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Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn

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Carroll Gardens
The "Gardens" in Carroll Gardens comes from the large front gardens in the Historic District and elsewhere in the neighborhood
The "Gardens" in Carroll Gardens comes from the large front gardens in the Historic District and elsewhere in the neighborhood
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°40′52″N 73°59′53″W / 40.681°N 73.998°W / 40.681; -73.998Coordinates: 40°40′52″N 73°59′53″W / 40.681°N 73.998°W / 40.681; -73.998
Country United States
State New York
City New York City
Borough Brooklyn
Community DistrictBrooklyn 6[1]
Area
 • Total0.64 km2 (0.247 sq mi)
Population
 (2016)[2]
 • Total12,853
 • Density20,000/km2 (52,000/sq mi)
Ethnicity
 • White90.1%
 • Black2.9%
 • Hispanic12.3%
 • Asian1.2%
Economics
 • Median income$125,260
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Code
11231
Area codes718, 347, 929, and 917
The "Carroll" in Carroll Gardens comes from Maryland's Charles Carroll, for whom Carroll Park, seen here, is also named
The "Carroll" in Carroll Gardens comes from Maryland's Charles Carroll, for whom Carroll Park, seen here, is also named

Carroll Gardens is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Taking up around 40 city blocks, it is bounded by Degraw and Warren Streets (north), Hoyt and Smith Streets (east), Ninth Street or the Gowanus Expressway (south), and Interstate 278, the Gowanus and Brooklyn–Queens Expressways (west).[3][4][5] The neighborhoods that surround it are Cobble Hill to the northwest, Boerum Hill to the northeast, Gowanus to the east, Red Hook to the south and southwest, and the Columbia Street Waterfront District to the west.[6]

Originally considered to be part of the area once known as South Brooklyn (or, more specifically, Red Hook), the area started to have its own identity in the 1960s.[3][7] The neighborhood was named after Charles Carroll, the only Roman Catholic signer of the Declaration of Independence, and whose name was already attached to Carroll Street and Carroll Park.[8] The name also reflects the large front gardens of brownstones in the Carroll Gardens Historic District and elsewhere in the neighborhood. Despite having an Irish surname, in recent times it has been known as an Italian American neighborhood.

Carroll Gardens is part of Brooklyn Community District 6, and its primary ZIP Code is 11231.[1] It is patrolled by the 76th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.[9] and is served by the New York City Fire Department's Engine Company 239, Engine Co. 279/Ladder Co. 131 and Engine Company 202/Ladder Company 101.[4] Politically, Carroll Gardens is represented by the New York City Council's 39th District.[10]

Discover more about Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn related topics

New York City

New York City

New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over 300.46 square miles (778.2 km2), New York City is the most densely populated major city in the United States and more than twice as populous as Los Angeles, the nation's second-largest city. New York City is located at the southern tip of New York State. It constitutes the geographical and demographic center of both the Northeast megalopolis and the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the U.S. by both population and urban area. With over 20.1 million people in its metropolitan statistical area and 23.5 million in its combined statistical area as of 2020, New York is one of the world's most populous megacities, and over 58 million people live within 250 mi (400 km) of the city. New York City is a global cultural, financial, entertainment, and media center with a significant influence on commerce, health care and life sciences, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, dining, art, fashion, and sports. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy, and is sometimes described as the capital of the world.

Brooklyn

Brooklyn

Brooklyn is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Kings County, in the U.S. state of New York. Kings County is the most populous county in the State of New York, and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, behind New York County (Manhattan). Brooklyn is also New York City's most populous borough, with 2,736,074 residents in 2020.

Interstate 278

Interstate 278

Interstate 278 (I-278) is an auxiliary Interstate Highway in New Jersey and New York in the United States. The road runs 35.62 miles (57.32 km) from US Route 1/9 (US 1/9) in Linden, New Jersey, northeast to the Bruckner Interchange in the New York City borough of the Bronx. The majority of I-278 is in New York City, where it serves as a partial beltway and passes through all five of the city's boroughs. I-278 follows several freeways, including the Union Freeway in Union County, New Jersey; the Staten Island Expressway (SIE) across Staten Island; the Gowanus Expressway in southern Brooklyn; the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway (BQE) across northern Brooklyn and Queens; a small part of the Grand Central Parkway in Queens; and a part of the Bruckner Expressway in the Bronx. I-278 also crosses multiple bridges, including the Goethals, Verrazzano-Narrows, Kosciuszko, and Robert F. Kennedy bridges.

Cobble Hill, Brooklyn

Cobble Hill, Brooklyn

Cobble Hill is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. A small neighborhood comprising 40 blocks, Cobble Hill sits adjacent to Brooklyn Heights to the north, Boerum Hill to the east, Carroll Gardens to the south, and the Columbia Street Waterfront District to the west. It is bounded by Atlantic Avenue (north), Court Street (east), Degraw Street (south) and the Brooklyn Queens Expressway (west). Other sources add to the neighborhood a rectangle bounded by Wyckoff Street on the north, Hoyt Street on the east, Degraw Street on the south, and Court Street on the west.

Boerum Hill

Boerum Hill

Boerum Hill is a small neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, bounded by Schermerhorn Street to the north and Fourth Avenue to the east. The western border is variously given as either Smith or Court Streets, and Warren or Wyckoff Streets as the southern edge.

Gowanus, Brooklyn

Gowanus, Brooklyn

Gowanus is a neighborhood in the northwestern portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn, within the area once known as South Brooklyn. The neighborhood is part of Brooklyn Community District 6. Gowanus is bounded by Wyckoff Street on the north, Fourth Avenue on the east, the Gowanus Expressway to the south, and Bond Street to the west.

Columbia Street Waterfront District

Columbia Street Waterfront District

The Columbia Street Waterfront District is a neighborhood in the borough of Brooklyn in New York City on the Upper New York Bay waterfront between Cobble Hill and Red Hook and situated on the western side of the Brooklyn–Queens Expressway (BQE). The neighborhood is locally governed by Brooklyn Community Board 6. The neighborhood was formed in 1957 when the newly built BQE effectively cut Columbia Street off from Carroll Gardens and Cobble Hill, its two adjacent neighborhoods. The district, once an area that was blighted by empty storefronts, was further emptied of tenants by a 1975 accident, while a sewer line was being repaired, that caused the death of a construction worker and the demolition of 33 buildings. By 1984, an urban renewal project was completed, as well as a brand-new street, houses along which sold out quickly.

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Charles Carroll, known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III, was an Irish-American politician, planter, and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was the only Catholic signatory of the Declaration and the longest surviving, dying 56 years after its signing.

Carroll Gardens Historic District

Carroll Gardens Historic District

The Carroll Gardens Historic District is a small municipal and national historic district located in the Carroll Gardens neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. The national district consists of 134 contributing residential rowhouses built between the 1860s and 1880s. They are two- and three-story brownstone buildings in the neo-Grec and late Italianate styles located in a rectangle bounded by Carroll, President, Smith, and Hoyt Streets. They feature uniform setbacks, even cornice lines and stoop levels, and fenced front yards and landscaped gardens. These were the result of surveyor Richard Butt, who in 1846 planned gardens in front of the brownstone houses in the oldest section of the neighborhood. The homes are set farther back from the street than is common in Brooklyn, and the large gardens became an iconic depiction of the neighborhood. All the houses in the district, which is afforded a degree of privacy by the street pattern that discourages through traffic on Carroll and President Streets, were built between 1869 and 1884.

Brooklyn Community Board 6

Brooklyn Community Board 6

Brooklyn Community Board 6 is a New York City community board that encompasses the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Red Hook, Carroll Gardens, Park Slope, Gowanus, Cobble Hill and Columbia Street Waterfront District. It is delimited by Upper New York Bay and East River on the west, Atlantic Avenue, Court Street, Fourth Avenue, Warren and Pacific Streets on the north, Prospect Park on the east, as well as by the 15th Street, Hamilton Avenue and the Gowanus Canal on the south. It approximates the 19th century district of South Brooklyn.

New York City Fire Department

New York City Fire Department

The New York City Fire Department, officially the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY), is an American department of the government of New York City that provides fire protection services, technical rescue/special operations services, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear and high-yield explosive/hazardous materials response services and emergency medical response services within the five boroughs of New York City.

New York City Council

New York City Council

The New York City Council is the lawmaking body of New York City. It has 51 members from 51 council districts throughout the five boroughs.

History

19th century

Carroll Gardens was settled in the 19th century by immigrants from Ireland,[3] followed in the middle of the century by Norwegian immigrants,[11] who founded two churches, the Norwegian Seaman's Church (formerly the Westminster Presbyterian Church), now apartments, and the Norwegian Methodist Episcopal Church (formerly the Carroll Park Methodist Episcopal Church, no longer extant).[12]

The development of the South Brooklyn area, including Carroll Gardens, was aided by the foundation in 1846 by philanthropists Henry Pierrepont and Jacob E. Leroy of the Hamilton Avenue Ferry. Its purpose was to improve transportation to the newly created Green-Wood Cemetery, but horse car service, and later trolley lines, connecting to the ferry ran through Carroll Gardens, enabling businessmen who lived there to commute more easily to work in Manhattan.[7]

Houses with large front gardens on Second Place that were laid out in 1846 by surveyor Richard Butt.
Houses with large front gardens on Second Place that were laid out in 1846 by surveyor Richard Butt.

In the late 1840s, Carroll Park, Brooklyn's third-oldest, a block-long area of playgrounds, walkways, and sitting areas between Court, Smith, Carroll, and President Streets was built. Originally a private garden, it was purchased by the city in 1853, and was named after Charles Carroll in honor of his Maryland regiment, which had helped to defend the area during the Battle of Long Island in the American Revolutionary War.[7][8][13]

In 1846, surveyor Richard Butt planned gardens in front of the brownstone houses in the oldest section of the neighborhood when he developed it.[4] The homes are set farther back from the street than is common in Brooklyn, and the large gardens became an iconic depiction of the neighborhood. The same year, a law was passed requiring that all buildings between Henry Street and Smith Street have 33 feet 5.25 inches (10.1918 m) between the building and the street for "courtyards".[14] The large gardens can be seen from First to Fourth Place between Henry and Smith Streets, as well as on President, Carroll, and Second Streets between Smith and Hoyt Streets.[3]

Further development of the Carroll Gardens was aided by the draining in the late 1860s of the swampland which surrounded Gowanus Creek through the deepening and dredging of the Creek to create the Gowanus Canal. This provoked land speculation and a building boom throughout the area. It was during this period, from the late 1860s to the early 1880s, that the area which is now the Carroll Gardens Historic District began to be developed.[7]

20th century

Italian immigrants began coming to the neighborhood in the late 19th century – dock workers and workers in the Brooklyn Navy Yard[4] – continuing through the 1950s, which led to much of the Irish population of the area leaving beginning in the 1920s.[3] The rise of the Italian population provoked questions about the role of the Mafia in the neighborhood. One theory has it that Carroll Gardens, which lies between a territory traditionally controlled by the Gambino crime family and one controlled by the Colombo family, is considered to be neutral territory, and has been, for the most part, left alone.[4]

Apartment building on Third Place, dates from c. 1875......and one on Second Place from 1965
Apartment building on Third Place, dates from c. 1875...
Apartment building on Third Place, dates from c. 1875......and one on Second Place from 1965
...and one on Second Place from 1965

Carroll Gardens had long been considered to be part of either the larger area referred to as South Brooklyn, or the neighborhood known as Red Hook. That neighborhood had an informal division in the 1930s and 1940s along Hamilton Avenue, with kids from south of the avenue, mostly of Italian descent, calling themselves "Hookers" or "Hookies" after Red Hook, and kids north of the street, mostly Irish, in what would now be Carroll Gardens called "Creekers" or "Creekies" after the now-drained Gowanus Creek.[4][15] Violence between the two groups was common.[15] The division between the neighborhoods became even stronger beginning in the late 1940s when Robert Moses built the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway and the Gowanus Expressway, which started the process of the Carroll Gardens area taking on a separate and distinct character of its own; the neighborhood's name came from the Carroll Gardens Association, which had been created to advocate for neighborhood improvements.[16]

In the 1960s, young middle-class professionals began to be attracted to the Carroll Garden area due to its convenience to Manhattan, where many of them worked, and its growing reputation as a safe and quiet place to live. This began the gentrification of the neighborhood, and a response from older residents, who did not appreciate these "hippie" newcomers who had no ties to the community. Regardless, the neighborhood gradually received its own name at that time,[4] and the Carroll Gardens Association was formed in 1964. One result was that the decades-long control of the area by a political machine was ended.[3][4]

Today, Carroll Gardens is predominantly upper middle-class, while Red Hook, which had retained its working-class, waterfront ambiance, has only recently begun to feel the effects of gentrification.[17] However, the two neighborhoods have historically both been working-class and a mix of working-class Italian-American, African-American, and Hispanic-American residents, as well as more recent Arab-American immigrant families. As late as the 1990s, several highly publicized incidents of violence underscored the tension between working-class African-Americans from Red Hook and working-class Italian-American residents of Carroll Gardens.[15]

21st century

Carroll Gardens is largely known as an Italian-American neighborhood. Though still visible in local business and culture, the Italian segment of the community has decreased in recent years from 52 percent of the population in 1980 to 22 percent in 2012.[18] Still, despite the decline in the Italian segment of the population and the effects of gentrification, the neighborhood remains a strongly Italian one. Italians in the neighborhood often play bocce games, speak several dialects of Italian, and operate many Italian restaurants and shops, as well as join fraternal and benevolent associations attached to specific towns in Italy.[3] The Roman Catholicism of the Italian population is still evident in the many shrines, especially to the Virgin Mary, which can be seen in front gardens in the neighborhood, and the 70-year tradition of an Our Lady of Sorrows procession celebrating Good Friday continues.[4] Adult children who had moved away from Carroll Gardens have started returning to the neighborhood to raise their children.[4]

The tradition of an annual Our Lady of Sorrows procession on Good Friday began in the 1940s as a celebration of the patron saint of immigrants from Mola di Bari.[4]
The tradition of an annual Our Lady of Sorrows procession on Good Friday began in the 1940s as a celebration of the patron saint of immigrants from Mola di Bari.[4]

The area has recently seen an increase in upper middle-class and wealthy French people, to the extent that it has sometimes been referred to as "Little France" or "Little Paris" by the media in recent times due to the many French citizens who have taken up residence there over the past few years.[19][20][21] A Catholic mass in French is said every Sunday at the St. Agnes Church in Carroll Gardens. This initiative of the diocese of Brooklyn occurred after the neighboring Archdiocese of New York, incurred the wrath of French worshipers in Manhattan by deciding to close the French national parish of St. Vincent de Paul Church.[22] Carroll Gardens has seen some French immigration since the late 1990s, and Bastille Day celebrations are held on July 14 of each year.[23][24] International School of Brooklyn, a Nursery-8th grade independent school, offers a French and Spanish language immersion program. One of the public schools in Carroll Gardens, The Carroll School (P.S. 58), also has one of the area's French dual-language programs, which was one of the first such French programs at a public school in the city.[25][26][24][27] French expatriates operate several restaurants and shops in the neighborhood, including La Cigogne, Café Luluc, Provence en boite, French Louie, Chez Moi, and Bar Tabac.

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Ireland

Ireland

Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, in north-western Europe. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest in the world.

Green-Wood Cemetery

Green-Wood Cemetery

Green-Wood Cemetery is a 478-acre (193 ha) cemetery in the western portion of Brooklyn, New York City. The cemetery is located between South Slope/Greenwood Heights, Park Slope, Windsor Terrace, Borough Park, Kensington, and Sunset Park, and lies several blocks southwest of Prospect Park. Its boundaries include, among other streets, 20th Street to the northeast, Fifth Avenue to the northwest, 36th and 37th Streets to the southwest, Fort Hamilton Parkway to the south, and McDonald Avenue to the east.

Manhattan

Manhattan

Manhattan is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. Located near the southern tip of New York State, Manhattan is based in the Eastern Time Zone and constitutes both the geographical and demographic center of the Northeast megalopolis and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. Over 58 million people live within 250 miles of Manhattan, which serves as New York City’s economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and the city’s historical birthplace. Residents of the outer boroughs of New York City often refer to Manhattan as "the city". Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world, and hosts the United Nations headquarters. Manhattan also serves as the headquarters of the global art market, with numerous art galleries and auction houses collectively hosting half of the world’s art auctions.

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Charles Carroll, known as Charles Carroll of Carrollton or Charles Carroll III, was an Irish-American politician, planter, and signatory of the Declaration of Independence. He was the only Catholic signatory of the Declaration and the longest surviving, dying 56 years after its signing.

Battle of Long Island

Battle of Long Island

The Battle of Long Island, also known as the Battle of Brooklyn and the Battle of Brooklyn Heights, was an action of the American Revolutionary War fought on August 27, 1776, at the western edge of Long Island in present-day Brooklyn, New York. The British defeated the Americans and gained access to the strategically important Port of New York, which they held for the rest of the war. It was the first major battle to take place after the United States declared its independence on July 4, and in troop deployment and combat, it was the largest battle of the war.

American Revolutionary War

American Revolutionary War

The American Revolutionary War, also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was the military conflict of the American Revolution in which American Patriot forces under George Washington's command defeated the British, establishing and securing the independence of the United States. Fighting began on April 19, 1775, at the Battles of Lexington and Concord. The war was formalized and intensified following passage of the Lee Resolution on July 2, 1776, which asserted that the Thirteen Colonies were "free and independent states", and the Declaration of Independence, drafted by the Committee of Five and written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, two days later, on July 4, 1776, by the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia.

Gowanus Canal

Gowanus Canal

The Gowanus Canal is a 1.8-mile-long (2.9 km) canal in the New York City borough of Brooklyn, on the westernmost portion of Long Island. Once a vital cargo transportation hub, the canal has seen decreasing use since the mid-20th century, parallel with the decline of domestic waterborne shipping. It continues to be used for occasional movement of goods and daily navigation of small boats, tugs and barges.

Carroll Gardens Historic District

Carroll Gardens Historic District

The Carroll Gardens Historic District is a small municipal and national historic district located in the Carroll Gardens neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City. The national district consists of 134 contributing residential rowhouses built between the 1860s and 1880s. They are two- and three-story brownstone buildings in the neo-Grec and late Italianate styles located in a rectangle bounded by Carroll, President, Smith, and Hoyt Streets. They feature uniform setbacks, even cornice lines and stoop levels, and fenced front yards and landscaped gardens. These were the result of surveyor Richard Butt, who in 1846 planned gardens in front of the brownstone houses in the oldest section of the neighborhood. The homes are set farther back from the street than is common in Brooklyn, and the large gardens became an iconic depiction of the neighborhood. All the houses in the district, which is afforded a degree of privacy by the street pattern that discourages through traffic on Carroll and President Streets, were built between 1869 and 1884.

Brooklyn Navy Yard

Brooklyn Navy Yard

The Brooklyn Navy Yard is a shipyard and industrial complex located in northwest Brooklyn in New York City, New York. The Navy Yard is located on the East River in Wallabout Bay, a semicircular bend of the river across from Corlears Hook in Manhattan. It is bounded by Navy Street to the west, Flushing Avenue to the south, Kent Avenue to the east, and the East River on the north. The site, which covers 225.15 acres (91.11 ha), is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Gambino crime family

Gambino crime family

The Gambino crime family is an Italian-American Mafia crime family and one of the "Five Families" that dominate organized crime activities in New York City, United States, within the nationwide criminal phenomenon known as the American Mafia. The group, which went through five bosses between 1910 and 1957, is named after Carlo Gambino, boss of the family at the time of the McClellan hearings in 1963, when the structure of organized crime first gained public attention. The group's operations extend from New York and the eastern seaboard to California. Its illicit activities include labor and construction racketeering, gambling, loansharking, extortion, money laundering, prostitution, fraud, hijacking, and fencing.

Colombo crime family

Colombo crime family

The Colombo crime family is an Italian American Mafia crime family and is the youngest of the "Five Families" that dominate organized crime activities in New York City within the criminal organization known as the American Mafia. It was during Lucky Luciano's organization of the American Mafia after the Castellammarese War, following the assassinations of "Joe the Boss" Masseria and Salvatore Maranzano, that the gang run by Joseph Profaci became recognized as the Profaci crime family.

Red Hook, Brooklyn

Red Hook, Brooklyn

Red Hook is a neighborhood in northwestern Brooklyn, New York City, New York, within the area once known as South Brooklyn. It is located on a peninsula projecting into the Upper New York Bay and is bounded by the Gowanus Expressway and the Carroll Gardens neighborhood on the northeast, Gowanus Canal on the east, and the Upper New York Bay on the west and south. A prosperous shipping and port area in the early 20th century, the area declined in the latter part of the century. Today it is home to the Red Hook Houses, the largest housing project in Brooklyn.

Carroll Gardens Historic District

The development of what is now the Carroll Gardens Historic District began in the 1870s, due in part to its proximity to Carroll Park. The district was created by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1973. It includes houses located in a rough rectangle bounded by Carroll, President, Smith, and Hoyt Streets, as well as the western ends of the two blocks between President Street and First Street. The district includes some of the finest examples of brownstones with large front gardens.[7]

Points of interest

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John Rankin House (Brooklyn)

John Rankin House (Brooklyn)

The John Rankin House at 440 Clinton Street at the corner of Carroll Street in the Carroll Gardens neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City was built in the Greek Revival style in 1840, at which time it stood by itself, surrounded by farmland and overlooking Upper New York Bay.

Greek Revival architecture

Greek Revival architecture

The Greek Revival was an architectural movement which began in the middle of the 18th century but which particularly flourished in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in northern Europe and the United States and Canada and in Greece itself following its independence in 1832. It revived many aspects of the forms and styles of ancient Greek architecture, in particular the Greek temple. A product of Hellenism, Greek Revival architecture is looked upon as the last phase in the development of Neoclassical architecture, which was drawn from Roman architecture. The term was first used by Charles Robert Cockerell in a lecture he gave as an architercture professor at the Royal Academy of Arts in London in 1842.

National Register of Historic Places

National Register of Historic Places

The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance or "great artistic value". A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred in preserving the property.

South Congregational Church, Chapel, Ladies Parlor, and Rectory

South Congregational Church, Chapel, Ladies Parlor, and Rectory

The South Congregational Church is a former Congregational and United Church of Christ church building complex located on the intersection of Court and President Streets in Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn, New York City. The complex consisting of a church, original chapel, ladies parlor, and rectory was designated a city landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission on March 23, 1982. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 4, 1982.

Romanesque Revival architecture

Romanesque Revival architecture

Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts.

Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival architecture

Gothic Revival is an architectural movement that began in the late 1840s in England. The movement gained momentum and expanded in the first half of the 19th century, as increasingly serious and learned admirers of the neo-Gothic styles sought to revive medieval Gothic architecture, intending to complement or even supersede the neoclassical styles prevalent at the time. Gothic Revival draws upon features of medieval examples, including decorative patterns, finials, lancet windows, and hood moulds. By the middle of the 19th century, Gothic Revival had become the preeminent architectural style in the Western world, only to fall out of fashion in the 1880s and early 1890s.

Woodruff Leeming

Woodruff Leeming

Woodruff Leeming, AIA, was an American architect who practiced in the New York area.

Frederick Carles Merry

Frederick Carles Merry

Frederick Carles Merry, AIA, was an American architect active in late-nineteenth-century New York City.

Richard Upjohn

Richard Upjohn

Richard Upjohn was a British-born American architect who emigrated to the United States and became most famous for his Gothic Revival churches. He was partially responsible for launching the movement to popularity in the United States. Upjohn also did extensive work in and helped to popularize the Italianate style. He was a founder and the first president of the American Institute of Architects. His son, Richard Michell Upjohn, (1828-1903), was also a well-known architect and served as a partner in his continued architectural firm in New York.

Norwegian Americans

Norwegian Americans

Norwegian Americans are Americans with ancestral roots in Norway. Norwegian immigrants went to the United States primarily in the latter half of the 19th century and the first few decades of the 20th century. There are more than 4.5 million Norwegian Americans, according to the 2021 U.S. census,; most live in the Upper Midwest and on the West Coast of the United States.

Demographics

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of the Carroll Gardens/Columbia Street/Red Hook neighborhood tabulation area was 38,353, a change of 26 (0.1%) from the 38,327 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 1,040.71 acres (421.16 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 36.9 inhabitants per acre (23,600/sq mi; 9,100/km2).[35]

The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 60.9% (23,342) White, 11.9% (4,573) African American, 0.2% (61) Native American, 4.5% (1,728) Asian, 0% (13) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (143) from other races, and 2.4% (912) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.8% (7,581) of the population.[36]

The entirety of Community Board 6, which covers areas around Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, had 109,351 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 81.4 years.[37]: 2, 20  This is slightly higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods.[38]: 53 (PDF p. 84) [39] Most inhabitants are middle-aged adults and youth: 18% are between the ages of 0–17, 46% between 25 and 44, and 20% between 45 and 64. The ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 5% and 10% respectively.[37]: 2 

As of 2016, the median household income in Community Board 6 was $134,804.[40] In 2018, an estimated 10% of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens residents lived in poverty, compared to 21% in all of Brooklyn and 20% in all of New York City. Less than one in fifteen residents (6%) were unemployed, compared to 9% in the rest of both Brooklyn and New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 37% in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, lower than the citywide and boroughwide rates of 52% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Park Slope and Carroll Gardens is considered to be high-income and not gentrifying.[37]: 7 

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Brooklyn Community Board 6

Brooklyn Community Board 6

Brooklyn Community Board 6 is a New York City community board that encompasses the Brooklyn neighborhoods of Red Hook, Carroll Gardens, Park Slope, Gowanus, Cobble Hill and Columbia Street Waterfront District. It is delimited by Upper New York Bay and East River on the west, Atlantic Avenue, Court Street, Fourth Avenue, Warren and Pacific Streets on the north, Prospect Park on the east, as well as by the 15th Street, Hamilton Avenue and the Gowanus Canal on the south. It approximates the 19th century district of South Brooklyn.

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is the department of the government of New York City responsible for public health along with issuing birth certificates, dog licenses, and conducting restaurant inspection and enforcement. The New York City Board of Health is part of the department. Its regulations are compiled in title 24 of the New York City Rules. Since March 2022, the commissioner has been Ashwin Vasan.

Gentrification

Gentrification

Gentrification is the process of changing the character of a neighborhood through the influx of more affluent residents and businesses. It is a common and controversial topic in urban politics and planning. Gentrification often increases the economic value of a neighborhood, but the resulting demographic displacement may itself become a major social issue. Gentrification often sees a shift in a neighborhood's racial or ethnic composition and average household income as housing and businesses become more expensive and resources that had not been previously accessible are extended and improved.

Police and crime

Carroll Gardens is patrolled by the 76th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 191 Union Street.[9] The 76th Precinct ranked 37th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010.[41] As of 2018, with a non-fatal assault rate of 30 per 100,000 people, Park Slope and Carroll Gardens' rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 294 per 100,000 people is lower than that of the city as a whole.[37]: 8 

The 76th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 83.1% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct reported 4 murders, 9 rapes, 53 robberies, 91 felony assaults, 65 burglaries, 210 grand larcenies, and 28 grand larcenies auto in 2018.[42]

Fire safety

The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) operates three fire stations serving Carroll Gardens:[43]

  • Engine Co. 202/Ladder Co. 101 – 31 Richards Street[44]
  • Engine Co. 279/Ladder Co. 131 – 252 Lorraine Street[45]
  • Engine Co. 239 – 395 4th Avenue[46]

Health

Preterm and teenage births are less common in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens than in other places citywide. In Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, there were 27 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 7.9 births to teenage mothers per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide).[37]: 11  Park Slope and Carroll Gardens has a relatively high population of residents who are uninsured, or who receive healthcare through Medicaid.[47] In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 22%, which is higher than the citywide rate of 12%.[37]: 14 

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens is 0.0089 milligrams per cubic metre (8.9×10−9 oz/cu ft), higher than the citywide and boroughwide averages.[37]: 9  Fifteen percent of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens residents are smokers, which is slightly higher than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers.[37]: 13  In Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, 15% of residents are obese, 6% are diabetic, and 22% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively.[37]: 16  In addition, 9% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%.[37]: 12 

Eighty-six percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is slightly lower than the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 88% of residents described their health as "good", "very good", or "excellent", greater than the city's average of 78%.[37]: 13  For every supermarket in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, there are 12 bodegas.[37]: 10 

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Preterm birth

Preterm birth

Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age, as opposed to full-term delivery at approximately 40 weeks. Extreme preterm is less than 28 weeks, very early preterm birth is between 28 and 32 weeks, early preterm birth occurs between 32 and 36 weeks, late preterm birth is between 34 and 36 weeks' gestation. These babies are also known as premature babies or colloquially preemies or premmies. Symptoms of preterm labor include uterine contractions which occur more often than every ten minutes and/or the leaking of fluid from the vagina before 37 weeks. Premature infants are at greater risk for cerebral palsy, delays in development, hearing problems and problems with their vision. The earlier a baby is born, the greater these risks will be.

Health insurance coverage in the United States

Health insurance coverage in the United States

Health insurance coverage in the United States is provided by several public and private sources. During 2019, the U.S. population overall was approximately 330 million, with 59 million people 65 years of age and over covered by the federal Medicare program. The 273 million non-institutionalized persons under age 65 either obtained their coverage from employer-based or non-employer based sources, or were uninsured. During the year 2019, 89% of the non-institutionalized population had health insurance coverage. Separately, approximately 12 million military personnel received coverage through the Veteran's Administration and Military Health System.

Medicaid

Medicaid

In the United States, Medicaid is a program that provides health insurance for some people with limited income and resources. The program is partially funded and primarily managed by state governments, which also have wide latitude in determining eligibility and benefits, but the federal government sets baseline standards for state Medicaid programs and provides a significant portion of their funding.

Particulates

Particulates

Particulates – also known as atmospheric aerosol particles, atmospheric particulate matter, particulate matter (PM) or suspended particulate matter (SPM) – are microscopic particles of solid or liquid matter suspended in the air. The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. Sources of particulate matter can be natural or anthropogenic. They have impacts on climate and precipitation that adversely affect human health, in ways additional to direct inhalation.

Air pollution

Air pollution

Air pollution is the contamination of air due to the presence of substances in the atmosphere that are harmful to the health of humans and other living beings, or cause damage to the climate or to materials. It is also the contamination of indoor or outdoor surrounding either by chemical activities, physical or biological agents that alters the natural features of the atmosphere. There are many different types of air pollutants, such as gases, particulates, and biological molecules. Air pollution can cause diseases, allergies, and even death to humans; it can also cause harm to other living organisms such as animals and food crops, and may damage the natural environment or built environment. Air pollution can be caused by both human activities and natural phenomena.

Smoking

Smoking

Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke is typically breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Most commonly, the substance used is the dried leaves of the tobacco plant, which have been rolled into a small rectangle of rolling paper to create a small, round cylinder called a cigarette. Smoking is primarily practised as a route of administration for recreational drug use because the combustion of the dried plant leaves vaporizes and delivers active substances into the lungs where they are rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and reach bodily tissue. In the case of cigarette smoking, these substances are contained in a mixture of aerosol particles and gases and include the pharmacologically active alkaloid nicotine; the vaporization creates heated aerosol and gas into a form that allows inhalation and deep penetration into the lungs where absorption into the bloodstream of the active substances occurs. In some cultures, smoking is also carried out as a part of various rituals, where participants use it to help induce trance-like states that, they believe, can lead them to spiritual enlightenment.

Obesity

Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition, sometimes considered a disease, in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that it may negatively affect health. People are classified as obese when their body mass index (BMI)—a person's weight divided by the square of the person's height—is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values to calculate obesity. Obesity is a major cause of disability and is correlated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis.

Hypertension

Hypertension

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide.

Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity

Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being. As methods to determine body fat directly are difficult, the diagnosis of obesity is often based on BMI. Due to the rising prevalence of obesity in children and its many adverse health effects it is being recognized as a serious public health concern. The term 'overweight' rather than 'obese' is often used when discussing childhood obesity, as it is less stigmatizing, although the term 'overweight' can also refer to a different BMI category. The prevalence of childhood obesity is known to differ by sex and gender.

Supermarket

Supermarket

A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food, beverages and household products, organized into sections. This kind of store is larger and has a wider selection than earlier grocery stores, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box market. In everyday U.S. usage, however, "grocery store" is often used to mean "supermarket".

Convenience store

Convenience store

A convenience store, bodega, convenience shop, corner store or corner shop is a small retail business that stocks a range of everyday items such as coffee, groceries, snack foods, confectionery, soft drinks, ice creams, tobacco products, lottery tickets, over-the-counter drugs, toiletries, newspapers and magazines. In some jurisdictions, convenience stores are licensed to sell alcoholic drinks, although many jurisdictions limit such beverages to those with relatively low alcohol content, like beer and wine. The stores may also offer money order and wire transfer services, along with the use of a fax machine or photocopier for a small per-copy cost. Some also sell tickets or recharge smart cards, e.g. OPUS cards in Montreal or include a small deli. They differ from general stores and village shops in that they are not in a rural location and are used as a convenient supplement to larger stores.

Education

Park Slope and Carroll Gardens generally have a much higher ratio of college-educated residents than the rest of the city as of 2018. The majority (74%) of residents age 25 and older have a college education or higher, while 9% have less than a high school education and 17% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 40% of Brooklynites and 38% of city residents have a college education or higher.[37]: 6  The percentage of Park Slope and Carroll Gardens students excelling in reading and math has been increasing, with reading achievement rising from 41 percent in 2000 to 53 percent in 2011, and math achievement rising from 35 percent to 64 percent within the same time period.[48]

Park Slope and Carroll Gardens's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In Park Slope and Carroll Gardens, 11% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, compared to the citywide average of 20% of students.[38]: 24 (PDF p. 55) [37]: 6  Additionally, 77% of high school students in Park Slope and Carroll Gardens graduate on time, higher than the citywide average of 75% of students.[37]: 6 

Schools

The Carroll School (P.S. 58)
The Carroll School (P.S. 58)

The New York City Department of Education operates a number of public schools in the neighborhood: Patrick F. Daly (P.S. 15), John M. Harrigan (P.S. 29), The Carroll School (P.S. 58), Samuel Mills Sprole (P.S. 32), the Brooklyn New School (P.S. 146), Brooklyn School of Collaborative Studies (M.S. 448), and the School for Innovation (M.S. 442). The Carroll School (P.S. 58) is known for its dual-language immersion program, which offers a French immersion experience in both English and French for a portion of the students at the school.[49] This program, which began in 2007, has encouraged a growing French-speaking population in the neighborhood.[24][25][26][27]

Also in the area are the New Dawn Charter High School, International School of Brooklyn, Hannah Senesh Community Day School, the Mary McDowell Friends Middle School, and St. Mary's School.

Library

Carroll Gardens branch of the Brooklyn Public Library
Carroll Gardens branch of the Brooklyn Public Library

The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL)'s Carroll Gardens branch is located at 396 Clinton Street near Union Street. The library, originally the Carroll Park branch, opened in 1901 in a rented facility. The library moved to its current facility, a 14,000-square-foot (1,300 m2) Carnegie library designed by William B. Tubby, in 1905. After extensive renovations, the library received its current name in response to a request from the community.[50]

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New York City Department of Education

New York City Department of Education

The New York City Department of Education (NYCDOE) is the department of the government of New York City that manages the city's public school system. The City School District of the City of New York is the largest school system in the United States, with over 1.1 million students taught in more than 1,800 separate schools. The department covers all five boroughs of New York City, and has an annual budget of $38 billion. The department is run by the Panel for Educational Policy and New York City Schools Chancellor. The current chancellor is David C. Banks.

Language immersion

Language immersion

Language immersion, or simply immersion, is a technique used in bilingual language education in which two languages are used for instruction in a variety of topics, including math, science, or social studies. The languages used for instruction are referred to as the L1 and the L2 for each student, with L1 being the student's native language and L2 being the second language to be acquired through immersion programs and techniques. There are different types of language immersion that depend on the age of the students, the classtime spent in L2, the subjects that are taught, and the level of participation by the speakers of L1.

English language

English language

English is a West Germanic language in the Indo-European language family, with its earliest forms spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England. It is named after the Angles, one of the ancient Germanic peoples that migrated to the island of Great Britain. Existing on a dialect continuum with Scots and then most closely related to the Low German and Frisian languages, English is genealogically Germanic. However, its vocabulary also shows major influences from French and Latin, plus some grammar and a small amount of core vocabulary influenced by Old Norse. Speakers of English are called Anglophones.

French language

French language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the Latin spoken in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Brooklyn Public Library

Brooklyn Public Library

The Brooklyn Public Library (BPL) is the public library system of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. It is the sixteenth largest public library system in the United States by holding and the seventh by number of visitors. Like the two other public library systems in New York City, it is an independent nonprofit organization that is funded by the city and state governments, the federal government, and private donors. The library currently promotes itself as Bklyn Public Library.

Carnegie library

Carnegie library

A Carnegie library is a library built with money donated by Scottish-American businessman and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. A total of 2,509 Carnegie libraries were built between 1883 and 1929, including some belonging to public and university library systems. 1,689 were built in the United States, 660 in the United Kingdom and Ireland, 125 in Canada, and others in Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Serbia, Belgium, France, the Caribbean, Mauritius, Malaysia, and Fiji.

Sports

Several 19th-century baseball fields in the community, collectively referred to as Carroll Park, were home fields for several clubs from the early days of baseball, including Excelsior of Brooklyn before they moved to their Red Hook grounds.[51]

Transportation

The New York City Subway's Carroll Street and Smith–Ninth Streets stations service the F and ​G trains.[52][53] Bus service through the neighborhood is available from the B61 on 9th Street and the B57 on Court and Smith Streets.[53]

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Notable residents

Discover more about Notable residents related topics

Nicole Beland

Nicole Beland

Nicole Beland was the Men's Health "Girl Next Door" until the May 2009 issue. Beland's column from Men's Health has been converted into a book called Ask the Men's Health Girl Next Door (ISBN 1579547125). She attended Union College in Schenectady, NY.

Girl next door

Girl next door

The girl next door is a young female stock character who is often used in romantic stories. She is so named because she often lives next door to the protagonist or is a childhood friend. They start out with a mutual friendship that later often develops into romantic attraction.

Mike Birbiglia

Mike Birbiglia

Mike Birbiglia is an American stand-up comedian, actor, storyteller, director, producer and writer. He is a frequent contributor to This American Life and The Moth, and has released several comedy albums and television specials. His feature-length directorial debut Sleepwalk with Me (2012), based on his one-man show of the same name and in which he also starred, won awards at the Sundance and Nantucket film festivals. He also wrote, directed, and starred in the comedy-drama Don't Think Twice (2016). His 2010 book Sleepwalk with Me and Other Painfully True Stories was a New York Times bestseller and a finalist for the 2011 Thurber Prize for American Humor. Birbiglia has appeared in films such as Your Sister's Sister (2011), Cedar Rapids (2011), and Trainwreck (2015), played a recurring role in Orange Is the New Black, Billions and has guest starred in episodes of Girls, Inside Amy Schumer, and Broad City. He also replaced Jimmy Kimmel on his talk show for a week, as Kimmel caught COVID-19.

Saint Ann's School (Brooklyn)

Saint Ann's School (Brooklyn)

Saint Ann's School is a private school in Brooklyn, New York City that is ranked one of the top high schools in the United States. The school is a non-sectarian, co-educational pre-K–12 day school with programs in the arts, humanities, and sciences.

New York City Fire Commissioner

New York City Fire Commissioner

The New York City Fire Commissioner is the civilian administrator of the New York City Fire Department (FDNY), appointed by the Mayor of the City of New York. There have been 34 commissioners excluding Acting Fire Commissioners, and 38 commissioners including Acting Fire Commissioners. This is since Manhattan and the Bronx consolidated with Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island to form The City of New York in 1898. The current Fire Commissioner is Laura Kavanagh, who had held the office since February 16, 2022 as interim Fire Commissioner, but on October 27, 2022, she was appointed as Fire Commissioner.

Brendan J. Dugan

Brendan J. Dugan

Brendan J. Dugan was the 18th President of St. Francis College. Prior to becoming the President of St. Francis College, Dugan served as chairman of St. Francis College's Board of Trustees and as chairman and CEO of Metro New York Division of Santander Bank.

Eileen C. Dugan

Eileen C. Dugan

Eileen C. Dugan was an American politician from New York.

New York State Assembly

New York State Assembly

The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature, with the New York State Senate being the upper house. There are 150 seats in the Assembly. Assembly members serve two-year terms without term limits.

Michelle Goldberg

Michelle Goldberg

Michelle Goldberg is an American journalist and author, and an op-ed columnist for The New York Times. She has been a senior correspondent for The American Prospect, a columnist for The Daily Beast and Slate, and a senior writer for The Nation. Her books are Kingdom Coming: The Rise of Christian Nationalism (2006), The Means of Reproduction: Sex, Power, and the Future of the World (2009), and The Goddess Pose: The Audacious Life of Indra Devi, the Woman Who Helped Bring Yoga to the West (2015).

Jemima Kirke

Jemima Kirke

Jemima Jo M Kirke is a British-American artist, actress and director. She gained international acclaim through her role as Jessa Johansson on the HBO series Girls. She made her film debut in the 2005 indie short Smile for the Camera and her feature-length debut in Tiny Furniture, as a favour for her childhood friend Lena Dunham. In 2017, she starred in Zayn's music video for the single "Dusk Till Dawn" featuring Sia.

Girls (TV series)

Girls (TV series)

Girls is an American comedy-drama television series created by and starring Lena Dunham, executive-produced by Judd Apatow. The series depicts four young women living in New York City. The show's premise was drawn from Dunham's own life, as were major aspects of the main character, including financial isolation from her parents, becoming a writer, and making unfortunate decisions.

Ari Melber

Ari Melber

Ari Naftali Melber is an American attorney and journalist who is the chief legal correspondent for MSNBC and host of The Beat with Ari Melber.

In popular culture

Source: "Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 24th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carroll_Gardens,_Brooklyn.

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References

Notes

  1. ^ a b "NYC Planning | Community Profiles". communityprofiles.planning.nyc.gov. New York City Department of City Planning. Retrieved March 18, 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Carroll Gardens neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York". Retrieved August 16, 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Ellin, Nan. "Carroll Gardens" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (2010). The Encyclopedia of New York City (2nd ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-11465-2., p.107.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Carroll Gardens" in Jackson and Manbeck (2004), pp. 54–57.
  5. ^ "Carroll Gardens" on Google Maps. Retrieved February 20, 2015.
  6. ^ Map at Jackson and Manbeck (2004), p.xxxi.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Carroll Gardens Historic District Designation Report" Archived July 24, 2015, at the Wayback Machine New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (September 25, 1973).
  8. ^ a b "Carroll Park" on the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation website. Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  9. ^ a b "NYPD – 76th Precinct". nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved October 3, 2016.
  10. ^ Current City Council Districts for Kings County, New York City. Accessed May 5, 2017.
  11. ^ a b "Carroll Gardens, a Cozy Brooklyn Locale" Archived January 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine Ctty (July 24, 2014).
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h "Carroll Gardens" in White, Norval; Willensky, Elliot; Leadon, Fran (2010). AIA Guide to New York City (5th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 625–628. ISBN 978-0-19538-386-7.
  13. ^ Donovan, Aaron. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Carroll Gardens; Area of Gardens and 19th-Century Charm", The New York Times(May 12, 2002). Retrieved October 1, 2007.
  14. ^ Carroll Gardens Neighborhood Association website Archived June 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  15. ^ a b c Martin, Douglas (September 28, 1997). "In Brooklyn, 2 Worlds on an Edge; At the Scene of a Bias Beating, a Line Divides Red Hook and Carroll Gardens". The New York Times.
  16. ^ Fioravante, Janice. "If You're Thinking of Living In/Carroll Gardens; A Neighborly Neighborhood in Brooklyn", The New York Times, March 5, 1995. Retrieved November 12, 2017. "Until the 1960s, the neighborhood was considered part of Brooklyn's Red Hook section. Then, partly in response to the flight of many people to the suburbs, neighborhood residents formed an organization to improve the area; they called it the Carroll Gardens Association. When, also in the 60's, the neighborhood was cut off from Red Hook by the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway, it took its new name from the association."
  17. ^ "Red Hook" in Jackson and Manbeck (2004), pp. 187–190.
  18. ^ Gill, John Freeman (March 11, 2014). "New Roots in Carroll Gardens". The New York Times. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
  19. ^ "NYC Micro Neighborhoods: Little France in Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn". Untapped Cities. November 25, 2015. Archived from the original on February 22, 2018. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  20. ^ "DÉCOUVERTE. A Brooklyn, "la Petite France" a tout de la grande". Courrier International (in French). August 21, 2013. Retrieved February 22, 2018.
  21. ^ Semple, Kirk. "A Big Advocate of French in New York’s Schools: France", The New York Times, January 30, 2014. Retrieved February 27, 2018. "Carroll Gardens, and the adjoining neighborhoods of Cobble Hill and Boerum Hill, are now dotted with French-owned cafes and restaurants. Smith Street, a main road, is blocked off every year on Bastille Day for a street fair: The tricolor flies from shopfronts, boules are played, crepes are eaten. The area, predictably, has been called Little France and Little Paris."
  22. ^ Saint-Martin, Emmanuel (September 26, 2014). "A Mass in French Every Sunday in Brooklyn". Frenchly. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
  23. ^ Szabla, C. "The Italians, the French, and the Catholic Shrines of Brooklyn" Maisonneuve(December 6, 2011).
  24. ^ a b c Hays, Elizabeth. "Brooklyn's old Italian stronghold is becoming more and more French" New York Daily News (March 9, 2009).
  25. ^ a b Mokha, Kavita (June 6, 2011). "Learning to Be French in Brooklyn". The Wall Street Journal.
  26. ^ a b Semple, Kirk (January 30, 2014). "A Big Advocate of French in New York's Schools: France". The New York Times.
  27. ^ a b "Dual Language Program – PS58". The Carroll School (P.S. 58).
  28. ^ a b "Carroll Gardens, Gowanus" in New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Dolkart, Andrew S.; Postal, Matthew A. (2009). Postal, Matthew A. (ed.). Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1., pp.247-249.
  29. ^ "John Rankin House Designation Report" New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission (July 14, 1970).
  30. ^ "A Brief History" on the Sacred Hearts of Jesus and Mary and St. Stephen's Church website.
  31. ^ "Norwegian Seamen and Salmon". Comesti Blog. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  32. ^ "The World In NYC: Scandinavia". New York International. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
  33. ^ "Laying the Corner Stone of a Catholic Church" Brooklyn Daily Eagle (July 18, 1853).
  34. ^ "History" on the International School of Brooklyn website.
  35. ^ Table PL-P5 NTA: Total Population and Persons Per Acre - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, February 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
  36. ^ Table PL-P3A NTA: Total Population by Mutually Exclusive Race and Hispanic Origin - New York City Neighborhood Tabulation Areas*, 2010, Population Division - New York City Department of City Planning, March 29, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2016.
  37. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "Park Slope and Carroll Gardens (Including Carroll Gardens, Cobble Hill, Columbia St, Gowanus, Park Slope and Red Hook)" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  38. ^ a b "2016–2018 Community Health Assessment and Community Health Improvement Plan: Take Care New York 2020" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2017.
  39. ^ "New Yorkers are living longer, happier and healthier lives". New York Post. June 4, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  40. ^ "NYC-Brooklyn Community District 6--Park Slope, Carroll Gardens & Red Hook PUMA, NY". Census Reporter. Knight Foundation. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
  41. ^ "Red Hook, Carroll Gardens & Cobble Hill – DNAinfo.com Crime and Safety Report". DNAinfo. Archived from the original on March 6, 2019. Retrieved October 6, 2016.
  42. ^ "76th Precinct CompStat Report" (PDF). nyc.gov. New York City Police Department. Retrieved July 22, 2018.
  43. ^ "FDNY Firehouse Listing – Location of Firehouses and companies". NYC Open Data; Socrata. New York City Fire Department. September 10, 2018. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
  44. ^ "Engine Company 202/Ladder Company 101". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  45. ^ "Engine Company 279/Ladder Company 131". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  46. ^ "Engine Company 239". FDNYtrucks.com. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  47. ^ New York City Health Provider Partnership Brooklyn Community Needs Assessment: Final Report, New York Academy of Medicine (October 3, 2014).
  48. ^ "Park Slope/Carroll Gardens – BK 06" (PDF). furmancenter.org. Furman Center for Real Estate and Urban Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2016.
  49. ^ "Dual Language Program". The Carroll School (P.S. 58).
  50. ^ "Carroll Gardens Library". Brooklyn Public Library. August 19, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2019.
  51. ^ "BrooklynBallParks.com – Other Ancient Parks". Covehurst.net. Retrieved January 15, 2019.
  52. ^ "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. September 2021. Retrieved September 17, 2021.
  53. ^ a b "Brooklyn Bus Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 2020. Retrieved December 1, 2020.
  54. ^ Chung, Jen. "Nicole Beland, Writer/Girl Next Door" Archived November 6, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, Gothamist, July 20, 2004. Retrieved October 18, 2017. "Where do you live now: Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn".
  55. ^ Hoffman, Barbara (January 4, 2019). "Comedian Mike Birbiglia says Brooklyn is the Boise of NYC". New York Post. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  56. ^ Martin, Douglas. "Stanley Bosworth, Iconoclastic Head of Brooklyn School, Dies at 83", The New York Times, August 11, 2011. Retrieved November 12, 2017. "Stanley Bosworth, a self-described 'old wizard' who shaped his own Hogwarts in Brooklyn in the form of Saint Ann's School, which rapidly gained national prominence for its free-form approach to education and its success in sending graduates to top colleges, died on Sunday at his home in Brooklyn. He was 83.... Mr. Bosworth, who lived in Carroll Gardens in Brooklyn, was married three times."
  57. ^ Baker, Al. "A Fire Commissioner Devoted to Family and Dedicated to the Safety of His Corps", The New York Times, December 23, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2017. "Born on Jan. 22, 1945, as the second son in an Italian-American family, he was named after the father of his mother, Madeline. The Cassanos lived in South Brooklyn, in a walk-up on First Place in Carroll Gardens."
  58. ^ Crouch, Stanley. "This crazy quilt called America", New York Daily News, March 28, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2017. "In my Brooklyn neighborhood of Carroll Gardens, I often ride my bike over to the Clover Club to hear the Michael Arenella Quartet."
  59. ^ Staff. "Brendan J. Dugan, transformational leader of St. Francis College, dies at age 69 ", Brooklyn Daily Eagle, December 19, 2016. Retrieved October 18, 2017. "'When you hung around with Brendan, unless you were in the banking business you really didn’t really know he was a banker. Not only that, you didn’t even know he was CEO of a bank,' said Domenick A. Cama, senior executive vice president and COO of Investors Bank who grew up with President Dugan in Carroll Gardens."
  60. ^ Van Gelder, Lawrence. "Eileen C. Dugan, 51, State Assemblywoman", The New York Times, November 9, 1996. Retrieved October 18, 2017. "Eileen C. Dugan, a Brooklyn Democrat who was elected to her ninth term in the New York State Assembly only on Tuesday, died yesterday at Beth Israel Medical Center. Ms. Dugan, who lived in Carroll Gardens, was 51."
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