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Chicano poetry

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Chicano poet Alurista performing a poetry reading (1982)
Chicano poet Alurista performing a poetry reading (1982)

Chicano poetry is a subgenre of Chicano literature that stems from the cultural consciousness developed in the Chicano Movement.[1] Chicano poetry has its roots in the reclamation of Chicana/o as an identity of empowerment rather than denigration.[2][3] As a literary field, Chicano poetry emerged in the 1960s and formed its own independent literary current and voice.[1][4]

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Chicano literature

Chicano literature

Chicano literature is an aspect of Mexican-American literature that emerged from the cultural consciousness developed in the Chicano Movement. Chicano literature formed out of the political and cultural struggle of Chicana/os to develop a political foundation and identity that rejected Anglo-American hegemony. This literature embraced the pre-Columbian roots of Chicana/os.

Chicanismo

Chicanismo

Chicanismo emerged as the cultural consciousness behind the Chicano Movement. The central aspect of Chicanismo is the identification of Chicanos with their Indigenous American roots to create an affinity with the notion that they are native to the land rather than immigrants. Chicanismo brought a new sense of nationalism for Chicanos that extended the notion of family to all Chicano people. Barrios, or working-class neighborhoods, became the cultural hubs for the people. It created a symbolic connection to the ancestral ties of Mesoamerica and the Nahuatl language through the situating of Aztlán, the ancestral home of the Aztecs, in the southwestern United States. Chicanismo also rejected Americanization and assimilation as a form of cultural destruction of the Chicano people, fostering notions of Brown Pride. Xicanisma has been referred to as an extension of Chicanismo.

Chicano Movement

Chicano Movement

The Chicano Movement, also referred to as El Movimiento, was a social and political movement in the United States inspired by prior acts of resistance among people of Mexican descent, especially of Pachucos in the 1940s and 1950s, and the Black Power movement, that worked to embrace a Chicano/a identity and worldview that combated structural racism, encouraged cultural revitalization, and achieved community empowerment by rejecting assimilation. Before this, Chicano/a had been a term of derision, adopted by some Pachucos as an expression of defiance to Anglo-American society. With the rise of Chicanismo, Chicano/a became a reclaimed term in the 1960s and 1970s, used to express political autonomy, ethnic and cultural solidarity, and pride in being of Indigenous descent, diverging from the assimilationist Mexican-American identity. Chicanos also expressed solidarity and defined their culture through the development of Chicano art during El Movimiento, and stood firm in preserving their religion.

Reappropriation

Reappropriation

In linguistics, reappropriation, reclamation, or resignification is the cultural process by which a group reclaims words or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group. It is a specific form of a semantic change. Linguistic reclamation can have wider implications in the fields of discourse and has been described in terms of personal or sociopolitical empowerment.

Chicano

Chicano

Chicano, Chicana, or Chicanx is an identity for Mexican Americans who have a non-Anglo self-image. Chicano was originally a classist and racist slur used toward low-income Mexicans that was reclaimed in the 1940s among youth who belonged to the Pachuco and Pachuca subculture. In the 1960s, Chicano was widely reclaimed in the building of a movement toward political empowerment, ethnic solidarity, and pride in being of indigenous descent. Chicano developed its own meaning separate from Mexican American identity. Youth in barrios rejected cultural assimilation into whiteness and embraced their own identity and worldview as a form of empowerment and resistance. The community forged an independent political and cultural movement, sometimes working alongside the Black Power movement.

History

Poetics of the Chicano Movement

The Chicano Movement inspired the development of a poetic current among the Mexican Americans who embraced Chicana/o identity.[1][4] Chicanos and Chicanas both addressed marginalization, racism and vanquished dreams in the United States. Many Chicana/o poets retold the history of Mexican Americans that differed from the dominant narrative of mainstream Anglo-Americans.[3] The surge of creative literary activity among Chicana/o authors in the 1960s and 1970s became known as the Florecimiento, or Renaissance.[5]

Chicano poets in the Chicano Movement

Chicano poets reclaimed the Pachuco, who was historically framed negatively, as a figure of empowerment.
Chicano poets reclaimed the Pachuco, who was historically framed negatively, as a figure of empowerment.

Chicano poets focused on the effects of racism on the Chicana/o community and the perseverance of Chicanos to maintain their cultural, political, and social identity. Nephtalí De León was one early pioneer, writing a poetry book Chicanos in the early 1960s as well as the poems "Hey, Mr. President, Man!," "Coca Cola Dream," and "Chicano Popcorn."[6]

Chicano poets reframed the Pachuco figure of the 1940s, who was historically looked down upon by the Mexican American community.[2] One of the most notable poems to do this was “El Louie” by José Montoya.[3] For Chicano poets, this was true to a lesser extent for the Pachuca figure, who was embraced mainly as a lover to the Pachuco.[2]

Abelardo "Lalo" Delgado's poem "Stupid America" written in the 1960s discussed the poor treatment of Chicanos and their erasure as artists, poets, and visionaries who are not permitted by the American mainstream to reach their potential.[7] Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales' poem "Yo Soy Joaquin" was widely influential, being adapted into a 1969 film by Luis Valdez of the same name. The poem reviewed the exploitation of the Chicano:

Yo soy Joaquín,
perdido en un mundo de confusión:
I am Joaquín, lost in a world of confusion,
caught up in the whirl of a gringo society,
confused by the rules, scorned by attitudes,
suppressed by manipulation, and destroyed by modern society.
My fathers have lost the economic battle
and won the struggle of cultural survival.[8]

Chicana poets in the Chicano Movement

Chicana poets challenged the role of women in the community through their poetry and spoke to a variety of issues.[9][10] Chicana feminist poets used poetry to express their views of aggressive masculine pride or machismo,[11] which had excluded them from the movement.[12] This included the poem "Machismo Is Part of Our Culture" by Marcela Christine Lucero-Trujillo.[13]

In the interwar period, unmarried Mexican American women were often mandated by their families to be accompanied by a male when going out, who would watch over them throughout the night.[13] A woman's purity was linked to the family's reputation and a chaperone was sent to watch on their daughter's activities.[13] Women sought freedom yet also sought to be good daughters to their families.[13] Chicana feminist poets addressed this in their work, such as "Pueblo, 1950" (1976) by Bernice Zamora, who discussed the consequences young, unmarried, Mexican-American women would face from a simple kiss:[14]

I remember you, Fred Montoya
You were the first vato to ever kiss me
I was twelve years old.
my mother said shame on you,
my teacher said shame on you, and
I said shame on me, and nobody
said a word to you.
Pachucas have been valorized in the works of Chicana/o poets, including Inés Hernández-Ávila's poem "Para Teresa."[2]
Pachucas have been valorized in the works of Chicana/o poets, including Inés Hernández-Ávila's poem "Para Teresa."[2]

Chicana poet Inés Hernández-Ávila valorized the Pachuca in her poem "Para Teresa."[2] Other poets who reframed the Pachuca figure were Alurista, José Montoya, and raúlrsalinas.[15] Poems the reframed the Pachuca also included “Los Corts (5 voices)” and “and when I dream dreams” by Carmen Tafolla, and “Later, She Met Joyce” by Cherríe Moraga.[15]

An example of Chicana poetry is “La Nueva Chicana” by poet Viola Correa,[12]

Hey
She that lady protesting injustice,
Es mi Mamà
The girl in the brown beret,
The one teaching the children,
She’s my hermana
Over there fasting with the migrants,
Es mi tía.
These are the women who worry,
Pray, iron
And cook chile y tortillas.
The lady with the forgiving eyes
And the gentle smile.
Listen to her shout.
She knows what hardship is all about
All about.
The Establishment calls her a radical militant.
The newspapers read she is
A dangerous subversive
They label her name to condemn her.
By the FBI she’s called
A big problem.
In Aztlàn we call her
La Nueva Chicana.

Chicana/o poetics, post-Chicano Movement

Trinidad Sanchez Jr.'s "Why Am I So Brown?" discussed issues of childhood internalization of colorism.
Trinidad Sanchez Jr.'s "Why Am I So Brown?" discussed issues of childhood internalization of colorism.

While the Chicano Movement itself experienced a decline by the late 1970s, poets who embraced Chicana/o identity continued to carry the consciousness of the movement forward through their poetry. Trinidad "Trino" Sánchez's "Why Am I So Brown?" (1991).[16] The poem was inspired by the daughter of one of his friend's experience of colorism for her darker skin color, when she came home asking her father the question.[16][17]

The latter part of the 20th century saw the emergence of Juan Felipe Herrera as a dominant force in the genre.[18] In Herrera's works, cultural expression is shown from the 1960s to the present. His poetry is most known for being willful, expressing a unique voice.[19]

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Chicano Movement

Chicano Movement

The Chicano Movement, also referred to as El Movimiento, was a social and political movement in the United States inspired by prior acts of resistance among people of Mexican descent, especially of Pachucos in the 1940s and 1950s, and the Black Power movement, that worked to embrace a Chicano/a identity and worldview that combated structural racism, encouraged cultural revitalization, and achieved community empowerment by rejecting assimilation. Before this, Chicano/a had been a term of derision, adopted by some Pachucos as an expression of defiance to Anglo-American society. With the rise of Chicanismo, Chicano/a became a reclaimed term in the 1960s and 1970s, used to express political autonomy, ethnic and cultural solidarity, and pride in being of Indigenous descent, diverging from the assimilationist Mexican-American identity. Chicanos also expressed solidarity and defined their culture through the development of Chicano art during El Movimiento, and stood firm in preserving their religion.

Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans are Americans of full or partial Mexican heritage. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans. In 2019, 71% of Mexican Americans were born in the United States, though they make up 53% of the total population of foreign-born Latino Americans and 25% of the total foreign-born population. The United States is home to the second-largest Mexican community in the world, behind only Mexico. Most Mexican Americans reside in the Southwest.

Chicano

Chicano

Chicano, Chicana, or Chicanx is an identity for Mexican Americans who have a non-Anglo self-image. Chicano was originally a classist and racist slur used toward low-income Mexicans that was reclaimed in the 1940s among youth who belonged to the Pachuco and Pachuca subculture. In the 1960s, Chicano was widely reclaimed in the building of a movement toward political empowerment, ethnic solidarity, and pride in being of indigenous descent. Chicano developed its own meaning separate from Mexican American identity. Youth in barrios rejected cultural assimilation into whiteness and embraced their own identity and worldview as a form of empowerment and resistance. The community forged an independent political and cultural movement, sometimes working alongside the Black Power movement.

Dominant narrative

Dominant narrative

Dominant narrative can be used to describe the lens in which history is told by the perspective of the dominant culture. This term has been described as an "invisible hand" that guides reality and perceived reality. Dominant narrative can refer to multiple aspects of life, such as history, politics, or different activist groups. Dominant culture is defined as the majority cultural practices of a society. Narrative can be defined as story telling, either true or imaginary. Pairing these two terms together create the notion of dominant narrative, that only the majority story is told and therefore heard. It is a common theme to hear or learn only about the dominant narrative as it comprises the perspective of the majority culture. Examples of dominant narrative can be seen throughout history. Dominant narrative can be defined and decided by the sociopolitical and socioeconomic setting someone lives his or her life in.

Anglo-Americans

Anglo-Americans

Anglo-Americans are people who are English-speaking inhabitants of Anglo-America. It typically refers to the nations and ethnic groups in the Americas that speak English as a native language, making up the majority of people in the world who speak English as a first language.

Nephtalí De León

Nephtalí De León

Nephtalí De León is a Chicano writer known primarily for his poetry, children's stories, and essays. He is also credited with illustrating most of his books. He was born in Laredo, Texas in 1945 as the son of migrant workers. Although neither of his parents received much formal education, Nephtalí says that they were responsible for first exposing him to literature. He published his first book—Chicanos: Our Background and Our Pride—in the early 1960s during his senior year of high school. He then expanded his work to include poetry and plays, dabbling in mural art and children's stories on the side. He has been published in Mexico, France, the U.S., and Spain with his stories being translated into several other languages. Currently, Nephtalí is a full-time poet, writer, and painter who performs lectures and poetry at schools and community events.

José Montoya

José Montoya

José Montoya was a poet and an artist from Sacramento, California. He was one of the most influential Chicano bilingual poets. He has published many well-known poems in anthologies and magazines, and served as Sacramento's poet laureate.

Abelardo Delgado

Abelardo Delgado

Abelardo Barrientos Delgado, aka Lalo, was a Chicano writer, community organizer, and poet. His work was important in establishing the Chicano poetry movement.

Luis Valdez

Luis Valdez

Luis Miguel Valdez is an American playwright, screenwriter, film director and actor. Regarded as the father of Chicano film and playwriting, Valdez is best known for his play Zoot Suit, his movie La Bamba, and his creation of El Teatro Campesino. A pioneer in the Chicano Movement, Valdez broadened the scope of theatre and arts of the Chicano community.

I Am Joaquin (film)

I Am Joaquin (film)

I Am Joaquín is a 1969 short film by Luis Valdez, a project of his El Teatro Campesino. It is based on the poem "I Am Joaquín" by Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzáles, a key text of the Chicano movement. In 2010, this film was selected for the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". I Am Joaquin was preserved by the Academy Film Archive in 2017.

Chicana feminism

Chicana feminism

Chicana feminism is a sociopolitical movement, theory, and praxis that scrutinizes the historical, cultural, spiritual, educational, and economic intersections impacting Chicanas and the Chicana/o community in the United States. Chicana feminism empowers women to challenge institutionalized social norms and regards anyone a feminist who fights for the end of women's oppression in the community.

Machismo

Machismo

Machismo is the sense of being "manly" and self-reliant, a concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity". Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 1940s best defined as having pride in one's masculinity. While the term is associated with "a man's responsibility to provide for, protect, and defend his family", Machismo is strongly and consistently associated with dominance, aggression, exhibition, and nurturance. The correlation to machismo is found to be deeply rooted in family dynamics and culture.

Themes

Chicana/o poets continue to address experiences of racism in the United States. A strong undercurrent among Chicana/o poets is planting the community's roots in Mesoamerican civilizations and how the indigenous people of those civilizations continue to live through the Chicano people who are predominantly of mestizo (mixed) ancestry.[5] For example, Chicana poet Lucha Corpi published a collection of poetry authored "LLuvia/Rain." This work creates a framework on cultural remembrance with an emphasis on the sensuality of rain referencing the Nahua god of rain (tlaloc).[4]

Chicana poets continue to expand on the theme of marginalization beyond only focusing on racism and marginalization. Chicana poets also focus on themes of sexual abuse, misogyny, and the creation of a complex Chicana identity. The great thematic diversity of the field is owed to the many reflections of Chicano/a poets.[5]

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Chicano

Chicano

Chicano, Chicana, or Chicanx is an identity for Mexican Americans who have a non-Anglo self-image. Chicano was originally a classist and racist slur used toward low-income Mexicans that was reclaimed in the 1940s among youth who belonged to the Pachuco and Pachuca subculture. In the 1960s, Chicano was widely reclaimed in the building of a movement toward political empowerment, ethnic solidarity, and pride in being of indigenous descent. Chicano developed its own meaning separate from Mexican American identity. Youth in barrios rejected cultural assimilation into whiteness and embraced their own identity and worldview as a form of empowerment and resistance. The community forged an independent political and cultural movement, sometimes working alongside the Black Power movement.

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica

Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area that begins in the southern part of North America and extends to most of Central America, thus comprising the lands of central Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica. In the pre-Columbian era many societies flourished in Mesoamerica for more than 3,000 years before the Spanish colonization of the Americas, begun at Hispaniola island in 1493. In world history, Mesoamerica was the site of two historical transformations: (i) primary urban generation, and (ii) the formation of New World cultures from the mixtures of the indigenous Mesoamerican peoples with the European, African, and Asian peoples who were introduced by the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Mestizo

Mestizo

Mestizo is a term used for racial classification to refer to a person of mixed European and Indigenous American ancestry. In certain regions such as Latin America, it may also refer to people who are culturally European even though their ancestors are not. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-race castas that evolved during the Spanish Empire. Although, broadly speaking, mestizo means someone of mixed European/Indigenous heritage, the term did not have a fixed meaning in the colonial period. It was a formal label for individuals in official documents, such as censuses, parish registers, Inquisition trials, and others. Priests and royal officials might have classified persons as mestizos, but individuals also used the term in self-identification.

Lucha Corpi

Lucha Corpi

Lucha Corpi is a Chicana poet and mystery writer. She was born on April 13, 1945 in Jaltipan, Veracruz, Mexico. In 1975 she earned a B.A. in comparative literature from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1979 she earned a M.A. in comparative literature from San Francisco State University. Corpi's most important contribution to Chicano literature, a series of four poems called "The Marina Poems ," appeared in the anthology The Other Voice: Twentieth-Century Women's Poetry in Translation, which was published by W. W. Norton & Company, in 1976 (ISBN 9780393044218).

Nahuas

Nahuas

The Nahuas are a group of the indigenous people of Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. They comprise the largest indigenous group in Mexico and second largest in El Salvador. The Mexica (Aztecs) were of Nahua ethnicity, and the Toltecs are often thought to have been as well, though in the pre-Columbian period Nahuas were subdivided into many groups that did not necessarily share a common identity.

Tlāloc

Tlāloc

Tlaloc is a deity in Aztec religion. The supreme god of the rain, Tlaloc is also a god of earthly fertility and of water. He was widely worshipped as a beneficent giver of life and sustenance, as well as feared for his ability to send hail, thunder, and lightning, and for being the lord of the powerful element of water. Tlaloc is also associated with caves, springs, and mountains, most specifically the sacred mountain where he was believed to reside. His animal forms include herons and water-dwelling creatures such as amphibians, snails, and some sea creatures, particularly shellfish. The Mexican marigold, Tagetes lucida, known to the Aztecs as yauhtli, was another important symbol of the god, and was burned as a ritual incense in native religious ceremonies.

Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse

Sexual abuse or sex abuse, also referred to as molestation, is abusive sexual behavior by one person upon another. It is often perpetrated using force or by taking advantage of another. Molestation often refers to an instance of sexual assault against a small child, whereas sexual abuse is a term used for a persistent pattern of sexual assaults.

Misogyny

Misogyny

Misogyny is hatred of, contempt for, or prejudice against women. It is a form of sexism that is used to keep women at a lower social status than men, thus maintaining the societal roles of patriarchy. Misogyny has been widely practiced for thousands of years. It is reflected in art, literature, human societal structure, historical events, mythology, philosophy, and religion worldwide.

Awards

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Juan Felipe Herrera

Juan Felipe Herrera

Juan Felipe Herrera is an American poet, performer, writer, cartoonist, teacher, and activist. Herrera was the 21st United States Poet Laureate from 2015 to 2017. He is a major figure in the literary field of Chicano poetry.

Chicano

Chicano

Chicano, Chicana, or Chicanx is an identity for Mexican Americans who have a non-Anglo self-image. Chicano was originally a classist and racist slur used toward low-income Mexicans that was reclaimed in the 1940s among youth who belonged to the Pachuco and Pachuca subculture. In the 1960s, Chicano was widely reclaimed in the building of a movement toward political empowerment, ethnic solidarity, and pride in being of indigenous descent. Chicano developed its own meaning separate from Mexican American identity. Youth in barrios rejected cultural assimilation into whiteness and embraced their own identity and worldview as a form of empowerment and resistance. The community forged an independent political and cultural movement, sometimes working alongside the Black Power movement.

Latino (demonym)

Latino (demonym)

The masculine term Latino, along with its feminine form Latina, is a noun and adjective, often used in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, that most commonly refers to United States inhabitants who have cultural ties to Latin America.

United States Poet Laureate

United States Poet Laureate

The Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress—commonly referred to as the United States Poet Laureate—serves as the official poet of the United States. During their term, the poet laureate seeks to raise the national consciousness to a greater appreciation of the reading and writing of poetry. The position was modeled on the Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom. Begun in 1937, and formerly known as the Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress, the present title was devised and authorized by an Act of Congress in 1985. Appointed by the Librarian of Congress, the poet laureate's office is administered by the Center for the Book. For children's poets, the Poetry Foundation awards the Young People's Poet Laureate.

Carmen Tafolla

Carmen Tafolla

Carmen Tafolla is an internationally acclaimed Chicana writer from San Antonio, Texas, and a professor emerita of bicultural bilingual studies at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Tafolla served as the poet laureate of San Antonio from 2012 to 2014, and was named the Poet Laureate of Texas for 2015–16. Tafolla has written more than thirty books, and won multiple literary awards. She is one of the most highly anthologized Chicana authors in the United States, with her work appearing in more than 300 anthologies.

Poets Laureate of Texas

Poets Laureate of Texas

The Poet Laureate of Texas is the poet laureate for the U.S. state of Texas.

Laurie Ann Guerrero

Laurie Ann Guerrero

Laurie Ann Guerrero is a Chicana poet from San Antonio, Texas. She was the poet laureate of San Antonio from 2014 to 2016 and the Poet Laureate of Texas from 2016 to 2017. In the fall semester of 2017, she became the first writer-in-residence at Texas A&M University San Antonio and a "fully immersed faculty member. She will teach a contemporary American woman poets course, host numerous University writing workshops and mentor students while working on her next writing project."

Emmy Pérez

Emmy Pérez

Emmy Pérez is a Chicanx poet and writer originally from Santa Ana, California, United States. She was a recipient of a National Endowment for the Arts Poetry Fellowship in 2017. She has lived in the borderlands of Texas since 2000, where she has taught creative writing in college and MFA programs, as well as in detention facilities and as part of social justice projects. Her latest collective is Poets Against the Border Wall. She was also a fellow (2010–12) and organizing committee member of CantoMundo (2018–19) and is a long-time member of Macondo Writers Workshop.

Important publishers

A handful of U.S. publishers specialize in Chicano poetry, including the following:

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Bilingual Review Press

Bilingual Review Press

Bilingual Review Press is an American publishing house specialising in the publication of scholarly and literary works by Hispanic and Latino American authors and researchers. It was founded in 1973 as the publisher of The Bilingual Review/La revista bilingüe, a new academic and literary journal with a focus on Spanish-English bilingualism, bilingual studies and Hispanic literature that was first issued in 1974. Under the imprint name Bilingual Press/Editorial Bilingüe the press also publishes and distributes book titles by or about Hispanic and Latin American authors, covering literary fiction, poetry as well as non-fiction titles relating to Chicano and Latin American studies. Bilingual Press publishes from 8 to 10 titles annually, with an accumulated back catalogue of more than 150 titles under the imprint in both English and Spanish as well as some bilingual editions. The publisher is also a distributor of related titles from other presses, as of 2008 numbering over a thousand releases.

Cinco Puntos Press

Cinco Puntos Press

Cinco Puntos Press is an imprint of publishing company Lee & Low Books. It is a general trade publisher that has received attention for its bilingual children's books and fiction and non-fiction focusing on the Mexico–United States border region. It was founded by novelist Lee Merrill Byrd and poet Bobby Byrd in 1985 and sold to Lee & Low in June 2021. It is known for its multi-cultural and political focus for both children and adults.

University of Arizona Press

University of Arizona Press

The University of Arizona Press, a publishing house founded in 1959 as a department of the University of Arizona, is a nonprofit publisher of scholarly and regional books. As a delegate of the University of Arizona to the larger world, the Press publishes the work of scholars wherever they may be, concentrating upon scholarship that reflects the special strengths of the University of Arizona, Arizona State University, and Northern Arizona University.

List of major Chicano poets

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Lucha Corpi

Lucha Corpi

Lucha Corpi is a Chicana poet and mystery writer. She was born on April 13, 1945 in Jaltipan, Veracruz, Mexico. In 1975 she earned a B.A. in comparative literature from the University of California, Berkeley. In 1979 she earned a M.A. in comparative literature from San Francisco State University. Corpi's most important contribution to Chicano literature, a series of four poems called "The Marina Poems ," appeared in the anthology The Other Voice: Twentieth-Century Women's Poetry in Translation, which was published by W. W. Norton & Company, in 1976 (ISBN 9780393044218).

Gloria E. Anzaldúa

Gloria E. Anzaldúa

Gloria Evangelina Anzaldúa was an American scholar of Chicana feminism, cultural theory, and queer theory. She loosely based her best-known book, Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza, on her life growing up on the Mexico–Texas border and incorporated her lifelong experiences of social and cultural marginalization into her work. She also developed theories about the marginal, in-between, and mixed cultures that develop along borders, including on the concepts of Nepantla, Coyoxaulqui imperative, new tribalism, and spiritual activism.

Ana Castillo

Ana Castillo

Ana Castillo is a Chicana novelist, poet, short story writer, essayist, editor, playwright, translator and independent scholar. Considered one of the leading voices in Chicana experience, Castillo is most known for her experimental style as a Latina novelist and for her intervention in Chicana feminism known as Xicanisma.

Lorna Dee Cervantes

Lorna Dee Cervantes

Lorna Dee Cervantes is an American poet and activist, who is considered one of the greatest figures in Chicano poetry. She has been described by Alurista, as "probably the best Chicana poet active today."

Sandra Cisneros

Sandra Cisneros

Sandra Cisneros is an American writer. She is best known for her first novel, The House on Mango Street (1983), and her subsequent short story collection, Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories (1991). Her work experiments with literary forms that investigate emerging subject positions, which Cisneros herself attributes to growing up in a context of cultural hybridity and economic inequality that endowed her with unique stories to tell. She is the recipient of numerous awards, including a National Endowment for the Arts Fellowship, was awarded one of 25 new Ford Foundation Art of Change fellowships in 2017, and is regarded as a key figure in Chicano literature.

Daniel Olivas

Daniel Olivas

Daniel Anthony Olivas is an American author and attorney.

Juan Felipe Herrera

Juan Felipe Herrera

Juan Felipe Herrera is an American poet, performer, writer, cartoonist, teacher, and activist. Herrera was the 21st United States Poet Laureate from 2015 to 2017. He is a major figure in the literary field of Chicano poetry.

Javier O. Huerta

Javier O. Huerta

Javier O. Huerta is a Mexican American and Chicano poet. His first book Some Clarifications y otros poemas was awarded the Chicano/Latino Literary Prize from the University of California at Irvine.

Tino Villanueva

Tino Villanueva

Tino Villanueva is an American poet and writer. His early work was associated with the Chicano literary renaissance of the 1960s and 1970s, and Villanueva is considered to be a primary figure in that literary movement. More recently, Villanueva's work has treated themes from Greek mythology.

Source: "Chicano poetry", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicano_poetry.

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Notes
  1. ^ a b c Sedano, Michael Victor (1980). Chicanismo in Selected Poetry from the Chicano Movement, 1969-1972: A Rhetorical Study. University of Southern California. pp. 2–4.
  2. ^ a b c d e Ramírez, Catherine Sue (2000). The Pachuca in Chicana/o Art, Literature and History: Reexamining Nation, Cultural Nationalism and Resistance. University of California, Berkeley. pp. 178, 198.
  3. ^ a b c Villa, Raúl (2017-10-23), Flores, Juan; Rosaldo, Renato (eds.), ""El Louie" by José Montoya: An Appreciation", A Companion to Latina/o Studies, Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd, pp. 180–184, doi:10.1002/9781405177603.ch16, ISBN 978-1-4051-7760-3, retrieved 2023-01-25
  4. ^ a b c Pérez-Torres, Rafael (1995). Movements in Chicano poetry : against myths, against margins. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521470196. OCLC 30783346.
  5. ^ a b c "Contemporary Chicano/a Literature" Contemporary Literary Criticism Select. 2008 Detroit: Gale.
  6. ^ "Oral History Interview with Nephtali De Leon, 1999". library.uta.edu. Retrieved 2023-01-25.
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