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Celotheliaceae

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Celotheliaceae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
Class: Eurotiomycetes
Order: Phaeomoniellales
K.H.Chen, A.E.Arnold, Gueidan & Lutzoni (2015)
Family: Celotheliaceae
Lücking, Aptroot & Sipman (2008)
Synonyms[1]
  • Phaeomoniellaceae P.M.Kirk (2015)

Celotheliaceae is a family of fungi in the monotypic order Phaeomoniellales.[2] The family was proposed in 2008 by Robert Lücking, André Aptroot, and Harrie Sipman,[3] while the order was circumscribed in 2015. It is sister to the clade that includes the orders Verrucariales and Chaetothyriales.[4] Molecular clock calculations suggest that the order originated when gymnosperm diversification occurred.[5]

The family Phaeomoniellaceae was proposed by Paul Kirk in 2015, using a reference to the description of the order Phaeomoniellales,[6] circumscribed earlier that year.[4] However, because Celothelium (the type genus of Celotheliaceae[3]) is also included in the circumscription of the Phaeomoniellaceae, the older family name takes precedence and consequently, Phaeomoniellaceae is an illegitimate name according to nomenclatural rules; it is placed in synonymy with Celotheliaceae.[1]

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Family (biology)

Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as the "walnut family".

Order (biology)

Order (biology)

Order is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between family and class. In biological classification, the order is a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. An immediately higher rank, superorder, is sometimes added directly above order, with suborder directly beneath order. An order can also be defined as a group of related families.

Robert Lücking

Robert Lücking

Robert Lücking is a German lichenologist. He is a leading expert on foliicolous lichens–lichens that live on leaves.

André Aptroot

André Aptroot

André Aptroot is a Dutch mycologist and lichenologist.

Harrie Sipman

Harrie Sipman

Henricus (Harrie) Johannes Maria Sipman is a Dutch lichenologist. He specialises in tropical and subtropical lichens, and has authored or co-authored more than 250 scientific publications. He was the curator of the lichen herbarium at the Berlin Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum from 1983 until his retirement in 2010.

Circumscription (taxonomy)

Circumscription (taxonomy)

In biological taxonomy, circumscription is the content of a taxon, that is, the delimitation of which subordinate taxa are parts of that taxon. If we determine that species X, Y, and Z belong in Genus A, and species T, U, V, and W belong in Genus B, those are our circumscriptions of those two genera. Another systematist might determine that T, U, V, W, X, Y, and Z all belong in genus A. Agreement on circumscriptions is not governed by the Codes of Zoological or Botanical Nomenclature, and must be reached by scientific consensus.

Clade

Clade

A clade, also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants – on a phylogenetic tree. Rather than the English term, the equivalent Latin term cladus is often used in taxonomical literature.

Chaetothyriales

Chaetothyriales

The Chaetothyriales are an order of ascomycetous fungi in the class Eurotiomycetes and within the subclass Chaetothyriomycetidae. The order was circumscribed in 1987 by mycologist Margaret Elizabeth Barr-Bigelow.

Molecular clock

Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a figurative term for a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged. The biomolecular data used for such calculations are usually nucleotide sequences for DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequences for proteins. The benchmarks for determining the mutation rate are often fossil or archaeological dates. The molecular clock was first tested in 1962 on the hemoglobin protein variants of various animals, and is commonly used in molecular evolution to estimate times of speciation or radiation. It is sometimes called a gene clock or an evolutionary clock.

Gymnosperm

Gymnosperm

The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes, forming the clade Gymnospermae. The term gymnosperm comes from the composite word in Greek: γυμνόσπερμος, literally meaning 'naked seeds'. The name is based on the unenclosed condition of their seeds. The non-encased condition of their seeds contrasts with the seeds and ovules of flowering plants (angiosperms), which are enclosed within an ovary. Gymnosperm seeds develop either on the surface of scales or leaves, which are often modified to form cones, or solitary as in yew, Torreya, Ginkgo. Gymnosperm lifecycles involve alternation of generations. They have a dominant diploid sporophyte phase and a reduced haploid gametophyte phase which is dependent on the sporophytic phase. The term "gymnosperm" is often used in paleobotany to refer to all non-angiosperm seed plants. In that case, to specify the modern monophyletic group of gymnosperms, the term Acrogymnospermae is sometimes used.

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants

The International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". It was formerly called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 as part of the Melbourne Code which replaced the Vienna Code of 2005.

Synonym (taxonomy)

Synonym (taxonomy)

The Botanical and Zoological Codes of nomenclature treat the concept of synonymy differently.In botanical nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use, so it is now a synonym of the current scientific name, Picea abies. In zoology, moving a species from one genus to another results in a different binomen, but the name is considered an alternative combination rather than a synonym. The concept of synonymy in zoology is reserved for two names at the same rank that refers to a taxon at that rank - for example, the name Papilio prorsa Linnaeus, 1758 is a junior synonym of Papilio levana Linnaeus, 1758, being names for different seasonal forms of the species now referred to as Araschnia levana (Linnaeus, 1758), the map butterfly. However, Araschnia levana is not a synonym of Papilio levana in the taxonomic sense employed by the Zoological code.

Genera

These are the genera that are in the Phaeomoniellaceae (including estimated number of species in each genus, totalling 27 species), according to a 2021 review of fungal classification.[2] Following the genus name is the taxonomic authority (those who first circumscribed the genus; standardised author abbreviations are used), year of publication, and the estimated number of species.[2]

Sesquiterpenes and polyketides metabolites are found in Picea rubens endophytes Phaemoniella.[11]

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Source: "Celotheliaceae", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celotheliaceae.

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References
  1. ^ a b Kraus, C.; Damm, U.; Bien, S.; Voegele, R.T.; Fischer, M. (2020). "New species of Phaeomoniellales from a German vineyard and their potential threat to grapevine (Vitis vinifera) health". Fungal Systematics and Evolution. 6 (1): 139–155. doi:10.3114/fuse.2020.06.08. PMC 7452154. PMID 32904175.
  2. ^ a b c Wijayawardene, N.N.; Hyde, K.D.; Dai, D.Q.; Sánchez-García, M.; Goto, B.T.; Saxena, R.K.; et al. (2022). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021". Mycosphere. 13 (1): 53–453. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/13/1/2. S2CID 249054641.
  3. ^ a b Aptroot, A.; Lücking, R.; Sipman, H.J.M.; Umana, L.; Chaves, J.L. (2008). Pyrenocarpous lichens with bitunicate asci. Bibliotheca Lichenologica. Vol. 97. p. 12.
  4. ^ a b Chen, Ko-Hsuan; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Molnár, Katalin; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; U’Ren, Jana M.; Gaya, Ester; Gueidan, Cécile; Lutzoni, François (2015). "Phylogenetic analyses of eurotiomycetous endophytes reveal their close affinities to Chaetothyriales, Eurotiales, and a new order – Phaeomoniellales". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 85: 117–130. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2015.01.008. PMID 25701073.
  5. ^ John Dighton and James F. White (Editors) The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem, Fourth Edition (2017), p. 68, at Google Books
  6. ^ Kirk, P.M. (14 October 2015). "Nomenclatural novelties" (PDF). Index Fungorum. 265: 1.
  7. ^ Massalongo, A.B. (1860). "Esame comparativo di alcune genere di licheni". Atti dell'Istituto Veneto Scienze (in Italian). 5: 313–337.
  8. ^ Romero, A.I.; Samuels, G.J. (1991). "Studies on xylophilous fungi from Argentina. VI. Ascomycotina on Eucalyptus viminalis (Myrtaceae)". Sydowia. 43: 228–248.
  9. ^ Crous, P.W.; Gams, W. (2000). "Phaeomoniella chlamydospora gen. et comb. nov., a causal organism of Petri grapevine decline and esca". Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 39: 112–118.
  10. ^ Crous, P.W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Groenewald, J.Z. (2009). "Xenocylindrosporium kirstenboschense Crous & Verkley, gen. et sp. nov". Persoonia. 23: 200–201.
  11. ^ Anna Maria Pirttilä and A. Carolin Frank (Editors) Endophytes of Forest Trees: Biology and Applications (2018), p. 354, at Google Books


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