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Carl Petersén (born 1883)

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Carl Petersén
Carl Petersén militär.jpg
Nickname(s)Petter[1]
Calle P[2]
Born(1883-04-18)18 April 1883
Stockholm, Sweden
Died14 April 1963(1963-04-14) (aged 79)
Geneva, Switzerland
Buried
AllegianceSweden
Service/branchSwedish Army
Years of service1903–1946
RankLieutenant colonel[3]
UnitPersian Gendarmerie (1911–13)
White Guard (1918)
Commands heldC-byrån (1940–46)
Battles/warsGallipoli Campaign
Finnish Civil War
Operation Stella Polaris

Carl Jacob Karsten Petersén (18 April 1883 – 14 April 1963) was a Swedish Army officer. During World War II he served as head of the intelligence agency C-byrån. He later served as Secretary General of the International Road Transport Union.

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Early life

Petersén was born on 18 April 1883 in Stockholm, Sweden, the son of deputy assistant Carl Petersén and Ingeborg Tanberg.[4] He passed studentexamen at Nya Elementar [sv] in Bromma in 1901.[5]

Career

He became a second lieutenant in the Uppland Artillery Regiment (A 5) in 1903[4] and was promoted to lieutenant in 1906.[6] He attended the Royal Central Gymnastics Institute in 1907. Petersén was major and instructor in the Persian Gendarmerie from 1911 to 1913 and participated in the Gallipoli Campaign in 1915. The same year he was promoted to captain in the Swedish Army and did the certificate exams for balloon license.[4] Petersén participated in the Finnish Civil War in 1918 as a lieutenant colonel in the White Guard.

He was then attaché in Warsaw from 1919 to 1920, was in the Commission Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations from 1923 to 1925, the Bulgarian Refugee Commission from 1926 to 1928, in Syria in 1929 and the League of Nations border control commission in Syria and Iran in 1932.[4] In 1932, Petersén was promoted to major in the Swedish Army. He was Head of Department at the International Red Cross in Paris from 1921 to 1937, the general secretary of the Royal Swedish Aero Club from 1937 to 1939 and was legation counsellor in Berlin and worked at the B Department of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs from 1939 to 1940.[4] Petersén was head of the intelligence agency C-byrån from 1940 to 1946. In 1944, he led the Swedish side of the Operation Stella Polaris.[7]

During the war, Petersén and his colleague Algot Törneman had organised private arms trades. They had sold weapons via a private firm, Skandiastål, to the Norwegian and Danish resistance movements. After the war Petersén moved to Switzerland where he continued to represent the weapons firm Skandiastål.[8] He became a major in the reserve of Bergslagen Artillery Regiment in 1945[9] and a lieutenant colonel in 1947.[10] Petersén later served as secretary general of the International Road Transport Union in Geneva.[11]

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Iranian Gendarmerie

Iranian Gendarmerie

The Iranian Gendarmerie, also called the Government Gendarmerie, was the first rural police force, and subsequent modern highway patrol, in Iran. A paramilitary force, it also played a significant part in politics from its establishment in 1910 during the Qajar dynasty until the advent of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1921. It continued to serve until the end of the Pahlavi era and was modernized into the Imperial Iranian Gendarmerie. Originally established as a constitutional army, the force employed Swedish officers in command of Iranian personnel to perform both traditional police duties and conduct military campaigns against tribal forces. In 1991 the Iranian Gendarmerie was merged with other police forces to form the Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran.

Gas balloon

Gas balloon

A gas balloon is a balloon that rises and floats in the air because it is filled with a gas lighter than air. When not in flight, it is tethered to prevent it from flying away and is sealed at the bottom to prevent the escape of gas. A gas balloon may also be called a Charlière for its inventor, the Frenchman Jacques Charles. Today, familiar gas balloons include large blimps and small latex party balloons. For nearly 200 years, well into the 20th century, manned balloon flight utilized gas balloons before hot-air balloons became dominant. Without power, heat or fuel, untethered flights of gas balloons depended on the skill of the pilot. Gas balloons have greater lift for a given volume, so they do not need to be so large, and they can stay up for much longer than hot air balloons.

Finnish Civil War

Finnish Civil War

The Finnish Civil War was a civil war in Finland in 1918 fought for the leadership and control of the country between White Finland and the Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic during the country's transition from a grand duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state. The clashes took place in the context of the national, political, and social turmoil caused by World War I in Europe. The war was fought between the "Reds", led by a section of the Social Democratic Party, and the "Whites", conducted by the conservative-based senate and the German Imperial Army. The paramilitary Red Guards, which were composed of industrial and agrarian workers, controlled the cities and industrial centers of southern Finland. The paramilitary White Guards, which consisted of land owners and those in the middle- and upper-classes, controlled rural central and northern Finland, and were led by General C. G. E. Mannerheim.

Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations

Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations

The Convention Concerning the Exchange of Greek and Turkish Populations, also known as the Lausanne Convention, was an agreement between the Greek and Turkish governments signed by their representatives in Lausanne on 30 January 1923, in the aftermath of the Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922. The agreement provided for the simultaneous expulsion of Orthodox Christians from Turkey to Greece and of Muslims from Greece to Turkey. These involuntary population transfers involved approximately two million people, around 1.5 million Anatolian Greeks and 500,000 Muslims in Greece.

League of Nations

League of Nations

The League of Nations was the first worldwide intergovernmental organisation whose principal mission was to maintain world peace. It was founded on 10 January 1920 by the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. The main organization ceased operations on 20 April 1946 but many of its components were relocated into the new United Nations.

International Committee of the Red Cross

International Committee of the Red Cross

The International Committee of the Red Cross is a humanitarian organization which is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and it is also a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the Geneva Convention of 1949 and its Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded persons, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.

Berlin

Berlin

Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3.6 million inhabitants make it the European Union's most populous city, according to population within city limits. One of Germany's sixteen constituent states, Berlin is surrounded by the State of Brandenburg and contiguous with Potsdam, Brandenburg's capital. Berlin's urban area, which has a population of around 4.5 million, is the second most populous urban area in Germany after the Ruhr. The Berlin-Brandenburg capital region has around 6.2 million inhabitants and is Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.

Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Sweden)

Ministry for Foreign Affairs (Sweden)

The Ministry for Foreign Affairs is responsible for Swedish foreign policy.

C-byrån

C-byrån

C-byrån was a Swedish secret intelligence agency established in 1939, sorting under the Swedish Armed Forces. It was led by Major Carl Petersén. During World War II C-byrån organized operations in the German-occupied Norway and Operation Stella Polaris in Finland.

Algot Törneman

Algot Törneman

Jarl Algot Gustav Törneman, nicknamed P. was a Swedish enamel artist and painter.

Norwegian resistance movement

Norwegian resistance movement

The Norwegian resistance to the occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany began after Operation Weserübung in 1940 and ended in 1945. It took several forms:Asserting the legitimacy of the exiled government, and by implication the lack of legitimacy of Vidkun Quisling's pro-Nazi regime and Josef Terboven's military administration The initial defence in Southern Norway, which was largely disorganised, but succeeded in allowing the government to escape capture The more organised military defence and counter-attacks in parts of Western and Northern Norway, aimed at securing strategic positions and the evacuation of the government Armed resistance, in the form of sabotage, commando raids, assassinations and other special operations during the occupation Civil disobedience and unarmed resistance

Danish resistance movement

Danish resistance movement

The Danish resistance movements were an underground insurgency to resist the German occupation of Denmark during World War II. Due to the initially lenient arrangements, in which the Nazi occupation authority allowed the democratic government to stay in power, the resistance movement was slower to develop effective tactics on a wide scale than in some other countries.

Personal life

Petersén got engaged to Esther Warodell (1886–1978) on 23 August 1909[12] and they married on 22 February 1910.[13] Esther was the daughter of Oscar Andrén (1858–1918) and his wife Ellen Andersson (1863–1952).[14][15] Esther was adopted by her stepfather Carl Warodell (1847–1902), a captain of the Göte Life Guards.[16][17]

One daughter was born in Tehran, Iran on 19 October 1912.[18] They also had on son, ambassador Carl Henrik Petersén [sv] (1914–1976).[11] He had a total of four children: Carl Henrik, Ingeborg, Rurik and Kerstin.[19]

Death

Family grave of Carl Petersén at Norra begravningsplatsen
Family grave of Carl Petersén at Norra begravningsplatsen

Petersén died on 14 April 1963 in Geneva, Switzerland.[11] He was interred on 27 June 1963 at Norra begravningsplatsen i Stockholm.[20]

Dates of rank

Sweden

Finland

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Underlöjtnant

Underlöjtnant

Underlöjtnant was the lowest officer rank in the Swedish Army from 1835 to 1937 instead of the previous ranks of fänrik and cornet. Fänrik was reintroduced in 1914 with the same position as underlöjtnant, from 1926 with lower position.

Löjtnant

Löjtnant

Löjtnant is a company grade officer rank. In the army/airforce, it ranks above second lieutenant and below captain. In the navy, it ranks above acting sub-lieutenant and below lieutenant. It is equivalent to the specialist officers rank of förvaltare. The rank has been used in Sweden since the Middle Ages.

Kapten

Kapten

Kapten is a company grade officer rank. In the army/airforce, it ranks above lieutenant and below major. In the navy, it ranks above sub-lieutenant and below lieutenant commander. It is equivalent to the specialist officers rank of förvaltare. The rank has been used in Sweden since the Middle Ages.

Major (Sweden)

Major (Sweden)

Major (Maj) is a field grade military officer rank in the Swedish Armed Forces, above the rank of captain and below the rank of lieutenant colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of lieutenant commander in the Swedish Navy.

Överstelöjtnant

Överstelöjtnant

Lieutenant colonel (LtCol) is a field grade officer rank in the Swedish Armed Forces, just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of commander in the Swedish Navy.

Everstiluutnantti

Everstiluutnantti

Everstiluutnantti is an officer's rank in Finland, immediately above Majuri (Major) and below Eversti (Colonel).

Awards and decorations

Swedish

Foreign

Orders

Medals and crosses

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Order of the Sword

Order of the Sword

The Royal Order of the Sword is a Swedish order of chivalry and military decoration created by King Frederick I of Sweden on February 23, 1748, together with the Order of the Seraphim and the Order of the Polar Star.

Order of the Polar Star

Order of the Polar Star

The Royal Order of the Polar Star is a Swedish order of chivalry created by King Frederick I on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Seraphim.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria covers a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), and is the sixteenth-largest country in Europe. Sofia is the nation's capital and largest city; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.

Finland

Finland

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland across Estonia to the south. Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi) with a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city, forming a larger metropolitan area with the neighbouring cities of Espoo, Kauniainen, and Vantaa. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish, alongside Swedish, are the official languages. Swedish is the native language of 5.2% of the population. Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.

Latvia

Latvia

Latvia, officially the Republic of Latvia, is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is one of the Baltic states; and is bordered by Estonia to the north, Lithuania to the south, Russia to the east, Belarus to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Sweden to the west. Latvia covers an area of 64,589 km2 (24,938 sq mi), with a population of 1.9 million. The country has a temperate seasonal climate. Its capital and largest city is Riga. Latvians belong to the ethno-linguistic group of the Balts; and speak Latvian, one of the only two surviving Baltic languages. Russians are the most prominent minority in the country, at almost a quarter of the population.

Order of the Three Stars

Order of the Three Stars

Order of the Three Stars is the highest civilian order awarded for meritorious service to Latvia. It was established in 1924 in remembrance of the founding of Latvia. Its motto is "Per aspera ad astra", meaning "Through hardships to the stars". The Order has five ranks and three grades of medals of honour.

Denmark

Denmark

Denmark is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It is the most populous and politically central constituent of the Kingdom of Denmark, a constitutionally unitary state that includes the autonomous territories of the Faroe Islands and Greenland in the North Atlantic Ocean. European Denmark is the southernmost of the Scandinavian countries, lying southwest of Sweden, south of Norway, and north of Germany.

Order of the Dannebrog

Order of the Dannebrog

The Order of the Dannebrog is a Danish order of chivalry instituted in 1671 by Christian V. Until 1808, membership in the order was limited to fifty members of noble or royal rank, who formed a single class known as White Knights to distinguish them from the Blue Knights who were members of the Order of the Elephant. In 1808, the Order was reformed and divided into four classes.

Order of the British Empire

Order of the British Empire

The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is also the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a transcontinental country predominantly located in Western Europe and spanning overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Due to its several coastal territories, France has the largest exclusive economic zone in the world. France borders Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, Switzerland, Monaco, Italy, Andorra, and Spain in continental Europe, as well as the Netherlands, Suriname, and Brazil in the Americas via its overseas territories in French Guiana and Saint Martin. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain close to 68 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre; other major urban areas include Marseille, Lyon, Toulouse, Lille, Bordeaux, and Nice.

Legion of Honour

Legion of Honour

The National Order of the Legion of Honour, formerly the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour, is the highest French order of merit, both military and civil. Established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte, it has been retained by all later French governments and regimes.

Order of the Lion and the Sun

Order of the Lion and the Sun

The Imperial Order of the Lion and the Sun was instituted by Fat’h Ali Shah of the Qajar dynasty in 1808 to honour foreign officials who had rendered distinguished services to Iran. In 1925, under the Pahlavi dynasty the Order continued as the Order of Homayoun with new insignia, though based on the Lion and Sun motif. This motif was used for centuries by the rulers of Iran, being formally adopted under Mohammad Shah.

Source: "Carl Petersén (born 1883)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Petersén_(born_1883).

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References
  1. ^ Svensson, Rune (1999). Huldt, Bo; Böhme, Klaus-R (eds.). Militäthistorisk Tidskrift 1999 (PDF). Militärhistorisk tidskrift, 0283-8400 0283-8400 ; 1999 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS). p. 83. ISSN 0283-8400. SELIBR 5gmf4ffd3xbjs03n.
  2. ^ Svensson, Rune (1999). Huldt, Bo; Böhme, Klaus-R (eds.). Militäthistorisk Tidskrift 1999 (PDF). Militärhistorisk tidskrift, 0283-8400 0283-8400 ; 1999 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Försvarshögskolan (FHS). p. 113. ISSN 0283-8400. SELIBR 5gmf4ffd3xbjs03n.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Sveriges statskalender för året 1955 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Fritzes offentliga publikationer. 1955. p. 38.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Harnesk, Paul, ed. (1945). Vem är vem? [Who is Who?] (in Swedish). Vol. D. 1, Stockholmsdelen. Stockholm: Vem är vem bokförlag. p. 650.
  5. ^ "Studentjubileum". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 30 May 1941. p. A9. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  6. ^ "Tre svenska officerare till Persien". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). No. 159. 15 June 1911. p. 6. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  7. ^ Helgegren, Carl-Magnus (10 November 2013). "Operation Stella Polaris" (MP3). P3 Dokumentär (in Swedish). Sveriges Radio. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  8. ^ Bratt, Peter (21 June 1998). "Svensk kupp gav nazisternas ryska koder till USA" [Swedish coup gave the Nazi's Russian codes to the US]. Dagens Nyheter (in Swedish). Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 17 March 2016.
  9. ^ Sveriges statskalender för året 1947 (in Swedish). Uppsala: Fritzes offentliga publikationer. 1947. p. 364.
  10. ^ Sveriges statskalender för året 1950 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Fritzes offentliga publikationer. 1950. p. 370.
  11. ^ a b c "DÖDSFALL". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 18 April 1963. p. A15. Retrieved 14 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Förlofvade". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). No. 220. 23 August 1909. p. 1. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  13. ^ "Vigde". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 24 February 1910. p. 2. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  14. ^ Vem är det: svensk biografisk handbok. 1943 [Who is it: Swedish biographical handbook. 1943] (in Swedish). Stockholm: Norstedt. 1942. p. 657. SELIBR 10335454.
  15. ^ "Esther Petersén". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 9 November 1978. p. 16 (12). Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  16. ^ "Personalnotiser". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). No. 221. 24 August 1909. p. 4. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  17. ^ Keiller, Lennart, ed. (9 November 1978). "dödsfall". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). p. 16 (12). Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  18. ^ "Födde". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). No. 286. 21 October 1912. p. 2. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  19. ^ "DÖDE". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 18 April 1963. p. 2A. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  20. ^ "Norra begravningsplatsen, kvarter 04A, gravnummer 1" (in Swedish). Hittagraven.se. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
  21. ^ Sveriges statskalender för året 1955 (in Swedish). Stockholm: Fritzes offentliga publikationer. 1955. p. 107.

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