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Catinat-class cruiser

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Protet SLV AllanGreen.jpg
Protet
Class overview
NameCatinat class
Builders
Operators French Navy
Preceded by D'Assas class
Succeeded byD'Entrecasteaux
Built1894–1899
In service1898–1911
Completed2
Retired2
General characteristics
TypeProtected cruiser
Displacement4,113.65 t (4,048.68 long tons; 4,534.52 short tons)[a]
Length101.56 m (333 ft 2 in) loa
Beam13.6 m (44 ft 7 in)
Draft6 m (19 ft 8 in)
Installed power
Propulsion
Speed19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph)
Range6,000 nmi (11,000 km; 6,900 mi) at 10 kn (19 km/h; 12 mph)
Complement399
Armament
Armor

The Catinat class comprised two protected cruisers of the French Navy built in the early 1890s; the two ships were Catinat and Protet. They were ordered as part of a naval construction program directed at France's rivals, Italy and Germany, particularly after Italy made progress in modernizing its own fleet. The plan was also intended to remedy a deficiency in cruisers that had been revealed during training exercises in the 1880s. As such, the Catinat-class cruisers were intended to operate as fleet scouts and in the French colonial empire. The ships were armed with a main battery of four 164 mm (6.5 in) guns supported by ten 100 mm (3.9 in) guns and they had a top speed of 19.5 to 20 knots (36.1 to 37.0 km/h; 22.4 to 23.0 mph).

Catinat served briefly with the Northern Squadron in 1898 and 1899 before being placed in reserve; thereafter, she and Protet served the entirety of their active careers abroad. Protet was sent to the Pacific in 1899 after being completed, and she remained there through 1905 to protect French interests. Catinat was sent on a brief stint to French Madagascar in 1901 through at least 1902, before returning to France at some point before 1905. Early that year, she was sent to the Pacific to replace her sister ship, remaining there through at least 1908. No records of her activities thereafter survive. That year, Protet was converted into a training ship for the Gunnery School, though she was sold for scrap in 1910. Catinat was discarded the following year.

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Protected cruiser

Protected cruiser

Protected cruisers, a type of naval cruiser of the late-19th century, gained their description because an armoured deck offered protection for vital machine-spaces from fragments caused by shells exploding above them. Protected cruisers resembled armored cruisers, which had in addition a belt of armour along the sides.

French Navy

French Navy

The French Navy, informally La Royale, is the maritime arm of the French Armed Forces and one of the five military service branches of France. It is among the largest and most powerful naval forces in the world, ranking seventh in combined fleet tonnage and fifth in number of naval vessels. The French Navy is one of eight naval forces currently operating fixed-wing aircraft carriers, with its flagship Charles de Gaulle being the only nuclear-powered aircraft carrier outside the United States Navy, and one of two non-American vessels to use catapults to launch aircraft.

French cruiser Catinat

French cruiser Catinat

Catinat was the lead ship of the Catinat class of protected cruisers built for the French Navy in the 1890s. The Catinat-class cruisers were ordered as part of a construction program directed at strengthening the fleet's cruiser force at a time the country was concerned with the growing naval threat of the Italian and German fleets. The new cruisers were intended to serve with the main fleet and overseas in the French colonial empire. Catinat was armed with a main battery of four 164 mm (6.5 in) guns, was protected by an armor deck that was 25 to 60 mm thick, and was capable of steaming at a top speed of up to 20 knots.

French cruiser Protet

French cruiser Protet

Protet was a protected cruiser of the French Navy built in the 1890s, the second and final member of the Catinat class. The Catinat-class cruisers were ordered as part of a construction program directed at strengthening the fleet's cruiser force at a time when the country was concerned with the growing naval threat of the Italian and German fleets. The new cruisers were intended to serve with the main fleet and overseas in the French colonial empire. Protet was armed with a main battery of four 164 mm (6.5 in) guns, was protected by an armor deck that was 25 to 60 mm thick, and was capable of steaming at a top speed of up to 20 knots.

Cruiser

Cruiser

A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, and can usually perform several roles.

French colonial empire

French colonial empire

The French colonial empire comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First French Colonial Empire", that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost or sold, and the "Second French Colonial Empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830. At its apex between the two world wars, the second French colonial empire was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire.

Main battery

Main battery

A main battery is the primary weapon or group of weapons around which a warship is designed. As such, a main battery was historically a gun or group of guns, as in the broadsides of cannon on a ship of the line. Later, this came to be turreted groups of similar large-caliber naval rifles. With the evolution of technology the term has come to encompass guided missiles as a vessel's principal offensive weapon, deployed both on surface ships and submarines.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Reserve fleet

Reserve fleet

A reserve fleet is a collection of naval vessels of all types that are fully equipped for service but are not currently needed; they are partially or fully decommissioned. A reserve fleet is informally said to be "in mothballs" or "mothballed"; an equivalent expression in unofficial modern US naval usage is "ghost fleet". In earlier times, especially in British usage, the ships were said to be "laid up in ordinary".

French Madagascar

French Madagascar

The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958 in what is now Madagascar. The colony was formerly a protectorate of France known as Malagasy Protectorate. The protectorate became a colony, following Queen Ranavalona III's exile to island of Réunion.

Sister ship

Sister ship

A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, and roughly comparable features and equipment. They often share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or person or with some kind of alliteration. Typically the ship class is named for the first ship of that class. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered.

Scrap

Scrap

Scrap consists of recyclable materials, usually metals, left over from product manufacturing and consumption, such as parts of vehicles, building supplies, and surplus materials. Unlike waste, scrap has monetary value, especially recovered metals, and non-metallic materials are also recovered for recycling. Once collected, the materials are sorted into types — typically metal scrap will be crushed, shredded, and sorted using mechanical processes.

Background

The fast Italian ironclad Italia, the threat of which prompted the French naval program of 1890
The fast Italian ironclad Italia, the threat of which prompted the French naval program of 1890

In the late 1880s, the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) accelerated construction of ships for its fleet and reorganized its most modern ironclad battleships—the Duilio and Italia classes—into a fast squadron suitable for offensive operations. These developments provoked a strong response in the French press. The Budget Committee in the French Chamber of Deputies began to press for a "two-power standard" in 1888, which would see the French fleet enlarged to equal the combined Italian and German fleets, then France's two main rivals on the continent. This initially came to nothing, as the supporters of the Jeune École doctrine called for a fleet largely based on squadrons of torpedo boats to defend the French coasts rather than an expensive fleet of ironclads. This view had significant support in the Chamber of Deputies.[1]

The next year, a war scare with Italy led to further outcry to strengthen the fleet. To compound matters, the visit of a German squadron of four ironclads to Italy confirmed French concerns of a combined Italo-German fleet that would dramatically outnumber their own. Training exercises held in France that year demonstrated that the slower French fleet would be unable to prevent the faster Italian squadron from bombarding the French coast at will, in part because it lacked enough cruisers (and doctrine to use them) to scout for the enemy ships. To correct the weaknesses of the French fleet, on 22 November 1890, the Superior Council authorized a new construction program directed not at simple parity with the Italian and German fleets, but numerical superiority. In addition to twenty-four new battleships, a total of seventy cruisers were to be built for use in home waters and overseas in the French colonial empire. The Catinat class were ordered to as part of the program,[2][3] and they were intended to operate in France's overseas colonies.[4]

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Ironclad warship

Ironclad warship

An ironclad is a steam-propelled warship protected by iron or steel armor plates, constructed from 1859 to the early 1890s. The ironclad was developed as a result of the vulnerability of wooden warships to explosive or incendiary shells. The first ironclad battleship, Gloire, was launched by the French Navy in November 1859 - narrowly pre-empting the British Royal Navy.

Italian ironclad Italia

Italian ironclad Italia

Italia was an Italian ironclad battleship built for the Italian Regia Marina, the lead ship of the Italia class. She and her single sister ship, Lepanto, had lengthy construction times. Italia was laid down in January 1876, launched in September 1880, and completed in October 1885. She was armed with a main battery of four 432 mm (17 in) guns mounted in a central barbette and was capable of a top speed of 17.8 knots. Unusually for ships of that era, Italia had an armored deck rather than the typical belt armor.

Regia Marina

Regia Marina

The Regia Marina was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1946. In 1946, with the birth of the Italian Republic, the Regia Marina changed its name to Marina Militare.

Duilio-class ironclad

Duilio-class ironclad

The Duilio class was a pair of ironclad turret ships built for the Royal Italian Navy in the 1870s and 1880s. The two ships, Duilio and Enrico Dandolo, were fitted with the largest guns available, 450 mm (17.7 in) rifled muzzle-loading guns, and were the largest, fastest and most powerful ships of their day. To save weight on such large vessels, the ship's designer, Benedetto Brin adopted a radical solution for the time: he reserved armor only for the central portion of the ship where it protected the ships' engines and ammunition magazines, while the rest of the hull were extensively sub-divided with watertight compartments.

Italia-class ironclad

Italia-class ironclad

The Italia class was a class of two ironclad battleships built for the Italian Regia Marina in the 1870s and 1880s. The two ships—Italia and Lepanto—were designed by Benedetto Brin, who chose to discard traditional belt armor entirely, relying on a combination of very high speed and extensive internal subdivision to protect the ships. This, along with their armament of very large 432 mm (17 in) guns, has led some naval historians to refer to the Italia class as prototypical battlecruisers.

Chamber of Deputies (France)

Chamber of Deputies (France)

Chamber of Deputies was a parliamentary body in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries:1814–1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the lower house of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage. 1875–1940 during the French Third Republic, the Chamber of Deputies was the legislative assembly of the French Parliament, elected by universal suffrage. When reunited with the Senate in Versailles, the French Parliament was called the National Assembly and carried out the election of the president of the French Republic.

Jeune École

Jeune École

The Jeune École was a strategic naval concept developed during the 19th century. It advocated the use of small, heavily armed vessels to combat larger battleships, and the use of commerce raiders to cripple the trade of the rival nation. The idea was developed among French naval theorists: the French government had the second largest navy of the time, and the theorists desired to counteract the strength of the larger British Royal Navy.

Squadron (naval)

Squadron (naval)

A squadron, or naval squadron, is a significant group of warships which is nonetheless considered too small to be designated a fleet. A squadron is typically a part of a fleet. Between different navies there are no clear defining parameters to distinguish a squadron from a fleet, and the size and strength of a naval squadron varies greatly according to the country and time period. Groups of small warships, or small groups of major warships, might instead be designated flotillas by some navies according to their terminology. Since the size of a naval squadron varies greatly, the rank associated with command of a squadron also varies greatly.

Torpedo boat

Torpedo boat

A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to carry torpedoes into battle. The first designs were steam-powered craft dedicated to ramming enemy ships with explosive spar torpedoes. Later evolutions launched variants of self-propelled Whitehead torpedoes.

Conseil supérieur de la Marine

Conseil supérieur de la Marine

The Conseil supérieur de la Marine was an advisory body to the Minister of the Navy that was formed on 5 December 1889. It consisted of the Chief of the Naval Staff, the Directeur du matérial, the Directeur de l'artillerie and various admirals. "The CSM advised the minister on the military characteristics of new designs and drew up the staff requirements including displacement, offensive/defensive qualities, speed and endurance."

Cruiser

Cruiser

A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are generally the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, and can usually perform several roles.

French colonial empire

French colonial empire

The French colonial empire comprised the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward. A distinction is generally made between the "First French Colonial Empire", that existed until 1814, by which time most of it had been lost or sold, and the "Second French Colonial Empire", which began with the conquest of Algiers in 1830. At its apex between the two world wars, the second French colonial empire was the second-largest colonial empire in the world behind the British Empire.

Design

The earlier cruiser Bugeaud of the  Friant class, which provided the basis for the Catinat design
The earlier cruiser Bugeaud of the Friant class, which provided the basis for the Catinat design

To meet the requirements for new cruisers for overseas deployments, the French naval minister, Édouard Barbey, issued a request on 4 November 1890 for design proposals similar to the older Lapérouse and Villars classes. Barbey laid out his requirements for the Conseil des Travaux (Council of Works), which included a maximum displacement of 2,500 t (2,461 long tons; 2,756 short tons), a speed of at least 16 knots (30 km/h; 18 mph) at natural draft, and a cruising radius of 4,500 nautical miles (8,300 km; 5,200 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) with a normal load of coal (and up to 6,000 nmi (11,000 km; 6,900 mi) with a maximum load). Armament was set at four 164.7 mm (6.48 in) guns and ten 100 mm (3.9 in) guns, and the ship was to be protected by deck consisting of a pair of 10 mm (0.39 in) layers. The new ships were to incorporate a barque sailing rig for extended voyages overseas. The Conseil made several alterations, including increasing the speed and cruising radius, which necessitated a displacement of around 2,900 t (2,900 long tons; 3,200 short tons). Barbey approved their recommendations and requested proposals from several shipyards on 3 February 1891.[5]

Five yards submitted proposals, and on 31 July the Conseil examined the submissions. The Conseil selected a design from the shipyard Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire, which became the Descartes class, but they also chose a submission from the naval engineer Joseph Louis Tissier for further development as well. Tissier had noted that the specifications issued by Barbey were broadly similar to the earlier Friant-class cruisers, so he based his design on those vessels. He widened the hull slightly and added a layer of wood to the copper sheathing to protect the vessel during lengthy deployments overseas, where shipyard facilities were not readily available.[6][b] The Conseil requested that Tissier replace the Lagrafel et d'Allest water-tube boilers with Belleville boilers, which would improve the arrangement of the boiler rooms.[7]

In his revised design, which he had completed by January 1893, Tissier altered the arrangement of the main battery to more closely resemble the AC de la Loire design; he had originally placed the guns in sponsons that were widely spaced, but the Conseil preferred the closer arrangement that AC de la Loire had adopted. On 24 January, Barbey forwarded the design to the Conseil, which approved it on 7 March. Final approval from the naval command was given on 21 July; the first ship, Catinat, was to be allocated to the 1893 budget, but delays forced her contract to be moved to the 1894 budget.[8]

General characteristics and machinery

Postcard depicting Catinat
Postcard depicting Catinat

The ships of the Catinat class differed slightly in dimensions. Both were 101.2 m (332 ft) long at the waterline, but Catinat was 101.56 m (333 ft 2 in) long overall while Protet was 101.52 m (333 ft 1 in) overall. They had a beam of 13.6 m (44 ft 7 in), which increased to 15.23 and 15.52 m (50 ft 0 in and 50 ft 11 in) at the sponsons for Catinat and Protet, respectively. Catinat had an average draft of 6 m (19 ft 8 in), while Protet's draft was 6.07 m (19 ft 11 in). Catinat displaced 4,113.65 t (4,048.68 long tons; 4,534.52 short tons), while Protet displaced 4,183.55 t (4,117.48 long tons; 4,611.57 short tons).[8] Protet suffered from stability problems and had to have ballast added, accounting for her greater displacement.[4] Catinat was instead affected by severe vibration at speeds greater than 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph); both ships were poorly ventilated.[7]

Like most French warships of the period, the Catinat-class cruisers' hulls had a pronounced ram bow, tumblehome shape, and a short forecastle deck. Below the waterline, the hulls were covered in a layer of wood and copper sheathing to protect them from biofouling on long voyages overseas. The ships had a minimal superstructure, consisting primarily of a small conning tower and a bridge. They were originally to have been fitted with heavy military masts, but during construction, these were replaced with lighter pole masts with spotting tops for observation and signaling purposes.[9][10] The ships were fitted with four searchlights. Their crew numbered 399 officers and enlisted men.[8]

The ships' propulsion system consisted of a pair of vertical triple-expansion steam engines driving two screw propellers. Steam was provided by sixteen coal-burning Belleville-type water-tube boilers that were ducted into two funnels. Their machinery was rated to produce 7,000 indicated horsepower (5,200 kW) normally, and up to 9,000 ihp (6,700 kW) using forced draft, for a top speed of 19 knots (35 km/h; 22 mph).[4][9] In their initial sea trials, Catinat was reached 9,933 ihp (7,407 kW) for a speed of 19.61 knots (36.32 km/h; 22.57 mph) and Catinat made 9,425 ihp (7,028 kW) for 20.28 knots (37.56 km/h; 23.34 mph). Coal storage amounted to 570.18 t (561.17 long tons; 628.52 short tons),[11] which allowed them to steam for 6,000 nautical miles (11,000 km; 6,900 mi) at a speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph).[12]

Armament and armor

A 100 mm (3.9 in) Model 1891 gun in a pivot mount
A 100 mm (3.9 in) Model 1891 gun in a pivot mount

The Catinat-class vessels were armed with a main battery of four 164 mm (6.5 in) Modèle 1893 45-caliber guns. They were placed in pairs in a single large sponson amidships, two guns per broadside.[9] They were supplied with a variety of shells, including solid, 45 kg (99 lb) cast iron projectiles, and explosive armor-piercing (AP) and semi-armor-piercing (SAP) shells that weighed 54.2 kg (119 lb) and 52.6 kg (116 lb), respectively. The guns fired with a muzzle velocity of 770 to 800 m/s (2,500 to 2,600 ft/s).[13]

The main battery was supported by a secondary battery of ten 100 mm (3.9 in) 45-cal. Modèle 1891 guns (Protet carried the newer M1893 variant), which were carried in a variety of mounts. Two guns fitted with gun shields were placed side-by-side in pivot mounts on the upper deck, four more were in the upper deck forward in casemates. Another pair of guns were in sponsons further aft, and the remaining pair were in pivot mounts on the upper deck aft.[9][11] The guns fired 14 kg (31 lb) cast iron and 16 kg (35 lb) AP shells with a muzzle velocity of 710 to 740 m/s (2,300 to 2,400 ft/s).[14]

For close-range defense against torpedo boats, they carried ten 47 mm (1.9 in) 40-cal. M1885 Hotchkiss guns and four 37 mm (1.5 in) 20-cal. M1885 guns, all in individual pivot mounts. They were also armed with two 356 mm (14 in) torpedo tubes in their hulls above the waterline, one per broadside. In addition, they carried a pair of 65 mm (2.6 in) 16-cal. M1881 field guns that could be sent ashore with a landing party.[11] They had a capacity to carry fifty naval mines, which were stored in the compartment for the steering engine. A rail extended aft, through the captain's cabin, to a port in the stern, where the mines could be dropped into the ships' wake.[9]

Armor protection consisted of a curved armor deck that was 25 mm (0.98 in) thick on the flat portion, curving down at the sides, where it increased in thickness to 40 mm (1.6 in), decreasing back down to 25 mm at the lower edge. The deck consisted of mild steel, and was layered on 20 mm (0.79 in) of normal deck plating. Above the deck, a cellular layer of watertight compartments was intended to contain flooding below the waterline. A light splinter deck that was 7 mm (0.28 in) thick covered the propulsion machinery spaces to protect them from shell fragments that penetrated the main armor deck. The gun shields for the deck-mounted 100 mm guns were 54 mm (2 in) thick. Catinat had 80 mm (3.1 in) steel plating on the conning tower, while Protet received 72 mm (2.8 in).[11][3]

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French cruiser Bugeaud

French cruiser Bugeaud

Bugeaud [by.ɡo] was a Friant-class protected cruiser of the French Navy built in the 1890s, the second of three ships of the class. The Friant-class cruisers were ordered as part of a construction program directed at strengthening the fleet's cruiser force. At the time, France was concerned with the growing naval threat of the Italian and German fleets, and the new cruisers were intended to serve with the main fleet, and overseas in the French colonial empire. Bugeaud and her two sister ships were armed with a main battery of six 164 mm (6.5 in) guns, were protected by an armor deck that was 30 to 80 mm thick, and were capable of steaming at a top speed of 18.7 knots.

Friant-class cruiser

Friant-class cruiser

The Friant class comprised three protected cruisers of the French Navy built in the early 1890s; the three ships were Friant, Bugeaud, and Chasseloup-Laubat. They were ordered as part of a naval construction program directed at France's rivals, Italy and Germany, particularly after Italy made progress in modernizing its own fleet. The plan was also intended to remedy a deficiency in cruisers that had been revealed during training exercises in the 1880s. As such, the Friant-class cruisers were intended to operate as fleet scouts and in the French colonial empire. The ships were armed with a main battery of six 164 mm (6.5 in) guns supported by four 100 mm (3.9 in) guns and they had a top speed of 18.7 knots.

Conseil des travaux

Conseil des travaux

The Conseil des travaux was formed in 1831 in the Ministry of the Navy to examine projects relating to warship construction and dockyard infrastructure. It was composed of at least 18 members throughout its existence and included senior representatives from the corps of engineers, artillery branch, and inspectors of hydraulic works.

Displacement (ship)

Displacement (ship)

The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight. As the term indicates, it is measured indirectly, using Archimedes' principle, by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship, then converting that value into weight. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use, giving various measures in long tons. Today, tonnes are more commonly used.

Knot (unit)

Knot (unit)

The knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h. The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn. The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), while kt is also common, especially in aviation, where it is the form recommended by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The knot is a non-SI unit. The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation. A vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.

Draft (boiler)

Draft (boiler)

The difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure existing in the furnace or flue gas passage of a boiler is termed as draft. Draft can also be referred to as the difference in pressure in the combustion chamber area which results in the motion of the flue gases and the air flow.

Deck (ship)

Deck (ship)

A deck is a permanent covering over a compartment or a hull of a ship. On a boat or ship, the primary or upper deck is the horizontal structure that forms the "roof" of the hull, strengthening it and serving as the primary working surface. Vessels often have more than one level both within the hull and in the superstructure above the primary deck, similar to the floors of a multi-storey building, that are also referred to as decks, as are certain compartments and decks built over specific areas of the superstructure. Decks for some purposes have specific names.

Barque

Barque

A barque, barc, or bark is a type of sailing vessel with three or more masts having the fore- and mainmasts rigged square and only the mizzen rigged fore and aft. Sometimes, the mizzen is only partly fore-and-aft rigged, bearing a square-rigged sail above.

Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire

Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire

Ateliers et Chantiers de la Loire (ACL) was a French shipbuilding company of the late 19th and early 20th century. The name translates roughly to English as "Workshops and Shipyard of the Loire".

Descartes-class cruiser

Descartes-class cruiser

The Descartes class comprised two protected cruisers of the French Navy built in the early 1890s; the two ships were Descartes and Pascal. They were ordered as part of a naval construction program directed at France's rivals, Italy and Germany, particularly after Italy made progress in modernizing its own fleet. The plan was also intended to remedy a deficiency in cruisers that had been revealed during training exercises in the 1880s. As such, the Descartes-class cruisers were intended to operate as fleet scouts and in the French colonial empire. The ships were armed with a main battery of four 164.7 mm (6.48 in) guns supported by ten 100 mm (3.9 in) guns and they had a top speed of 19 knots.

Hull (watercraft)

Hull (watercraft)

A hull is the watertight body of a ship, boat, or flying boat. The hull may open at the top, or it may be fully or partially covered with a deck. Atop the deck may be a deckhouse and other superstructures, such as a funnel, derrick, or mast. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline.

Copper sheathing

Copper sheathing

Copper sheathing is the practice of protecting the under-water hull of a ship or boat from the corrosive effects of salt water and biofouling through the use of copper plates affixed to the outside of the hull. It was pioneered and developed by the Royal Navy during the 18th century. In antiquity, ancient Greeks used lead plates to protect the underwater hull.

Construction

Construction data
Name Budget designation[11] Laid down[9][11] Launched[11] Commissioned[11] Shipyard[11]
Catinat E3 February 1894 8 October 1896 12 May 1897 Société Nouvelle des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée, La Seyne-sur-Mer
Protet E4 5 November 1895 6 July 1898 6 August 1898 Forges et Chantiers de la Gironde, Lormont
Jurien de la Gravière E5 Allocated to 1894 budget, but cancelled before construction
Unnamed E6 Allocated to 1894 budget, but cancelled before construction

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Keel laying

Keel laying

Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is often marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship.

Ship commissioning

Ship commissioning

Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to placing a warship in active duty with its country's military forces. The ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries-old naval tradition.

French cruiser Catinat

French cruiser Catinat

Catinat was the lead ship of the Catinat class of protected cruisers built for the French Navy in the 1890s. The Catinat-class cruisers were ordered as part of a construction program directed at strengthening the fleet's cruiser force at a time the country was concerned with the growing naval threat of the Italian and German fleets. The new cruisers were intended to serve with the main fleet and overseas in the French colonial empire. Catinat was armed with a main battery of four 164 mm (6.5 in) guns, was protected by an armor deck that was 25 to 60 mm thick, and was capable of steaming at a top speed of up to 20 knots.

Société Nouvelle des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée

Société Nouvelle des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée

The Société Nouvelle des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée (FCM) was a French shipbuilding company. The Société des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée was founded in 1853 by Philip Taylor and subsequently incorporated in 1856 in the newly established joint stock company Société Nouvelle des Forges et Chantiers de la Méditerranée founded by Armand Béhic. It eventually had shipyards in La Seyne-sur-Mer, near Toulon, and in Graville, now part of Le Havre. After going into insolvency in 1966, the company was absorbed into the Constructions industrielles de la Méditerranée.

La Seyne-sur-Mer

La Seyne-sur-Mer

La Seyne-sur-Mer, or simply La Seyne, is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Southeastern France. In 2018, it had a population of 62,888. La Seyne-sur-Mer, which is part of the agglomeration of Toulon, is situated adjacent to the west of the city.

French cruiser Protet

French cruiser Protet

Protet was a protected cruiser of the French Navy built in the 1890s, the second and final member of the Catinat class. The Catinat-class cruisers were ordered as part of a construction program directed at strengthening the fleet's cruiser force at a time when the country was concerned with the growing naval threat of the Italian and German fleets. The new cruisers were intended to serve with the main fleet and overseas in the French colonial empire. Protet was armed with a main battery of four 164 mm (6.5 in) guns, was protected by an armor deck that was 25 to 60 mm thick, and was capable of steaming at a top speed of up to 20 knots.

Forges et Chantiers de la Gironde

Forges et Chantiers de la Gironde

Forges et Chantiers de la Gironde was a French shipbuilder at Lormont near Bordeaux on the Gironde estuary. The company was previously called Usine de construction navale Chaigneau et Bichon, then Chantiers et Ateliers de la Gironde S.A. Ets Schneider, before becoming Forges et Chantiers de la Gironde. It is today the Construction Navale de Bordeaux (CNB).

Lormont

Lormont

Lormont is a commune in the Gironde department, New Aquitaine, southwestern France.

Service history

Catinat, date unknown
Catinat, date unknown

Catinat was assigned to the Northern Squadron in 1898, where she conducted training exercises with the rest of the unit. During maneuvers that year, she accidentally ran aground, but was not seriously damaged in the incident.[15] She served in the unit for less than a year before being transferred to the reserve fleet.[16] Protet was sent to the Pacific Ocean for a lengthy deployment after her completion in 1899.[17] She helped suppress a fire in the United States in 1900 and protected French interests in Colombia during a conflict in the country in 1901.[18][19] Catinat had been recommissioned and sent abroad by 1901, being stationed in French Madagascar.[20] She operated there at least through 1902.[21]

At some point thereafter, Catinat was recalled home and decommissioned once more. From 1903 to 1905, she lay at Lorient, where she was "completely abandoned".[11] In early 1905, she was recommissioned to relieve Protet, which had also been recalled home that year.[22] After arriving in France, it was determined that Protet's boilers were in poor condition, but repairs were deemed to be too expensive.[11] She was converted into a training ship for gun crews at the Gunnery School in 1908,[23] but served in that capacity for just two years. She was struck from the naval register in 1910 and thereafter broken up.[24] Catinat's career in the Pacific was uneventful, and she remained on station in the region through 1908.[25] She was placed in reserve in July 1909, struck in 1910,[11] and followed her sister ship to the breakers' yard in 1911.[24]

Discover more about Service history related topics

Ship grounding

Ship grounding

Ship grounding or ship stranding is the impact of a ship on seabed or waterway side. It may be intentional, as in beaching to land crew or cargo, and careening, for maintenance or repair, or unintentional, as in a marine accident. In accidental cases, it is commonly referred to as "running aground".

Reserve fleet

Reserve fleet

A reserve fleet is a collection of naval vessels of all types that are fully equipped for service but are not currently needed; they are partially or fully decommissioned. A reserve fleet is informally said to be "in mothballs" or "mothballed"; an equivalent expression in unofficial modern US naval usage is "ghost fleet". In earlier times, especially in British usage, the ships were said to be "laid up in ordinary".

Ship commissioning

Ship commissioning

Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to placing a warship in active duty with its country's military forces. The ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries-old naval tradition.

French Madagascar

French Madagascar

The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958 in what is now Madagascar. The colony was formerly a protectorate of France known as Malagasy Protectorate. The protectorate became a colony, following Queen Ranavalona III's exile to island of Réunion.

Lorient

Lorient

Lorient is a town (commune) and seaport in the Morbihan department of Brittany in western France.

Training ship

Training ship

A training ship is a ship used to train students as sailors. The term is mostly used to describe ships employed by navies to train future officers. Essentially there are two types: those used for training at sea and old hulks used to house classrooms.

Ship breaking

Ship breaking

Ship-breaking is a type of ship disposal involving the breaking up of ships for either a source of parts, which can be sold for re-use, or for the extraction of raw materials, chiefly scrap. Modern ships have a lifespan of 25 to 30 years before corrosion, metal fatigue and a lack of parts render them uneconomical to operate. Ship-breaking allows the materials from the ship, especially steel, to be recycled and made into new products. This lowers the demand for mined iron ore and reduces energy use in the steelmaking process. Fixtures and other equipment on board the vessels can also be reused. While ship-breaking is sustainable, there are concerns about the use by poorer countries without stringent environmental legislation. It is also labour-intensive, and considered one of the world's most dangerous industries.

Sister ship

Sister ship

A sister ship is a ship of the same class or of virtually identical design to another ship. Such vessels share a nearly identical hull and superstructure layout, similar size, and roughly comparable features and equipment. They often share a common naming theme, either being named after the same type of thing or person or with some kind of alliteration. Typically the ship class is named for the first ship of that class. Often, sisters become more differentiated during their service as their equipment are separately altered.

Source: "Catinat-class cruiser", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catinat-class_cruiser.

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Footnotes

Notes

  1. ^ Figures given are for Catinat; Protet differed slightly in dimensions.
  2. ^ AC de la Loire had based its design on the cruiser Davout, which had also provided the basis for the Friant design Tissier used for his submission, so the Catinat and Descartes-class cruisers were very similar vessels.[7]

Citations

  1. ^ Ropp, p. 195.
  2. ^ Ropp, pp. 195–197.
  3. ^ a b Campbell, pp. 311–312.
  4. ^ a b c Glennon, p. 837.
  5. ^ Roberts, p. 242.
  6. ^ Roberts, pp. 245–246.
  7. ^ a b c Roberts, p. 246.
  8. ^ a b c Roberts, pp. 246–247.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Campbell, p. 312.
  10. ^ Glennon, pp. 837–838.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Roberts, p. 247.
  12. ^ Garbett 1904, p. 563.
  13. ^ Friedman, p. 221.
  14. ^ Friedman, p. 225.
  15. ^ Leyland, pp. 213–215.
  16. ^ Naval Notes, p. 182.
  17. ^ Service Performed, p. 299.
  18. ^ Hay, p. 478.
  19. ^ South America, p. 617.
  20. ^ Jordan & Caresse, p. 219.
  21. ^ Brassey 1902, p. 52.
  22. ^ Garbett 1905, pp. 321–322.
  23. ^ Garbett 1908, p. 864.
  24. ^ a b Smigielski, p. 193.
  25. ^ Garbett 1908, p. 863.
References
  • Brassey, Thomas A. (1902). "Chapter III: Relative Strength". The Naval Annual. Portsmouth: J. Griffin & Co.: 47–55. OCLC 496786828.
  • Campbell, N. J. M. (1979). "France". In Gardiner, Robert (ed.). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1860–1905. London: Conway Maritime Press. pp. 283–333. ISBN 978-0-85177-133-5.
  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All Nations; An Illustrated Directory. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7.
  • Garbett, H., ed. (May 1904). "Naval Notes: France". Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. London: J. J. Keliher & Co. XLVIII (315): 560–566. OCLC 1077860366.
  • Garbett, H., ed. (March 1905). "Naval Notes: France". Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. London: J. J. Keliher & Co. XLIX (325): 321–325. OCLC 1077860366.
  • Garbett, H., ed. (June 1908). "Naval Notes: France". Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. London: J. J. Keliher & Co. LII (364): 861–864. OCLC 1077860366.
  • Glennon, J. H., ed. (1894). "The Decennial Programme for Naval Construction in France". Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. XX (4): 832–838.
  • Hay, John (1902). "Assistance Rendered by French Cruiser Protet in Extinguishing a Fire in San Francisco Harbor". Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States with the Annual Message of the President. Washington D.C.: Government Printing Office: 478.
  • Jordan, John & Caresse, Philippe (2017). French Battleships of World War One. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1-59114-639-1.
  • Leyland, John (1899). Brassey, Thomas A. (ed.). "Chapter IX: Foreign Naval Manoeuvres". The Naval Annual. Portsmouth: J. Griffin & Co.: 210–218. OCLC 496786828.
  • "Naval Notes: France". Journal of the Royal United Service Institution. London: J. J. Keliher & Co. XLII (251): 190–193. 1899. OCLC 1077860366.
  • Roberts, Stephen (2021). French Warships in the Age of Steam 1859–1914. Barnsley: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-5267-4533-0.
  • Ropp, Theodore (1987). Roberts, Stephen S. (ed.). The Development of a Modern Navy: French Naval Policy, 1871–1904. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-0-87021-141-6.
  • "Service Performed by French Vessels Fitted with Belleville Boilers". Notes on Naval Progress. Washington, D.C.: United States Office of Naval Intelligence. 20: 299. July 1901. OCLC 699264868.
  • Smigielski, Adam (1985). "France". In Gardiner, Robert & Gray, Randal (eds.). Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships: 1906–1921. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press. pp. 190–220. ISBN 978-0-87021-907-8.
  • "South America: An Irrepressible Conflict". The Cyclopedic Review of Current History. Boston: Current History Company. XI (10): 614–617. 1902. OCLC 977668285.

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