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Clausthalite

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Clausthalite
Clausthalite-207330.jpg
General
CategorySelenide mineral
Formula
(repeating unit)
PbSe
IMA symbolCth[1]
Strunz classification2.CD.10
Dana classification02.08.01.02
Crystal systemIsometric
Crystal classHexoctahedral (m3m)
H-M symbol: (4/m 3 2/m)
Space groupFm3m
Identification
ColorBluish gray to lead-gray
Crystal habitMassive to granular with euhedral crystals
Cleavage{001} Perfect, {010} Perfect, {100} Perfect
Mohs scale hardness2.5
LusterMetallic
Streakgrayish black
Diaphaneityopaque
Specific gravity7.6 - 8.8
References[2][3][4][5]

Clausthalite is a lead selenide mineral, PbSe. It forms a solid solution series with galena PbS.

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Occurrence

It occurs in low-sulfur hydrothermal deposits with other selenides and in mercury deposits. It is associated with tiemannite, klockmannite, berzelianite, umangite, gold, stibiopalladinite and uraninite.[3]

It was first described in 1832 and named for the discovery locality of Clausthal-Zellerfeld in the Harz Mountains, Germany.[5]

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Mercury (element)

Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is also known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum from the Greek words, hydor (water) and argyros (silver). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is known to be liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is the halogen bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

Tiemannite

Tiemannite

Tiemannite is a mineral, mercury selenide, formula HgSe. It occurs in hydrothermal veins associated with other selenides, or other mercury minerals such as cinnabar, and often with calcite. Discovered in 1855 in Germany, it is named after Johann Carl Wilhelm Tiemann (1848–1899).

Berzelianite

Berzelianite

Berzelianite is a rare copper selenide mineral with the formula Cu2Se. It occurs as thin dendritic crusts or as fine-grained inclusions. It crystallizes in the isometric system, unlike its dimorph, bellidoite, which crystallizes in the tetragonal system. The crystals are opaque and slightly malleable.

Umangite

Umangite

Umangite is a copper selenide mineral, Cu3Se2, discovered in 1891. It occurs only in small grains or fine granular aggregates with other copper minerals of the sulfide group. It has a hardness of 3. It is blue-black to red-violet in color with a black streak. It has a metallic luster.

Gold

Gold

Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and atomic number 79. This makes it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally. It is a bright, slightly orange-yellow, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal in a pure form. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions. Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, veins, and alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver, naturally alloyed with other metals like copper and palladium, and mineral inclusions such as within pyrite. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium.

Stibiopalladinite

Stibiopalladinite

Stibiopalladinite is a mineral containing the chemical elements palladium and antimony. Its chemical formula is Pd5Sb2. It is a silvery white to steel grey opaque mineral crystallizing in the hexagonal crystal system.

Uraninite

Uraninite

Uraninite, formerly pitchblende, is a radioactive, uranium-rich mineral and ore with a chemical composition that is largely UO2 but because of oxidation typically contains variable proportions of U3O8. Radioactive decay of the uranium causes the mineral to contain oxides of lead and trace amounts of helium. It may also contain thorium and rare-earth elements.

Germany

Germany

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of almost 84 million within its 16 constituent states. Germany borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and most populous city is Berlin and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

Source: "Clausthalite", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clausthalite.

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See also
References
  1. ^ Warr, L.N. (2021). "IMA–CNMNC approved mineral symbols". Mineralogical Magazine. 85: 291–320.
  2. ^ Mineralienatlas
  3. ^ a b http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/clausthalite.pdf Handbook of Mineralogy
  4. ^ http://webmineral.com/data/Clausthalite.shtml Webmineral data
  5. ^ a b http://www.mindat.org/min-1061.html Mindat


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