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Chinese censorship abroad

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Chinese censorship abroad refers to extraterritorial censorship by the government of the People's Republic of China (Chinese Communist Party; CCP), i.e. censorship that is conducted beyond China's own borders. The censorship can be applied to both Chinese expatriates and foreign groups. Censored topics include the political status of Taiwan, human rights in Tibet, Xinjiang internment camps, the Uyghur genocide, the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests, the COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China, the PRC government's COVID-19 pandemic response, the persecution of Falun Gong, and more general issues related to human rights and democracy in China.

Self-censorship is undertaken by foreign companies wishing to do business in China, a growing phenomenon given the country's market size and enormous consumer base.[1][2][3][4][5] Companies seeking to avoid offending the Chinese regime and Chinese customers have engaged in self-censorship, as well as disciplining of staff that have offended the regime.[1] When pressured by the Chinese regime, some companies have apologized or made statements in support of the regime's policies.[6][7]

The PRC government pays 50 Cent Party operatives and encourages "Little Pink" nationalist netizens to combat any perceived dissent against its position on Chinese issues, including opposing any foreign expressions of support for protesters or perceived separatist movements, with the country's "Patriotic Education campaign" since the 1990s emphasising the dangers of foreign influence and the country's "century of humiliation" by outside powers.[8][9]

Censorship of overseas services is also undertaken by companies based in China, such as WeChat[10][11] and TikTok.[12] Chinese citizens living abroad as well as family residing in China have also been subject to threats to their employment, education, pension, and business opportunities if they engage in expression critical of the Chinese government or its policies.[13][14] With limited pushback by foreign governments and organisations, these issues have led to growing concern about self-censorship, compelled speech and a chilling effect on free speech in other countries.[15][16][17]

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Extraterritorial jurisdiction

Extraterritorial jurisdiction

Extraterritorial jurisdiction (ETJ) is the legal ability of a government to exercise authority beyond its normal boundaries.

China

China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's most populous country, with a population exceeding 1.4 billion, slightly ahead of India. China spans the equivalent of five time zones and borders fourteen countries by land, the most of any country in the world, tied with Russia. China also has a narrow maritime boundary with the disputed Taiwan. Covering an area of approximately 9.6 million square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the world's third largest country by total land area. The country consists of 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four municipalities, and two Special Administrative Regions. The national capital is Beijing, and the most populous city and financial center is Shanghai.

Chinese Communist Party

Chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CCP emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang, and in 1949 Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, the CCP has governed China with eight smaller parties within its United Front and has sole control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive leader of the CCP has added their own theories to the party's constitution, which outlines the ideological beliefs of the party, collectively referred to as socialism with Chinese characteristics. As of 2022, the CCP has more than 96 million members, making it the second largest political party by party membership in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. The Chinese public generally refers to the CCP as simply "the Party".

Expatriate

Expatriate

An expatriate is a person who resides outside their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to educated professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has also referred to exiles.

1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre

1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre

The Tiananmen Square protests, known in Chinese as the June Fourth Incident, were student-led demonstrations held in Tiananmen Square, Beijing during 1989. In what is known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, or in Chinese the June Fourth Clearing or June Fourth Massacre, troops armed with assault rifles and accompanied by tanks fired at the demonstrators and those trying to block the military's advance into Tiananmen Square. The protests started on 15 April and were forcibly suppressed on 4 June when the government declared martial law and sent the People's Liberation Army to occupy parts of central Beijing. Estimates of the death toll vary from several hundred to several thousand, with thousands more wounded. The popular national movement inspired by the Beijing protests is sometimes called the '89 Democracy Movement or the Tiananmen Square Incident.

2019–2020 Hong Kong protests

2019–2020 Hong Kong protests

The Anti-Extradition Law Amendment Bill Movement, also known as the 2019 Hong Kong protests, or the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests, were a series of demonstrations from 15 March 2019 in response to the introduction by the Hong Kong government of the Fugitive Offenders amendment bill on extradition. It is one of the largest series of demonstrations in the history of Hong Kong, with thousands arrested in violent scenes. The Government declared peace and stability had been restored to Hong Kong with the National Security Law.

COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China

COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China

The COVID-19 pandemic in mainland China is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). China was the first country to experience an outbreak of the disease, the first to impose drastic measures in response, and one of the first countries to bring the outbreak under control.

Democracy movements of China

Democracy movements of China

Democracy movements of China are a series of loosely organized political movements, inside and outside of China, against the continuation of the one-party rule of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Their origins can be traced back to Liang Shuming's challenge to Mao Zedong at the Supreme Conference of the PRC's Government Administration Council in 1953. In that year, the CCP forcibly changed the ownership of rural land from private ownership to collective ownership, which caused disgust among peasants.

50 Cent Party

50 Cent Party

The 50 Cent Party, also known as the 50 Cent Army or wumao, are Internet commentators who are hired by the authorities of the People's Republic of China to spread information to the benefit of the governing Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It was created during the early phases of the Internet's rollout to the wider public in China.

Century of humiliation

Century of humiliation

The "century of humiliation", also known as the "hundred years of national humiliation", is a term used in China to describe the period of intervention and subjugation of the Qing dynasty and the Republic of China by Western powers and Japan from 1839 to 1949.

Compelled speech

Compelled speech

Compelled speech is a transmission of expression required by law. A related legal concept is protected speech. Just as freedom of speech protects free expression, in many cases it similarly protects an individual from being required to utter or otherwise express a thought with which that individual disagrees.

Chilling effect

Chilling effect

In a legal context, a chilling effect is the inhibition or discouragement of the legitimate exercise of natural and legal rights by the threat of legal sanction. A chilling effect may be caused by legal actions such as the passing of a law, the decision of a court, or the threat of a lawsuit; any legal action that would cause people to hesitate to exercise a legitimate right for fear of legal repercussions. When that fear is brought about by the threat of a libel lawsuit, it is called libel chill. A lawsuit initiated specifically for the purpose of creating a chilling effect may be called a Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation (SLAPP).

Censored topics

Traditionally foreign companies wishing to do business in China needed to avoid references to "The Three Ts and Two Cs": Tibet, Taiwan, the Tiananmen Square massacre, cults such as Falun Gong, and criticism of the Chinese Communist Party.[18][19][20] This included related topics such as the Dalai Lama who the Chinese government considers a subversive Tibetan "splittist" and opposes any expressions of support from foreign governments or organisations.[21]

In the early 21st century, companies faced potential backlash on a broader range of issues relating to China, such as failing to include Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan as part of China on their websites in violation of the One China Policy.[18] Further sensitive topics include: comments about leader Xi Jinping's weight,[22] including comparisons to rotund children's character Winnie the Pooh;[23] the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution, disregard of the Chinese government's Nine-Dash Line in the South China Sea dispute; the government's genocide of Muslim Uyghurs and use of Xinjiang internment camps;[24][25][26][27] expressions of support for the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests,[28] and the government's censorship of the COVID-19 pandemic.[29][30]

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Tibet

Tibet

Tibet is a region in East Asia, covering much of the Tibetan Plateau and spanning about 2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi). It is the traditional homeland of the Tibetan people. Also resident on the plateau are some other ethnic groups such as Monpa, Tamang, Qiang, Sherpa and Lhoba peoples and now also considerable numbers of Han Chinese and Hui settlers. Since 1951, the entire plateau has been under the administration of the People's Republic of China, a major portion in the Tibet Autonomous Region, and other portions in the Qinghai and Sichuan provinces.

Human rights in Tibet

Human rights in Tibet

Human rights in Tibet are a contentious issue. Although the United States advocates and provided funds to Dalai Lama's independence movement, the United States does not recognize Tibet as a country. Reported abuses of human rights in Tibet include restricted freedom of religion, belief, and association; arbitrary arrest; maltreatment in custody, including torture; and forced abortion and sterilization. The status of religion, mainly as it relates to figures who are both religious and political, such as the exile of the 14th Dalai Lama, is a regular object of criticism. Additionally, freedom of the press in China is absent, with Tibet's media tightly controlled by the Chinese leadership, making it difficult to accurately determine the scope of human rights abuses.

Central Tibetan Administration

Central Tibetan Administration

The Central Tibetan Administration, often referred to as the Tibetan Government-in-Exile, is a non-profit political organization based in Dharamshala, India. Its organization is modeled after an elective parliamentary government, composed of a judiciary branch, a legislative branch, and an executive branch.

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest and most dominant of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

Taiwan

Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia, at the junction of the East and South China Seas in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, with the People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The territories controlled by the ROC consist of 168 islands, with a combined area of 36,193 square kilometres (13,974 sq mi). The main island of Taiwan, also known as Formosa, has an area of 35,808 square kilometres (13,826 sq mi), with mountain ranges dominating the eastern two-thirds and plains in the western third, where its highly urbanised population is concentrated. The capital, Taipei, forms along with New Taipei City and Keelung the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Other major cities include Taoyuan, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung. With around 23.9 million inhabitants, Taiwan is among the most densely populated countries in the world.

Taiwan independence movement

Taiwan independence movement

The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement which advocates the formal declaration of an independent and sovereign Taiwanese state, as opposed to Chinese unification or the status quo in Cross-Strait relations.

One Country on Each Side

One Country on Each Side

One Country on Each Side is a concept originating in the Democratic Progressive Party government led by Chen Shui-bian, the former president of the Republic of China (2000–2008), regarding the political status of Taiwan. It emphasizes that the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China are two different countries,, as opposed to two separate political entities within the same country of "China". This is the position of the supporters of the Pan-Green coalition.

Falun Gong

Falun Gong

Falun Gong or Falun Dafa is a new religious movement. Falun Gong was founded by its leader Li Hongzhi in China in the early 1990s. Falun Gong has its global headquarters in Dragon Springs, a 400-acre (160 ha) compound around Cuddebackville in Deerpark, New York, near the current residence of Li Hongzhi. Falun Gong's performance arts extension, Shen Yun and two closely connected schools, Fei Tian College and Fei Tian Academy of the Arts, also operate in and around Dragon Springs.

Chinese Communist Party

Chinese Communist Party

The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), officially the Communist Party of China (CPC), is the founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CCP emerged victorious in the Chinese Civil War against the Kuomintang, and in 1949 Mao proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Since then, the CCP has governed China with eight smaller parties within its United Front and has sole control over the People's Liberation Army (PLA). Each successive leader of the CCP has added their own theories to the party's constitution, which outlines the ideological beliefs of the party, collectively referred to as socialism with Chinese characteristics. As of 2022, the CCP has more than 96 million members, making it the second largest political party by party membership in the world after India's Bharatiya Janata Party. The Chinese public generally refers to the CCP as simply "the Party".

The Three Ts

The Three Ts

The Three Ts in the context of China are Taiwan, Tibet, and Tiananmen. These are the three most contentious issues to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). They have also been referred to as the Forbidden Ts.

Academia

There is growing concern that the Chinese government is trying to silence its critics abroad, particularly in academic settings.[31] Historically censorship in China was contained within the country's borders, but following the ascension of Xi Jinping to General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party in 2012, the focus has expanded to silencing dissent and criticism abroad, particularly in academia.[32]

There have been a number of incidents of Chinese students studying abroad in Western universities seeking to censor academics or students who espouse views inconsistent with the official Chinese Communist Party position. This includes intimidation and violence against Auckland University and University of Queensland protesters demonstrating in support of Hong Kong and Uyghurs,[33] challenging lecturers whose course materials do not follow the One China Policy by listing Hong Kong and Taiwan as separate countries,[34] and tearing down Lennon Walls in support of the Hong Kong democracy movement.[35]

In 2019 the PRC Consul-General in Brisbane, Xu Jie, faced legal proceedings by Drew Pavlou, a student who had organised a demonstration in support of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests. Pavlou alleged that Jie incited death threats by accusing him of "anti-Chinese separatism".[36] The court dismissed the suit on the basis of diplomatic immunity.[37] Pavlou was later suspended for two years by the university over allegations of discriminatory bullying and harassment of university staff and students, which he claimed was intended to silence his criticism of the university's close links to the PRC and reliance on Chinese student tuition fees.[38]

Academics in British universities teaching on Chinese topics were also warned by the Chinese government to support the Chinese Communist Party or be refused entry to the country. Professors who disregarded the warnings to speak more positively about the CCP have had their visas cancelled which prevents them from doing fieldwork in China.[39]

American universities have engaged in self-censorship on Chinese issues, including North Carolina State University cancelling a visit by the Dalai Lama in 2009 and University of Maryland Chinese student Yang Shuping apologising after harsh reaction to her commencement speech praising the "fresh air" of democracy and freedom in the United States.[40] In November 2019, Columbia University cancelled a panel on human rights in China titled "Panopticism with Chinese Characteristics: Human rights violations by the Chinese Communist Party and how they affect the world."[41] Panel organizers criticized the university for allegedly compromising academic freedom by acquiescing to undue influence and threats of disturbances.[42]

In March 2021 British Uyghur expert Joanne Smith Finley was sanctioned by China after she referred to the situation in Xinjiang as a genocide in comments given to the Associated Press.[43]

In July 2021 more than 100 winners of the Nobel Prize published an open statement rebuking the Chinese government for pressuring the National Academy of Sciences to rescind a speaking invitation they had extended to Taiwanese Nobel Chemistry Prize winner Yuan Lee.[44]

Confucius Institutes

Concerns have been raised about the activities of Chinese government-funded Confucius Institutes in western universities, which are subject to rules set by Beijing-based Hanban that prevent the discussion of sensitive topics including Tibet, Tiananmen Square and Taiwan.[45] Institute learning materials also omit instances of humanitarian catastrophes under the Chinese Communist Party such as the Great Leap Forward and Cultural Revolution.[46] Foreign Policy has likened Confucius Institutes to the "anaconda in the chandelier"; by their mere presence, they impact what staff and students feel safe discussing which leads to self-censorship.[46] American critics include FBI director Christopher Wray and politicians Seth Moulton, Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio.[47]

Human Rights Watch considers the Confucius Institutes to be extensions of the Chinese government that prioritise political loyalty in their hiring decisions.[45][48]

Concerns arose following the 2014 Braga incident, in which materials for the Hanban-sponsored European Association for Chinese Studies 2014 conference in Braga were stolen and censored on the orders of Xu Lin, Director-General of Hanban and Chief Executive of the Confucius Institute Headquarters. Lin ordered the removal of references to Taiwanese academic institutions on the basis that they were "contrary to Chinese regulations",[49] which the Wall Street Journal described as a "bullying approach to academic freedom".[50] The incident led to a number of universities banning Confucius Institutes from their campuses,[51] including Stockholm University, Copenhagen Business School, Stuttgart Media University, the University of Hohenheim, the University of Lyon, the University of Chicago, Pennsylvania University, the University of Michigan and McMaster University.[52] Public schools in Toronto and New South Wales have also ceased their involvement in the program.[53][54]

In 2019 media reports emerged that four of the University of Queensland's courses relating to China had been funded by the local Confucius Institute, with the university's senate ending such deals in May 2019.[55] The university's vice-chancellor, Peter Høj, had previously been a senior consultant to Hanban.[55]

Several Confucius Institute contracts included clauses requiring the host university to follow Confucius Institute Headquarters' edicts on "teaching quality", raising concerns about foreign influence and academic freedom.[56] In 2020 the University of Melbourne and University of Queensland renegotiated their contracts to safeguard teaching autonomy in light of new Federal government laws requiring transparency on foreign influence.[57]

Chinese Students and Scholars Association

The Chinese Students and Scholars Association has branches in various overseas university campuses.[58][59] Many, though not all, of the associations are partly funded by, and report back to, the local Chinese Embassy.[60][59] One of the aims of the Association is to "love the motherland".[59] There is a history of branches pressuring their host university to cancel talks relating to Tibet, the Chinese democracy movement, Uyghurs and the Hong Kong protests.[61][62]

The McMaster University branch in Canada had its club status revoked in 2019 after coordinating its opposition to a speech by Uyghur activist Rukiye Turdush with the local Chinese consulate, including sending back footage, in violation of student union rules.[62][63] The Adelaide University branch was deregistered for failing to follow democratic procedures.[59]

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Censorship in China

Censorship in China

Censorship in the People's Republic of China (PRC) is implemented or mandated by the PRC's ruling party, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It is one of strictest censorship regimes in the world. The government censors content for mainly political reasons, such as curtailing political opposition, and censoring events unfavorable to the CCP, such as the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, pro-democracy movements in China, the Uyghur genocide, human rights in Tibet, the Taiwan independence movement, Falun Gong, and pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong. Since Xi Jinping became the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party in 2012, censorship has been "significantly stepped up".

General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party

General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party

The general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party is the head of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), the sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Since 1989, the CCP general secretary has been the paramount leader of the PRC.

Brisbane

Brisbane

Brisbane is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Queensland, and the third-most populous city in Australia and Oceania, with a population of approximately 2.6 million. Brisbane lies at the centre of the South East Queensland metropolitan region, which encompasses a population of around 3.8 million. The Brisbane central business district is situated within a peninsula of the Brisbane River about 15 km (9 mi) from its mouth at Moreton Bay, a bay of the Coral Sea. Brisbane is located in the hilly floodplain of the Brisbane River Valley between Moreton Bay and the Taylor and D'Aguilar mountain ranges. It sprawls across several local government areas, most centrally the City of Brisbane, Australia's most populous local government area. The demonym of Brisbane is Brisbanite.

Drew Pavlou

Drew Pavlou

Drew Pavlou is an Australian political activist and former university senator from the University of Queensland best known for his criticism of the Chinese government and Chinese Communist Party. Pavlou is also known for organising protests on-campus in support of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests, activism for increased scrutiny around universities' international relationships and against Chinese government policies on Uyghurs and Tibetans.

Diplomatic immunity

Diplomatic immunity

Diplomatic immunity is a principle of international law by which certain foreign government officials are recognized as having legal immunity from the jurisdiction of another country. It allows diplomats safe passage and freedom of travel in a host country and accords almost total protection from local lawsuits and prosecution.

Columbia University

Columbia University

Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity Church in Manhattan, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. Columbia is ranked among the top universities in the world.

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM).

Criticism of Confucius Institutes

Criticism of Confucius Institutes

The Confucius Institute (CI) program, which began establishing centers for Chinese language instruction in 2004, has been the subject of criticisms, concerns, and controversies during its international expansion.

Braga incident

Braga incident

The Braga incident was a 2014 academic scandal in which Xu Lin, the Director-General of the Hanban and Chief Executive of the Confucius Institute Headquarters ordered her staff to remove pages referring to Taiwanese academic institutions from the published program for the European Association for Chinese Studies July–August conference in Braga, Portugal, claiming the materials were "contrary to Chinese regulations", which The Wall Street Journal described as the "bullying approach to academic freedom". The incident led to renewed criticism of Confucius Institutes.

Confucius Institute

Confucius Institute

Confucius Institutes are public educational and cultural promotion programs funded and arranged currently by the Chinese International Education Foundation, a government-organized non-governmental organization (GONGO) under the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. The Confucius Institute program was formerly under Hanban, an organization affiliated with the Chinese government. The stated aim of the program is to promote Chinese language and culture, support local Chinese teaching internationally, and facilitate cultural exchanges. The organization has been criticized over concerns of the Chinese government's undue overseas influence and suppression of academic freedom.

Hanban

Hanban

Hanban, also known as Confucius Institute Headquarters, is the colloquial abbreviation for the Office of Chinese Language Council International. It was originally called the China National Office for Teaching Chinese as a Foreign Language, which was established in 1987. According to Hanban's official website, Hanban is "a public institution affiliated with the Chinese Ministry of Education" and is committed to "providing Chinese language and cultural teaching resources and services worldwide". Hanban's goals include "making Chinese language and culture teaching resources and services available to the world", "meeting the demands of overseas Chinese learners", and "contributing to the formation of a world of cultural diversity and harmony". Hanban aims to cultivate knowledge and interest in the Chinese language and culture around the world, especially in people who are not native speakers of Chinese. Hanban has worked "closely with overseas organizations to develop Chinese language courses in their respective countries".

Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy

Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website and app, and in four print issues annually.

Airlines

In 2018, the Civil Aviation Administration of China sent letters to 44 international airlines demanding that they cease referring[64] to Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau as separate countries on their websites, or risk being classified as "severely untrustworthy" and subject to sanctions.[65] Despite being criticised by the United States government as "Orwellian nonsense", all airlines complied.[66] In 2020, Taiwan News reported that Taiwan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs had convinced 22 airlines to undo the change.[67]

Airline Date Details
American Airlines July 2018 The American carrier stopped listing Taiwan as a country on its website.[68]
Delta Air Lines July 2018 The American carrier stopped listing Taiwan as a country on its website.[68]
Qantas 4 June 2018 The Australian carrier announced it would list Taiwan as a Chinese province rather than a separate country on its website,[69] after earlier stating that listing Taiwan and Hong Kong as countries on its website was an "oversight".[70]
United Airlines July 2018 The American carrier stopped listing Taiwan as a country on its website.[68]

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Civil Aviation Administration of China

Civil Aviation Administration of China

The Civil Aviation Administration of China is the Chinese civil aviation authority under the Ministry of Transport. It oversees civil aviation and investigates aviation accidents and incidents. As the aviation authority responsible for China, it concludes civil aviation agreements with other aviation authorities, including those of the Special administrative regions of China which are categorized as "special domestic." It directly operated its own airline, China's aviation monopoly, until 1988. The agency is headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing.

Taiwan News

Taiwan News

Taiwan News is an English-language online newspaper and former print newspaper in Taiwan. It is owned by foods company I-Mei Foods, which also publishes the Chinese-language news weekly of the same name.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Taiwan)

Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Taiwan)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is a ministry of the Republic of China (Taiwan). Governed as the cabinet level policy-making body under the Executive Yuan since 1928, the fundamental purpose of the ministry is to promote, expand, and conduct bilateral foreign affairs with other nations. Though the ministry was founded on 1 January 1912 when the Republic was founded, the ministry dates its origins on 11 March 1861 as the Office in Charge of Affairs Concerning All Nations in the Qing dynasty. The current Foreign Minister is Joseph Wu. The MOFA headquartered in Zhongzheng District in Taipei.

American Airlines

American Airlines

American Airlines is a major US-based airline headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, within the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex. It is the largest airline in the world when measured by fleet size, scheduled passengers carried, and revenue passenger mile. American, together with its regional partners and affiliates, operates an extensive international and domestic network with almost 6,800 flights per day to nearly 350 destinations in more than 50 countries. American Airlines is a founding member of the Oneworld alliance, the third-largest airline alliance in the world. Regional service is operated by independent and subsidiary carriers under the brand name American Eagle.

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines, Inc., typically referred to as Delta, is one of the major airlines of the United States and a legacy carrier. One of the world's oldest airlines in operation, Delta is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline, along with its subsidiaries and regional affiliates, including Delta Connection, operates over 5,400 flights daily and serves 325 destinations in 52 countries on six continents. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance.

Qantas

Qantas

Qantas Airways Limited is the flag carrier of Australia and the country's largest airline by fleet size, international flights, and international destinations. It is the world's third-oldest airline still in operation, having been founded in November 1920; it began international passenger flights in May 1935. Qantas is an acronym of the airline's original name, Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services, as it originally served Queensland and the Northern Territory, and is popularly nicknamed "The Flying Kangaroo". Qantas is a founding member of the Oneworld airline alliance.

United Airlines

United Airlines

United Airlines, Inc., is a major American airline headquartered at the Willis Tower in Chicago, Illinois. United operates a large domestic and international route network spanning cities large and small across the United States and all six inhabited continents. Measured by fleet size and the number of routes, it is the third-largest airline in the world after its merger with Continental Airlines in 2010.

Film and music industry

Hollywood producers generally seek to comply with the Chinese government's censorship requirements in a bid to access the country's restricted and lucrative cinema market, with the second-largest box office in the world as of 2019.[71][72] Western productions also engage in self-censorship on topics and themes that may trigger censorship and backlash in Mainland China in order to access its lucrative domestic market, and to appease their financial investors.[73][74] A memo issued by China's Ministry of Radio, Film and Television, sent to Jack Valenti, president of the Motion Picture Association of America and addressed to Chinese film offices, banned cooperation with the Hollywood studios that produced Red Corner (MGM/United Artists), Kundun (Disney) and Seven Years In Tibet (Columbia TriStar), as films that "viciously attack China {and} hurt Chinese people's feelings... Although . . . all kinds of efforts have been made, those three American companies are still pushing out above films... In order to protect Chinese national overall interests, it has been decided that all business cooperation with these three companies to be ceased temporarily without exception."[75]

Testifying before the United States Senate Committee on Finance, Subcommittee on International Trade, Customs, and Global Competitiveness on "censorship as a non-tariff barrier" in 2020, Richard Gere, Chairman of the Board of Directors for the International Campaign for Tibet, stated that economic interest compel studios to avoid social and political issues Hollywood once addressed, "Imagine Marty Scorsese's Kundun, about the life of the Dalai Lama, or my own film Red Corner, which is highly critical of the Chinese legal system. Imagine them being made today. It wouldn't happen."[76][77][78]

Red Corner, a 1997 American film, was censored in the People's Republic of China due to its unflattering portrayal of China's judicial system. Lead actor Richard Gere was vocal about how the film is "... a different angle of dealing with Tibet" and a political statement about China's oppression of Tibet, even though Tibet is never mentioned in the film.[79] Chinese officials visited MGM, the film's studio and distributor, to ask why the studio was releasing the movie during the U.S. visit of Chinese president Jiang Zemin.[80] Gere claims his political activism regarding Tibet and his friendship with the Dalai Lama has disrupted his film career and effects the financing, production and distribution of films he is connected with.[81][82]

Chinese influence now causes studios to prioritize sympathetic portrayals of Chinese characters in movies, such as changing the villains in Red Dawn from Chinese to North Korean and making Chinese scientists the saviors of civilisation in the disaster film 2012.[72] Similarly, the 2019 DreamWorks animated film Abominable included the PRC's nine-dash line in a map of the South China Sea shown during the movie, which resulted in the film being banned in Vietnam, Malaysia and The Philippines as it disputes the PRC's claim.[83] In 2016, Marvel Entertainment attracted criticism for its decision to cast Tilda Swinton as the "Ancient One" in the film adaptation Doctor Strange, using a white woman to play a traditionally Tibetan character.[84][85] The film's co-writer, C. Robert Cargill, stated in an interview that this was done to avoid angering China:[86]

The Ancient One was a racist stereotype who comes from a region of the world that is in a very weird political place. He originates from Tibet, so if you acknowledge that Tibet is a place and that he's Tibetan, you risk alienating one billion people who think that that's bullshit and risk the Chinese government going, "Hey, you know one of the biggest film-watching countries in the world? We're not going to show your movie because you decided to get political."

Another instance of China censorship influence on Hollywood productions was when Mission: Impossible III deleted scenes shot in Shanghai, which featured "laundry drying on clotheslines from apartment buildings", that the Chinese censors requested be cut because they believed it presented a backward view of the country to the rest of the world.[87] According to interviews conducted by human rights group Pen America, LGBT content was removed from Bohemian Rhapsody, Star Trek: Beyond, Alien: Covenant and Cloud Atlas, to avoid antagonizing Chinese censors.[88] In 2021, Chinese social media coverage of director Chloé Zhao's Oscar win was censored, as old social media posts of Zhao were considered to be critical of China. The release of Zhao's Nomadland and Eternals, previously thought to be confirmed, were not approved for theatrical release in China.

Although Tibet was previously a cause célèbre in Hollywood, featuring in films including Kundun and Seven Years in Tibet, in the 21st century this is no longer the case.[89] Actor and high-profile Tibet supporter Richard Gere stated that he was no longer welcome to participate in mainstream Hollywood films after criticizing the PRC government in 1993, acting in a 1997 film critical of the PRC's legal system (Red Corner), and calling for a boycott of the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[89][90] Brad Pitt was banned from China between 1997 and 2014 after starring in the film Seven Years in Tibet.[91] Lady Gaga was banned in China a second time since she met with the Dalai Lama in 2016 at the 84th Annual US Conference of Mayors in Indianapolis where she joined with the Dalai Lama to talk about the power of kindness and how to make the world a more compassionate place.[92][93][94][95][96][97] An order was issued for state-controlled media to condemn this meeting by the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party. Gaga was added to a list of hostile foreign forces, and Chinese websites and media organizations were ordered to stop distributing her songs.[98] In China her appearance was cut from the Friends: The Reunion special in 2021, and her image was blacked out in reporting on the 2019 Oscars in China.[99][100][101] In March 2022, China’s major online streaming services such as iQiyi, Tencent Video and Youku removed most of Keanu Reeves' filmography after he made a virtual appearance at a benefit concert for Tibet House, a nonprofit linked to the Dalai Lama.[102][103][104]

During the promotional tour of Justin Lin's F9 in 2021, John Cena referred to Taiwan as "a country". He was subsequently forced to issue an apology on social media due to China's insistence that it considers Taiwan a part of China.[105]

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Film censorship in China

Film censorship in China

Film censorship in China involves the banning of films which are deemed unsuitable for release and it also involves the editing of such films and the removal of content which is objected to by the governments of China. In April 2018, films were reviewed by the China Film Administration (CFA) under the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) which dictates whether, when, and how a movie gets released. The CFA is separate from the NRTA under the State Council.

National Radio and Television Administration

National Radio and Television Administration

The National Radio and Television Administration (NRTA) is a ministry-level executive agency controlled by the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). Its main task is the administration and supervision of state-owned enterprises engaged in the television and radio industries.

Jack Valenti

Jack Valenti

Jack Joseph Valenti was an American political advisor and lobbyist who served as a Special Assistant to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. He was also the longtime president of the Motion Picture Association of America. During his 38-year tenure in the MPAA, he created the MPAA film rating system, and was generally regarded as one of the most influential pro-copyright lobbyists in the world.

Red Corner

Red Corner

Red Corner is a 1997 American mystery thriller film directed by Jon Avnet, and starring Richard Gere, Bai Ling and Bradley Whitford. Written by Robert King, the film is about an American businessman in China who ends up wrongfully on trial for murder. His only hope of exoneration and freedom is a female defense lawyer from the country. The film received the 1997 National Board of Review Freedom of Expression Award and the NBR Award for Breakthrough Female Performance. Ling also won the San Diego Film Critics Society Award for Best Actress.

Seven Years in Tibet (1997 film)

Seven Years in Tibet (1997 film)

Seven Years in Tibet is a 1997 American biographical war drama film directed by Jean-Jacques Annaud. It is based on Austrian mountaineer and Schutzstaffel (SS) sergeant Heinrich Harrer's 1952 memoir Seven Years in Tibet, about his experiences in Tibet between 1944 and 1951. Seven Years in Tibet stars Brad Pitt and David Thewlis, and has music composed by John Williams with a feature performance by cellist Yo-Yo Ma.

United States Senate Committee on Finance

United States Senate Committee on Finance

The United States Senate Committee on Finance is a standing committee of the United States Senate. The Committee concerns itself with matters relating to taxation and other revenue measures generally, and those relating to the insular possessions; bonded debt of the United States; customs, collection districts, and ports of entry and delivery; deposit of public moneys; general revenue sharing; health programs under the Social Security Act and health programs financed by a specific tax or trust fund; national social security; reciprocal trade agreements; tariff and import quotas, and related matters thereto; and the transportation of dutiable goods. It is considered to be one of the most powerful committees in Congress.

Censorship

Censorship

Censorship is the suppression of speech, public communication, or other information. This may be done on the basis that such material is considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or "inconvenient". Censorship can be conducted by governments, private institutions and other controlling bodies.

Richard Gere

Richard Gere

Richard Tiffany Gere is an American actor. He began in films in the 1970s, playing a supporting role in Looking for Mr. Goodbar (1977) and a starring role in Days of Heaven (1978). He came to prominence with his role in the film American Gigolo (1980), which established him as a leading man and a sex symbol. He has starred in many films, including An Officer and a Gentleman (1982), The Cotton Club (1984), Pretty Woman (1990), Sommersby (1993), Primal Fear (1996), Runaway Bride (1999), I'm Not There (2007), Arbitrage (2012) and Norman: The Moderate Rise and Tragic Fall of a New York Fixer (2016). For portraying Billy Flynn in the musical Chicago (2002), he won a Golden Globe Award and a Screen Actors Guild Award as part of the cast.

International Campaign for Tibet

International Campaign for Tibet

The International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) is a non-profit advocacy group working to promote democratic freedoms for Tibetans, ensure their human rights, and protect Tibetan culture and the environment. Founded in 1988, ICT is the world's largest Tibet-related NGO, with several thousand members and strong bases of support in North America and Europe. On March 15, 2018, the ICT completed 30 years of service to the Tibetan community and received a video message from the Dalai Lama. ICT also released its new logo. An event was also held in the United States Congress on March 6, 2018 to mark the event with Congressional leaders Nancy Pelosi, Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jim McGovern, ICT Chairman Richard Gere, Representative Ngodup Tsering and ICT Board Member Tempa Tsering making remarks.

14th Dalai Lama

14th Dalai Lama

The 14th Dalai Lama, known as Gyalwa Rinpoche to the Tibetan people, is the current Dalai Lama. He is the highest spiritual leader and former head of state of Tibet. He was born on 6 July 1935, or in the Tibetan calendar, in the Wood-Pig Year, 5th month, 5th day. He is considered a living Bodhisattva, specifically, an emanation of Avalokiteśvara in Sanskrit and Chenrezig in Tibetan. He is also the leader and a monk of the Gelug school, the newest school of Tibetan Buddhism, formally headed by the Ganden Tripa. The central government of Tibet, the Ganden Phodrang, invested the Dalai Lama with temporal duties until his exile in 1959.

Video games

Censorship affects global releases of Chinese games, or non-Chinese games that are available for Chinese players.[106] This affects content available to players outside China. For example, the chat in the international, English-language Chinese game Genshin Impact censors not only swear words but also words such as Taiwan, Tibet, Hong, Kong, Falun Gong, Stalin, Hitler and Putin.[107][108] A study of about 200 Chinese games found out that over 180,000 words have been subject to blacklisting.[109] Due to the sensitive nature of this topic, many companies, including many outside China like Riot Games, Electronic Arts, Activision Blizzard, Ubisoft, GOG and Krafton, tend to avoid commenting on this issue, preferring silence to the risk of offending either the Chinese authorities or their critics.[110]

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Genshin Impact

Genshin Impact

Genshin Impact is an action role-playing game developed and published by miHoYo. It was released for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 4, iOS, and Android in 2020, on PlayStation 5 in 2021, and is set for release on Nintendo Switch. The game features an anime-style open-world environment and an action-based battle system using elemental magic and character-switching. The game is free-to-play and is monetized through gacha game mechanics through which players can obtain new characters and weapons. The base game is expanded regularly through patches using the games as a service model.

Riot Games

Riot Games

Riot Games, Inc. is an American video game developer, publisher and esports tournament organizer based in Los Angeles, California. It was founded in September 2006 by Brandon Beck and Marc Merrill to develop League of Legends and went on to develop several spin-off games and the unrelated first-person shooter game Valorant. In 2011, Riot Games was acquired by Chinese conglomerate Tencent. Riot Games' publishing arm, Riot Forge, oversees the production of League of Legends spin-offs by other developers. The company worked with Fortiche to release Arcane, a television series based on the League of Legends universe.

Electronic Arts

Electronic Arts

Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California. Founded in May 1982 by Apple employee Trip Hawkins, the company was a pioneer of the early home computer game industry and promoted the designers and programmers responsible for its games as "software artists." EA published numerous games and some productivity software for personal computers, all of which were developed by external individuals or groups until 1987's Skate or Die!. The company shifted toward internal game studios, often through acquisitions, such as Distinctive Software becoming EA Canada in 1991.

Activision Blizzard

Activision Blizzard

Activision Blizzard, Inc. is an American video game holding company based in Santa Monica, California. It was founded in July 2008 through the merger of Activision, Inc. and Vivendi Games. It is traded on the Nasdaq stock exchange under the ticker symbol ATVI, and since 2015 has been a member of the S&P 500 Index. Activision Blizzard currently includes five business units: Activision Publishing, Blizzard Entertainment, King, Major League Gaming, and Activision Blizzard Studios.

Ubisoft

Ubisoft

Ubisoft Entertainment SA is a French video game publisher headquartered in Saint-Mandé with development studios across the world. Its video game franchises include Assassin's Creed, Far Cry, For Honor, Just Dance, Prince of Persia, Rabbids, Rayman, Tom Clancy's, and Watch Dogs.

GOG.com

GOG.com

GOG.com is a digital distribution platform for video games and films. It is operated by GOG sp. z o.o., a wholly owned subsidiary of CD Projekt based in Warsaw, Poland. GOG.com delivers DRM-free video games through its digital platform for Microsoft Windows, macOS and Linux.

Krafton

Krafton

Krafton Inc. is a South Korean video game holding company based in Bundang-gu, Seongnam. It was created in November 2018 to serve as the parent company for Bluehole, founded by Chang-Byung-gyu in Seoul in March 2007, and its subsidiaries. The company has produced or owns to rights to several notable video game titles including TERA, PUBG: Battlegrounds, New State Mobile, and Moonbreaker. According to Forbes, Chang has a net worth of $2.9 billion and is one of the seven gaming billionaires in South Korea.

International organizations

China strongly opposes the participation of Taiwan in international organisations as a violation of the One China Principle, and Taiwan may only participate in international bodies as "Chinese Taipei" or "Taiwan, China".[111][112][113]

Chinese Taipei was initially agreed under the Nagoya Resolution as the name to be used for the Taiwanese team at the Olympic Games from the 1980s. Under PRC pressure, Taiwan is referred to by other international organisations under different names, such as "Taiwan Province of China" by the International Monetary Fund and "Taiwan District" by the World Bank.[113] The PRC government has also pressured international beauty pageants including Miss World, Miss Universe and Miss Earth to only allow Taiwanese contestants competing under the designation "Miss Chinese Taipei" rather than "Miss Taiwan".[114][115]

In January 2020, as the coronavirus epidemic expanded beyond China's borders and international commentators criticized Taiwan's exclusion from various United Nations agencies, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) blocked numerous Twitter accounts – including ones belonging to Capitol Hill staffers and D.C.-based analysts – after facing online criticism for excluding Taiwan from membership. Both ICAO and their Twitter account were run by Chinese nationals.[116]

On 23 September 2020, Wikimedia's application for the status as an official observer at the World Intellectual Property Organization was rejected by Chinese government because China's representative claimed that they had "spotted a large amount of content and disinformation in violation of [the] One China principle" on webpages affiliated with Wikimedia, and Wikimedia's Taiwan branch has been "carrying out political activities... which could undermine the state's sovereignty and territorial integrity".[117]

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Chinese Taipei

Chinese Taipei

"Chinese Taipei" is the term used in various international organizations and tournaments for groups or delegations representing the Republic of China (ROC), a sovereign state commonly known as Taiwan.

Olympic Games

Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are the leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 teams, representing sovereign states and territories, participating. The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, and since 1994, have alternated between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years during the four-year period.

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a major financial agency of the United Nations, and an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 190 countries. Its stated mission is "working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1944, started on 27 December 1945, at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international monetary system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had XDR 477 billion. The IMF is regarded as the global lender of last resort.

World Bank

World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. The World Bank is the collective name for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA), two of five international organizations owned by the World Bank Group. It was established along with the International Monetary Fund at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference. After a slow start, its first loan was to France in 1947. In the 1970s, it focused on loans to developing world countries, shifting away from that mission in the 1980s. For the last 30 years, it has included NGOs and environmental groups in its loan portfolio. Its loan strategy is influenced by the Millennium Development Goals as well as environmental and social safeguards.

Miss World

Miss World

Miss World is the oldest existing international beauty pageant. It was created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951. Since his death in 2000, Morley's widow, Julia Morley, has co-chaired the pageant. Along with Miss Universe, Miss International, and Miss Earth, it is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants.

Miss Universe

Miss Universe

Miss Universe is an annual international beauty pageant that is run by the United States and Thailand–based Miss Universe Organization. It is one of the most watched pageants in the world with an estimated audience of over 500 million viewers in over 190 territories. Along with Miss World, Miss International, and Miss Earth, Miss Universe is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants.

Miss Earth

Miss Earth

Miss Earth is an annual international major beauty pageant based in the Philippines that advocates for environmental awareness, conservation and social responsibility. Along with Miss World, Miss Universe, and Miss International, it is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants.

World Intellectual Property Organization

World Intellectual Property Organization

The World Intellectual Property Organization is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN). Pursuant to the 1967 Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization, WIPO was created to promote and protect intellectual property (IP) across the world by cooperating with countries as well as international organizations. It began operations on 26 April 1970 when the convention entered into force. The current Director General is Singaporean Daren Tang, former head of the Intellectual Property Office of Singapore, who began his term on 1 October 2020.

Journalism

The PRC limits press freedom, with Xi Jinping telling state media outlets in 2016 that the Chinese Communist Party expects their "absolute loyalty".[118] In Hong Kong, inconvenient journalists face censorship by stealth through targeted violence, arrests, withdrawal of official advertising and/or dismissal.[119] Foreign journalists also face censorship given the ease with which their articles can be translated and shared across the country.[120]

Foreign journalists have reported rising official interference with their work, with a 2016 Foreign Correspondents’ Club of China survey finding 98% considered reporting conditions failed to meet international standards.[121] Interference includes withholding a visa to work in the country, harassment and violence by secret police and requiring press conference questions to be submitted for pre-screening.[121] Journalists also reported that local sources who speak to them face harassment, intimidation or detention by government officials, leading to a decreased willingness to cooperate with journalists.[121] Foreign journalists also face hacking of their email accounts by the PRC to discover their sources.[119]

The 2017 results indicated increasing violence and obstruction, with BBC reporter Matthew Goddard being punched by assailants who attempted to steal his equipment after he refused to show them footage taken.[122] In 2017, 73% of foreign journalists reported being restricted or prohibited from reporting in Xinjiang, up from 42% in 2016.[122] Journalists also reported more pressure from PRC diplomats on their headquarters to delete stories.[122]

Visas have been denied to a number of foreign journalists who wrote articles displeasing to the PRC government, such as the treatment of Uyghurs in Xinjiang. Expelled journalists include L'Obs reporter Ursula Gauthier, Al Jazeera journalist Melissa Chan in 2012, BuzzFeed China bureau chief Megha Rajagopalan in 2018, and Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian, who was denied a visa in 2019 after being hired by AFP.[123][124]

As a result of increasing intimidation and the threat of being denied a visa, foreign journalists operating in China have increasingly engaged in self-censorship.[120] Topics avoided by journalists include Xinjiang, Tibet and Falun Gong.[120] Despite this, controversial stories continue to be published on occasion, such as the hidden wealth of political elites including Wen Jiabao[125] and Xi Jinping.[126][120]

The PRC government has also increasingly sought to influence public opinion abroad by hiring foreign reporters for state media outlets and paying for officially sanctioned "China Watch" inserts to be included in overseas newspapers including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post and the Daily Telegraph.[127]

In April 2021 a diplomatic controversy arose between Sweden and China when Jojje Olsson, a Swedish journalist posted in Taiwan, published a series of threatening and abusive letters sent to him by the Chinese Embassy in Sweden.[128]

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L'Obs

L'Obs

L'Obs, previously known as Le Nouvel Observateur (1964–2014), is a weekly French news magazine. Based in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris, it is the most prominent French general information magazine in terms of audience and circulation. Its current editor is Cécile Prieur.

Ursula Gauthier

Ursula Gauthier

Ursula Gauthier is a French journalist and sinologist. Gauthier was a reporter in China for L'Obs. In December 2015, her visa was not renewed and she was forced to leave the country after she published an article about Uyghurs in Xinjiang which Chinese government officials disapproved of. A Chinese government Foreign Ministry spokesman suggested Gauthier's article "openly supports terrorist activity, the killing of innocents and has outraged the Chinese public."

Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera is a state-owned Arabic-language international radio and TV broadcaster of Qatar. It is based in Doha and operated by the media conglomerate Al Jazeera Media Network. The flagship of the network, its station identification, is Al Jazeera.

Melissa Chan

Melissa Chan

Melissa Chan is a Chinese American freelance journalist working in broadcast and print. Her works have appeared in The New York Times, The Atlantic, The Guardian, The Washington Post, VICE News, POLITICO, and Foreign Policy. She has reported for VICE News Tonight, Al Jazeera English, and presents DW News Asia on Deutsche Welle TV. She has appeared as a guest on CNN and the BBC.

BuzzFeed

BuzzFeed

BuzzFeed, Inc. is an American Internet media, news and entertainment company with a focus on digital media. Based in New York City, BuzzFeed was founded in 2006 by Jonah Peretti and John S. Johnson III to focus on tracking viral content. Kenneth Lerer, co-founder and chairman of The Huffington Post, started as a co-founder and investor in BuzzFeed and is now the executive chairman.

Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao is a retired Chinese politician who served as the sixth and former Premier of the People's Republic of China from 2003 to 2013. In his capacity as Premier, Wen was regarded as the leading figure behind Beijing's economic policy. From 2002 to 2012, he held membership in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, the country's de facto top power organ, where he was ranked third out of nine members and headed by Party general secretary Hu Jintao.

The New York Times

The New York Times

The New York Times is an American daily newspaper based in New York City with a worldwide readership reported in 2020 to be a declining 840,000 paid print subscribers, and a growing 6 million paid digital subscribers. It also is a producer of popular podcasts such as the Daily. Founded in 1851 by Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones, it was initially published by Raymond, Jones & Company. The Times has won 132 Pulitzer Prizes, the most of any newspaper, and has long been regarded as a national "newspaper of record". For print it is ranked 18th in the world by circulation and 3rd in the U.S.

The Washington Post

The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C. It is the most widely circulated newspaper within the Washington metropolitan area and has a large national audience. Daily broadsheet editions are printed for D.C., Maryland, and Virginia.

Diplomacy and foreign relations

Since Xi Jinping took control over foreign affairs for the People's Republic of China, the regime has adopted "a truculent posture"[129] in international relations, including what is said about China or its interests. The New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof has observed that "Xi doesn't want to censor information just in his own country; he also wants to censor our own discussions in the West."[130] A key example is how Beijing opposes any meeting by foreign politicians with the Dalai Lama, even in a personal capacity.[131] However, its response differs depending on the political leaders and nations involved.

Australia

By November 2019 the PRC refused travel visas to Australian politicians Andrew Hastie and James Paterson after they criticised the Chinese Communist Party, its interference in Australian politics and its poor human rights record.[132] The Chinese Embassy stated that the pair needed to "repent" before they would be allowed into the country, which Hastie and Paterson refused.[133]

Canada

In 2015 the PRC detained then deported a Chinese-Canadian politician Richard Lee on the basis he had "endangered national security" by speaking out against PRC interference in Canadian politics.[134]

Czech Republic

Zdeněk Hřib, the mayor of Prague, decided to maintain official relations with Taiwan – seen here with the Taiwan Minister, Joseph Wu on 1 April 2019
Zdeněk Hřib, the mayor of Prague, decided to maintain official relations with Taiwan – seen here with the Taiwan Minister, Joseph Wu on 1 April 2019

Soon after becoming mayor of Prague, Zdeněk Hřib hosted a meeting of foreign diplomats, and was asked by the Chinese ambassador to expel the Taiwanese representative. He refused to do so.[135] China pointed out that Prague had already agreed to a One-China policy when the previous mayor had entered an agreement to make Beijing Prague's twin city.[136][137] When Hřib asked to renegotiate the agreement, China cut off contact, refusing to reply to letters or emails, threatening to withhold funds for a Prague soccer club and unilaterally canceled the Prague Symphony Orchestra's China tour, moves which Hřib described as "bullying."[136][138] In January 2020, Hřib ended Prague's city-to-city agreement with Beijing, creating a new agreement with Taipei instead.[139] When Czech Senator Jaroslav Kubera announced plans to visit Taiwan, China announced that "Czech companies whose representatives visit Taiwan with chairman Kubera will not be welcome in China or with the Chinese people."[140] Shortly after receiving this threat, Kubera died of a heart attack.[136]

European Union

In 2021 China imposed sanctions on five members of the European Parliament and members of the EU human rights and security committee because of EU statements and action regarding the repression of the Uyghurs.[141]

Germany

In 2016, the Chinese Ambassador to Germany "put massive pressure" on the Chairman of the Bundestag's Human Rights Committee, Michael Brand, a member of the conservative CDU party, in connection to his work exposing human rights abuses in Tibet. He later said, "self-censorship is out of the question."[142]

In August 2019, a delegation of the German Bundestag due to visit China had all their visas blocked as one of its members, Margarete Bause, a Green, is a vocal supporter of the Muslim Uyghur minority. She believes that to be "an attempt at silencing parliamentarians who support human rights loudly and clearly."[143]

Japan

In June 2021 China lodged diplomatic and public protests after Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga referred to Taiwan as a country. According to spokesperson Wang Wenbin "China expresses strong dissatisfaction with Japan's erroneous remarks and has lodged a solemn protest against Japan."[144]

Lithuania

In March 2021 China blacklisted Lithuanian MP Dovilė Šakalienė  because of comments she made regarding human rights.[145]

New Zealand

Jenny Shipley was Prime Minister of New Zealand and, after leaving politics, served as a director of China Construction Bank global board for six years from 2007 to 2013, then as Chair of China Construction Bank New Zealand up until 31 March 2019. In a case of what may be compelled speech, rather than restricted speech, the former Prime Minister appeared to write an opinion piece, "We need to learn to listen to China"[146] in the Communist Party controlled newspaper, People's Daily. It contained strong endorsements of current Chinese foreign policy, such as "The belt and road initiative (BRI) proposed by China is one of the greatest ideas we’ve ever heard globally. It is a forward-looking idea, and in my opinion, it has the potential to create the next wave of economic growth."[147] Ms Shipley later denied ever writing the article."[148]

In May 2020 efforts were made to silence criticism of China by Winston Peters, the current serving Foreign Minister of New Zealand. Matthew Hooton, a columnist at The New Zealand Herald, said that Peters should be sacked if he insults China one more time.[149]

Sweden

On 15 November 2019 the Culture Minister of Sweden, Amanda Lind, went against the wishes of the Chinese Communist Party leadership and awarded Gui Minhai the PEN Tucholsky prize in absentia.[150] Mr Gui, a Chinese-born Swedish citizen[151] had published poetry critical of communist China and was said to be preparing a book about the love life of Xi Jinping[152] and had been arrested by Chinese security agents whilst being accompanied by Swedish diplomats on a train from Shanghai to Beijing.[153] Following the award, China's embassy in Stockholm released a statement saying that Minister Lind's attendance was "a serious mistake" and that "wrong deeds will only meet with bad consequences."[151] In the days afterwards China's Ambassador to Sweden, Gui Congyou, announced that "two large delegations of businessmen who were planning to travel to Sweden have cancelled their trip"[154] Ms Lind has already been threatened with a ban on entering China if she went ahead with the prize giving.[151] Later that month the Ambassador later gave an interview on Swedish public radio in which he said, "We treat our friends with fine wine, but for our enemies we have shotguns."[155]

Thai actor Vachirawit Chiva-aree was targeted on Twitter and Instagram after he liked a photo identifying Hong Kong as a country.
Thai actor Vachirawit Chiva-aree was targeted on Twitter and Instagram after he liked a photo identifying Hong Kong as a country.

Thailand

The Chinese Embassy in Bangkok made a statement on 14 April 2020 criticising Thai people who question the One-China Principle.[156][157] The statement came as a response to a Thai actor, Vachirawit "Bright" Chivaaree, who liked a Tweet featuring cityscapes, one being Hong Kong, with a caption describing them as countries.[158] His girlfriend was also found to have shared an Instagram post which suggested that Taiwan is not part of China. This began a "Thai-Chinese Meme War" of 2 million tweets, which, at an early point, forced an apology from the actor.[159] The CCP controlled Global Times claimed Bright's show, 2gether experienced a "backlash" in China, as had his follower count on Sina Weibo.[160] However, the incident had the effect of creating, according to Reuters, "The Milk Tea Alliance" which has become a grassroots democracy movement in Thailand, Taiwan and Hong Kong.[161][162]

United Kingdom

In 2019, the Chinese Ambassador to the United Kingdom warned that country's politicians against adopting a "colonial mindset" and observing limits in their comments on issues such as the Hong Kong protests and South China Sea dispute with China's neighbours.[163] China later suspended the Stock Connect link between the Shanghai and London stock exchanges, in part due to the United Kingdom's support for Hong Kong protesters.[164]

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Nicholas Kristof

Nicholas Kristof

Nicholas Donabet Kristof is an American journalist and political commentator. A winner of two Pulitzer Prizes, he is a regular CNN contributor and an op-ed columnist for The New York Times.

James Paterson (Australian politician)

James Paterson (Australian politician)

James William Paterson is an Australian politician who has been a Senator for Victoria since 2016, representing the Liberal Party. He was appointed to Peter Dutton's shadow ministry following the Coalition's defeat at the 2022 federal election.

Richard Lee (Canadian politician)

Richard Lee (Canadian politician)

Richard T. Lee is a Canadian politician. He was born in People's Republic of China in 1954. He was a BC Liberal Member of the Legislative Assembly, in the province of British Columbia, Canada. Lee served four consecutive terms for 16 years as MLA. He also served as the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly.

Jaroslav Kubera

Jaroslav Kubera

Jaroslav Kubera was a Czech politician for the Civic Democratic Party, who served in the Czech Senate representing Teplice from 2000 and the Senate President from 2018 until his death in 2020. He previously served as mayor of Teplice from 1994 to 2018.

European Parliament

European Parliament

The European Parliament (EP) is one of the legislative bodies of the European Union and one of its seven institutions. Together with the Council of the European Union, it adopts European legislation, following a proposal by the European Commission. The Parliament is composed of 705 members (MEPs). It represents the second-largest democratic electorate in the world, with an electorate of 375 million eligible voters in 2009.

Michael Brand (politician)

Michael Brand (politician)

Michael Brand is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).

Christian Democratic Union of Germany

Christian Democratic Union of Germany

The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian-democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany. It is the major catch-all party of the centre-right in German politics.

Margarete Bause

Margarete Bause

Margarete Bause is a German politician of Alliance 90/The Greens. She was a member of the Landtag of Bavaria from 1986 to 1990 and from 2003 to 2017 before serving as a member of the Bundestag from 2017 until 2021, where she was her parliamentary group's spokeswoman for human rights and humanitarian aid.

Jenny Shipley

Jenny Shipley

Dame Jennifer Mary Shipley is a New Zealand former politician who served as the 36th prime minister of New Zealand from 1997 to 1999. She was the first female prime minister of New Zealand, and the first woman to have led the National Party.

People's Daily

People's Daily

The People's Daily is the largest newspaper group in China. The paper is owned by the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). In addition to its main Chinese-language edition, the People's Daily has editions in multiple languages. The newspaper provides direct information on the policies and viewpoints of the CCP.

Amanda Lind

Amanda Lind

Amanda Sofia Margareta Lind is a politician for the Swedish Green Party. From 2019 to 2021, she was the Minister for Culture and Democracy, with responsibility for sport and national minorities in the cabinet of Prime Minister Stefan Löfven.

Gui Minhai

Gui Minhai

Gui Minhai, also known as Michael Gui, is a Chinese-born Swedish book publisher and writer. He is an author of many books related to Chinese politics and Chinese political figures; Gui authored around 200 books during his ten-year career under the pen-name Ah Hai (阿海) and is one of three shareholders of Causeway Bay Books in Hong Kong.

Publishing

Cambridge University Press drew criticism in 2017 for removing articles from its China Quarterly covering topics such as the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, Tibet, Xinjiang, Hong Kong and the Cultural Revolution to avoid having its Chinese operations shut down.[165][166] Attempts of censorship are documented for Brill and Taylor & Francis.[167] Springer Nature also acceded to Chinese demands to censor articles relating to Chinese politics, Taiwan, Tibet and human rights.[168][169] In August 2020, Springer Nature was reported to have rejected the publication of an article at the behest of its co-publisher, Wenzhou Medical University, from a Taiwanese doctor because the word "China" was not placed after "Taiwan."[170] Springer Nature has removed articles without even informing the authors and refused “to reverse the decision but continuing to justify it as being in the best interests of the global academic community and necessary for the advancement of research.” [167]

In 2017 the Australian publisher Allen & Unwin refused to publish Clive Hamilton's book Silent Invasion about growing Chinese Communist Party influence in Australia, fearing potential legal action from the Chinese government or its local proxies under the auspices of the United Front Work Department.[171][172]

Publishers using Chinese printers have also been subject to local censorship, even for books not intended for sale in China.[173] Books with maps face particular scrutiny, with one Victoria University Press book Fifteen Million Years in Antarctica required to remove the English term "Mount Everest" in favour of the Chinese equivalent "Mount Qomolangma".[173] This has led publishers to consider printers in alternative countries, such as Vietnam.[173]

Whistleblower Edward Snowden criticised Chinese censors for removing passages in the translated version of his book Permanent Record, in which passages about authoritarianism, democracy, freedom of speech and privacy were removed.[174]

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press in the world. It is also the King's Printer.

Springer Nature

Springer Nature

Springer Nature or the Springer Nature Group is a German-British academic publishing company created by the May 2015 merger of Springer Science+Business Media and Holtzbrinck Publishing Group's Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, and Macmillan Education.

Wenzhou Medical University

Wenzhou Medical University

Wenzhou Medical University, designated as a key university in Wenzhou, Zhejiang, is an institution of higher learning under the leadership of Zhejiang Provincial Government.

Allen & Unwin

Allen & Unwin

George Allen & Unwin was a British publishing company formed in 1911 when Sir Stanley Unwin purchased a controlling interest in George Allen & Co. It went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century and to establish an Australian subsidiary in 1976. In 1990, Allen & Unwin was sold to HarperCollins and the Australian branch was the subject of a management buy-out.

Clive Hamilton

Clive Hamilton

Clive Charles Hamilton AM FRSA is an Australian public intellectual and Professor of Public Ethics at the Centre for Applied Philosophy and Public Ethics (CAPPE) and the Vice-Chancellor's Chair in Public Ethics at Charles Sturt University. He is a member of the Board of the Climate Change Authority of the Australian Government, and is the Founder and former Executive Director of The Australia Institute. He regularly appears in the Australian media and contributes to public policy debates. Hamilton was granted the award of Member of the Order of Australia on 8 June 2009 for "service to public debate and policy development, particularly in the fields of climate change, sustainability and societal trends".

Silent Invasion (book)

Silent Invasion (book)

Silent Invasion: China's Influence in Australia is a 2018 book by Clive Hamilton and is about the growing influence of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in Australian politics and civil society. The book details the systematic attempt by the government of the People's Republic of China to expand its espionage network and influence in Australia. The author alleges that this is causing "the erosion of Australian sovereignty".

United Front Work Department

United Front Work Department

The United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party is a department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) which is officially tasked with "united front work". For this endeavor, it gathers intelligence on, manages relations with, and attempts to influence elite individuals and organizations inside and outside China, including in Hong Kong and Taiwan. The UFWD focuses its work on people or entities that are outside the CCP, especially in overseas Chinese communities, who hold political, commercial, or academic influence, or who represent interest groups. Through its efforts, the UFWD seeks to ensure that these individuals and groups are supportive of or useful to CCP interests and that potential critics remain divided.

Mount Everest

Mount Everest

Mount Everest is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The China–Nepal border runs across its summit point. Its elevation of 8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) was most recently established in 2020 by the Chinese and Nepali authorities.

Edward Snowden

Edward Snowden

Edward Joseph Snowden is an American and naturalized Russian former computer intelligence consultant who leaked highly classified information from the National Security Agency (NSA) in 2013, when he was an employee and subcontractor. His disclosures revealed numerous global surveillance programs, many run by the NSA and the Five Eyes Intelligence Alliance with the cooperation of telecommunication companies and European governments and prompted a cultural discussion about national security and individual privacy.

Permanent Record (autobiography)

Permanent Record (autobiography)

Permanent Record is a 2019 autobiography by Edward Snowden, whose revelations sparked a global debate about surveillance. It was published on September 17, 2019, by Metropolitan Books, an imprint of Henry Holt and Company. The book describes Snowden's childhood as well as his tenure at the Central Intelligence Agency and National Security Agency and his motivations for the leaking of highly classified information in 2013 that revealed global surveillance programs. Snowden also discusses his views on authoritarianism, democracy and privacy. The writer Joshua Cohen is credited by Snowden for "helping to transform my rambling reminiscences and capsule manifestoes into a book."

Technology companies

Several American technology companies cooperate with Chinese government policies, including internet censorship, such as helping authorities build the Great Firewall of China to restrict access to sensitive information.[175] Yahoo! drew controversy after supplying the personal data of its user Shi Tao to the PRC government, resulting in Tao's 10-year imprisonment for "leaking state secrets abroad".[176] In 2006 Microsoft, Google, Yahoo! and Cisco appeared before a congressional inquiry into their Chinese operations where their cooperation with censorship and privacy breaches of individuals faced criticism.[177] U.S. video conferencing company Zoom, which bases most of its research and development team in China, closed the account of a U.S.-based user who held a Zoom vigil commemorating the Tiananmen Square massacre.[178][179]

The Chinese government is increasingly pressuring overseas individuals and companies to cooperate with its censorship model, including in relation to overseas communications made by foreign people for non-Chinese audiences.[180]

WeChat, the China-based social media platform owned by Tencent has been described by the BBC as a "powerful weapon of social control".[181][182] WeChat is known to have censoring messages concerning the coronavirus.[183] A report by Citizen Lab found that Tencent also uses the platform for the surveillance of foreign nationals.[181]

In December 2020 WeChat blocked a post by Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison during a diplomatic spat between Australia and China. In his WeChat post Morrison had criticized a doctored image posted by a Chinese diplomat and praised the Chinese-Australian community. The company claimed to have blocked the post because it "violated regulations, including distorting historical events and confusing the public."[184]

On 4 June 2021, the 32nd anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, searches for the Tank Man image and videos were censored by Microsoft’s Bing search engine worldwide. Hours after Microsoft acknowledged the issue, the search returned only pictures of tanks elsewhere in the world. Search engines that license results from Microsoft such as DuckDuckGo and Yahoo faced similar issues. Microsoft said the issue was "due to an accidental human error."[185][186][187] The director of Human Rights Watch, Kenneth Roth, said he found the idea it was an inadvertent error "hard to believe". David Greene, Civil Liberties Director at Electronic Frontier Foundation, said that content moderation was impossible to do perfectly and "egregious mistakes are made all the time", but he further elaborated that "At worst, this was purposeful suppression at the request of a powerful state."[188][189]

Apple has allowed political censorship for the Chinese market to spill into other markets.[190]

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Internet censorship in China

Internet censorship in China

Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China (PRC) affects both publishing and viewing online material. Many controversial events are censored from news coverage, preventing many Chinese citizens from knowing about the actions of their government, and severely restricting freedom of the press. Such measures, including the complete blockage of various websites, inspired the policy's nickname, the "Great Firewall of China", which blocks websites. Methods used to block websites and pages include DNS spoofing, blocking access to IP addresses, analyzing and filtering URLs, packet inspection, and resetting connections.

Yahoo!

Yahoo!

Yahoo! is an American web services provider. It is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and operated by the namesake company Yahoo Inc., which is 90% owned by investment funds managed by Apollo Global Management and 10% by Verizon Communications.

Shi Tao (journalist)

Shi Tao (journalist)

Shi Tao is a Chinese journalist, writer and poet, who in 2005 was sentenced to 10 years in prison for releasing a document of the Communist Party to an overseas Chinese democracy site. Yahoo! China was later discovered to have facilitated his arrest by providing his personal details to the Chinese government. Yahoo! was subsequently rebuked by a panel of the U.S. Congress, settled a lawsuit by Shi's family out of court, and pledged to reform its practices.

WeChat

WeChat

WeChat is a Chinese instant messaging, social media, and mobile payment app developed by Tencent. First released in 2011, it became the world's largest standalone mobile app in 2018, with over 1 billion monthly active users. WeChat has been described as China's "app for everything" and a super-app because of its wide range of functions. WeChat provides text messaging, hold-to-talk voice messaging, broadcast (one-to-many) messaging, video conferencing, video games, sharing of photographs and videos and location sharing.

Tencent

Tencent

Tencent Holdings Ltd. is a Chinese multinational technology and entertainment conglomerate and holding company headquartered in Shenzhen. It is one of the highest grossing multimedia companies in the world based on revenue. It is also the world’s largest company in the video game industry based on its investments, with Tencent Games being the subdivision of Tencent Interactive Entertainment Group (IEG) focused on publishing of games.

Citizen Lab

Citizen Lab

The Citizen Lab is an interdisciplinary laboratory based at the Munk School of Global Affairs at the University of Toronto, Canada. It was founded by Ronald Deibert in 2001. The laboratory studies information controls that impact the openness and security of the Internet and that pose threats to human rights. The organization uses a "mixed methods" approach which combines computer-generated interrogation, data mining, and analysis with intensive field research, qualitative social science, and legal and policy analysis methods.

Scott Morrison

Scott Morrison

Scott John Morrison is an Australian politician. He served as the 30th prime minister of Australia and as Leader of the Liberal Party of Australia from 2018 to 2022, and is currently the member of parliament (MP) for the New South Wales seat of Cook, a position he has held since 2007.

32nd anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre

32nd anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre

The 32nd anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests featured events in China and elsewhere on and leading up to 4 June 2021 – to commemorate the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre, in which the government of China ordered the army to fire on protestors, killing hundreds if not thousands of people.

Tank Man

Tank Man

Tank Man is the nickname of an unidentified Chinese man who stood in front of a column of Type 59 tanks leaving Tiananmen Square in Beijing on June 5, 1989, the day after the Chinese government's violent crackdown on the Tiananmen protests. As the lead tank maneuvered to pass by the man, he repeatedly shifted his position in order to obstruct the tank's attempted path around him. The incident was filmed and shared to a worldwide audience. Internationally, it is considered one of the most iconic images of all time. Inside China, the image and the accompanying events are subject to censorship.

Microsoft

Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology corporation producing computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at the Microsoft Redmond campus located in Redmond, Washington, United States. Its best-known software products are the Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. Microsoft ranked No. 21 in the 2020 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue; it was the world's largest software maker by revenue as of 2019. It is one of the Big Five American information technology companies, alongside Alphabet, Amazon, Apple, and Meta.

Microsoft Bing

Microsoft Bing

Microsoft Bing is a web search engine owned and operated by Microsoft. The service has its origins in Microsoft's previous search engines: MSN Search, Windows Live Search and later Live Search. Bing provides a variety of search services, including web, video, image and map search products. It is developed using ASP.NET.

DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo

DuckDuckGo (DDG) is an internet search engine that emphasizes protecting searchers' privacy and avoiding the filter bubble of personalized search results. DuckDuckGo does not show search results from content farms. It uses various APIs of other websites to show quick results to queries and for traditional links it uses the help of its partners and its own crawler. Because of its anonymity, it is impossible to know how many people use DuckDuckGo.

Sports

In 2019 ESPN's Chuck Salituro, the channel's senior news director, sent an internal memo to staff banning any discussion of political issues concerning China or Hong Kong when covering the controversy of Daryl Morey's tweet in support of Hong Kong protesters.[191]

At the 2021 24 Hours of Le Mans car race a Taiwanese team was asked by event organizers to switch the Taiwanese national flag for the Chinese Taipei flag.[192]

Notable instances

The table below includes notable instances outside China where a government, company or other entity has either censored, or been censored on, a China-related issue.

Entity Date Details
Microsoft 4 January 2006 The company removed the blog of Chinese journalist Zhao Jing from its MSN Spaces website, which was hosted on servers based in the United States.[193]
Nasdaq February 2007 In 2007 Nasdaq's Chinese representative Laurence Pan was detained and interrogated by Chinese state security about access to its exchange by New Tang Dynasty Television, a Falun Gong-linked media organisation. That organisation was subsequently denied access by Nasdaq.[194]
Eutelsat 2008 The media company cut New Tang Dynasty Television's signal to "show a good gesture to the Chinese government".[194]
Government of Vietnam 11 November 2011 The country imprisoned two Falun Gong activists who transmitted radio messages into China for "illegal transmission of information on a telecommunications network".[195]
Bing 12 February 2014 The search engine censored simplified Chinese language results for users in the United States for search terms including "Dalai Lama", "June 4 incident", Falun Gong and anti-censorship tool Freegate.[196]
LinkedIn 4 June 2014 The company blocked users outside China from viewing content posted by Chinese users that is restricted by the Chinese government.[197]
Chou Tzu-yu 16 January 2016 The Taiwan-born K-pop singer issued an apology for being pictured with the Taiwanese flag, following sustained online attacks on her and her band Twice by Chinese internet users.[198]
Microsoft 22 November 2016 The company programmed its Chinese language artificial intelligence-based chatbot Xiaobing to avoid discussing sensitive topics such as Tiananmen Square.[199]
Apple Inc. 7 January 2017 The company removed the New York Times app from its Chinese app store following Chinese government advice that it violated local regulations.[200] This led to the company being accused by online advocates of "globalising Chinese censorship".[201]
Allen & Unwin 12 November 2017 The Australian publisher refused to publish Clive Hamilton's book Silent Invasion about growing Chinese Communist Party influence in Australia on the basis that it feared legal action from the Chinese government or its proxies.[171]
Marriott International 12 January 2018 The hotel chain issued an apology and was ordered by the Cyberspace Administration of China to shut its Chinese website and booking application for one week after an employee managing its social media "liked" a tweet thanking the company for listing Tibet as a country on a customer questionnaire alongside Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau.[202] After the Shanghai Municipal Tourism Administration ordered the company to "seriously deal with the people responsible", it dismissed the employee.[203][204]
Mercedes Benz 7 February 2018 The German car maker issued an apology on Weibo for "hurting the feelings" of the people of China after quoting the Dalai Lama on Instagram, a service banned in China.[205] The company also sent a formal letter to the Chinese Ambassador in Germany, stating that it had "no intention of questioning or challenging in any manner China's sovereignty or territorial integrity."
Gap Inc. 15 May 2018 The company apologised after photographs circulated of a t-shirt sold in Canada that featured a map of China omitting Taiwan, Tibet and China's South China Sea territorial claim.[206][207]
Red Candle Games 26 February 2019 Red Candle Games pulled Devotion from Steam after it was review bombed due to an unflattering reference to Xi Jinping.[208][209][210]
TikTok 25 September 2019 The Guardian revealed the TikTok app's moderation guidelines prohibiting content mentioning Tiananmen Square, Tibetan independence and Falun Gong.[211] Content criticising the Chinese government's persecution of ethnic minorities or mentioning the 2019–2020 Hong Kong protests are also removed.[12] ByteDance, the app's Beijing-based owner responded to the media reports by stating that the leaked moderation guidelines were "outdated" and that it had introduced localised guidelines for different countries.[211] Searches relating to Hong Kong on the app found no content referencing the ongoing protests.[212] Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg also criticised the platform for its censorship of Hong Kong protest content, asking "is this the internet we want?"[213]
Apple Inc. 2 October 2019 The company banned the HKmap.live app from its App Store, which allowed for crowd-sourced information about the location of protesters and police in Hong Kong.[214] It did so on the basis that the app "allowed users to evade law enforcement".[215] The same month Apple banned the Quartz app due to its coverage of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests.[216]
Sheraton 3 October 2019 The chain's Stockholm hotel cancelled a celebration of Taiwan's Double Ten national holiday after pressure from the Chinese Ambassador; it was moved to a local museum.[217][218]
Tiffany & Co. 7 October 2019 The jewellery company deleted a photo on one of its social media accounts of a woman covering one eye, which a number of Chinese internet users considered to evoke the image of a Hong Kong protester who had been shot in one eye.[18]
Activision Blizzard 8 October 2019 In the Blitzchung controversy, the company withdrew the prize from the winner of an online game tournament after he wore a mask and spoke in support of the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests in a post-game interview, stating "Liberate Hong Kong, the revolution of our times".[219] The company is partly owned by Tencent.[18] In August 2020, Activision Blizzard removed imagery of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests from its trailer of Call of Duty: Black Ops Cold War.[220]
Wells Fargo Center, Philadelphia 9 October 2019 Center staff removed fans shouting "Free Hong Kong" at a pre-season game between the Philadelphia 76ers and Guangzhou Loong Lions.[221]
National Basketball Association 10 October 2019 CNN journalist Christina Macfarlane was shut down and had her microphone removed at an NBA press conference after asking players James Harden and Russell Westbrook if they would feel differently about speaking out in future following the NBA's censorship of comments that are critical of China.[222]
Christian Dior 17 October 2019 Christian Dior issued a public apology on its Weibo account for displaying a map during a university presentation that did not include Taiwan.[223]
Maserati 25 October 2019 Maserati asked a local car dealership to cut all ties with Taiwan's Golden Horse Film Festival and Awards and stated that it "firmly upholds the one-China principle."[224]
Shutterstock 6 November 2019 In November 2019, The Intercept reported that Shutterstock censors certain search results for users in mainland China.[225][226] The six banned terms were "President Xi", "Chairman Mao", "Taiwan flag", "dictator", "yellow umbrella" and "Chinese flag" and variations.[227] After 180 employees (one-fifth of the workforce) signed a petition opposing the censorship, company executive Stan Pavlovsky told staff that anyone opposed to its self-censorship was free to resign.[227]
WeChat 25 November 2019 Reports emerged that China-based WeChat was censoring users in the United States communicating about Hong Kong politics.[228]
DC Comics 27 November 2019 DC Comics removed a promotional Batman poster after it triggered criticism from mainland China netizens that its imagery, featuring Batwoman throwing a molotov cocktail beside the words "The future is young", was sympathetic to Hong Kong protesters.[229][230]
TikTok 28 November 2019 The platform apologised after blocking American user Feroza Aziz following a video which she made drawing attention to the mistreatment of Muslims in the Xinjiang internment camps, which she disguised as a make-up tutorial to evade censorship.[231]
Condé Nast 6 December 2019 GQ magazine removed Xi Jinping from its "Worst Dressed" list on its website along with the caption: "It is not Hong Kong's courageous freedom fighters that Xi Jinping should have a problem with. It's his tailor. Xi gets totalitarian style cues from his hero, the mass murderer chairman Mao, who enforced a dour and plain dress code for the Communist Party."[232]
Arsenal F.C. 15 December 2019 Arsenal footballer Mesut Özil posted a poem on his social media account denouncing China's treatment of Uyghurs in Xinjiang internment camps and the silence of Muslim countries on the issue.[233][234][235] Arsenal later released a statement distancing itself from the comments.[236] China's state broadcaster China Central Television responded two days later by removing the match between Arsenal and Manchester City from its schedule.[237][238]
World Health Organization 28 March 2020 Senior advisor Bruce Aylward faced criticism for saying he could not hear a question from RTHK journalist Yvonne Tong about whether Taiwan could join the WHO, asking her to move onto the next question then terminating the interview when she repeated it.[239] The World Health Organization has also faced criticism for downplaying Taiwan's success in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.[239]
European Union 24 April 2020 The organisation agreed to censor references to the Chinese origins of the COVID-19 pandemic,[240] with research suggesting that self-censorship on sensitive topics that may offend the PRC is commonplace.[241]
YouTube 26 May 2020 Reports emerged that since October 2019, comments posted with the Chinese characters 共匪 (gòngfěi or "communist bandit", an insult dating back to China's Nationalist government) or 五毛 (wǔmáo or "50 Cent Party", referring to State-sponsored commentators) were being automatically deleted within 15 seconds.[242]
FK Radnički Niš 10 June 2020 The Serbian SuperLiga football club fired goal scorer Hao Runze amidst pressure from the Chinese government, after his father Hao Haidong criticised the Chinese Communist Party and called for a federal China.[243]
Zoom 12 June 2020 The videoconferencing provider confirmed that it had suspended the accounts of users based in the United States and Hong Kong who booked meeting to discuss the Tiananmen Square Massacre and Hong Kong protests following PRC Government complaints, and that it would seek to limit such actions to people based in the mainland in future.[179][244]
ANZ Bank 17 July 2020 The bank distanced itself from its Singapore-based global head of credit Bogac Ozdemir, after he wrote a LinkedIn post blaming China for the COVID-19 pandemic.[245] The bank issued a statement claiming that Ozdemir's post showed "a distinct lack of judgment", which resulted in him launching a defamation lawsuit.[246]
Charles Darwin University 29 July 2020 After a sustainability course run by engineering professor Charlie Fairfield featured an role play about the "Chinese (Wuhan) COVID-19 virus outbreak", Chinese students complained that the virus had been found in Europe before Wuhan and accused him of "racism and hatred".[247] The university apologised for any offence caused and stated that changes had been made to ensure it would not recur.[247]
University of New South Wales 5 August 2020 The university deleted social media posts about an academic's call for international pressure against the Chinese Communist Party for limiting human rights in Hong Kong, following a backlash from Chinese students.[248] The university issued an English-language apology, stating the deletion was a mistake and emphasising the importance of free speech and academic freedom.[247] The university issued a separate Chinese-language statement omitting its references to freedom of expression and academic freedom and which appeared to convey the opposite message, stating that the university did not take any political stances and was "disturbed" by any trouble caused.[249]
CD Projekt 16 December 2020 CD Projekt announced that it would not release Taiwanese-developed game Devotion on its GOG.com platform due to an unflattering reference to Xi Jinping.[250]
NASA 31 March 2021 The American space agency faced criticism in China for listing "Taiwan" as a country in a drop-down menu on a website about Mars.[251]
H&M, Nike, Burberry March–April 2021 After the clothing brands announced they would stop sourcing cotton from Xinjiang due to concerns about Uyghur forced labour, they faced a Chinese boycott social media campaign, withdrawal of local brand ambassadors, revocation of store leases and removal from online portals in China.[252] This prompted other companies such as Inditex, the owner of Zara to remove anti-slavery statements from their websites.[252] H&M announced it was "dedicated to regaining trust" in China,[253] and changed an online "problematic map of China" following a demand from the Shanghai City Government.[254]
Microsoft 4 June 2021 On the 32nd anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre, searches for the Tank Man image and videos were censored by Microsoft's Bing search engine worldwide.[185]
Kodak July 2021 Kodak removed a post from its Instagram feed that showed a photo from Xinjiang and made references to the Chinese government's genocide against the Uyghurs. It was removed after Chinese social media users criticized Kodak.[255]
Apple Inc. August 2022 Apple warned its suppliers not to use "made in Taiwan" labeling.[256]
Mars, Incorporated August 2022 Mars apologized for referring to Taiwan as a country in promotional material and promised to adjust its language with respect to Taiwan.[257]

Discover more about Notable instances related topics

Microsoft

Microsoft

Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational technology corporation producing computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at the Microsoft Redmond campus located in Redmond, Washington, United States. Its best-known software products are the Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers. Its flagship hardware products are the Xbox video game consoles and the Microsoft Surface lineup of touchscreen personal computers. Microsoft ranked No. 21 in the 2020 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue; it was the world's largest software maker by revenue as of 2019. It is one of the Big Five American information technology companies, alongside Alphabet, Amazon, Apple, and Meta.

Nasdaq

Nasdaq

The Nasdaq Stock Market is an American stock exchange based in New York City. It is ranked second on the list of stock exchanges by market capitalization of shares traded, behind the New York Stock Exchange. The exchange platform is owned by Nasdaq, Inc., which also owns the Nasdaq Nordic stock market network and several U.S.-based stock and options exchanges.

New Tang Dynasty Television

New Tang Dynasty Television

New Tang Dynasty Television is a multilingual American television broadcaster, founded by adherents of the Falun Gong new religious movement and based in New York City. The station was founded in 2001 as a Chinese-language broadcaster, but has since expanded its language offerings; in July 2020, it launched its 24/7 English channel which now broadcasts nationwide in the U.S. and UK. It is under the Epoch Media Group, a consortium which also includes the newspaper The Epoch Times.

Eutelsat

Eutelsat

Eutelsat S.A. is a French satellite operator. Providing coverage over the entire European continent, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas, it is the world's third-largest satellite operator in terms of revenues.

Government of Vietnam

Government of Vietnam

The Government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, also known as the Vietnamese Government or the Government of Vietnam, is the executive branch and body of the State administration of Vietnam. The members of the Government are appointed by the President of Vietnam on the advice of the Prime Minister of Vietnam, and approved by the National Assembly. The government is led by the Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV), which is headed by the CPV General Secretary.

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama

Dalai Lama is a title given by the Tibetan people to the foremost spiritual leader of the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, the newest and most dominant of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. The Dalai Lama is also considered to be the successor in a line of tulkus who are believed to be incarnations of Avalokiteśvara, the Bodhisattva of Compassion.

Freegate

Freegate

Freegate is a software application developed by Dynamic Internet Technology (DIT) that enables internet users from mainland China, South Korea, North Korea, Syria, Vietnam, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, and the United Kingdom among others, to view websites blocked by their governments. The program takes advantage of a range of proxy servers called Dynaweb. This allows users to bypass Internet firewalls that block web sites by using DIT's Peer-to-peer (P2P)-like proxy network system. FreeGate's anti-censorship capability is further enhanced by a new, unique encryption and compression algorithm in the versions of 6.33 and above. Dynamic Internet Technology estimates Freegate had 200,000 users in 2004. The maintainer and CEO of DIT is Bill Xia.

LinkedIn

LinkedIn

LinkedIn is an American business and employment-oriented online service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Launched on May 5, 2003, the platform is primarily used for professional networking and career development, and allows job seekers to post their CVs and employers to post jobs. From 2015 most of the company's revenue came from selling access to information about its members to recruiters and sales professionals. Since December 2016, it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Microsoft. As of February 2022, LinkedIn has 830+ million registered members from over 200 countries and territories.

K-pop

K-pop

K-pop, short for Korean popular music, is a form of popular music originating in South Korea as part of South Korean culture. It includes styles and genres from around the world, such as pop, hip hop, R&B, experimental, rock, jazz, gospel, reggae, electronic dance, folk, country, disco, and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots. The term "K-pop" became popular in the 2000s, especially in the international context. The Korean term for domestic pop music is gayo, which is still widely used within South Korea. While "K-pop" can refer to all popular music or pop music from South Korea, it is colloquially often used in a narrower sense for any Korean music and artists associated with the entertainment and idol industry in the country, regardless of the genre.

Flag of the Republic of China

Flag of the Republic of China

The flag of the Republic of China, also known as the Blue Sky, White Sun, and a Wholly Red Earth (青天白日滿地紅) and retroactively the Nationalist Flag of China, now more commonly known as the Flag of Taiwan, consists of a red field with a blue canton bearing a white disk surrounded by twelve triangles; said symbols symbolize the sun and rays of light emanating from it, respectively.

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is intelligence—perceiving, synthesizing, and infering information—demonstrated by machines, as opposed to intelligence displayed by animals and humans. Example tasks in which this is done include speech recognition, computer vision, translation between (natural) languages, as well as other mappings of inputs. The Oxford English Dictionary of Oxford University Press defines artificial intelligence as: the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

Chatbot

Chatbot

A chatbot or chatterbot is a software application used to conduct an on-line chat conversation via text or text-to-speech, in lieu of providing direct contact with a live human agent. Designed to convincingly simulate the way a human would behave as a conversational partner, chatbot systems typically require continuous tuning and testing, and many in production remain unable to adequately converse, while none of them can pass the standard Turing test. The term "ChatterBot" was originally coined by Michael Mauldin in 1994 to describe these conversational programs.

Opposition and resistance

The Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China was established by overseas politicians in 2020 following PRC retaliation against criticism by individual politicians.
The Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China was established by overseas politicians in 2020 following PRC retaliation against criticism by individual politicians.

In 2010 Google opposed China's censorship policies, ultimately leaving the country.[258] By 2017 the company had dropped its opposition, including planning a Chinese Communist Party-approved censored search engine named Project Dragonfly.[259] Work on the project was terminated in 2019.[260]

In 2019 Comedy Central's animated sitcom South Park released the episode "Band in China", which satirised the self-censorship of Hollywood producers to suit Chinese censors and featured one character yelling "Fuck the Chinese government!".[261][262] This was followed by a mock apology from the show's creators Trey Parker and Matt Stone, which also made light of a recent controversy involving the NBA's alleged appeasement of Chinese government censorship:[261]

Like the NBA, we welcome the Chinese censors into our homes and into our hearts. We too love money more than freedom and democracy. Tune into our 300th episode this Wednesday at 10! Long live the great Communist Party of China. May the autumn's sorghum harvest be bountiful. We good now China?

The show was banned in mainland China following the incident.[261] Protesters in Hong Kong screened the episode on the city's streets.[263] The musician Zedd was banned from China after liking a tweet from South Park.[264]

Politics

On 4 June 2020, politicians from eight democratic countries formed the Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China, an international cross-party alliance focused on concerns with the PRC and the Chinese Communist Party, including its attempts to censor or punish those making adverse comments.[265] It is chaired by Iain Duncan Smith, former leader of the British Conservative Party.[266]

Milk Tea Alliance

The Milk Tea Alliance describes an online democratic solidarity movement of netizens from Thailand, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.[267][268] The Milk Tea Alliance arose in response to the increased presence of Chinese 50 Cent Party, Internet Water Army, and Little Pink trolls and nationalist commentators on social media.[160][269] Milk tea is used as a symbol of anti-PRC solidarity by south-east Asians as tea is historically consumed with milk in their region, while in mainland China it is not.[270]

The "Milk Tea Alliance" moniker emerged in 2020 after Chinese nationalist Internet commentators criticised the Thai actor Bright for "liking" an image on Twitter which referred to Hong Kong as a "country", and called for a boycott of his TV programme. Twitter users in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the Philippines joined Thai users in what The Telegraph called "a rare moment of regional solidarity".[271] Australia has also been suggested as a member of the Milk Tea Alliance, although its link to milk tea is tenuous so the baby formula product Aptamil is used instead to represent it.[272] Following the 2020 China–India skirmishes India has also been included in some formulations of the Alliance with masala chai being their representative variety of milk tea.[270]

Pallabi Munsi, writing in OZY, described the Milk Tea Alliance as "Asia's volunteer army rising against China's internet trolls."[273]

Discover more about Opposition and resistance related topics

Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China

Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China

The Inter-Parliamentary Alliance on China (IPAC) is an international, cross-party alliance of parliamentarians from democratic countries focused on relations with the People's Republic of China (PRC), and specifically, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It was established on June 4, 2020, on the anniversary of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests and massacre. The alliance comprises over 100 MPs from the world's democratic legislatures, Ireland becoming the 20th national to join the alliance in February 2021. Each legislature represented takes turns to chair the alliance on a rotating basis. Its purpose is to create a coordinated response to China on global trade, security and human rights.

Dragonfly (search engine)

Dragonfly (search engine)

The Dragonfly project was an Internet search engine prototype created by Google that was designed to be compatible with China's state censorship provisions. The public learned of Dragonfly's existence in August 2018, when The Intercept leaked an internal memo written by a Google employee about the project. In December 2018, Dragonfly was reported to have "effectively been shut down" after a clash with members of the privacy team within Google. However, according to employees, work on Dragonfly was still continuing as of March 2019, with some 100 people still allocated to it.

Comedy Central

Comedy Central

Comedy Central is an American basic cable channel owned by Paramount Global through its network division's MTV Entertainment Group unit, based in Manhattan. The channel is geared towards young adults aged 18–34 and carries comedy programming in the form of both original, licensed, and syndicated series, stand-up comedy specials, and feature films. It is available to approximately 86.723 million households in the United States as of September 2018.

South Park

South Park

South Park is an American animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for Comedy Central. The series revolves around four boys—Stan Marsh, Kyle Broflovski, Eric Cartman, and Kenny McCormick—and their exploits in and around the titular Colorado town. South Park became infamous for its profanity and dark, surreal humor that satirizes a wide range of topics toward an adult audience.

Band in China

Band in China

"Band in China" is the second episode of the twenty-third season of the American animated television series South Park. The 299th episode overall of the series, it premiered on Comedy Central in the United States on October 2, 2019. The episode parodies media censorship in China, and the manner in which the American entertainment industry purposefully compromises its productions to avoid it.

Cinema of the United States

Cinema of the United States

The cinema of the United States, consisting mainly of major film studios along with some independent film, has had a large effect on the global film industry since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood cinema, which developed from 1913 to 1969 and is still typical of most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema, American cinema soon came to be a dominant force in the emerging industry. As of 2017, it produced the third-largest number of films of any national cinema, after India and China, with more than 600 English-language films released on average every year. While the national cinemas of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand also produce films in the same language, they are not part of the Hollywood system. That said, Hollywood has also been considered a transnational cinema, and has produced multiple language versions of some titles, often in Spanish or French. Contemporary Hollywood often outsources production to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.

Matt Stone

Matt Stone

Matthew Richard Stone is an American actor, filmmaker, animator, and composer. He is known for co-creating South Park (1997–present) and co-developing The Book of Mormon (2011) with his creative partner Trey Parker. Stone was interested in film and music as a child and at high school, and attended the University of Colorado, Boulder, where he met Parker. The two collaborated on various short films, and starred in the feature-length musical Cannibal! The Musical (1993).

Mainland China

Mainland China

"Mainland China" is a geopolitical term defined as the territory governed by the People's Republic of China, excluding dependent territories of the PRC and other territories within Greater China. By convention, the territories that fall outside of the Chinese mainland include:Hong Kong, a quasi-dependent territory under PRC rule that is officially designated a "Special Administrative Region of the PRC" Macau, a quasi-dependent territory under PRC rule that is officially designated a "Special Administrative Region of the PRC" Territories ruled by the Republic of China, including the island of Taiwan, the Penghu (Pescadores) islands in the Taiwan Strait, and the islands Kinmen, Matsu, and Wuqiu (Kinmen) offshore of Fujian.

Iain Duncan Smith

Iain Duncan Smith

Sir George Iain Duncan Smith, often referred to by his initials IDS, is a British politician who served as Leader of the Conservative Party and Leader of the Opposition from 2001 to 2003. He was Secretary of State for Work and Pensions from 2010 to 2016. He has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Chingford and Woodford Green, formerly Chingford, since 1992.

Conservative Party (UK)

Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party and also known colloquially as the Tories, is one of the two main political parties in the United Kingdom, along with the Labour Party. It is the current governing party, having won the 2019 general election. It has been the primary governing party in Britain since 2010. The party is on the centre-right of the political spectrum, and encompasses various ideological factions including one-nation conservatives, Thatcherites, and traditionalist conservatives. The party currently has 356 Members of Parliament, 261 members of the House of Lords, 9 members of the London Assembly, 31 members of the Scottish Parliament, 16 members of the Welsh Parliament, 2 directly elected mayors, 30 police and crime commissioners, and around 6,770 local councillors. It holds the annual Conservative Party Conference.

Milk Tea Alliance

Milk Tea Alliance

The Milk Tea Alliance is an online democracy and human rights movement consisting mainly of netizens from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, and Myanmar (Burma). It originally started as an internet meme, created in response to the increased presence of Chinese nationalist commentators on social media and has evolved into a dynamic multinational protest movement against authoritarianism and advocating democracy. Aside from the four main countries mentioned, the movement has also established a significant presence in the Philippines, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, Belarus and Iran.

50 Cent Party

50 Cent Party

The 50 Cent Party, also known as the 50 Cent Army or wumao, are Internet commentators who are hired by the authorities of the People's Republic of China to spread information to the benefit of the governing Chinese Communist Party (CCP). It was created during the early phases of the Internet's rollout to the wider public in China.

Source: "Chinese censorship abroad", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chinese_censorship_abroad.

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See also
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