigation, with the economic recovery of COVID-19 and new technical capacity having opened a favorable window of opportunity for initial test runs of such in appropriate regions, while many questions remain largely unaddressed.[246][247][248] However, carbon rationing could have a larger effect on poorer households as "people in the low-income groups may have an above-average energy use, because they live in inefficient homes".[249]

Discover more about Demand management and social aspects related topics

IPCC Sixth Assessment Report

IPCC Sixth Assessment Report

The Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) of the United Nations (UN) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the sixth in a series of reports which assess scientific, technical, and socio-economic information concerning climate change. Three Working Groups have been working on the following topics: The Physical Science Basis (WGI); Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability (WGII); Mitigation of Climate Change (WGIII). Of these, the first study was published in 2021, the second report February 2022, and the third in April 2022. The final synthesis report is due to be finished by early 2023.

Primary energy

Primary energy

Primary energy (PE) is an energy form found in nature that has not been subjected to any human engineered conversion process. It is energy contained in raw fuels, and other forms of energy, including waste, received as input to a system. Primary energy can be non-renewable or renewable.

Resource

Resource

Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which are technologically accessible, economically feasible and culturally sustainable and help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. They can also be classified as actual and potential on the basis of the level of development and use, on the basis of origin they can be classified as biotic and abiotic, and on the basis of their distribution, as ubiquitous and localised. An item becomes a resource with time and developing technology. The benefits of resource utilization may include increased wealth, proper functioning of a system, or enhanced well-being. From a human perspective, a natural resource is anything obtained from the environment to satisfy human needs and wants. From a broader biological or ecological perspective, a resource satisfies the needs of a living organism.

Climate action

Climate action

Climate action refers to a range of activities, mechanisms, policy instruments and so forth that aim to reduce the severity of human induced climate change and its impacts. "More climate action" is a central demand of the climate movement. Climate inaction is the absence of climate action. Examples for climate action include:Business action on climate change Climate change adaptation Climate change mitigation Climate finance Climate movement – actions by non-governmental organizations Individual action on climate change Politics of climate change

Carbon footprint

Carbon footprint

A carbon footprint is the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by an individual, event, organization, service, place or product, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e). Greenhouse gases, including the carbon-containing gases carbon dioxide and methane, can be emitted through the burning of fossil fuels, land clearance and the production and consumption of food, manufactured goods, materials, wood, roads, buildings, transportation and other services.

Awareness

Awareness

Awareness is the state of being conscious of something. More specifically, it is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events. Another definition describes it as a state wherein a subject is aware of some information when that information is directly available to bring to bear in the direction of a wide range of behavioral actions. The concept is often synonymous to consciousness and is also understood as being consciousness itself.

Public policy

Public policy

Public policy is an institutionalized proposal or a decided set of elements like laws, regulations, guidelines, and actions to solve or address relevant and real-world problems, guided by a conception and often implemented by programs. Public policy can be considered to be the sum of government direct and indirect activities and has been conceptualized in a variety of ways.

Circular economy

Circular economy

A circular economy is a model of production and consumption, which involves sharing, leasing, reusing, repairing, refurbishing and recycling existing materials and products as long as possible. CE aims to tackle global challenges as climate change, biodiversity loss, waste, and pollution by emphasizing the design-based implementation of the three base principles of the model. The three principles required for the transformation to a circular economy are: eliminating waste and pollution, circulating products and materials, and the regeneration of nature. CE is defined in contradistinction to the traditional linear economy. The idea and concepts of circular economy (CE) have been studied extensively in academia, business, and government over the past ten years. CE has been gaining popularity since it helps to minimize emissions and consumption of raw materials, open up new market prospects and principally, increase the sustainability of consumption and improve resource efficiency.

Sharing economy

Sharing economy

In capitalism, the sharing economy is a socio-economic system built around the sharing of resources. It often involves a way of purchasing goods and services that differs from the traditional business model of companies hiring employees to produce products to sell to consumers. It includes the shared creation, production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services by different people and organisations. These systems take a variety of forms, often leveraging information technology to empower individuals, corporations, non-profits and government with information that enables distribution, sharing and reuse of excess capacity in goods and services.

Individual action on climate change

Individual action on climate change

Individual action on climate change can include personal choices in many areas, such as diet, travel, household energy use, consumption of goods and services, and family size. Individuals can also engage in local and political advocacy around issues of climate change. People who wish to reduce their carbon footprint, can take "high-impact" actions, such as avoiding frequent flying and petrol fuelled cars, eating mainly a plant-based diet, having fewer children, using clothes and electrical products for longer, and electrifying homes. Avoiding meat and dairy foods has been called "the single biggest way" an individual can reduce their environmental impact. Excessive consumption is more to blame for climate change than population increase. High consumption lifestyles have a greater environmental impact, with the richest 10% of people emitting about half the total lifestyle emissions.

Overconsumption (economics)

Overconsumption (economics)

Overconsumption describes a situation where a consumer overuses their available goods and services to where they can't, or don't want to, replenish or reuse them. In microeconomics, this may be described as the point where the marginal cost of a consumer is greater than their marginal utility. The term overconsumption is quite controversial in use and does not necessarily have a single unifying definition. When used to refer to natural resources to the point where the environment is negatively affected, is it synonymous with the term overexploitation. However, when used in the broader economic sense, overconsumption can refer to all types of goods and services, including manmade ones, e.g. "the overconsumption of alcohol can lead to alcohol poisoning". Overconsumption is driven by several factors of the current global economy, including forces like consumerism, planned obsolescence, economic materialism, and other unsustainable business models and can be contrasted with sustainable consumption.

Plant-based diet

Plant-based diet

A plant-based diet is a diet consisting mostly or entirely of plant-based foods. Plant-based diets encompass a wide range of dietary patterns that contain low amounts of animal products and high amounts of plant products such as vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds. They do not need to be vegan or vegetarian but are defined in terms of low frequency of animal food consumption.

Investment and finance

Investment

More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.[250]
More firms plan to invest in climate change mitigation, specifically focusing on low-carbon sectors.[250]

More than 1000 organizations with a worth of US$8 trillion have made commitments to fossil fuel divestment.[251] Socially responsible investing funds allow investors to invest in funds that meet high environmental, social and corporate governance (ESG) standards.[252]

There are lists to show the business organisations which are the "top contributors to greenhouse gas emissions".[253][254][255] Asset management firms are often identified as controllers of large amounts of contemporary financial value with insufficient dedication to climate change targets, with the largest four asset managers controlling around 20% of the world's listed market values – an aggregate assets under management of $20 trillion as of 2021.[256][257][258]

Funding

Cost estimates

Mitigation cost estimates depend on the baseline (in this case, a reference scenario that the alternative scenario is compared with), the way costs are modelled, and assumptions about future government policy.[259]: 622  Cost estimates for mitigation for specific regions are dependent on the quantity of emissions "allowed" for that region in future, as well as the timing of interventions.[260]: 90 

Mitigation costs will vary according to how and when emissions are cut: early, well-planned action will minimise the costs.[178] Globally, the benefits of keeping warming under 2 °C exceed the costs.[19]

Many economists estimate the cost of climate change mitigation at between 1% and 2% of GDP.[261] One estimate stated that temperature increase can be limited to 1.5 °C for 1.7 trillion dollars a year.[262][263] According to this study, a global investment of approximately $1.7 trillion per year would be needed to keep global warming below 1.5°C. Whereas this is a large sum, it is still far less than the subsidies governments currently provided to the ailing fossil fuel industry, estimated at more than $5 trillion per year by the International Monetary Fund.[264][265]

The economic repercussions of mitigation vary widely across regions and households, depending on policy design and level of international cooperation. Delayed global cooperation increases policy costs across regions, especially in those that are relatively carbon intensive at present. Pathways with uniform carbon values show higher mitigation costs in more carbon-intensive regions, in fossil-fuels exporting regions and in poorer regions. Aggregate quantifications expressed in GDP or monetary terms undervalue the economic effects on households in poorer countries; the actual effects on welfare and well-being are comparatively larger.[266]

Cost–benefit analysis may be unsuitable for analysing climate change mitigation as a whole but still useful for analysing the difference between a 1.5 °C target and 2 °C.[261] One way of estimating the cost of reducing emissions is by considering the likely costs of potential technological and output changes. Policy makers can compare the marginal abatement costs of different methods to assess the cost and amount of possible abatement over time. The marginal abatement costs of the various measures will differ by country, by sector, and over time.[178]

Avoided costs of climate change effects

By limiting climate change, some of the costs of the effects of climate change can be avoided. According to the Stern Review, inaction can be as high as the equivalent of losing at least 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) each year, now and forever (up to 20% of the GDP or more when including a wider range of risks and impacts), whereas mitigating climate change will only cost about 2% of the GDP. Also, delaying to take significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may not be a good idea, when seen from a financial perspective.[267][268]

Mitigation solutions are often evaluated in terms of costs and greenhouse gas reduction potentials, missing out on the consideration of direct effects on human well-being.[269]

Distributing emissions abatement costs

Mitigation at the speed and scale required to likely limit warming to 2°C or below implies deep economic and structural changes, thereby raising multiple types of distributional concerns across regions, income classes and sectors.[266]

There have been different proposals on how to allocate responsibility for cutting emissions:[270]: 103  Egalitarianism, basic needs (as defined according to a minimum level of consumption), proportionality and polluter-pays principle. A specific proposal is the "equal per capita entitlements".[270]: 106  This approach can be divided into two categories. In the first category, emissions are allocated according to national population. In the second category, emissions are allocated in a way that attempts to account for historical (cumulative) emissions.

Discover more about Investment and finance related topics

Economics of climate change mitigation

Economics of climate change mitigation

The economics of climate change mitigation is the part of the economics of climate change related to climate change mitigation, that is actions that are designed to limit the amount of long-term climate change. Mitigation may be achieved through the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the enhancement of sinks that absorb GHGs, for example forests.

Economics of climate change

Economics of climate change

The economics of climate change concerns the economic aspects of climate change; this can inform policies that governments might consider in response. A number of factors make this and the politics of climate change a difficult problem: it is a long-term, intergenerational problem; benefits and costs are distributed unequally both within and across countries; and both the scientific consensus and public opinion on climate change need to be taken into account.

Climate risk

Climate risk

Climate risk refers to risk assessments based on formal analysis of the consequences, likelihoods and responses to the impacts of climate change and how societal constraints shape adaptation options. Common approaches to risk assessment and risk management strategies based on natural hazards have been applied to climate change impacts although there are distinct differences. Based on a climate system that is no longer staying within a stationary range of extremes, climate change impacts are anticipated to increase for the coming decades despite mitigation efforts. Ongoing changes in the climate system complicates assessing risks. Applying current knowledge to understand climate risk is further complicated due to substantial differences in regional climate projections, expanding numbers of climate model results, and the need to select a useful set of future climate scenarios in their assessments.

Business action on climate change

Business action on climate change

Business action on climate change includes a range of activities relating to climate change, and to influencing political decisions on climate change-related regulation, such as the Kyoto Protocol. Major multinationals have played and to some extent continue to play a significant role in the politics of climate change, especially in the United States, through lobbying of government and funding of climate change deniers. Business also plays a key role in the mitigation of climate change, through decisions to invest in researching and implementing new energy technologies and energy efficiency measures.

Fossil fuel divestment

Fossil fuel divestment

Fossil fuel divestment or fossil fuel divestment and investment in climate solutions is an attempt to reduce climate change by exerting social, political, and economic pressure for the institutional divestment of assets including stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments connected to companies involved in extracting fossil fuels.

List of asset management firms

List of asset management firms

An asset management company (AMC) is an asset management / investment management company/firm that invests the pooled funds of retail investors in securities in line with the stated investment objectives. For a fee, the company/firm provides more diversification, liquidity, and professional management consulting service than is normally available to individual investors. The diversification of portfolio is done by investing in such securities which are inversely correlated to each other. Money is collected from investors by way of floating various collective investment schemes, e.g. mutual fund schemes. In general, an AMC is a company that is engaged primarily in the business of investing in, and managing, portfolios of securities. A study by consulting firm Casey Quirk, which is owned by Deloitte, found that asset management firms ended 2020 with record highs in both revenue and assets under management.

Climate finance

Climate finance

Climate finance is "finance that aims at reducing emissions, and enhancing sinks of greenhouse gases and aims at reducing vulnerability of, and maintaining and increasing the resilience of, human and ecological systems to negative climate change impacts", as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Standing Committee on Finance. The term has been used in a narrow sense to refer to transfers of public resources from developed to developing countries, in light of their UN Climate Convention obligations to provide "new and additional financial resources", and in a wider sense to refer to all financial flows relating to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced and sold in a specific time period by countries. Due to its complex and subjective nature this measure is often revised before being considered a reliable indicator. GDP (nominal) per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the countries; therefore, using a basis of GDP per capita at purchasing power parity (PPP) may be more useful when comparing living standards between nations, while nominal GDP is more useful comparing national economies on the international market. Total GDP can also be broken down into the contribution of each industry or sector of the economy. The ratio of GDP to the total population of the region is the per capita GDP.

Paris Agreement

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement, often referred to as the Paris Accords or the Paris Climate Accords, is an international treaty on climate change. Adopted in 2015, the agreement covers climate change mitigation, adaptation, and finance. The Paris Agreement was negotiated by 196 parties at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference near Paris, France. As of September 2022, 194 members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are parties to the agreement. Of the four UNFCCC member states which have not ratified the agreement, the only major emitter is Iran. The United States withdrew from the Agreement in 2020, but rejoined in 2021.

Cost–benefit analysis

Cost–benefit analysis

Cost–benefit analysis (CBA), sometimes also called benefit–cost analysis, is a systematic approach to estimating the strengths and weaknesses of alternatives. It is used to determine options which provide the best approach to achieving benefits while preserving savings in, for example, transactions, activities, and functional business requirements. A CBA may be used to compare completed or potential courses of action, and to estimate or evaluate the value against the cost of a decision, project, or policy. It is commonly used to evaluate business or policy decisions, commercial transactions, and project investments. For example, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission must conduct cost-benefit analyses before instituting regulations or deregulations.

Economic impacts of climate change

Economic impacts of climate change

The economic impacts of climate change vary geographically and are difficult to forecast exactly. Researchers have warned that current economic, may seriously underestimate the effects of climate change, and point to the need for new models that give a more accurate picture of potential damages. Nevertheless, one 2018 study found that potential global economic gains if countries implement mitigation strategies to comply with the 2 °C target set at the Paris Agreement are in the vicinity of US$17 trillion per year up to 2100 compared to a very high emission scenario.

Effects of climate change

Effects of climate change

The effects of climate change span the impacts on physical environment, ecosystems and human societies due to human-caused climate change. The future impact of climate change depends on how much nations reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to climate change. Effects that scientists predicted in the past—loss of sea ice, accelerated sea level rise and longer, more intense heat waves—are now occurring. The changes in climate are not uniform across the Earth. In particular, most land areas have warmed faster than most ocean areas, and the Arctic is warming faster than most other regions. The regional changes vary: at high latitudes it is the average temperature that is increasing, while for the oceans and tropics it is in particular the rainfall and the water cycle where changes are observed. Global warming changes regional climate via the melting of ice, changes in the hydrological cycle and changing currents in the oceans.

Barriers

A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation[24]
A typology of discourses aimed at delaying climate change mitigation[24]

It has been suggested that the main barriers to implementation are uncertainty, institutional void, short time horizon of policies and politicians and missing motives and willingness to start adapting as well as the negative impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. [271] When information on climate change is held between the large numbers of actors involved it can be highly dispersed, context specific or difficult to access causing fragmentation to be a barrier. The short time horizon of policies and politicians often means that climate change policies are not implemented in favour of socially favoured societal issues. Statements are often posed to keep the illusion of political action to prevent or postpone decisions being made.[272] There may be cause for concern about metal requirement for relevant technologies such as photovoltaics.[273] Many developing nations have made national adaptation programs which are frameworks to prioritize adaption needs.[274]

Carbon budgets by country

Distribution of committed CO2 emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves
Distribution of committed CO2 emissions from developed fossil fuel reserves

An international policy to allocate carbon budgets to individual countries has not been implemented. This question raises fairness issues.[275] With a linear reduction starting from the status quo, industrial countries would have a greater share of the remaining global budget. Using an equal share per capita globally, emission cuts in industrial countries would have to be extremely sharp.

Geopolitical impacts

In 2019, oil and gas companies were listed by Forbes with sales of US$4.8 trillion, about 5% of the global GDP.[276] Net importers such as China and the EU would gain advantages from a transition to low-carbon technologies driven by technological development, energy efficiency or climate change policy, while Russia, the USA or Canada could see their fossil fuel industries nearly shut down.[277] On the other hand, countries with large areas such as Australia, Russia, China, the US, Canada and Brazil and also Africa and the Middle East have a potential for huge installations of renewable energy. The production of renewable energy technologies requires rare-earth elements with new supply chains.[278]

Regional differences

Regional barriers to mitigation include:[279]

  • Developing countries:
    • In many developing countries, importing mitigation technologies might lead to an increase in their external debt and balance-of-payments deficit.
    • Technology transfer to these countries can be hindered by the possibility of non-enforcement of intellectual property rights. This leaves little incentive for private firms to participate. On the other hand, enforcement of property rights can lead to developing countries facing high costs associated with patents and licensing fees.
    • A lack of available capital and finance is common in developing countries.. Together with the absence of regulatory standards, this barrier supports the proliferation of inefficient equipment.
  • Economies in transition: In the New Independent States, a lack of liquidity and a weak environmental policy framework are barriers to investment in mitigation.

Discover more about Barriers related topics

Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics

Photovoltaics (PV) is the conversion of light into electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect, a phenomenon studied in physics, photochemistry, and electrochemistry. The photovoltaic effect is commercially used for electricity generation and as photosensors.

Carbon budget

Carbon budget

A carbon budget is "the maximum amount of cumulative net global anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions that would result in limiting global warming to a given level with a given probability, taking into account the effect of other anthropogenic climate forcers". When expressed relative to the pre-industrial period it is referred to as the Total Carbon Budget, and when expressed from a recent specified date it is referred to as the Remaining Carbon Budget.

Forbes

Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family. Published eight times a year, it features articles on finance, industry, investing, and marketing topics. Forbes also reports on related subjects such as technology, communications, science, politics, and law. It is based in Jersey City, New Jersey. Competitors in the national business magazine category include Fortune and Bloomberg Businessweek. Forbes has an international edition in Asia as well as editions produced under license in 27 countries and regions worldwide.

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year. Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates. Nominal GDP does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different countries, and the results can vary greatly from one year to another based on fluctuations in the exchange rates of the country's currency. Such fluctuations may change a country's ranking from one year to the next, even though they often make little or no difference in the standard of living of its population.

Rare-earth element

Rare-earth element

The rare-earth elements (REE), also called the rare-earth metals or rare-earth oxides or sometimes the lanthanides, are a set of 17 nearly-indistinguishable lustrous silvery-white soft heavy metals. Compounds containing rare earths have diverse applications in electrical and electronic components, lasers, glass, magnetic materials, and industrial processes.

External debt

External debt

A country's gross external debt is the liabilities that are owed to nonresidents by residents. The debtors can be governments, corporations or citizens. External debt may be denominated in domestic or foreign currency. It includes amounts owed to private commercial banks, foreign governments, or international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.

Balance of payments

Balance of payments

In international economics, the balance of payments of a country is the difference between all money flowing into the country in a particular period of time and the outflow of money to the rest of the world. These financial transactions are made by individuals, firms and government bodies to compare receipts and payments arising out of trade of goods and services.

Technology transfer

Technology transfer

Technology transfer (TT), also called transfer of technology (TOT), is the process of transferring (disseminating) technology from the person or organization that owns or holds it to another person or organization, in an attempt to transform inventions and scientific outcomes into new products and services that benefit society. Technology transfer is closely related to knowledge transfer.

Intellectual property

Intellectual property

Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect. There are many types of intellectual property, and some countries recognize more than others. The best-known types are patents, copyrights, trademarks, and trade secrets. The modern concept of intellectual property developed in England in the 17th and 18th centuries. The term "intellectual property" began to be used in the 19th century, though it was not until the late 20th century that intellectual property became commonplace in the majority of the world's legal systems.

Liquidity

Liquidity

Liquidity is a concept in economics involving the convertibility of assets and obligations. It can include:Market liquidity, the ease with which an asset can be sold Accounting liquidity, the ability to meet cash obligations when due Liquid capital, the amount of money that a firm holds Liquidity risk, the risk that an asset will have impaired market liquidity

National policies

Although China is the leading producer of CO2 emissions in the world with the U.S. second, per capita the U.S. leads China by a fair margin (data from 2017).
Although China is the leading producer of CO2 emissions in the world with the U.S. second, per capita the U.S. leads China by a fair margin (data from 2017).

Types and examples

The most effective and economically efficient approach of achieving lower emissions in the energy sector is to apply a combination of market-based instruments (taxes, permits), standards, and information policies.[280]: 422 

Types of national policies that would support climate change mitigation include:

  • Regulatory standards: These set technology or performance standards, and can be effective in addressing the market failure of informational barriers.[280]: 412  If the costs of regulation are less than the benefits of addressing the market failure, standards can result in net benefits. One example are fuel-efficiency standards for cars.[281]
  • Market-based instruments such as emission taxes and charges: an emissions tax requires domestic emitters to pay a fixed fee or tax for every tonne of CO2-eq GHG emissions released into the atmosphere.[280]: 4123  If every emitter were to face the same level of tax, the lowest cost way of achieving emission reductions in the economy would be undertaken first. In the real world, however, markets are not perfect, meaning that an emissions tax may deviate from this ideal. Distributional and equity considerations usually result in differential tax rates for different sources.
  • Tradable permits: Emissions can be limited with a permit system.[280]: 415  A number of permits are distributed equal to the emission limit, with each liable entity required to hold the number of permits equal to its actual emissions. A tradable permit system can be cost-effective so long as transaction costs are not excessive, and there are no significant imperfections in the permit market and markets relating to emitting activities.
  • Voluntary agreements: These are agreements between government (public agencies) and industry.[280]: 417  Agreements may relate to general issues, such as research and development, but in other cases, quantitative targets may be agreed upon. There is, however, the risk that participants in the agreement will free ride, either by not complying with the agreement or by benefitting from the agreement while bearing no cost.
  • Informational instruments: Poor information is recognized as a barrier to improved energy efficiency or reduced emissions.[280]: 419  Examples of policies in this area include increasing public awareness of climate change, e.g., through advertising, and the funding of climate change research.
  • Research and development policies: Government funding of research and development (R&D) on energy has historically favoured nuclear and coal technologies. Although research into renewable energy and energy-efficient technologies had increased, it was still a relatively small proportion of R&D budgets in the OECD in 2001.[280]: 421 
  • Green power: The policy ensures that part of the electricity supply comes from designated renewable sources.[280]: 422  The cost of compliance is borne by all consumers.
  • Demand-side management: This aims to reduce energy demand, e.g., through energy audits, labelling, and regulation.[280]: 422 
  • Adding or removing subsidies:
    • A subsidy for GHG emissions reductions pays entities a specific amount per tonne of CO2-eq for every tonne of GHG reduced or sequestered.[280]: 421  Although subsidies are generally less efficient than taxes, distributional and competitiveness issues sometimes result in energy/emission taxes being coupled with subsidies or tax exceptions.
    • Creating subsidies and financial incentives:[282] for example energy subsidies to support clean generation which is not yet commercially viable such as tidal power.[283]
    • Phasing-out of unhelpful subsidies: Many countries provide subsidies for activities that impact emissions, e.g., subsidies in the agriculture and energy sectors, and indirect subsidies for transport. Specific example agricultural subsidies for cattle[284] or fossil fuel subsidies
  • A Green Marshall Plan, which calls for global central bank money creation to fund green infrastructure,[285][286][287]
  • Market liberalization: Restructuring of energy markets has occurred in several countries and regions. These policies have mainly been designed to increase competition in the market, but they can have a significant impact on emissions.[288]: 409–410 

Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies

Significant fossil fuel subsidies are present in many countries.[289] Fossil fuel subsidies in 2019 for consumption totalled USD 320 billion[290] spread over many countries.[291] As of 2019 governments subsidize fossil fuels by about $500 billion per year: however using an unconventional definition of subsidy which includes failing to price greenhouse gas emissions, the International Monetary Fund estimated that fossil fuel subsidies were $5.2 trillion in 2017, which was 6.4% of global GDP.[292] Some fossil fuel companies lobby governments.[293]

Phasing out fossil fuel subsidies is very important.[294] It must however be done carefully to avoid protests[295] and making poor people poorer.[296] In most cases, however, low fossil fuel prices benefit wealthier households more than poorer households. So to help poor and vulnerable people, other measures than fossil fuel subsidies would be more targeted.[297] This could in turn increase public support for subsidy reform.[298]

Carbon pricing

Carbon emission trade – allowance prices from 2008
Carbon emission trade – allowance prices from 2008

Additional costs on GHG emissions can lower competitiveness of fossil fuels and accelerate investments into low-carbon sources of energy. A growing number of countries raise a fixed carbon tax or participate in dynamic carbon emission trading (ETS) systems. In 2021, more than 21% of global GHG emissions were covered by a carbon price, a major increase due to the introduction of the Chinese national carbon trading scheme.[299]

Trading schemes offer the possibility to limit emission allowances to certain reduction targets. However, an oversupply of allowances keeps most ETS at low price levels around $10 with a low impact. This includes the Chinese ETS which started with $7/tCO2 in 2021.[300] One exception is the European Union Emission Trading Scheme where prices began to rise in 2018, exceeding €63/tCO2 (75 $) in 2021.[301] This results in additional costs of about €0.04/KWh for coal and €0.02/KWh for gas combustion for electricity, depending on the emission intensity.

Latest models of the social cost of carbon calculate a damage of more than $3000 per ton CO2 as a result of economy feedbacks and falling global GDP growth rates, while policy recommendations for a carbon price range from about $50 to $200.[302]: 22 

Most energy taxes are still levied on energy products and motor vehicles, rather than on CO2 emissions directly.[303] Non-transport sectors as the agricultural sector, which produces large amounts of methane, are typically left untaxed by current policies.

The revenue of carbon pricing can used to support policies that promote carbon neutrality. Another approach the concept of a carbon fee and dividend which includes the redistribution on a per-capita basis. As a result, households with a low consumption can even benefit from carbon pricing.

Policies by country

Many countries are aiming for net zero emissions, and many have either carbon taxes or carbon emission trading. As of the year 2021, three countries became carbon negative, meaning they remove from the atmosphere more Greenhouse gas emissions then they emit. The countries are: Bhutan, Suriname, Panama. The countries formed a small coalition at 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference and asked for help so that other countries will join it.[304]

Climate change mitigation policies can have a large and complex impact, both positive and negative, on the socio-economic status of individuals and countries.[305] Without “well-designed and inclusive policies, climate change mitigation measures can place a higher financial burden on poor households.”[306]

Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019)[307] .mw-parser-output .legend{page-break-inside:avoid;break-inside:avoid-column}.mw-parser-output .legend-color{display:inline-block;min-width:1.25em;height:1.25em;line-height:1.25;margin:1px 0;text-align:center;border:1px solid black;background-color:transparent;color:black}.mw-parser-output .legend-text{}  Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled   Carbon tax implemented or scheduled   Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration
Emission trading and carbon taxes around the world (2019)[307]
  Carbon emission trading implemented or scheduled
  Carbon tax implemented or scheduled
  Carbon emission trading or carbon tax under consideration

United States

Efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the United States include energy policies which encourage efficiency through programs like Energy Star, Commercial Building Integration, and the Industrial Technologies Program.[308]

In the absence of substantial federal action, state governments have adopted emissions-control laws such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in the Northeast and the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 in California.[309] In 2019 a new climate change bill was introduced in Minnesota. One of the targets, is making all the energy of the state carbon free, by 2030.[310]

China

In 2020, China committed to peak emissions by 2030 and reach net zero by 2060;[311] following the 2021 blackouts, officials indicated the 2030 target was something "to strive to" and not necessarily to be met.[312] In order to limit warming to 1.5 °C coal plants in China without carbon capture must be phased out by 2045.[313] The Chinese national carbon trading scheme started in 2021.

With more than 12 GtCO2, China is the largest GHG emitter worldwide, still investing into new coal plants. On the other hand, China is also installing the largest capacities of renewable energy worldwide. In recent years, Chinese companies have flooded the world market with high-performance photovoltaic modules, resulting in competitive prices. China is also building a HVDC grid.

Chinas export-embodied emissions are estimated at a level of 1.7 GtCO2 per year.[314]

European Union

The climate commitments of the European Union are divided into three main categories: targets for the year 2020, 2030 and 2050. The European Union claim that their policies are in line with the goal of the Paris Agreement.[315][316]

  • Targets for 2020:[317] Reduce GHG emissions by 20% from the level in 1990, produce 20% of energy from renewable sources, increase Energy Efficiency by 20%.
  • Targets for 2030:[318] Reduce GHG emission by 40% from the level of 1990. In 2019 The European Parliament adopted a resolution upgrading the target to 55%,[319] produce 32% of energy from renewables, increase energy efficiency by 32.5%.
  • Targets for 2050:[315] become climate neutral.

The European Union claims that they have already achieved the 2020 target for emission reduction and have the legislation needed to achieve the 2030 targets. Already in 2018, its GHG emissions were 23% lower that in 1990.[320]

Low and middle income countries

In order to reconcile economic development with mitigating carbon emissions, developing countries need particular support, both financial and technical. One of the means of achieving this is the Kyoto Protocol's Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The World Bank's Prototype Carbon Fund[321] is a public private partnership that operates within the CDM. However, none of these initiatives suggest a quantitative cap on the emissions from developing countries. This is considered as a particularly difficult policy proposal as the economic growth of developing countries are proportionally reflected in the growth of greenhouse emissions.

An important point of contention is how overseas development assistance not directly related to climate change mitigation is affected by funds provided to climate change mitigation.[322] One of the outcomes of the UNFCC Copenhagen Climate Conference was the Copenhagen Accord, in which developed countries promised to provide US$30 million between 2010 and 2012 of new and additional resources.[322] Yet it remains unclear what exactly the definition of "additional" is.[322]

In 2019 week of climate action in Latin America and the Caribbean result in a declaration in which leaders says that they will act to reduce emissions in the sectors of transportation, energy, urbanism, industry, forest conservation and land use and "sent a message of solidarity with all the people of Brazil suffering the consequences of the rainforest fires in the Amazon region, underscoring that protecting the world's forests is a collective responsibility, that forests are vital for life and that they are a critical part of the solution to climate change".[323][324]

Discover more about National policies related topics

Market failure

Market failure

In neoclassical economics, market failure is a situation in which the allocation of goods and services by a free market is not Pareto efficient, often leading to a net loss of economic value. Market failures can be viewed as scenarios where individuals' pursuit of pure self-interest leads to results that are not efficient – that can be improved upon from the societal point of view. The first known use of the term by economists was in 1958, but the concept has been traced back to the Victorian philosopher Henry Sidgwick. Market failures are often associated with public goods, time-inconsistent preferences, information asymmetries, non-competitive markets, principal–agent problems, or externalities.

Regulation

Regulation

Regulation is the management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends. In systems theory, these types of rules exist in various fields of biology and society, but the term has slightly different meanings according to context. For example:in biology, gene regulation and metabolic regulation allow living organisms to adapt to their environment and maintain homeostasis; in government, typically regulation means stipulations of the delegated legislation which is drafted by subject-matter experts to enforce primary legislation; in business, industry self-regulation occurs through self-regulatory organizations and trade associations which allow industries to set and enforce rules with less government involvement; and, in psychology, self-regulation theory is the study of how individuals regulate their thoughts and behaviors to reach goals.

Equity (economics)

Equity (economics)

Equity, or economic equality, is the concept or idea of fairness in economics, particularly in regard to taxation or welfare economics. More specifically, it may refer to a movement that strives to provide equal life chances regardless of identity, to provide all citizens with a basic and equal minimum of income, goods, and services or to increase funds and commitment for redistribution.

Emissions trading

Emissions trading

Emissions trading is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for reducing the emissions of pollutants. The concept is also known as cap and trade (CAT) or emissions trading scheme (ETS). Carbon emission trading for CO2 and other greenhouse gases has been introduced in China, the European Union and other countries as a key tool for climate change mitigation. Other schemes include sulfur dioxide and other pollutants.

Free-rider problem

Free-rider problem

In the social sciences, the free-rider problem is a type of market failure that occurs when those who benefit from resources, public goods, or services of a communal nature do not pay for them or under-pay. Free riders are a problem because while not paying for the good, they may continue to access or consume it. Thus, the good may be under-produced, overused or degraded. Additionally, it has been shown that despite evidence that people tend to be cooperative by nature, the presence of free-riders cause this prosocial behaviour to deteriorate, perpetuating the free-rider problem.

Advertising

Advertising

Advertising is the practice and techniques employed to bring attention to a product or service. Advertising aims to put a product or service in the spotlight in hopes of drawing it attention from consumers. It is typically used to promote a specific good or service, but there are wide range of uses, the most common being the commercial advertisement.

Nuclear power

Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions to produce electricity. Nuclear power can be obtained from nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion reactions. Presently, the vast majority of electricity from nuclear power is produced by nuclear fission of uranium and plutonium in nuclear power plants. Nuclear decay processes are used in niche applications such as radioisotope thermoelectric generators in some space probes such as Voyager 2. Generating electricity from fusion power remains the focus of international research.

Coal

Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams. Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen. Coal is formed when dead plant matter decays into peat and is converted into coal by the heat and pressure of deep burial over millions of years. Vast deposits of coal originate in former wetlands called coal forests that covered much of the Earth's tropical land areas during the late Carboniferous (Pennsylvanian) and Permian times. However, many significant coal deposits are younger than this and originate from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.

Energy subsidy

Energy subsidy

Energy subsidies are measures that keep prices for customers below market levels, or for suppliers above market levels, or reduce costs for customers and suppliers. Energy subsidies may be direct cash transfers to suppliers, customers, or related bodies, as well as indirect support mechanisms, such as tax exemptions and rebates, price controls, trade restrictions, and limits on market access.

Agricultural subsidy

Agricultural subsidy

An agricultural subsidy is a government incentive paid to agribusinesses, agricultural organizations and farms to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities.

Green infrastructure

Green infrastructure

Green infrastructure or blue-green infrastructure refers to a network that provides the “ingredients” for solving urban and climatic challenges by building with nature. The main components of this approach include stormwater management, climate adaptation, the reduction of heat stress, increasing biodiversity, food production, better air quality, sustainable energy production, clean water, and healthy soils, as well as more anthropocentric functions, such as increased quality of life through recreation and the provision of shade and shelter in and around towns and cities. Green infrastructure also serves to provide an ecological framework for social, economic, and environmental health of the surroundings. More recently scholars and activists have also called for green infrastructure that promotes social inclusion and equality rather than reinforcing pre-existing structures of unequal access to nature-based services.

Energy market

Energy market

Energy markets are national and international regulated markets that deal specifically with the trade and supply of energy. Energy market may refer to an electricity market, but can also refer to other sources of energy. Typically energy development is the result of a government creating an energy policy that encourages the development of an energy industry in a competitive manner.

International agreements

Almost all countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[325][326] The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.[327]

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement has become the main current international agreement on combating climate change. Each country must determine, plan, and regularly report on the contribution that it undertakes to mitigate global warming.[328] Climate change mitigation measures can be written down in national environmental policy documents like the nationally determined contributions (NDC). The Paris agreement succeeds the 1997 Kyoto Protocol which expired in 2020. Countries that ratified the Kyoto protocol committed to reduce their emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases, or engage in emissions trading if they maintain or increase emissions of these gases.

In 2015, two official UNFCCC scientific expert bodies came to the conclusion that, "in some regions and vulnerable ecosystems, high risks are projected even for warming above 1.5 °C".[329] This expert position was, together with the strong diplomatic voice of the poorest countries and the island nations in the Pacific, the driving force leading to the decision of the Paris Conference 2015, to lay down this 1.5 °C long-term target on top of the existing 2 °C goal.[330]

Additional commitments

In addition to the main agreements, there are many additional pledges made by international coalitions, countries, cities, regions and businesses. According to a report published in September 2019 before the 2019 UN Climate Action Summit, full implementation of all pledges, including those in the Paris Agreement, will be sufficient to limit temperature rise to 2 degrees but not to 1.5 degrees.[331] After the report was published, additional pledges were made in the September climate summit[332] and in December of that year.[333]

In December 2020 another climate action summit was held and important commitments were made. The organizers stated that, including the commitments expected in the beginning of the following year, countries representing 70% of the global economy will be committed to reach zero emissions by 2050.[334]

In September 2021 the US and EU launched the Global Methane Pledge to cut methane emissions by 30% by 2030. UK, Argentina, Indonesia, Italy and Mexico joined the initiative, "while Ghana and Iraq signaled interest in joining, according to a White House summary of the meeting, which noted those countries represent six of the top 15 methane emitters globally".[335] Israel also joined the initiative[336]

Although not designed for this purpose, the Montreal Protocol has benefited climate change mitigation efforts.[337] The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty that has successfully reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances (for example, CFCs), which are also greenhouse gases.

Discover more about International agreements related topics

Politics of climate change

Politics of climate change

The politics of climate change results from different perspectives on how to respond to climate change. Global warming is driven largely by the emissions of greenhouse gases due to human economic activity, especially the burning of fossil fuels, certain industries like cement and steel production, and land use for agriculture and forestry. Since the Industrial Revolution, fossil fuels have provided the main source of energy for economic and technological development. The centrality of fossil fuels and other carbon-intensive industries has resulted in much resistance to climate friendly policy, despite widespread scientific consensus that such policy is necessary.

Climate change mitigation framework

Climate change mitigation framework

There are various theoretical frameworks to mitigate climate change. Frameworks are significant in that they provide a lens through which an argument can be addressed, and can be used to understand the possible angles from which to approach solving climate change. Frameworks in political science are used to think about a topic from various angles in order to understand different perspectives of the topic; common ones in international political science include rationalist, culturalist, marxist, and liberal institutionalist. See international relations theory for more frameworks through which problems can be analyzed.

Greenhouse gas

Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas (GHG or GhG) is a gas that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range, causing the greenhouse effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are water vapor (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ozone (O3). Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth's surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F), rather than the present average of 15 °C (59 °F). The atmospheres of Venus, Mars and Titan also contain greenhouse gases.

Paris Agreement

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement, often referred to as the Paris Accords or the Paris Climate Accords, is an international treaty on climate change. Adopted in 2015, the agreement covers climate change mitigation, adaptation, and finance. The Paris Agreement was negotiated by 196 parties at the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference near Paris, France. As of September 2022, 194 members of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are parties to the agreement. Of the four UNFCCC member states which have not ratified the agreement, the only major emitter is Iran. The United States withdrew from the Agreement in 2020, but rejoined in 2021.

Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty which extended the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There were 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol in 2020.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound made up of molecules that each have one carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It is found in the gas state at room temperature.

Emissions trading

Emissions trading

Emissions trading is a market-based approach to controlling pollution by providing economic incentives for reducing the emissions of pollutants. The concept is also known as cap and trade (CAT) or emissions trading scheme (ETS). Carbon emission trading for CO2 and other greenhouse gases has been introduced in China, the European Union and other countries as a key tool for climate change mitigation. Other schemes include sulfur dioxide and other pollutants.

2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015. It was the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.

2019 UN Climate Action Summit

2019 UN Climate Action Summit

The 2019 UN Climate Action Summit was held at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York City on 23 September 2019. The UN 2019 Climate Summit convened on the theme, "Climate Action Summit 2019: A Race We Can Win. A Race We Must Win." The goal of the summit was to further climate action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to prevent the mean global temperature from rising by more than 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) above preindustrial levels. Sixty countries were expected to "announce steps to reduce emissions and support populations most vulnerable to the climate crisis" including France, a number of other European countries, small island countries and India. To increase pressure on political and economic actors to achieve the aims of the summit, a global climate strike was held around the world on 20 September with over four million participants.

Montreal Protocol

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on 16 September 1987, and entered into force on 1 January 1989. Since then, it has undergone nine revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998 (Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali) As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation, it has been hailed as an example of successful international co-operation. Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol". In comparison, effective burden-sharing and solution proposals mitigating regional conflicts of interest have been among the success factors for the ozone depletion challenge, where global regulation based on the Kyoto Protocol has failed to do so. In this case of the ozone depletion challenge, there was global regulation already being installed before a scientific consensus was established. Also, overall public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks.

Treaty

Treaty

A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law. It is usually made by and between sovereign states, but can include international organizations, individuals, business entities, and other legal persons. A treaty may also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. However, only documents that are legally binding on the parties are considered treaties under international law. Treaties vary on the basis of obligations, precision, and delegation.

Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbon

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are fully or partly halogenated hydrocarbons that contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivatives of methane, ethane, and propane. They are also commonly known by the DuPont brand name Freon.

Monitoring

Satellites are increasingly being used for locating and measuring greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation. Earlier, scientists largely relied on or calculated estimates of greenhouse gas emissions and governments' self-reported data.[338][339] They can also evaluate the environmental impact of policies and events such as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment.[340] Various other technologies are also being used for environmental monitoring.

Climate Action Tracker described the situation on 9 November 2021 as follows: the global temperature will rise by 2.7 °C by the end of the century with current policies and by 2.9 °C with nationally adopted policies. The temperature will rise by 2.4 °C if only the pledges for 2030 are implemented, by 2.1 °C if the long-term targets are also achieved. If all the announced targets are fully achieved the rise in global temperature will peak at 1.9 °C and go down to 1.8 °C by the year 2100.[341] All the information about all climate pledges is sent to the Global Climate Action Portal - Nazca. The scientific community is checking their fulfillment.[342]

While the status of most goals set for 2020 have not been evaluated in a definitive and detailed way or reported on by the media, the world failed to meet most or all international goals set for that year.[343][344]

As the 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference occurred in Glasgow, the group of researchers running the Climate Action Tracker reported that of countries responsible for 85% of GHG emissions, only four polities (responsible for 6% of global GHG emissions) – EU, UK, Chile and Costa Rica – have published a detailed official policy‑plan that describes the steps and ways by which 2030 mitigation targets could be realized.[345] There are organizations that aim to transparently, neutrally and credibly monitor progress of climate change mitigation such as of pledges, goals, initiatives and other developments.[346][347]

How well each individual country is on track to achieving its Paris agreement commitments can be followed on-line.[348] The negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic has placed a challenge to achieve the Paris Agreement, with less significant support from the respondents from less developed countries.[349]

Discover more about Monitoring related topics

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the environment

The COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on the environment, with changes in human activity leading to temporary changes in air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and water quality. As the pandemic became a global health crisis in early 2020, various national responses including lockdowns and travel restrictions caused substantial disruption to society, travel, energy usage and economic activity, sometimes referred to as the "anthropause". As public health measures were lifted later in the pandemic, its impact has sometimes been discussed in terms of effects on implementing renewable energy transition and climate change mitigation.

Environmental monitoring

Environmental monitoring

Environmental monitoring describes the processes and activities that need to take place to characterize and monitor the quality of the environment. Environmental monitoring is used in the preparation of environmental impact assessments, as well as in many circumstances in which human activities carry a risk of harmful effects on the natural environment. All monitoring strategies and programs have reasons and justifications which are often designed to establish the current status of an environment or to establish trends in environmental parameters. In all cases, the results of monitoring will be reviewed, analyzed statistically, and published. The design of a monitoring program must therefore have regard to the final use of the data before monitoring starts.

Climate Action Tracker

Climate Action Tracker

Climate Action Tracker is a research group with the aim of monitoring government action to achieve their reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with regard to international agreements. It is tracking climate action in 32 countries responsible for over 80% of global emissions.

2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference

2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference

The 2021 United Nations Climate Change Conference, more commonly referred to as COP26, was the 26th United Nations Climate Change conference, held at the SEC Centre in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom, from 31 October to 13 November 2021. The president of the conference was UK cabinet minister Alok Sharma. Delayed for a year due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it was the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the third meeting of the parties to the 2015 Paris Agreement, and the 16th meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP16).

Plan

Plan

A plan is typically any diagram or list of steps with details of timing and resources, used to achieve an objective to do something. It is commonly understood as a temporal set of intended actions through which one expects to achieve a goal.

Supplementary options

Solar radiation modification (SRM) is an approach that is sometimes grouped together with other climate change mitigation activities but is regarded as only a possible "supplementary activity".[350]: 14–56  This proposed technique is also called solar geoengineering and is part of climate engineering. Unlike other mitigation activities, SRM does not attempt to address the root cause of the problem but would work by changing the way solar radiation is received by Earth.[350]: 14–56 

History

Historically climate change has been approached at a multinational level where a consensus decision is reached at the United Nations (UN), under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).[351] This represents the dominant approach historically of engaging as many international governments as possible in taking action in on a worldwide public issue. There is a precedent that this model can work, as seen in the Montreal Protocol in 1987. The top-down framework of only utilizing the UNFCCC consensus approach has been proposed to be ineffective, with counter proposals of bottom up governance and decreasing the emphasis of the UNFCCC.[352][353][354]

The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC (adopted in 1997) set out legally binding emission reduction commitments for the "Annex B" countries.[355]: 817  The Protocol defined three international policy instruments ("Flexibility Mechanisms") which could be used by the Annex B countries to meet their emission reduction commitments. According to Bashmakov, use of these instruments could significantly reduce the costs for Annex B countries in meeting their emission reduction commitments.[356]: 402 

Discover more about History related topics

Climate change mitigation framework

Climate change mitigation framework

There are various theoretical frameworks to mitigate climate change. Frameworks are significant in that they provide a lens through which an argument can be addressed, and can be used to understand the possible angles from which to approach solving climate change. Frameworks in political science are used to think about a topic from various angles in order to understand different perspectives of the topic; common ones in international political science include rationalist, culturalist, marxist, and liberal institutionalist. See international relations theory for more frameworks through which problems can be analyzed.

History of climate change policy and politics

History of climate change policy and politics

The history of climate change policy and politics refers to the continuing history of political actions, policies, trends, controversies and activist efforts as they pertain to the issue of global warming and other environmental anomalies. Dryzek, Norgaard, and Schlosberg suggest that critical reflection on the history of climate policy is necessary because it provides 'ways to think about one of the most difficult issues we human beings have brought upon ourselves in our short life on the planet’.

United Nations

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization whose stated purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the world's largest and most familiar international organization. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City, and has other main offices in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna, and The Hague.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established an international environmental treaty to combat "dangerous human interference with the climate system", in part by stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. It was signed by 154 states at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), informally known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992. It established a Secretariat headquartered in Bonn, Germany, and entered into force on 21 March 1994.

Montreal Protocol

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. It was agreed on 16 September 1987, and entered into force on 1 January 1989. Since then, it has undergone nine revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992 (Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), 1998 (Australia), 1999 (Beijing) and 2016 (Kigali) As a result of the international agreement, the ozone hole in Antarctica is slowly recovering. Climate projections indicate that the ozone layer will return to 1980 levels between 2050 and 2070. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation, it has been hailed as an example of successful international co-operation. Former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan stated that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has been the Montreal Protocol". In comparison, effective burden-sharing and solution proposals mitigating regional conflicts of interest have been among the success factors for the ozone depletion challenge, where global regulation based on the Kyoto Protocol has failed to do so. In this case of the ozone depletion challenge, there was global regulation already being installed before a scientific consensus was established. Also, overall public opinion was convinced of possible imminent risks.

Kyoto Protocol

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was an international treaty which extended the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits state parties to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, based on the scientific consensus that (part one) global warming is occurring and (part two) that human-made CO2 emissions are driving it. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. There were 192 parties (Canada withdrew from the protocol, effective December 2012) to the Protocol in 2020.

Source: "Climate change mitigation", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change_mitigation.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
References
  1. ^ a b c d IPCC, 2021: Annex VII: Glossary [Matthews, J.B.R., V. Möller, R. van Diemen, J.S. Fuglestvedt, V. Masson-Delmotte, C.  Méndez, S. Semenov, A. Reisinger (eds.)]. In Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S.L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M.I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T.K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu, and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 2215–2256, doi:10.1017/9781009157896.022.
  2. ^ a b c IPCC (2022) Chapter 1: Introduction and Framing in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  3. ^ a b c "Cement – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  4. ^ a b c "Sector by sector: where do global greenhouse gas emissions come from?". Our World in Data. Retrieved 2022-11-16.
  5. ^ "Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2020". IEA. Retrieved 2022-11-17.
  6. ^ Ram M., Bogdanov D., Aghahosseini A., Gulagi A., Oyewo A.S., Child M., Caldera U., Sadovskaia K., Farfan J., Barbosa LSNS., Fasihi M., Khalili S., Dalheimer B., Gruber G., Traber T., De Caluwe F., Fell H.-J., Breyer C. Global Energy System based on 100% Renewable Energy – Power, Heat, Transport and Desalination Sectors. Study by Lappeenranta University of Technology and Energy Watch Group, Lappeenranta, Berlin, March 2019.
  7. ^ a b Pérez-Domínguez, Ignacio; del Prado, Agustin; Mittenzwei, Klaus; Hristov, Jordan; Frank, Stefan; Tabeau, Andrzej; Witzke, Peter; Havlik, Petr; van Meijl, Hans; Lynch, John; Stehfest, Elke (December 2021). "Short- and long-term warming effects of methane may affect the cost-effectiveness of mitigation policies and benefits of low-meat diets". Nature Food. 2 (12): 970–980. doi:10.1038/s43016-021-00385-8. ISSN 2662-1355. PMC 7612339. PMID 35146439.
  8. ^ "Climate Change Performance Index" (PDF). November 2022. Retrieved 16 November 2022.
  9. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max; Rosado, Pablo (11 May 2020). "CO₂ and Greenhouse Gas Emissions". Our World in Data. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  10. ^ Harvey, Fiona (26 November 2019). "UN calls for push to cut greenhouse gas levels to avoid climate chaos". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  11. ^ "Cut Global Emissions by 7.6 Percent Every Year for Next Decade to Meet 1.5°C Paris Target – UN Report". United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. United Nations. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  12. ^ "What is solar radiation modification and what questions should SIDS be asking about the governance of its research and deployment?". ODI: Think change. Retrieved 2022-11-26. Solar radiation modification (SRM) – also discussed in the context of geoengineering – is part of a set of climate mitigation technologies
  13. ^ "Solar Radiation Modification: A Risk-Risk Analysis" (PDF).
  14. ^ Molar, Roberto. "Reducing Emissions to Lessen Climate Change Could Yield Dramatic Health Benefits by 2030". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  15. ^ a b c d e IPCC (2022) Summary for policy makers in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j IPCC (2022) Technical Summary. In Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  17. ^ Budolfson, Mark; Dennig, Francis; Errickson, Frank; Feindt, Simon; Ferranna, Maddalena; Fleurbaey, Marc; Klenert, David; Kornek, Ulrike; Kuruc, Kevin; Méjean, Aurélie; Peng, Wei; Scovronick, Noah; Spears, Dean; Wagner, Fabian; Zuber, Stéphane (2021). "Climate action with revenue recycling has benefits for poverty, inequality and well-being". Nature Climate Change. 11 (12): 1111–1116. Bibcode:2021NatCC..11.1111B. doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01217-0. ISSN 1758-678X. S2CID 244726475.
  18. ^ Workman, Annabelle; Blashki, Grant; Bowen, Kathryn J.; Karoly, David J.; Wiseman, John (April 2018). "The Political Economy of Health Co-Benefits: Embedding Health in the Climate Change Agenda". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 15 (4): 674. doi:10.3390/ijerph15040674. PMC 5923716. PMID 29617317.
  19. ^ a b Sampedro, Jon; Smith, Steven J.; Arto, Iñaki; González-Eguino, Mikel; Markandya, Anil; Mulvaney, Kathleen M.; Pizarro-Irizar, Cristina; Van Dingenen, Rita (2020). "Health co-benefits and mitigation costs as per the Paris Agreement under different technological pathways for energy supply". Environment International. 136: 105513. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105513. PMID 32006762. S2CID 211004787.
  20. ^ "MCC: Quality of life increases when we live, eat and travel energy-efficiently". idw-online.de. Retrieved 11 December 2021.
  21. ^ Creutzig, Felix; Niamir, Leila; Bai, Xuemei; Callaghan, Max; Cullen, Jonathan; Díaz-José, Julio; Figueroa, Maria; Grubler, Arnulf; Lamb, William F.; Leip, Adrian; Masanet, Eric; Mata, Érika; Mattauch, Linus; Minx, Jan C.; Mirasgedis, Sebastian (2022). "Demand-side solutions to climate change mitigation consistent with high levels of well-being". Nature Climate Change. 12 (1): 36–46. Bibcode:2022NatCC..12...36C. doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01219-y. ISSN 1758-678X. S2CID 234275540.
  22. ^ Sonter, Laura J.; Dade, Marie C.; Watson, James E. M.; Valenta, Rick K. (1 September 2020). "Renewable energy production will exacerbate mining threats to biodiversity". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 4174. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.4174S. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-17928-5. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7463236. PMID 32873789. S2CID 221467922.
  23. ^ "Solar panels are a pain to recycle. These companies are trying to fix that". Archived from the original on 8 November 2021. Retrieved 8 November 2021.
  24. ^ a b c Lamb, William F.; Mattioli, Giulio; Levi, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Timmons; Capstick, Stuart; Creutzig, Felix; Minx, Jan C.; Müller-Hansen, Finn; Culhane, Trevor; Steinberger, Julia K. (2020). "Discourses of climate delay". Global Sustainability. 3. doi:10.1017/sus.2020.13. ISSN 2059-4798. S2CID 222245720.
  25. ^ a b IPCC AR4 WG1 Ch10 2007, pp. 824–825
  26. ^ IPCC SR15 Ch2 2018, p. 109.
  27. ^ Teske, ed. 2019, p. xxiii.
  28. ^ World Resources Institute, 8 August 2019
  29. ^ IPCC SR15 Ch3 2018, p. 266: Where reforestation is the restoration of natural ecosystems, it benefits both carbon sequestration and conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services.
  30. ^ Bui et al. 2018, p. 1068; IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers 2018, p. 17
  31. ^ IPCC SR15 2018, p. 34; IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers 2018, p. 17
  32. ^ "Major breakthrough on nuclear fusion energy". BBC News. 2022-02-09. Retrieved 2022-11-24. Fusion is not a solution to get us to 2050 net zero. This is a solution to power society in the second half of this century.
  33. ^ "2.2 Solar & Wind". Speed & Scale. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  34. ^ "How Replacing Coal With Renewable Energy Could Pay For Itself". IMF. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  35. ^ Mills, Ryan (2022-08-04). "The Time for Radical Implementation Is Now". RMI. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  36. ^ "Chapter 2: Emissions trends and drivers" (PDF). Ipcc_Ar6_Wgiii. 2022.
  37. ^ "It's critical to tackle coal emissions". blogs.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2022-11-25. Coal power plants produce a fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions – more than any other single source.
  38. ^ "Biden signs international climate deal on refrigerants". AP NEWS. 2022-10-27. Retrieved 2022-11-26.
  39. ^ Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (4 April 2022). "IPCC: Climate Change 2022, Mitigation of Climate Change, Summary for Policymakers" (PDF). ipecac.ch. Retrieved 22 April 2004.
  40. ^ "Methane vs. Carbon Dioxide: A Greenhouse Gas Showdown". One Green Planet. 30 September 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2020.
  41. ^ "CO2 Emissions: Multiple Countries - 2021 - Climate TRACE". climatetrace.org. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  42. ^ Franziska Funke; Linus Mattauch; Inge van den Bijgaart; H. Charles J. Godfray; Cameron Hepburn; David Klenert; Marco Springmann; Nicolas Treich (19 July 2022). "Toward Optimal Meat Pricing: Is It Time to Tax Meat Consumption?". Review of Environmental Economics and Policy. 16 (2): 000. doi:10.1086/721078. S2CID 250721559. Retrieved 13 August 2022. animal-based agriculture and feed crop production account for approximately 83 percent of agricultural land globally and are responsible for approximately 67 percent of deforestation (Poore and Nemecek 2018). This makes livestock farming the single largest driver of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, nutrient pollution, and ecosystem loss in the agricultural sector. A failure to mitigate GHG emissions from the food system, especially animal-based agriculture, could prevent the world from meeting the climate objective of limiting global warming to 1.5°C, as set forth in the Paris Climate Agreement, and complicate the path to limiting climate change to well below 2°C of warming (Clark et al. 2020).
  43. ^ IGSD (2013). "Short-Lived Climate Pollutants (SLCPs)". Institute of Governance and Sustainable Development (IGSD). Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  44. ^ a b United Nations Environment Programme (2022). Emissions Gap Report 2022: The Closing Window — Climate crisis calls for rapid transformation of societies. Nairobi.
  45. ^ "It's over for fossil fuels: IPCC spells out what's needed to avert climate disaster". The Guardian. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  46. ^ "The evidence is clear: the time for action is now. We can halve emissions by 2030". IPCC. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  47. ^ "Ambitious Action Key to Resolving Triple Planetary Crisis of Climate Disruption, Nature Loss, Pollution, Secretary-General Says in Message for International Mother Earth Day | Meetings Coverage and Press Releases". www.un.org. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  48. ^ IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers 2018, p. 12
  49. ^ IPCC SR15 Summary for Policymakers 2018, p. 15
  50. ^ IPCC SR15 Ch2 2018, p. 96
  51. ^ Summary for Policymakers. In: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty (PDF). IPCC. 2018. p. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2021. Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  52. ^ a b Sathaye, J.; et al. (2007). "Sustainable Development and Mitigation". In B. Metz; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. Archived from the original on 2 November 2018. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  53. ^ Ripple, William J; Wolf, Christopher; Newsome, Thomas M; Barnard, Phoebe; Moomaw, William R (November 5, 2019). "World Scientists' Warning of a Climate Emergency". BioScience. 70: 8–12. doi:10.1093/biosci/biz088. hdl:1808/30278. Retrieved November 25, 2022. Economic and population growth are among the most important drivers of increases in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion...
  54. ^ "2021-2022 EIB Climate Survey, part 3 of 3: The economic and social impact of the green transition". EIB.org. Retrieved 2022-04-04.
  55. ^ Friedlingstein, Pierre; Jones, Matthew W.; O'Sullivan, Michael; Andrew, Robbie M.; Hauck, Judith; Peters, Glen P.; Peters, Wouter; Pongratz, Julia; Sitch, Stephen; Le Quéré, Corinne; Bakker, Dorothee C. E. (2019). "Global Carbon Budget 2019". Earth System Science Data. 11 (4): 1783–1838. Bibcode:2019ESSD...11.1783F. doi:10.5194/essd-11-1783-2019. ISSN 1866-3508. Archived from the original on 6 May 2021. Retrieved 15 February 2021.
  56. ^ a b c d e IPCC (2022) Chapter 6: Energy systems in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  57. ^ a b "Scale-up of Solar and Wind Puts Existing Coal, Gas at Risk". BloombergNEF. 28 April 2020.
  58. ^ "Global Energy Transformation: A Roadmap to 2050 (2019 edition)" (PDF). International Renewable Energy Agency. Retrieved 29 January 2020.
  59. ^ Cartlidge, Edwin (18 November 2011). "Saving for a rainy day". Science. 334 (6058): 922–24. Bibcode:2011Sci...334..922C. doi:10.1126/science.334.6058.922. PMID 22096185.
  60. ^ "Electricity Production in Germany Week 29/2021". Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  61. ^ "Renewables 2021 Global Status Report" (PDF). REN21. pp. 137–138. Retrieved 22 July 2021.
  62. ^ "Global Wind Atlas". DTU Technical University of Denmark. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Global Wind Report 2019". Global Wind Energy Council. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  64. ^ "BP Statistical Review 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  65. ^ "Large hydropower dams not sustainable in the developing world". BBC News. 5 November 2018. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  66. ^ "From baseload to peak" (PDF). IRENA. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  67. ^ "Biomass – Carbon sink or carbon sinner" (PDF). UK environment agency. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 27 March 2020.
  68. ^ IPCC SR15 Ch2 2018, p. 131
  69. ^ "Barriers to Renewable Energy Technologies | Union of Concerned Scientists". ucsusa.org. Retrieved 25 October 2021. Renewable energy opponents love to highlight the variability of the sun and wind as a way of bolstering support for coal, gas, and nuclear plants, which can more easily operate on-demand or provide "baseload" (continuous) power.
  70. ^ Manon, Besnard; Marcos, Buser; Ian, Fairlie; Gordon, MacKerron; Allison, Macfarlane; Eszter, Matyas; Yves, Marignac; Edvard, Sequens; Johan, Swahn; Ben, Wealer; Rebecca, Harms; Mycle, Schneider; Julie, Hazemann; Wolfgang, Neumann; Anna, Turmann; Arne, Jungjohann; Nina, Schneider; Mathilde, Horville (1 September 2020). "The World Nuclear Waste Report 2019 – Focus Europe. Report + Executive summary" (in French). Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  71. ^ a b "World Nuclear Waste Report". Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  72. ^ "Nuclear Reprocessing: Dangerous, Dirty, and Expensive". Union of Concerned Scientists. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  73. ^ Smith, Brice. "Insurmountable Risks: The Dangers of Using Nuclear Power to Combat Global Climate Change – Institute for Energy and Environmental Research". Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  74. ^ Prăvălie, Remus; Bandoc, Georgeta (1 March 2018). "Nuclear energy: Between global electricity demand, worldwide decarbonisation imperativeness, and planetary environmental implications". Journal of Environmental Management. 209: 81–92. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.12.043. ISSN 1095-8630. PMID 29287177.
  75. ^ Justin McCurry (30 January 2017). "Possible nuclear fuel find raises hopes of Fukushima plant breakthrough". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 February 2017.
  76. ^ "Europe faces €253bn nuclear waste bill". The Guardian. 4 April 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2021.
  77. ^ Griffiths, James. "China's gambling on a nuclear future, but is it destined to lose?". CNN. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  78. ^ Ramana, M. V.; Mian, Zia (1 June 2014). "One size doesn't fit all: Social priorities and technical conflicts for small modular reactors". Energy Research & Social Science. 2: 115–124. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2014.04.015. ISSN 2214-6296.
  79. ^ Ramana, M. V.; Ahmad, Ali (1 June 2016). "Wishful thinking and real problems: Small modular reactors, planning constraints, and nuclear power in Jordan". Energy Policy. 93: 236–245. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2016.03.012. ISSN 0301-4215.
  80. ^ Meckling, Jonas (1 March 2019). "Governing renewables: Policy feedback in a global energy transition". Environment and Planning C: Politics and Space. 37 (2): 317–338. doi:10.1177/2399654418777765. ISSN 2399-6544. S2CID 169975439.
  81. ^ "May: Steep decline in nuclear power would threaten energy security and climate goals". www.iea.org. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  82. ^ It's Official: The United Kingdom is to subsidize nuclear power, but at what cost? (Report). International Institute for Sustainable Development. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
  83. ^ "A lightbulb moment for nuclear fusion?". The Guardian. 27 October 2019. Retrieved 25 November 2021.
  84. ^ Entler, Slavomir; Horacek, Jan; Dlouhy, Tomas; Dostal, Vaclav (1 June 2018). "Approximation of the economy of fusion energy". Energy. 152: 489–497. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.130. ISSN 0360-5442.
  85. ^ Nam, Hoseok; Nam, Hyungseok; Konishi, Satoshi (2021). "Techno-economic analysis of hydrogen production from the nuclear fusion-biomass hybrid system". International Journal of Energy Research. 45 (8): 11992–12012. doi:10.1002/er.5994. ISSN 1099-114X. S2CID 228937388.
  86. ^ "The Role of Gas: Key Findings". IEA. July 2019. Archived from the original on 1 September 2019. Retrieved 2019-10-04.
  87. ^ "Natural gas and the environment". US Energy Information Administration. Archived from the original on 2 April 2021. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  88. ^ Plumer, Brad (26 June 2019). "As Coal Fades in the U.S., Natural Gas Becomes the Climate Battleground". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 23 September 2019. Retrieved 4 October 2019.
  89. ^ Gürsan, C.; de Gooyert, V. (2021). "The systemic impact of a transition fuel: Does natural gas help or hinder the energy transition?". Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 138: 110552. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2020.110552. ISSN 1364-0321. S2CID 228885573. Archived from the original on 7 October 2021. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  90. ^ Schmidt, Oliver; Melchior, Sylvain; Hawkes, Adam; Staffell, Iain (2019). "Projecting the Future Levelized Cost of Electricity Storage Technologies". Joule. 3 (1): 81–100. doi:10.1016/j.joule.2018.12.008. S2CID 67915118.
  91. ^ "Volkswagen plans to tap electric car batteries to compete with power firms". Reuters. 12 March 2020. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  92. ^ Pellow et al. 2015
  93. ^ "The spiralling environmental cost of our lithium battery addiction". WIRED. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  94. ^ "Is Green Hydrogen The Future Of Energy Storage?". OilPrice.com. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  95. ^ Beauvais, Aurélie (13 November 2019). "Solar + Hydrogen: The perfect match for a Paris-compatible hydrogen strategy?". Solar Power Europe. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 5 April 2020.
  96. ^ "Ammonia flagged as green shipping fuel of the future". Financial Times. 30 March 2020.
  97. ^ "UHV Grid". Global Energy Interconnection (GEIDCO). Archived from the original on 1 February 2020. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  98. ^ Vella, Heidi (2022-07-28). "For Europe's offshore ambitions, grid innovation is key". Raconteur. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  99. ^ "North American Supergrid" (PDF). Climate Institute (USA). Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  100. ^ "Renewable Energy and Load Management" (PDF). UTS University of Technology Sydney. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
  101. ^ "Smart scheduling for big computing tasks cuts emissions up to a third". New Scientist. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  102. ^ "Stagger your weekly offs: PSPCL appeals to Punjab industries, issues schedule". The Indian Express. 2022-05-15. Retrieved 2022-05-18.
  103. ^ "UK vehicle-to-grid trial finds economic potential but 'hardware costs still too high'". Energy Storage News. 2021-06-08. Retrieved 2021-12-24.
  104. ^ "Electric cars: Ofgem plans easier way for drivers to sell energy back to grid". The Guardian. 2021-09-04. Retrieved 2021-12-24.
  105. ^ IEA (2019), Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019, IEA, Paris, License: CC BY 4.0
  106. ^ Key World Energy Statistics 2020 (Report). IEA. 2020.
  107. ^ "A guide for effective energy saving". Renewable Energy World. 9 April 2015. Archived from the original on 11 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
  108. ^ "The value of urgent action on energy efficiency – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 2022-11-23.
  109. ^ Diesendorf, Mark (2007). Greenhouse Solutions with Sustainable Energy, UNSW Press, p. 86.
  110. ^ IPCC SR15 Ch2 2018, p. 141
  111. ^ IEA ETP Buildings 2017
  112. ^ "Heat Pumps – Analysis". IEA. 2022. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  113. ^ Zhou, Kai; Miljkovic, Nenad; Cai, Lili (March 2021). "Performance analysis on system-level integration and operation of daytime radiative cooling technology for air-conditioning in buildings". Energy and Buildings. 235: 110749. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2021.110749. S2CID 234180182 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
  114. ^ Radhika, Lalik (2019). "How India is solving its cooling challenge". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  115. ^ "Cooling Emissions and Policy Synthesis Report". IEA/UNEP. 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  116. ^ "The Future of the Canals" (PDF). London Canal Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
  117. ^ UKCCC (2020). "The Sixth Carbon Budget Surface Transport" (PDF). UKCCC. there is zero net cost to the economy of switching from cars to walking and cycling
  118. ^ Ge, Mengpin; Friedrich, Johannes; Vigna, Leandro (6 February 2020). "4 Charts Explain Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Countries and Sectors". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  119. ^ Jochem, Patrick; Rothengatter, Werner; Schade, Wolfgang (2016). "Climate change and transport".
  120. ^ Kwan, Soo Chen; Hashim, Jamal Hisham (1 April 2016). "A review on co-benefits of mass public transportation in climate change mitigation". Sustainable Cities and Society. 22: 11–18. doi:10.1016/j.scs.2016.01.004. ISSN 2210-6707.
  121. ^ Lowe, Marcia D. (April 1994). "Back on Track: The Global Rail Revival". Archived from the original on 4 December 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2007.
  122. ^ Mattioli, Giulio; Roberts, Cameron; Steinberger, Julia K.; Brown, Andrew (1 August 2020). "The political economy of car dependence: A systems of provision approach". Energy Research & Social Science. 66: 101486. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2020.101486. ISSN 2214-6296. S2CID 216186279.
  123. ^ Gonsalvez, Venkat Sumantran, Charles Fine and David (16 October 2017). "Our cities need fewer cars, not cleaner cars". The Guardian.
  124. ^ Casson, Richard (25 January 2018). "We don't just need electric cars, we need fewer cars". Greenpeace. Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  125. ^ "The essentials of the "Green Deal" of the European Commission". Green Facts. Green Facts. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  126. ^ "Smart Mobility in Smart Cities". ResearchGate.
  127. ^ "How green are electric cars?". The Guardian.
  128. ^ "Want Electric Ships? Build a Better Battery". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  129. ^ "The scale of investment needed to decarbonize international shipping". www.globalmaritimeforum.org. Retrieved 7 April 2020.
  130. ^ Sternberg, André; Hank, Christoph; Ebling, Christopher (13 July 2019). "Greenhouse gas emissions for battery electric and fuel cell electric vehicles with ranges over 300 kilometers" (PDF). Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE. p. 8.
  131. ^ "LNG projected to gain significant market share in transport fuels by 2035". Gas Processing News/Bloomberg. 28 September 2014.
  132. ^ Chambers, Sam (26 February 2021). "'Transitional fuels are capturing the regulatory agenda and incentives': Maersk". splash247. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  133. ^ "Maersk backs plan to build Europe's largest green ammonia facility" (Press release). Maersk. 23 February 2021. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  134. ^ Parker, Selwyn (8 September 2020). "Norway moves closer to its ambition of an all-electric ferry fleet". Rivera.
  135. ^ D. S. Lee; et al. (2021), "The contribution of global aviation to anthropogenic climate forcing for 2000 to 2018", Atmospheric Environment, 244: 117834, Bibcode:2021AtmEn.24417834L, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117834, PMC 7468346, PMID 32895604
  136. ^ Brandon Graver; Kevin Zhang; Dan Rutherford (September 2019). "CO2 emissions from commercial aviation, 2018" (PDF). International Council on Clean Transportation.
  137. ^ "Reducing emissions from aviation". Climate Action. European Commission. 23 November 2016.
  138. ^ "The aviation network – Decarbonisation issues". Eurocontrol. 4 September 2019.
  139. ^ Olivier J.G.J. and Peters J.A.H.W. (2020), Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions: 2020 report. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague.
  140. ^ Schmidinger, Kurt; Stehfest, Elke (2012). "Including CO2 implications of land occupation in LCAs – method and example for livestock products" (PDF). Int J Life Cycle Assess. 17 (8): 967. doi:10.1007/s11367-012-0434-7. S2CID 73625760.
  141. ^ "Food for Thought: The Untapped Climate Opportunity in Alternative Proteins". BCG. 2022-07-04. Retrieved 2022-07-10.
  142. ^ Leger, Dorian; Matassa, Silvio; Noor, Elad; Shepon, Alon; Milo, Ron; Bar-Even, Arren (2021-06-29). "Photovoltaic-driven microbial protein production can use land and sunlight more efficiently than conventional crops". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 118 (26): e2015025118. Bibcode:2021PNAS..11815025L. doi:10.1073/pnas.2015025118. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 8255800. PMID 34155098.
  143. ^ Acuff, Heather L.; Dainton, Amanda N.; Dhakal, Janak; Kiprotich, Samuel; Aldrich, Greg (1 May 2021). "Sustainability and Pet Food: Is There a Role for Veterinarians?". Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice. 51 (3): 563–581. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2021.01.010. ISSN 0195-5616. PMID 33773646. S2CID 232406972.
  144. ^ Pieper, Maximilian; Michalke, Amelie; Gaugler, Tobias (15 December 2020). "Calculation of external climate costs for food highlights inadequate pricing of animal products". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 6117. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.6117P. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19474-6. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7738510. PMID 33323933.
  145. ^ Sazvar, Zeinab; Rahmani, Mina; Govindan, Kannan (1 September 2018). "A sustainable supply chain for organic, conventional agro-food products: The role of demand substitution, climate change and public health". Journal of Cleaner Production. 194: 564–583. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.04.118. ISSN 0959-6526. S2CID 158865547.
  146. ^ Ivanova, Diana; Barrett, John; Wiedenhofer, Dominik; MacUra, Biljana; Callaghan, Max; Creutzig, Felix (2020). "Quantifying the potential for climate change mitigation of consumption options". Environmental Research Letters. 15 (9): 093001. Bibcode:2020ERL....15i3001I. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ab8589. S2CID 216425742.
  147. ^ Kim, Brent F.; Santo, Raychel E.; Scatterday, Allysan P.; Fry, Jillian P.; Synk, Colleen M.; Cebron, Shannon R.; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W.; Neff, Roni A.; Nachman, Keeve E. (1 May 2020). "Country-specific dietary shifts to mitigate climate and water crises". Global Environmental Change. 62: 101926. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2019.05.010. ISSN 0959-3780. S2CID 198623398.
  148. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Reay, David S.; Higgins, Peter (1 March 2018). "The impact of global dietary guidelines on climate change". Global Environmental Change. 49: 46–55. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.02.005. hdl:1842/33270. ISSN 0959-3780. S2CID 158550844.
  149. ^ Rippin, Holly L.; Cade, Janet E.; Berrang-Ford, Lea; Benton, Tim G.; Hancock, Neil; Greenwood, Darren C. (23 November 2021). "Variations in greenhouse gas emissions of individual diets: Associations between the greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient intake in the United Kingdom". PLOS ONE. 16 (11): e0259418. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1659418R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0259418. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 8610494. PMID 34813623.
  150. ^ "Bovine Genomics | Genome Canada". www.genomecanada.ca. Archived from the original on 2019-08-10. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
  151. ^ Airhart, Ellen. "Canada Is Using Genetics to Make Cows Less Gassy". Wired – via www.wired.com.
  152. ^ "The use of direct-fed microbials for mitigation of ruminant methane emissions: a review".
  153. ^ Parmar, N.R.; Nirmal Kumar, J.I.; Joshi, C.G. (2015). "Exploring diet-dependent shifts in methanogen and methanotroph diversity in the rumen of Mehsani buffalo by a metagenomics approach". Frontiers in Life Science. 8 (4): 371–378. doi:10.1080/21553769.2015.1063550. S2CID 89217740.
  154. ^ "Kowbucha, seaweed, vaccines: the race to reduce cows' methane emissions". The Guardian. 30 September 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  155. ^ Dirksen, Neele; Langbein, Jan; Schrader, Lars; Puppe, Birger; Elliffe, Douglas; Siebert, Katrin; Röttgen, Volker; Matthews, Lindsay (13 September 2021). "Learned control of urinary reflexes in cattle to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions". Current Biology. 31 (17): R1033–R1034. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2021.07.011. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 34520709. S2CID 237497867.
  156. ^ Boadi, D (2004). "Mitigation strategies to reduce enteric methane emissions from dairy cows: Update review". Can. J. Anim. Sci. 84 (3): 319–335. doi:10.4141/a03-109.
  157. ^ Martin, C. et al. 2010. Methane mitigation in ruminants: from microbe to the farm scale. Animal 4 : pp 351-365.
  158. ^ Eckard, R. J.; et al. (2010). "Options for the abatement of methane and nitrous oxide from ruminant production: A review". Livestock Science. 130 (1–3): 47–56. doi:10.1016/j.livsci.2010.02.010.
  159. ^ "Livestock Production Science | Livestock Farming Systems and their Environmental Impacts | ScienceDirect.com by Elsevier". www.sciencedirect.com.
  160. ^ "Agriculture: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Sector". EPA. 2019.
  161. ^ Searchinger, Tim; Adhya, Tapan K. (2014). "Wetting and Drying: Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Saving Water from Rice Production". WRI.
  162. ^ "Adding bacteria can make concrete greener". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2022-11-26.
  163. ^ "The role of CCUS in decarbonizing the cement industry: A German case study". Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  164. ^ "Steel industry decarbonization: New methods to net zero | Sustainability | McKinsey & Company". www.mckinsey.com. Retrieved 2022-11-25.
  165. ^ H, Eskarina; ley (2022-10-19). "Local governments can tackle climate change through waste management". Open Access Government. Retrieved 2022-11-26.
  166. ^ Ritchie, Hannah; Roser, Max (2021-02-09). "Forests and Deforestation". Our World in Data.
  167. ^ a b "India should follow China to find a way out of the woods on saving forest people". The Guardian. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  168. ^ a b "How Conservation Became Colonialism". Foreign Policy. 16 July 2018. Retrieved 30 July 2018.
  169. ^ "China's forest tenure reforms". rightsandresources.org. Archived from the original on 23 September 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
  170. ^ "The bold plan to save Africa's largest forest". BBC. 7 January 2021. Retrieved 16 September 2021.
  171. ^ van Minnen, Jelle G; Strengers, Bart J; Eickhout, Bas; Swart, Rob J; Leemans, Rik (2008). "Quantifying the effectiveness of climate change mitigation through forest plantations and carbon sequestration with an integrated land-use model". Carbon Balance and Management. 3: 3. doi:10.1186/1750-0680-3-3. ISSN 1750-0680. PMC 2359746. PMID 18412946.
  172. ^ Boysen, Lena R.; Lucht, Wolfgang; Gerten, Dieter; Heck, Vera; Lenton, Timothy M.; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim (17 May 2017). "The limits to global-warming mitigation by terrestrial carbon removal". Earth's Future. 5 (5): 463–474. Bibcode:2017EaFut...5..463B. doi:10.1002/2016EF000469. hdl:10871/31046. S2CID 53062923.
  173. ^ Yoder, Kate (12 May 2022). "Does planting trees actually help the climate? Here's what we know". Rewilding. Grist. Retrieved 15 May 2022.
  174. ^ "One trillion trees - uniting the world to save forests and climate". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2020-10-08.
  175. ^ Gabbatiss, Josh (16 February 2019). "Massive restoration of world's forests would cancel out a decade of CO2 emissions, analysis suggests". Independent. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  176. ^ a b c "The Great Green Wall: African Farmers Beat Back Drought and Climate Change with Trees". Scientific America. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  177. ^ a b "In semi-arid Africa, farmers are transforming the "underground forest" into life-giving trees". University of Minnesote. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2020.
  178. ^ a b c Stern, N. (2006). Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change: Part III: The Economics of Stabilisation. HM Treasury, London: http://hm-treasury.gov.uk/sternreview_index.htm
  179. ^ Chazdon, Robin; Brancalion, Pedro (5 July 2019). "Restoring forests as a means to many ends". Science. 365 (6448): 24–25. Bibcode:2019Sci...365...24C. doi:10.1126/science.aax9539. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 31273109. S2CID 195804244.
  180. ^ a b "New Jungles Prompt a Debate on Rain Forests". New York Times. 29 January 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  181. ^ Young, E. (2008). IPCC Wrong On Logging Threat to Climate. New Scientist, 5 August 2008. Retrieved on 18 August 2008, from https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn14466-ipcc-wrong-on-logging-threat-toclimate.html
  182. ^ "In Latin America, Forests May Rise to Challenge of Carbon Dioxide". New York Times. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2016.
  183. ^ Sengupta, Somini (5 July 2019). "Restoring Forests Could Help Put a Brake on Global Warming, Study Finds". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 July 2019.
  184. ^ Securing Rights, Combating Climate Change. World Resources Institute. ISBN 978-1569738290. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  185. ^ "Community forestry can work, but plans in the Democratic Republic of Congo show what's missing". The Conversation. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  186. ^ Moomaw, William R.; Masino, Susan A.; Faison, Edward K. (2019). "Intact Forests in the United States: Proforestation Mitigates Climate Change and Serves the Greatest Good". Frontiers in Forests and Global Change. 2. doi:10.3389/ffgc.2019.00027.
  187. ^ a b c "The natural world can help save us from climate catastrophe | George Monbiot". The Guardian. 3 April 2019.
  188. ^ Wilmers, Christopher C.; Schmitz, Oswald J. (October 19, 2016). "Effects of gray wolf‐induced trophic cascades on ecosystem carbon cycling". Ecosphere. 7 (10). doi:10.1002/ecs2.1501.
  189. ^ a b Harris, Nancy; Gibbs, David (2021-01-21). "Forests Absorb Twice As Much Carbon As They Emit Each Year".
  190. ^ Rosane, Olivia (18 March 2020). "Protecting and Restoring Soils Could Remove 5.5 Billion Tonnes of CO2 a Year". Ecowatch. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
  191. ^ Lang, Susan S. (13 July 2005). "Organic farming produces same corn and soybean yields as conventional farms, but consumes less energy and no pesticides, study finds". Retrieved 8 July 2008.
  192. ^ Pimentel, David; Hepperly, Paul; Hanson, James; Douds, David; Seidel, Rita (2005). "Environmental, Energetic, and Economic Comparisons of Organic and Conventional Farming Systems". BioScience. 55 (7): 573–82. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2005)055[0573:EEAECO]2.0.CO;2.
  193. ^ Lal, Rattan; Griffin, Michael; Apt, Jay; Lave, Lester; Morgan, M. Granger (2004). "Ecology: Managing Soil Carbon". Science. 304 (5669): 393. doi:10.1126/science.1093079. PMID 15087532. S2CID 129925989.
  194. ^ Amelung, W.; Bossio, D.; de Vries, W.; Kögel-Knabner, I.; Lehmann, J.; Amundson, R.; Bol, R.; Collins, C.; Lal, R.; Leifeld, J.; Minasny, B. (27 October 2020). "Towards a global-scale soil climate mitigation strategy". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5427. Bibcode:2020NatCo..11.5427A. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-18887-7. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7591914. PMID 33110065.
  195. ^ Papanicolaou, A. N. (Thanos); Wacha, Kenneth M.; Abban, Benjamin K.; Wilson, Christopher G.; Hatfield, Jerry L.; Stanier, Charles O.; Filley, Timothy R. (2015). "Conservation Farming Shown to Protect Carbon in Soil". Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences. 120 (11): 2375–2401. Bibcode:2015JGRG..120.2375P. doi:10.1002/2015JG003078.
  196. ^ "Cover Crops, a Farming Revolution With Deep Roots in the Past". The New York Times. 2016.
  197. ^ Lugato, Emanuele; Bampa, Francesca; Panagos, Panos; Montanarella, Luca; Jones, Arwyn (1 November 2014). "Potential carbon sequestration of European arable soils estimated by modelling a comprehensive set of management practices". Global Change Biology. 20 (11): 3557–3567. Bibcode:2014GCBio..20.3557L. doi:10.1111/gcb.12551. ISSN 1365-2486. PMID 24789378.
  198. ^ Teague, W. R.; Apfelbaum, S.; Lal, R.; Kreuter, U. P.; Rowntree, J.; Davies, C. A.; Conser, R.; Rasmussen, M.; Hatfield, J.; Wang, T.; Wang, F. (2016-03-01). "The role of ruminants in reducing agriculture's carbon footprint in North America". Journal of Soil and Water Conservation. 71 (2): 156–164. doi:10.2489/jswc.71.2.156. ISSN 0022-4561.
  199. ^ Scanlon, Kerry (18 October 2018). "Trends in Sustainability: Regenerative Agriculture". Rainforest Alliance. Archived from the original on 29 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  200. ^ "What Is Regenerative Agriculture?". Ecowatch. The Climate Reality Project. 2 July 2019. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  201. ^ Synthesis of Adaptation Options for Coastal Areas. Climate Ready Estuaries Program, EPA 430-F-08-024. Washington, DC: US Environmental Protection Agency. 2009.
  202. ^ "Coastal Wetland Protection". Project Drawdown. 2020-02-06. Retrieved 2020-09-13.
  203. ^ Chmura, G. L. (2003). "Global carbon sequestration in tidal, saline wetland soils". Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 17 (4): 1111. Bibcode:2003GBioC..17.1111C. doi:10.1029/2002GB001917. S2CID 36119878.
  204. ^ "Canada's swamps are the secret weapon to fighting climate change, say experts". Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  205. ^ Leifeld, J.; Menichetti, L. (14 March 2018). "The underappreciated potential of peatlands in global climate change mitigation strategies". Nature Communications. 9 (1): 1071. Bibcode:2018NatCo...9.1071L. doi:10.1038/s41467-018-03406-6. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 5851997. PMID 29540695.
  206. ^ Valach, Alex C.; Kasak, Kuno; Hemes, Kyle S.; Anthony, Tyler L.; Dronova, Iryna; Taddeo, Sophie; Silver, Whendee L.; Szutu, Daphne; Verfaillie, Joseph; Baldocchi, Dennis D. (25 March 2021). "Productive wetlands restored for carbon sequestration quickly become net CO2 sinks with site-level factors driving uptake variability". PLOS ONE. 16 (3): e0248398. Bibcode:2021PLoSO..1648398V. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248398. PMC 7993764. PMID 33765085.
  207. ^ Tiwari, Shashank; Singh, Chhatarpal; Singh, Jay Shankar (2020). "Wetlands: A Major Natural Source Responsible for Methane Emission". In Upadhyay, Atul Kumar; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, D. P. (eds.). Restoration of Wetland Ecosystem: A Trajectory Towards a Sustainable Environment. Singapore: Springer. pp. 59–74. doi:10.1007/978-981-13-7665-8_5. ISBN 978-981-13-7665-8. S2CID 198421761.
  208. ^ Bange, Hermann W. (2006). "Nitrous oxide and methane in European coastal waters". Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. 70 (3): 361–374. Bibcode:2006ECSS...70..361B. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2006.05.042.
  209. ^ Thompson, A. J.; Giannopoulos, G.; Pretty, J.; Baggs, E. M.; Richardson, D. J. (2012). "Biological sources and sinks of nitrous oxide and strategies to mitigate emissions". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 367 (1593): 1157–1168. doi:10.1098/rstb.2011.0415. PMC 3306631. PMID 22451101.
  210. ^ "Climate change and deforestation threaten world's largest tropical peatland". Carbon Brief. 25 January 2018.
  211. ^ "Peatlands and climate change". IUCN. 6 November 2017.
  212. ^ "Where can peatlands be found?". International Peatland Society. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  213. ^ Maclean, Ruth (2022-02-22). "What Do the Protectors of Congo's Peatlands Get in Return?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  214. ^ "Peatlands and climate change". IUCN. 2017-11-06. Retrieved 2022-05-30.
  215. ^ "Climate change: National Trust joins international call for peat product ban". BBC News. 7 November 2021. Retrieved 12 June 2022.
  216. ^ Harenda K.M., Lamentowicz M., Samson M., Chojnicki B.H. (2018) The Role of Peatlands and Their Carbon Storage Function in the Context of Climate Change. In: Zielinski T., Sagan I., Surosz W. (eds) Interdisciplinary Approaches for Sustainable Development Goals. GeoPlanet: Earth and Planetary Sciences. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71788-3_12
  217. ^ "How oysters can stop a flood". Vox. 31 August 2021. Retrieved 2 June 2022.
  218. ^ a b c IPCC (2022) Chapter 12: Cross sectoral perspectives in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  219. ^ Doney, Scott C.; Busch, D. Shallin; Cooley, Sarah R.; Kroeker, Kristy J. (2020). "The Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Marine Ecosystems and Reliant Human Communities". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 45 (1): 83–112. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-012320-083019. ISSN 1543-5938. S2CID 225741986.
  220. ^ "Guest post: How 'enhanced weathering' could slow climate change and boost crop yields". Carbon Brief. 2018-02-19. Archived from the original on 2021-09-08. Retrieved 2021-11-03.
  221. ^ "Direct Air Capture – Analysis". IEA. Retrieved 2021-12-24.
  222. ^ The Royal Society, (2009) "Geoengineering the climate: science, governance and uncertainty". Retrieved 12 September 2009.
  223. ^ "CO2 turned into stone in Iceland in climate change breakthrough". The Guardian. 9 June 2016. Retrieved 2 September 2017.
  224. ^ "Carbon Capture and Sequestration Technologies @ MIT". sequestration.mit.edu. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  225. ^ Robinson, Simon (22 January 2010). "How to Reduce Carbon Emissions: Capture and Store it?". Time.com. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  226. ^ a b c d e f Patrick Devine-Wright, Julio Diaz-José, Frank Geels, Arnulf Grubler, Nadia Maïzi, Eric Masanet, Yacob Mulugetta, Chioma Daisy Onyige-Ebeniro, Patricia E. Perkins, Alessandro Sanches Pereira, Elke Ursula Weber (2022) Chapter 5: Demand, services and social aspects of mitigation in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  227. ^ a b Overland, Indra; Sovacool, Benjamin K. (1 April 2020). "The misallocation of climate research funding". Energy Research & Social Science. 62: 101349. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2019.101349. ISSN 2214-6296.
  228. ^ "Emissions Gap Report 2020 / Executive Summary" (PDF). UNEP.org. United Nations Environment Programme. 2021. p. XV Fig. ES.8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 July 2021.
  229. ^ Wynes, Seth; Nicholas, Kimberly A (2017-07-01). "The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions". Environmental Research Letters. 12 (7): 074024. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541. ISSN 1748-9326.
  230. ^ "Six key lifestyle changes can help avert the climate crisis, study finds". the Guardian. 2022-03-07. Retrieved 2022-03-07.
  231. ^ Adcock, Bronwyn (2022). "Electric Monaros and hotted-up skateboards : the 'genius' who wants to electrify our world". the Guardian. Retrieved 2022-02-06.
  232. ^ a b Ripple, William J.; Smith, Pete; et al. (2013). "Ruminants, climate change and climate policy" (PDF). Nature Climate Change. 4: 2–5. doi:10.1038/nclimate2081.
  233. ^ "COP26: How can an average family afford an electric car? And more questions". BBC News. 2021-11-11. Retrieved 2021-11-12.
  234. ^ "Emissions inequality—a gulf between global rich and poor – Nicholas Beuret". Social Europe. 2019-04-10. Archived from the original on 2019-10-26. Retrieved 2019-10-26.
  235. ^ Westlake, Steve. "Climate change: yes, your individual action does make a difference". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 2019-12-18. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  236. ^ "Avoiding meat and dairy is 'single biggest way' to reduce your impact on Earth". the Guardian. 2018-05-31. Retrieved 2021-04-25.
  237. ^ Harvey, Fiona (21 March 2016). "Eat less meat to avoid dangerous global warming, scientists say". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  238. ^ Milman, Oliver (20 June 2016). "China's plan to cut meat consumption by 50% cheered by climate campaigners". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  239. ^ Schiermeier, Quirin (8 August 2019). "Eat less meat: UN climate-change report calls for change to human diet". Nature. 572 (7769): 291–292. Bibcode:2019Natur.572..291S. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02409-7. PMID 31409926.
  240. ^ Harvey, Fiona (April 4, 2022). "Final warning: what does the IPCC's third report instalment say?". The Guardian. Retrieved April 5, 2022.
  241. ^ "How plant-based diets not only reduce our carbon footprint, but also increase carbon capture". Leiden University. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  242. ^ Sun, Zhongxiao; Scherer, Laura; Tukker, Arnold; Spawn-Lee, Seth A.; Bruckner, Martin; Gibbs, Holly K.; Behrens, Paul (January 2022). "Dietary change in high-income nations alone can lead to substantial double climate dividend". Nature Food. 3 (1): 29–37. doi:10.1038/s43016-021-00431-5. ISSN 2662-1355. S2CID 245867412.
  243. ^ "World Population Prospects". UN.
  244. ^ IPCC (2022) Chapter 7: Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses (AFOLU) in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  245. ^ Dodson, Jenna C.; Dérer, Patrícia; Cafaro, Philip; Götmark, Frank (2020). "Population growth and climate change: Addressing the overlooked threat multiplier". Science of the Total Environment. 748: 141346. Bibcode:2020ScTEn.748n1346D. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141346. PMID 33113687. S2CID 225035992.
  246. ^ "Analysis | We Need Cap-and-Trade For Individuals As Well As Companies". Washington Post. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  247. ^ "Pandemic and digitalization set stage for revival of a cast-off idea: Personal carbon allowances". phys.org.
  248. ^ Fuso Nerini, Francesco; Fawcett, Tina; Parag, Yael; Ekins, Paul (16 August 2021). "Personal carbon allowances revisited". Nature Sustainability. 4 (12): 1025–1031. doi:10.1038/s41893-021-00756-w. ISSN 2398-9629.
  249. ^ Swain, Frank. "Can rationing carbon help fight climate change?". BBC. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  250. ^ Bank, European Investment (2022). EIB Investment Report 2021/2022: Recovery as a springboard for change. European Investment Bank. ISBN 978-9286151552.
  251. ^ "Major milestone: 1000+ divestment commitments". 350.org. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  252. ^ "5 Mutual Funds for Socially Responsible Investors". Kiplinger. Archived from the original on 2019-02-22. Retrieved 2015-12-30.
  253. ^ "Just 100 companies responsible for 71% of global emissions, study says". The Guardian. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  254. ^ "Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions". The Guardian. 9 October 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  255. ^ Timperley, Jocelyn. "Who is really to blame for climate change?". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  256. ^ "World's top three asset managers oversee $300bn fossil fuel investments". The Guardian. 12 October 2019. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  257. ^ Baines, Joseph; Hager, Sandy Brian (2022). "From Passive Owners to Planet Savers? Asset Managers, Carbon Majors and the Limits of Sustainable Finance". EconStor.
  258. ^ "Asset Managers and Climate Change 2021". influencemap.org. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  259. ^ Barker, T.; et al. (2007). "Mitigation from a cross-sectoral perspective.". In B. Metz; et al. (eds.). In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  260. ^ IPCC, 2007: Technical Summary - Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [B. Metz, O.R. Davidson, P.R. Bosch, R. Dave, L.A. Meyer (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA., XXX pp.
  261. ^ a b "Can cost benefit analysis grasp the climate change nettle? And can we…". Oxford Martin School. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  262. ^ "Home | 100% RE". oneearth.uts.edu.au. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  263. ^ Chow, Lorraine (21 January 2019). "DiCaprio-Funded Study: Staying Below 1.5ºC is Totally Possible". Ecowatch. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  264. ^ "Below 1.5ºC: a breakthrough roadmap to solve the climate crisis". One Earth. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  265. ^ Teske, Sven, ed. (2 August 2019). Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals: Global and Regional 100% Renewable Energy Scenarios with Non-energy GHG Pathways for +1.5°C and +2°C. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-05843-2. ISBN 978-3030058425. S2CID 198078901 – via www.springer.com.
  266. ^ a b IPCC (2022) Chapter 3: Mitigation pathways compatible with long-term goals in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  267. ^ Dyke, James. "Inaction on climate change risks leaving future generations $530 trillion in debt". The Conversation.
  268. ^ Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Kharecha, Pushker; von Schuckmann, Karina; Beerling, David J.; Cao, Junji; Marcott, Shaun; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Prather, Michael J.; Rohling, Eelco J.; Shakun, Jeremy; Smith, Pete; Lacis, Andrew; Russell, Gary; Ruedy, Reto (18 July 2017). "Young people's burden: requirement of negative CO2 emissions". Earth System Dynamics. 8 (3): 577–616. arXiv:1609.05878. Bibcode:2017ESD.....8..577H. doi:10.5194/esd-8-577-2017. S2CID 54600172 – via esd.copernicus.org.
  269. ^ Creutzig, Felix; Niamir, Leila; Bai, Xuemei; Callaghan, Max; Cullen, Jonathan; Díaz-José, Julio; Figueroa, Maria; Grubler, Arnulf; Lamb, William F.; Leip, Adrian; Masanet, Eric (2021-11-25). "Demand-side solutions to climate change mitigation consistent with high levels of well-being". Nature Climate Change. 12: 36–46. Bibcode:2022NatCC..12...36C. doi:10.1038/s41558-021-01219-y. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 244657251.
  270. ^ a b Banuri, T.; et al. (1996). Equity and Social Considerations. In: Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (J. P. Bruce et al. eds.). Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521568548. PDF version: IPCC website.
  271. ^ Filho, Walter Leal; Hickmann, Thomas; Nagy, Gustavo J.; Pinho, Patricia; Sharifi, Ayyoob; Minhas, Aprajita; Islam, M Rezaul; Djalanti, Riyanti; García Vinuesa, Antonio; Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi (2022-03-16). "The Influence of the Corona Virus Pandemic on Sustainable Development Goal 13 and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Processes". Frontiers in Environmental Science. 10: 784466. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2022.784466. ISSN 2296-665X.
  272. ^ Biesbroek. G.R, Termeer. C.J.A.M, Kabat. P, Klostermann.J.E.M (unpublished) Institutional governance barriers for the development and implementation of climate adaptation strategies, Working paper for the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) conference "Earth System Governance: People, Places, and the Planet", 2–4 December, Amsterdam, the Netherlands
  273. ^ Tokimatsu, Koji; Wachtmeister, Henrik; McLellan, Benjamin; Davidsson, Simon; Murakami, Shinsuke; Höök, Mikael; Yasuoka, Rieko; Nishio, Masahiro (December 2017). "Energy modeling approach to the global energy-mineral nexus: A first look at metal requirements and the 2 °C target". Applied Energy. 207: 494–509. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2017.05.151.
  274. ^ Preston, B.; Westaway, R.; Yuen, E. (2011). "Climate adaptation planning in practice: An evaluation of adaptation plans from three developed nations". Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change. 16 (4): 407–438. doi:10.1007/s11027-010-9270-x. S2CID 153671390.
  275. ^ van den Berg, Nicole J.; van Soest, Heleen L.; Hof, Andries F. (2020). "Implications of various effort-sharing approaches for national carbon budgets and emission pathways". Climatic Change. 162 (4): 1805–1822. Bibcode:2020ClCh..162.1805V. doi:10.1007/s10584-019-02368-y. hdl:10044/1/68985. S2CID 159257855.
  276. ^ "Oil and gas companies earn most revenue in Forbes 2019 largest firms list". NS Energy. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  277. ^ Mercure, J.-F.; Pollitt, H.; Viñuales, J. E. (2018). "Macroeconomic impact of stranded fossil fuel assets" (PDF). Nature Climate Change. 8 (7): 588–593. Bibcode:2018NatCC...8..588M. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0182-1. S2CID 89799744.
  278. ^ "The Geopolitics Of Renewable Energy" (PDF). Center on Global Energy Policy Columbia University SIPA / Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs Harvard Kennedy School. Retrieved 26 January 2020.
  279. ^ Sathaye, J.; et al. (2001). "Barriers, Opportunities, and Market Potential of Technologies and Practices. In: Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (B. Metz, et al., Eds.)". Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  280. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Bashmakov, I.; et al. (2001). "Policies, Measures, and Instruments". In B. Metz; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 2009-05-20.
  281. ^ Creutzig, Felix; McGlynn, Emilie; Minx, Jan; Edenhofer, Ottmar (2011). "Climate policies for road transport revisited (I): Evaluation of the current framework" (PDF). Energy Policy. 39 (5): 2396–2406. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2011.01.062.
  282. ^ Hittinger, Eric; Williams, Eric; Miao, Qing; Tibebu, Tiruwork B. "How to design clean energy subsidies that work – without wasting money on free riders". The Conversation. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  283. ^ "How tide has turned on UK tidal stream energy as costs ebb and reliability flows". the Guardian. 2022-11-23. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  284. ^ Springmann, Marco. "Meat and dairy gobble up farming subsidies worldwide, which is bad for your health and the planet". The Conversation. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  285. ^ "Memo: A Green Marshall Plan - America's Global Climate Compact". Data For Progress. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  286. ^ Vetter, David (June 9, 2021). "G7 Summit: U.K. Calls For Climate 'Marshall Plan,' But Will The Meeting Deliver?". Forbes. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  287. ^ ""G7 Green Marshall Plan" - E3G reacts". E3G. 9 June 2021. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  288. ^ Bashmakov, Igor; Jepma, Catrinus (2001). "6. Policies, Measures, and Instruments". In Metz, B.; Davidson, O; Swart, R.; Pan, J. (eds.). Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
  289. ^ Browning, Noah; Kelly, Stephanie (2022-03-08). "Analysis: Ukraine crisis could boost ballooning fossil fuel subsidies". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-04-02.
  290. ^ "Energy subsidies – Topics". IEA. Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  291. ^ "Data - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development". www.oecd.org. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  292. ^ Irfan, Umair (2019-05-17). "Fossil fuels are underpriced by a whopping $5.2 trillion". Vox. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  293. ^ Laville, Sandra (2019-10-24). "Fossil fuel big five 'spent €251m lobbying EU' since 2010". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  294. ^ "Breaking up with fossil fuels". UNDP. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  295. ^ Gencsu, Ipek; Walls, Ginette; Picciariello, Angela; Alasia, Ibifuro Joy (2022-11-02). "Nigeria's energy transition: reforming fossil fuel subsidies and other financing opportunities". ODI: Think change. Retrieved 2022-11-24.
  296. ^ "How Reforming Fossil Fuel Subsidies Can Go Wrong: A lesson from Ecuador". IISD. Retrieved 11 November 2019.
  297. ^ Carrington, Damian (2021-10-06). "Fossil fuel industry gets subsidies of $11m a minute, IMF finds". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2021-10-06. Retrieved 2021-12-11.
  298. ^ "| Fossil Fuel Subsidies". IMF. Archived from the original on 31 October 2020. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
  299. ^ World Bank 2021, p. 23
  300. ^ Shepherd, Christian (16 July 2021). "China's carbon market scheme too limited, say analysts". Financial Times. Retrieved 2021-07-16.
  301. ^ "Carbon Price Viewer". EMBER. Retrieved 2021-10-10.
  302. ^ Kikstra, Jarmo S; Waidelich, Paul; Rising, James; Yumashev, Dmitry; Hope, Chris; Brierley, Chris M (2021-09-01). "The social cost of carbon dioxide under climate-economy feedbacks and temperature variability". Environmental Research Letters. 16 (9): 094037. Bibcode:2021ERL....16i4037K. doi:10.1088/1748-9326/ac1d0b. ISSN 1748-9326. S2CID 237427400.
  303. ^ IPCC AR4 WG3 Ch13 2007, pp. 755–756
  304. ^ Goering, Laurie (3 November 2021). "Forget net-zero: meet the small-nation, carbon-negative club". Reuters. Retrieved 2 January 2022.
  305. ^ Markkanen, Sanna; Anger-Kraavi, Annela (2019-08-09). "Social impacts of climate change mitigation policies and their implications for inequality". Climate Policy. 19 (7): 827–844. doi:10.1080/14693062.2019.1596873. ISSN 1469-3062. S2CID 159114098.
  306. ^ "Social Dimensions of Climate Change". World Bank. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  307. ^ World Bank Group (6 June 2019). "State and Trends of Carbon Pricing 2019".
  308. ^ "Industrial Technologies Program: BestPractices". Eere.energy.gov. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
  309. ^ Barringer, Felicity (13 October 2012). "In California, a Grand Experiment to Rein in Climate Change". The New York Times.
  310. ^ Kahn, Brian (13 April 2019). "Minnesota Introduces Bold New Climate Change Bill Crafted by Teens". Gizmodo. Retrieved 15 April 2019.
  311. ^ "China aims to cut its net carbon-dioxide emissions to zero by 2060". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 29 September 2020.
  312. ^ "Caution on carbon as 'China realises key role of coal'". 13 December 2021.
  313. ^ China's New Growth Pathway: From the 14th Five-Year Plan to Carbon Neutrality (PDF) (Report). Energy Foundation China. December 2020. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2021-04-16. Retrieved 2021-07-20.
  314. ^ Mi, Zhifu; Meng, Jing; Green, Fergus; Coffman, D'Maris; Guan, Dabo (2018). "China's exported carbon peak: patterns, drivers, and implications". Geophysical Research Letters. London School of Economics and Political Science. 45 (9): 4309–4318. Bibcode:2018GeoRL..45.4309M. doi:10.1029/2018GL077915. S2CID 54928862.
  315. ^ a b "2050 long-term strategy". European Commission. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  316. ^ "Paris Agreement". European Commission. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  317. ^ "2020 climate & energy package". European Commission. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  318. ^ "2030 climate & energy framework". European Commission. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  319. ^ "The European Parliament declares climate emergency". European Parliament. 29 November 2019. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  320. ^ "Progress made in cutting emissions". European Commission. 23 November 2016. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  321. ^ Prototype Carbon Fund Archived 9 April 2005 at the Wayback Machine from the World Bank Carbon Finance Unit
  322. ^ a b c Brown J., Bird, N. and Schalatek, L., 2010, 'Climate Finance Additionality: Emerging Definitions and their Implications', Climate Finance Policy Brief No.2, ODI and Heinrich Boll Foundation
  323. ^ "Latin America and Caribbean Climate Week 2019 Key Messages for the UN Climate Action Summit" (PDF). Latin America and Caribbean Climate Week 2019. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  324. ^ "Latin American & Caribbean Climate Week Calls for Urgent, Ambitious Action". United Nations Climate Change. Retrieved 25 August 2019.
  325. ^ "UN Framework Convention on Climate Change – UNFCCC". IISD Earth Negotiations Bulletin. Retrieved 2022-11-02.
  326. ^ "United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change | United Nations Secretary-General". www.un.org. Retrieved 2022-11-02.
  327. ^ UNFCCC (2002). "Full Text of the Convention, Article 2: Objectives". UNFCCC.
  328. ^ "UNFCCC eHandbook: Summary of the Paris Agreement". unfccc.int. Retrieved 12 November 2019.
  329. ^ "Report on the structured expert dialogue on the 2013–2015 review" (PDF). UNFCCC, Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice & Subsidiary Body for Implementation. 4 April 2015. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  330. ^ "1.5°C temperature limit – key facts". Climate Analytics. Archived from the original on 30 June 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  331. ^ "Global climate action from cities, regions and businesses – 2019". New Climate Institute. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  332. ^ Farland, Chloe (2 October 2019). "This is what the world promised at the UN climate action summit". Climate Home News. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  333. ^ "Global Climate Action Presents a Blueprint for a 1.5-Degree World". UNFCCC. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  334. ^ "Climate Ambition Summit 2020" (PDF). United Nations. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  335. ^ Mason, Jeff; Alper, Alexandra (18 September 2021). "Biden asks world leaders to cut methane in climate fight". Reuters. Retrieved 8 October 2021.
  336. ^ Bassist, Rina (6 October 2021). "At OECD, Israel joins global battle against climate change". Al – Monitor.
  337. ^ Velders, G.J.M.; et al. (20 March 2007). "The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate". PNAS. 104 (12): 4814–19. Bibcode:2007PNAS..104.4814V. doi:10.1073/pnas.0610328104. PMC 1817831. PMID 17360370.
  338. ^ "How satellites could help hold countries to emissions promises made at COP26 summit". Washington Post. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  339. ^ "Satellites offer new ways to study ecosystems—and maybe even save them". www.science.org. Retrieved 21 December 2021.
  340. ^ "NASA COVID-19 Dashboards Give a View of the Virus's Effects from Above | NASA Applied Sciences". appliedsciences.nasa.gov. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  341. ^ "Glasgow's 2030 credibility gap: net zero's lip service to climate action". climateactiontracker.org. Archived from the original on 9 November 2021. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  342. ^ "Global Data Community Commits to Track Climate Action". UNFCCC. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  343. ^ Nations, United. "Sustainable Development Goals Report 2020". United Nations. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  344. ^ "World fails to meet a single target to stop destruction of nature – UN report". The Guardian. 15 September 2020. Retrieved 20 December 2021.
  345. ^ "Glasgow's 2030 credibility gap: net zero's lip service to climate action". climateactiontracker.org. Retrieved 9 November 2021.
  346. ^ "Tracking Climate Progress". World Resources Institute. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  347. ^ "Global Data Community Commits to Track Climate Action". UNFCCC. Retrieved 15 December 2019.
  348. ^ "Countries". climateactiontracker.org.
  349. ^ Filho, Walter Leal; Hickmann, Thomas; Nagy, Gustavo J.; Pinho, Patricia; Sharifi, Ayyoob; Minhas, Aprajita; Islam, M Rezaul; Djalanti, Riyanti; García Vinuesa, Antonio; Abubakar, Ismaila Rimi (2022). "The Influence of the Corona Virus Pandemic on Sustainable Development Goal 13 and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Processes". Frontiers in Environmental Science. 10. doi:10.3389/fenvs.2022.784466.
  350. ^ a b IPCC (2022) Chapter 14: International cooperation in Climate Change 2022: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA
  351. ^ "History of the Convention | UNFCCC". unfccc.int. Retrieved 2019-12-02.
  352. ^ Cole, Daniel H. (2015-01-28). "Advantages of a polycentric approach to climate change policy". Nature Climate Change. 5 (2): 114–118. Bibcode:2015NatCC...5..114C. doi:10.1038/nclimate2490. ISSN 1758-6798.
  353. ^ Sabel, Charles F.; Victor, David G. (2017-09-01). "Governing global problems under uncertainty: making bottom-up climate policy work". Climatic Change. 144 (1): 15–27. Bibcode:2017ClCh..144...15S. doi:10.1007/s10584-015-1507-y. ISSN 1573-1480. S2CID 153561849.
  354. ^ Zefferman, Matthew R. (2018-01-01). "Cultural multilevel selection suggests neither large or small cooperative agreements are likely to solve climate change without changing the game". Sustainability Science. 13 (1): 109–118. doi:10.1007/s11625-017-0488-3. ISSN 1862-4057. S2CID 158187220.
  355. ^ Verbruggen, A. (2007). "Annex I. Glossary" (PDF). In Metz, B.; et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PDF). Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press. pp. 809–822. ISBN 978-0-521-88011-4. Retrieved 2022-01-19.
  356. ^ Bashmakov, Igor; Jepma, Catrinus (2001). "6. Policies, Measures, and Instruments". In Metz, B.; Davidson, O; Swart, R.; Pan, J. (eds.). Climate Change 2001: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (PDF). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2020-01-20.
Sources

IPCC reports

  • IPCC, 2018: Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, H. O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J. B. R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M. I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, T. Waterfield (eds.)].

AR4 Working Group I Report

AR4 Working Group III Report

AR5 Working Group III Report
SR15 Special Report
AR6 Working Group III Report

Other sources