Get Our Extension

Circeii

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
View of San Felice Circeo from Mount Circeo
View of San Felice Circeo from Mount Circeo

Circeii was an ancient Roman city on the site of modern San Felice Circeo and near Mount Circeo, the mountain promontory on the southwest coast of Italy. The area around Circeii and Mount Circeo was thickly populated with Roman villas and other buildings, of which the remains of many can still be seen.

The origin of the name is uncertain: it has naturally been connected with Homer's legend of Circe.[1] The difficulty has been raised that the promontory ceased to be an island well before Homer's time; but Procopius remarked that the promontory has all the appearance of an island until one is actually upon it.[2][3]

Discover more about Circeii related topics

San Felice Circeo

San Felice Circeo

San Felice Circeo is a town and comune in the province of Latina, in the Lazio region of central Italy. It was an ancient city called Circeii.

Mount Circeo

Mount Circeo

Monte Circeo or Cape Circeo is a mountain promontory that marks the southwestern limit of the former Pontine Marshes.located on the southwest coast of Italy near San Felice Circeo. At the northern end of the Gulf of Gaeta, it is about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) long by 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) wide at the base, running from east to west and surrounded by the sea on all sides except the north. The land to the northeast is the former ancient Pontine Marshes. Most of the ancient swamp has been reclaimed for agriculture and urban areas.

Homer

Homer

Homer was a Greek poet who was the legendary author to whom the authorship of the Iliad and the Odyssey is attributed. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential authors of all time. In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, Virgil refers to him as "Poet sovereign", king of all poets; in the preface to his translation of the Iliad, Alexander Pope acknowledges that Homer has always been considered the "greatest of poets".

Circe

Circe

Circe is an enchantress and a minor goddess in ancient Greek mythology and religion. She is either a daughter of the Titan Helios and the Oceanid nymph Perse or the goddess Hecate and Aeëtes. Circe was renowned for her vast knowledge of potions and herbs. Through the use of these and a magic wand or staff, she would transform her enemies, or those who offended her, into animals.

Procopius

Procopius

Procopius of Caesarea was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Caesarea Maritima. Accompanying the Roman general Belisarius in Emperor Justinian's wars, Procopius became the principal Roman historian of the 6th century, writing the History of the Wars, the Buildings, and the Secret History.

History

Latin tribes 5th c. BC
Latin tribes 5th c. BC
Acropolis of Circeii
Acropolis of Circeii

The town on the eastern side of Monte Circeo was probably founded by Greeks at the end of the Bronze Age, when they established ports and emporiums along the Italian coast.[4]

At the east end of the promontory ridge are the remains of Bronze Age cyclopean walls that roughly form a rectangle of 200 by 100 metres.[5] It seems to have been an acropolis and contains only a subterranean cistern with a beehive roof of converging blocks. The megalithic blocks are cut and assembled precisely together using tight polygonal joints without mortar. Many walls of this type were built during the Bronze Age in the Mediterranean, for example in Lazio those of Segni, Ferentino, Norba and Arpinum, possibly by the Aurunci people of the area.[6] The blocks of the inner face are much less carefully worked both here and at Arpinum.

The Roman colony of Circeii was founded in the time of Roman king Tarquinius Superbus (before 495 BC).[7][3]

Roman Republic

The Roman colonists were expelled by the Volsci during the Volscian invasion led by Coriolanus in 491-488 BC.[8] Circeii was reconquered by the Romans in about 393 BC three years before the Gaulish War.[9] Not long afterwards the Circeians revolted, and joined the Volscians again.[10] Nevertheless in Rome's treaty with Carthage in 348 BC Circeii is stated as under Roman protection.[11]

They must have succeeded in establishing their independence as at the start of the second Latin War in 340 BC Circeii was a member of the Latin League. After the war it must have been recolonised by the Romans, because in the Second Punic War it was among their thirty Latin colonies. But in 209 BC, during the Second Punic War, Circeii was one of twelve colonies to refuse any more military contributions towards Rome[12] and in 204 it was punished as a result,[13] by supplying double the greatest number of foot soldiers they had ever provided and 120 horsemen, all chosen from the wealthiest citizens, and to be sent out of Italy. Also an annual tax was imposed.

The town only acquired municipal rights after the Social War and was unimportant except as a seaside resort.

In the 2nd Triumvirate, after a dispute between Lepidus and Octavian, Lepidus was forced into exile in Circeii in 36 BC.

It became an agreeable place of retirement for wealthy Romans under the later Republic and the Empire, and the emperors Tiberius and Domitian had villas nearby.[14][15][16]

It was renowned for the quantity and quality of its oysters by the Romans.[17][18][19]

Roman Empire

At the end of the republic or at latest at the beginning of the imperial period, the city of Circeii was connected to a harbour on the west side of the promontory on the shore of the Lago di Paola (a lagoon, now a considerable fishery) separated from the sea by a line of sand-dunes and connected with it by a Roman channel: Strabo speaks of the city as a small harbour 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) north of the west end of the promontory.

Discover more about History related topics

Bronze Age

Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historic period, lasting approximately from 3300 BC to 1200 BC, characterized by the use of bronze, the presence of writing in some areas, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age system proposed in 1836 by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen for classifying and studying ancient societies and history.

Acropolis

Acropolis

An acropolis was the settlement of an upper part of an ancient Greek city, especially a citadel, and frequently a hill with precipitous sides, mainly chosen for purposes of defense. The term is typically used to refer to the Acropolis of Athens, yet every Greek city had an acropolis of its own. Acropoloi were used as religious centers and places of worship, forts, and places in which the royal and high-status resided. Acropoloi became the nuclei of large cities of classical ancient times, and served as important centers of a community. Some well-known acropoloi have become the centers of tourism in present-day, and, especially, the Acropolis of Athens has been a revolutionary center for the studies of ancient Greece since the Mycenaean period. Many of them have become a source of revenue for Greece, and represent some great technology during the period.

Segni

Segni

Segni is an Italian town and comune located in Lazio. The city is situated on a hilltop in the Lepini Mountains, and overlooks the valley of the Sacco River.

Ferentino

Ferentino

Ferentino is a town and comune in Italy, in the province of Frosinone, Lazio, 65 kilometres (40 mi) southeast of Rome. It is situated on a hill 400 metres above sea level, in the Monti Ernici area.

Norba

Norba

Norba, an ancient town of Latium (Adjectum), Italy. It is situated 1 mile northwest of the modern town of Norma, on the western edge of the Volscian Mountains or Monti Lepini. The town is perched above a precipitous cliff with a splendid view over the Pomptine Marshes below; the highest point stands to ca. 460 meters above sea level.

Aurunci

Aurunci

The Aurunci were an Italic tribe that lived in southern Italy from around the 1st millennium BC. They were eventually defeated by Rome and subsumed into the Roman Republic during the second half of the 4th century BC.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus was the legendary seventh and final king of Rome, reigning 25 years until the popular uprising that led to the establishment of the Roman Republic. He is commonly known as Tarquin the Proud, from his cognomen Superbus.

Volsci

Volsci

The Volsci were an Italic tribe, well known in the history of the first century of the Roman Republic. At the time they inhabited the partly hilly, partly marshy district of the south of Latium, bounded by the Aurunci and Samnites on the south, the Hernici on the east, and stretching roughly from Norba and Cora in the north to Antium in the south. Rivals of Rome for several hundred years, their territories were taken over by and assimilated into the growing republic by 300 BCE. Rome's first emperor Augustus was of Volscian descent.

Carthage

Carthage

Carthage was the capital city of Ancient Carthage, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now Tunisia. Carthage was one of the most important trading hubs of the Ancient Mediterranean and one of the most affluent cities of the classical world.

Latin League

Latin League

The Latin League was an ancient confederation of about 30 villages and tribes in the region of Latium near the ancient city of Rome, organized for mutual defense. The term "Latin League" is one coined by modern historians with no precise Latin equivalent.

Second Punic War

Second Punic War

The Second Punic War was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. After immense materiel and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting, and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides. There were three main military theatres during the war: Italy, where Hannibal defeated the Roman legions repeatedly, with occasional subsidiary campaigns in Sicily, Sardinia and Greece; Iberia, where Hasdrubal, a younger brother of Hannibal, defended the Carthaginian colonial cities with mixed success before moving into Italy; and Africa, where Rome finally won the war.

Seaside resort

Seaside resort

A seaside resort is a town, village, or hotel that serves as a vacation resort and is located on a coast. Sometimes the concept includes an aspect of official accreditation based on the satisfaction of certain requirements, such as in the German Seebad. Where a beach is the primary focus for tourists, it may be called a beach resort.

The Roman Sites

The modern town of San Felice Circeo seems to occupy the site of the ancient city; its mediaeval walls rest upon ancient Cyclopean walls of less careful construction than those of the acropolis, and enclose an area that measures 200 by 150 metres (660 by 490 ft).[3] Along with the acropolis on the east end, the highest summit of the promontory has ruins of a platform attributed to a temple of Venus or Circe.

On the Lago di Paola are the remains of the Roman town of the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, extending over an area of some 600x500 m. Along the lagoon were fine buildings, including a large open piscina or basin, surrounded by a double portico, while farther inland are several very large and well-preserved cisterns supplied by an aqueduct of which traces may still be seen.[20]

This coastal area became popular with rich Romans, like nearby coasts, for the location of large, luxurious villas. On the east end of the promontory stand the remains of several very large ancient villas which Cicero compared to those at Antium.

Also north of the city at Sabaudia emperor Domitian built a sumptious villa.[21]

An ancient inscription found near Torre Paola speaks of an amphitheatre, of which no remains are visible. Another inscription in the rock near San Felice speaks about this part of the Latin: promonturium Veneris ("promontory of Venus"; the only case of the use of this name) as belonging to the city of Circeii.

The so-called villa of the Four Winds

Sanctuary of Venus, or villa of the Four Winds, Circeii
Sanctuary of Venus, or villa of the Four Winds, Circeii

Known as the villa dei Quattro Venti, the remains of this large buiding in the historic centre of San Felice lie along the road that leads to the port. Majestic in size, approximately 8,000 m2 area and including three terraces, it was long thought to be a great villa owned by Lepidus. It is now thought more likely to be a sanctuary according to recent studies by Sapienza University (with the support of the Circeo National Park and the Superintendency of Archaeological Heritage of Lazio) after discovery of a votive inscription, a dedication addressed to a divinity.[22] The sanctuary is probably from the Sullan period (starting from 83 BC) and follows the building project, revolutionary for the time, of a sanctuary dedicated to Venus, protector of the fortune of the new dictator, Sulla, a new cult intended to overshadow the older divinity. The building also fits the picture of the great Republican sanctuaries of Lazio, such as those of Anxur and Praeneste built between the middle of the 2nd and the middle of the 1st century BC in scenic and dominant positions, on imposing terraced substructures.

The new building technique of concrete is used, as recently invented in Rome, with the architectural orders derived from the Hellenistic tradition. The model for the scenographic arrangement on sloping terraces may refer to the great sanctuaries of the city of Pergamum where the temples stand on high podiums and lack a colonnade at the back. The terraces are often surrounded by porticoes on three sides and the arches and vaults are often flanked or hidden by colonnades.

The Roman port-canal

Roman harbour canal, Cerceii
Roman harbour canal, Cerceii
Roman harbour canal mole and harbour
Roman harbour canal mole and harbour

Also called the Fossa Augusta, Fossa Neronis or Cavo d'Augusto, it is a Roman canal[23] that connected the South East side of Lake Paola to the Tyrrhenian Sea by crossing the plain at the foot of the promontory to avoid dangerous circumnavigation of Monte Circeo.

The section near the mouth of Rio Torto was described by Giuseppe Lugli in the 1920s as: "The width of the navigable body of water must have been about 18 m and depth of 4 m; on the sides there were docks for passing of ships and on the banks ran two parallel roads for towing by animals...". The Fossa Augusta begins near the area called Casarini, just south of the mediaeval convent and inside the Selva Piana a shallow ditch is clearly visible. The structure is easily identifiable in the Mola-la Cona stretch, which still retains the side roads, the current Via Giuseppe Verdi and Via Sabaudia. The outlet to the sea at Rio Torto is through a manhole below via Gibraleon.

Historically the start of the canal was attributed to the emperor Nero (r. 54-68 AD) who began work on a 160-mile-long canal to join Ostia to Lake Avernus,[24] traces of which remain between the lakes of Caprolace and Paola. Archaeological finds show that the port-canal was originally built in the Sullan period of about 91-88 BC by Lucius Faberius Murena, magistrate of Circei, to whom an inscription is dedicated.[25] Lucius Faberius belonged to the important Faberii family in Rome, especially in the first century BC. Another stone description[26] affirms the high offices and industriousness held by Lucius Faberius in Rome.

The canal was judged by Suetonius and Tacitus to be the most outrageous undertaking of Nero, and it was not completed, perhaps due to the sudden death of the emperor or due to the technical difficulties in its construction. Suetonius and Strabo describe a canal port already present at the end of the 1st century BC. The completion of the canal is assumed to be the work of Domitian associated with his nearby palace, as evidenced by similar brick stanps.

There is at least one other, shorter, and well-preserved Roman canal at the west end, close to the base of Monte Circeo and linking Lake Paola with the sea, called the harbour canal or canal of Torre Paola. It was most likely built by Domitian to connect his palace to the sea. This canal is still used and is about 1km long with walls of opus caementicium faced with opus reticulatum, opus latericium and opus mixtum. At the seaward mouth of the canal, the walls still extend into the sea by 60-100 m and here Domitian built a small harbour south of the canal.[27]

Discover more about The Roman Sites related topics

San Felice Circeo

San Felice Circeo

San Felice Circeo is a town and comune in the province of Latina, in the Lazio region of central Italy. It was an ancient city called Circeii.

Piscina

Piscina

A piscina is a shallow basin placed near the altar of a church, or else in the vestry or sacristy, used for washing the communion vessels. The sacrarium is the drain itself. Anglicans usually refer to the basin, calling it a piscina. For Roman Catholics sacrarium is “special sink used for the reverent disposal of sacred substances. This sink has a cover, a basin, and a special pipe and drain that empty directly into the earth, rather than into the sewer system” . Precious or sacred items are disposed of, when possible, by returning them to the ground. They are in some cases used to dispose of materials used in the sacraments and water from liturgical ablutions. They are found in Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Lutheran churches, and a similar vessel is used in Eastern Orthodox churches.

Roman aqueduct

Roman aqueduct

The Romans constructed aqueducts throughout their Republic and later Empire, to bring water from outside sources into cities and towns. Aqueduct water supplied public baths, latrines, fountains, and private households; it also supported mining operations, milling, farms, and gardens.

Cicero

Cicero

Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, philosopher, and academic skeptic, who tried to uphold optimate principles during the political crises that led to the establishment of the Roman Empire. His extensive writings include treatises on rhetoric, philosophy and politics, and he is considered one of Rome's greatest orators and prose stylists. He came from a wealthy municipal family of the Roman equestrian order, and served as consul in 63 BC.

Antium

Antium

Antium was an ancient coastal town in Latium, south of Rome. An oppidum was founded by people of Latial culture, then it was the main stronghold of the Volsci people until it was conquered by the Romans.

Sabaudia

Sabaudia

Sabaudia is a coastal town in the province of Latina, Lazio, in central Italy. Sabaudia's centre is characterised by several examples of Fascist architecture. Villa Volpi, a neoclassical seaside villa built for Countess Nathalie Volpi of Misurata, is located on the sand dunes of Sabaudia.

Domitian

Domitian

Domitian was a Roman emperor who reigned from 81 to 96. The son of Vespasian and the younger brother of Titus, his two predecessors on the throne, he was the last member of the Flavian dynasty. Described as "a ruthless but efficient autocrat", his authoritarian style of ruling put him at sharp odds with the Senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed.

Amphitheatre

Amphitheatre

An amphitheatre or amphitheater is an open-air venue used for entertainment, performances, and sports. The term derives from the ancient Greek ἀμφιθέατρον, from ἀμφί, meaning "on both sides" or "around" and θέατρον, meaning "place for viewing".

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir)

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a Roman general and statesman who formed the Second Triumvirate alongside Octavian and Mark Antony during the final years of the Roman Republic. Lepidus had previously been a close ally of Julius Caesar. He was also the last pontifex maximus before the Roman Empire, and (presumably) the last interrex and magister equitum to hold military command.

Nero

Nero

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, was the fifth Roman emperor and final emperor of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, reigning from AD 54 until his death in AD 68. He was adopted by the Roman emperor Claudius at the age of 13 and succeeded him on the throne. Nero was popular with the members of his Praetorian Guard and lower-class commoners in Rome and its provinces, but he was deeply resented by the Roman aristocracy. Most contemporary sources describe him as tyrannical, self-indulgent, and debauched. After being declared a public enemy by the Roman Senate, he committed suicide at age 30.

Ostia Antica

Ostia Antica

Ostia Antica is a large archaeological site, close to the modern town of Ostia, that is the location of the harbour city of ancient Rome, 25 kilometres southwest of Rome. "Ostia" is a derivation of "os", the Latin word for "mouth". At the mouth of the River Tiber, Ostia was Rome's seaport, but due to silting the site now lies 3 kilometres from the sea. The site is noted for the excellent preservation of its ancient buildings, magnificent frescoes and impressive mosaics.

Lake Avernus

Lake Avernus

Lake Avernus is a volcanic crater lake located in the Avernus crater in the Campania region of southern Italy, around 4 kilometres west of Pozzuoli. It is near the volcanic field known as the Phlegraean Fields and comprises part of the wider Campanian volcanic arc. The lake is roughly circular, measuring two kilometres in circumference and 60 metres deep.

Nearby Roman sites

The area around Monte Circeo was populated with many Roman villas[28] and other buildings, remains of which can often still be seen.

The villa of Domitian

Plan of part of the Villa of Domitian (Sabaudia)
Plan of part of the Villa of Domitian (Sabaudia)

The enormous villa or palace dates from the 1st century AD and extends for over 45 hectares along the shores of Lake Sabaudia.

Excavations in 1934 revealed brick stamps from the Domitian (r. 81-96 AD) era and the site was referred to in some verses by Martial. It is probable that the villa was only renovated in that period, as there are remains from the time of Augustus. A lot of material had ended up on the antiques market of the time and marbles and statues were divided into many museums, among which are the Apollo Kassel[29] (now in a Kassel museum) and a satyr (now in the Vatican Museums).

The so-called spring of Lucullus

Spring of Lucullus
Spring of Lucullus

The Fonte di Lucullo (spring of Lucullus) is a Roman artificial cave built as a water cistern.[30] It is located within the Circeo National Park in Molella, half way between Sabaudia and San Felice Circeo. The spring, formerly known as Bagnara, is now given the name of the rich patrician Lucullus who had many elaborate villas and, in 78 BC, entrusted Gnaeus Domitius Amandus (according to a brick stamp) with the task of collecting the waters of that area. The builder created two sources of water, for drinking and for baths with less clean water. It was near a republican villa that was visible until about 70 years ago. According to legend the delightful villa on the shores of Lake Paola belonged to Lucullus, who after having exercised his military career for many years fighting valiantly and with honour, and after having accumulated much wealth, retired from public office to end his last days in the comfort on the Circeo promontory.

The spring was discovered in 1904 under 15 m of sand and still gushes inside the ancient vault.

The so-called pool of Lucullus

The pool was a Roman fish farm[31] made up of two concentric rings, divided into four unequal wedges by walls, which still exists today. The link to Lucullus is unproved.

The first phase of the pool was between the end of the republic and the early empire, the same period in which the nearby thermal baths of Torre Paola were built which perhaps shared the supply. This date offers further evidence in favour of the early expansion of Circeii.

Most of the sections are inter-linked through rectangular openings at different heights. The western compartment, however, was isolated from the pool and communicated only with the supply channel from an underground sulphurous spring that gushed out at about 25 degrees and which was perhaps built in the Domitian era.

Discover more about Nearby Roman sites related topics

Villa of Domitian (Sabaudia)

Villa of Domitian (Sabaudia)

The ancient Roman Villa of Domitian is located on the shore of the lagoon of Paola between Sabaudia and San Felice Circeo, at a locality known as Palazzo. It was one of the palaces that belonged to the emperor Domitian. It is considered one of the most important yet little-known Roman imperial residences in Latium.

Domitian

Domitian

Domitian was a Roman emperor who reigned from 81 to 96. The son of Vespasian and the younger brother of Titus, his two predecessors on the throne, he was the last member of the Flavian dynasty. Described as "a ruthless but efficient autocrat", his authoritarian style of ruling put him at sharp odds with the Senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed.

Martial

Martial

Marcus Valerius Martialis was a Roman poet from Hispania best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan. In these short, witty poems he cheerfully satirises city life and the scandalous activities of his acquaintances, and romanticises his provincial upbringing. He wrote a total of 1,561 epigrams, of which 1,235 are in elegiac couplets.

Kassel

Kassel

Kassel is a city on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Regierungsbezirk Kassel and the district of the same name and had 200,507 inhabitants in December 2015. The former capital of the state of Hesse-Kassel has many palaces and parks, including the Bergpark Wilhelmshöhe, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Kassel is also known for the documenta exhibitions of contemporary art. Kassel has a public university with 25,000 students (2018) and a multicultural population.

Lucullus

Lucullus

Lucius Licinius Lucullus was a Roman general and statesman, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla. In culmination of over 20 years of almost continuous military and government service, he conquered the eastern kingdoms in the course of the Third Mithridatic War, exhibiting extraordinary generalship in diverse situations, most famously during the Siege of Cyzicus in 73–72 BC, and at the Battle of Tigranocerta in Armenian Arzanene in 69 BC. His command style received unusually favourable attention from ancient military experts, and his campaigns appear to have been studied as examples of skillful generalship.

Source: "Circeii", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circeii.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ Homer: Odyssey
  2. ^ Procopius, Wars 5.11.2–4
  3. ^ a b c  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainAshby, Thomas (1911). "Circeius Mons". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 6 (11th ed.). pp. 381–382.
  4. ^ Storia e Leggenda del Circeo http://www.circei.it/storia-del-circeo.html
  5. ^ Storia e Leggenda del Circei www.circei.it
  6. ^ S Aurigemma, A. Bianchini, A. De Santis, Circeo, Terracina, Fondi , Roma: Istituto Poligrafico dello Stato, 1966
  7. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 1.56
  8. ^ Livy, Ab urbe condita, 2.39
  9. ^ Diodorus 14.102
  10. ^ Liv. 6.12, 13, 21
  11. ^ Ashby, Thomas (1911). "Antium" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). p. 147.
  12. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita 27.9
  13. ^ Livy, Ab Urbe Condita 29.15
  14. ^ Suetonius Tib. 72
  15. ^ Mart. 11.7.4
  16. ^ Stat. Silv. 1.3. 85
  17. ^ Horace Satires 2.4. 33
  18. ^ Juvenal 4.140
  19. ^ Pliny Nat. History 32.6. s. 21
  20. ^ L. Bressanello, “The Circeii aqueduct”, in L. Quilici - S. Quilici Gigli (ed.) Urbanization of the countryside in ancient Italy, ATTA 10 (Roma 2001) 181-186
  21. ^ Darwall-Smith, Robin (1994). "Albanum and the villas of Domitian". Pallas. 40 (1): 145–165. doi:10.3406/palla.1994.1315. ISSN 0031-0387.
  22. ^ Diego Ronchi, Stefano Urbini: La Cosiddetta “villa dei Quattro Venti” a S. Felice Circeo, June 2013, Project: geophysical prospections applied to archaeology https://www.researchgate.net/publication/341426238_La_Cosiddetta_villa_dei_Quattro_Venti_a_S_Felice_Circeo
  23. ^ Paola canal harbour http://www.parcocirceo.it/Epun_dettaglio.php?id_pun=2029
  24. ^ Tacitus, Annales, XV,42
  25. ^ CIL 6428
  26. ^ CIL 06.408909
  27. ^ J. Daum, Trajan's Harbours on the Tyrrhenian Coast, in: C. von Carnap-Bornheim, et al (eds.), Harbours as Objects of interdisziplinary research - Archaeology + History + Geosciences, RGZM-Tagungen 34 (Mainz 2018) 133-150
  28. ^ Lorenzo Ceruleo, Ville rustiche nella colonia di Circeii UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DELLA TUSCIA, Relatore: Prof. De Vincenzo Salvatore
  29. ^ Statue des Apollon (sog. \\\"Kasseler Apoll\\\") https://arachne.dainst.org/entity/1068363?fl=20&q=apollo%20kassel&resultIndex=1
  30. ^ La Fonte di Lucullo http://www.circei.it/lucullo.html
  31. ^ Lucullo’s pool, An ancient fish farm http://www.parcocirceo.it/Epun_dettaglio.php?id_pun=2030
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.