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Canaan Dog

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Canaan Dog
CanaanDogChakede.jpg
OriginMiddle East[1][2]
Dog (domestic dog)

The Canaan Dog is the oldest[3] breed of pariah dog still existing and abundant across the Middle East.[1][2] It can be found in Israel, Palestine,[4] Jordan, Lebanon and the Sinai Peninsula, and these, or dogs nearly identical, were also found in Iraq and Syria[5][6] over 9000 years ago.[3] It is the national dog of Israel.[7] As of 2012, there were 2,000 to 3,000 Canaan Dogs across the world.[8]

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Dog breed

Dog breed

A dog breed is a particular strain of dog that was purposefully bred by humans to perform specific tasks, such as herding, hunting, and guarding. Dogs are the most variable mammal on Earth, with artificial selection producing around 450 globally recognized breeds. These breeds possess distinct traits related to morphology, which include body size, skull shape, tail phenotype, fur type, body shape, and coat colour. Their behavioral traits include guarding, herding, and hunting, and personality traits such as hyper-social behavior, boldness, and aggression. Most breeds were derived from small numbers of founders within the last 200 years. As a result, today dogs are the most abundant carnivore species and are dispersed around the world.

Middle East

Middle East

The Middle East is a geopolitical region commonly encompassing Arabia, Asia Minor, East Thrace, Egypt, Iran, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and the Socotra Archipelago. The term came into widespread usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. The term "Middle East" has led to some confusion over its changing definitions, and has been viewed by some to be discriminatory or too Eurocentric. The region includes the vast majority of the territories included in the closely associated definition of Western Asia, but without the South Caucasus, and additionally includes all of Egypt and all of Turkey.

Israel

Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia. Situated between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea, it is bordered by Lebanon to the north, by Syria to the northeast, by Jordan to the east, by Egypt to the southwest, and by the Palestinian territories — the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest — with which it shares legal boundaries. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

State of Palestine

State of Palestine

Palestine, officially the State of Palestine, is a state located in Western Asia. Officially governed by the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), it claims the West Bank, including East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip as its territory, though the entirety of that territory has been under Israeli occupation since the 1967 Six-Day War. As a result of the Oslo Accords of 1993–1995, the West Bank is currently divided into 165 Palestinian enclaves that are under partial Palestinian National Authority (PNA) rule; the remainder, including 200 Israeli settlements, is under full Israeli control. The Gaza Strip has been ruled by the militant Islamic group Hamas and has been subject to a long-term blockade by Egypt and Israel since 2007.

Jordan

Jordan

Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, is a country in Western Asia. It is situated at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, within the Levant region, on the East Bank of the Jordan River. Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the south and east, Iraq to the northeast, Syria to the north, and the Palestinian West Bank, Israel, and the Dead Sea to the west. It has a 26 km (16 mi) coastline in its southwest on the Gulf of Aqaba's Red Sea, which separates Jordan from Egypt. Amman is Jordan's capital and largest city, as well as its economic, political, and cultural centre.

Lebanon

Lebanon

Lebanon, officially the Republic of Lebanon or the Lebanese Republic, is a country in Western Asia. It is located between Syria to the north and east and Israel to the south, while Cyprus lies to its west across the Mediterranean Sea; its location at the crossroads of the Mediterranean Basin and the Arabian hinterland has contributed to its rich history and shaped a cultural identity of religious diversity. It is part of the Levant region of the Middle East. Lebanon is home to roughly five million people and covers an area of 10,452 square kilometres (4,036 sq mi), making it the second smallest country in continental Asia. The official language of the state is Arabic, while French is also formally recognized; Lebanese Arabic is used alongside Modern Standard Arabic throughout the country.

Sinai Peninsula

Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula, or simply Sinai, is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia. It is between the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Red Sea to the south, and is a land bridge between Asia and Africa. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 600,000 people. Administratively, the vast majority of the area of the Sinai Peninsula is divided into two governorates: the South Sinai Governorate and the North Sinai Governorate. Three other governorates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez Governorate on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia Governorate in the center, and Port Said Governorate in the north.

Iraq

Iraq

Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, the Persian Gulf and Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west. The capital and largest city is Baghdad. Iraq is home to diverse ethnic groups including Iraqi Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, Armenians, Yazidis, Mandaeans, Persians and Shabakis with similarly diverse geography and wildlife. The vast majority of the country's 44 million residents are Muslims – the notable other faiths are Christianity, Yazidism, Mandaeism, Yarsanism and Zoroastrianism. The official languages of Iraq are Arabic and Kurdish; others also recognised in specific regions are Neo-Aramaic, Turkish and Armenian.

Syria

Syria

Syria, officially the Syrian Arab Republic, is a Western Asian country located in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Levant. It is a unitary republic that consists of 14 governorates (subdivisions), and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east and southeast, Jordan to the south, and Israel and Lebanon to the southwest. Cyprus lies to the west across the Mediterranean Sea. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including the majority Syrian Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, Armenians, Circassians, Albanians, and Greeks. Religious groups include Muslims, Christians, Alawites, Druze, and Yazidis. The capital and largest city of Syria is Damascus. Arabs are the largest ethnic group, and Muslims are the largest religious group.

Naming

The Canaan dog is also known as the Kelev K'Naani,[9] Israel Canaan Dog,[10] Bedouin Sheep dog[11][12][13] and Palestinian Pariah Dog,[11][12][13] The breed standard was created by Israeli Professor Rudolphina Menzel in 1966.[14]

History

Canaan dog
Canaan dog

Since time immemorial, the Bedouins have used this dog for guarding their herds and camps.[5] At the time of the Diaspora, the Israelites were forcefully removed from their land and according to tradition had to leave behind their dogs which reverted to the wild.[5]

Excavations in Israel unearthed the Ashkelon dog cemetery, the largest known animal cemetery in the ancient world, containing 700 dog skeletons, all of which were anatomically similar to the Canaan dog of modern times. The cemetery dates back to the time of occupation by the Persian Empire and archaeologists hypothesize that the dogs were revered as sacred animals.[11]

Dr. Rudolphina Menzel (1891–1973) used these intelligent scavenger-dogs mainly found in the desert as guard dogs. In the 1930s, Menzel was asked by the Haganah to build up a service dog organization. She captured a select group of semi-wild individuals, tamed, trained and bred them. Menzel found the dogs highly adaptable, trainable, and easy to domesticate. It took her about six months to capture her first dog, Dugma, and within a few weeks she was able to take him into town and on buses. She began a breeding program in 1934, providing working dogs for the military and she gave pups to be pets and home guard dogs. She initiated a selective breeding program to produce the breed known today as the Canaan dog.

Canaan Dog jumping
Canaan Dog jumping

In 1949, Menzel founded The Institute for Orientation and Mobility of the Blind, and in 1953, she started to train Canaan dogs as guide dogs for the blind. Although she was able to train several dogs, she found that the breed was too independent and too small for general guide dog use, although some of her dogs were used successfully by children. Her breeding program was concentrated with the Institute, where a foundation of kennel-raised Canaan dogs was established, carrying the name "B'nei Habitachon". In addition, a controlled collection of dogs of the original type was continued, primarily from the Bedouin of the Negev. She later supplied breeding stock to Shaar Hagai Kennels which continued in the breeding of the Canaan dog.

After her death in 1973, Shaar Hagai Kennels, managed by Dvora Ben Shaul and Myrna Shiboleth, continued the breeding program according to her instructions.[15]

Collection of wild Canaan dogs in Israel has become very difficult, because many of the Canaan dogs living in the open there were destroyed by the Israeli government in the fight against rabies. The spread of the human population into areas that were formerly isolated, along with their pet dogs, has resulted in the loss of the natural habitat of the Canaan. Even the majority of Bedouin dogs today, other than those of tribes still living a traditional and isolated life style, are mixed with other breeds. It is possible that there are still original Canaans among Bedouin tribes that still live the traditional nomadic life elsewhere, and perhaps in Egypt.[16] Myrna Shiboleth visits the Negev regularly, looking for good specimens living by the Bedouin camps, that she can breed with her dogs and use to strengthen the gene pool.[17]

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Bedouin

Bedouin

The Bedouin, Beduin, or Bedu are nomadic Arab tribes who have historically inhabited the desert regions in the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa, the Levant, and Mesopotamia. The Bedouin originated in the Syrian Desert and Arabian Desert but spread across the rest of the Arab world in West Asia and North Africa after the spread of Islam. The English word bedouin comes from the Arabic badawī, which means "desert dweller", and is traditionally contrasted with ḥāḍir, the term for sedentary people. Bedouin territory stretches from the vast deserts of North Africa to the rocky sands of the Middle East. They are traditionally divided into tribes, or clans, and historically share a common culture of herding camels and goats. The vast majority of Bedouins adhere to Islam, although there are some fewer numbers of Christian Bedouins present in the Fertile Crescent.

Jewish diaspora

Jewish diaspora

The Jewish diaspora or exile is the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancient ancestral homeland and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.

Jews

Jews

Jews or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites and Hebrews of historical Israel and Judah. Jewish ethnicity, nationhood, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the ethnic religion of the Jewish people, although its observance varies from strict to none.

Ashkelon dog cemetery

Ashkelon dog cemetery

The Ashkelon dog cemetery is a burial ground in the city of Ashkelon in Israel where possibly thousands of dogs were interred in the fifth to third centuries BC. The majority of the dogs were puppies; all had similarities to the modern Canaan Dog, perhaps representing the ancestral population from which the modern breed is descended. It is the largest known cemetery of this kind in the ancient world.

Rudolphina Menzel

Rudolphina Menzel

Rudolphina Menzel (1891–1973) was a cynologist, best known for her work in the field of animal behavior, from Vienna, Austria. She was responsible for gaining recognition for the Canaan Dog; and she wrote the breed standard, which was accepted by the FCI in 1966.

Scavenger

Scavenger

Scavengers are animals that consume dead organisms that have died from causes other than predation or have been killed by other predators. While scavenging generally refers to carnivores feeding on carrion, it is also a herbivorous feeding behavior. Scavengers play an important role in the ecosystem by consuming dead animal and plant material. Decomposers and detritivores complete this process, by consuming the remains left by scavengers.

Desert

Desert

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the Earth is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions, where little precipitation occurs, and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.

Haganah

Haganah

Haganah was the main Zionist paramilitary organization of the Jewish population ("Yishuv") in Mandatory Palestine between 1920 and its disestablishment in 1948, when it became the core of the Israel Defense Forces (IDF).

Negev

Negev

The Negev or Negeb is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba, in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city and port of Eilat. It contains several development towns, including Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon, as well as a number of small Bedouin towns, including Rahat and Tel Sheva and Lakiya. There are also several kibbutzim, including Revivim and Sde Boker; the latter became the home of Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, after his retirement from politics.

Appearance

Canaan Dog
Canaan Dog

The Canaan Dog is a "wild type" dog in appearance. It is a medium-sized square built dog, with a wedge-shaped head, erect and low set ears with a broad base and rounded tips. Its outer coat is dense, harsh and straight of short to medium-length. The undercoat should be close and profuse according to season. Color ranges from black to cream and all shades of brown and red between, usually with small white markings, or all white with colour patches. Spotting of all kinds is permitted, as well as white or black masks.[18]

In writing the first official standard for the Canaan Dog, Menzel wrote: "Special importance must be placed on the points that differentiate the Canaan Dog from the German Shepherd Dog, whose highly bred form he sometimes resembles: the Canaan-dog is square, the loin region short, the forequarters highly erect, the hindquarters less angular, the neck as noble as possible, the tail curled over the back when excited, the trot is short (see also differences in head and color)".[19]

Temperament

Canaan dogs are alert, react quickly and distrust strangers. They are strongly defensive but not aggressive.[18]

Skills

Canaan dogs can compete in dog agility trials, obedience, showmanship, flyball, tracking, and herding events. Herding instincts and trainability can be measured at noncompetitive herding tests. Canaans exhibiting basic herding instincts can be trained to compete in herding trials.[20]

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Dog agility

Dog agility

Dog agility is a dog sport in which a handler directs a dog through an obstacle course in a race for both time and accuracy. Dogs run off leash with no food or toys as incentives, and the handler can touch neither dog nor obstacles. The handler's controls are limited to voice, movement, and various body signals, requiring exceptional training of the animal and coordination of the handler.

Dog showmanship

Dog showmanship

Dog showmanship is a set of skills and etiquette used by handlers of dogs in a dog competition. Dog showmanship is not a competition in itself but a qualification of the handler to present a dog to its best advantage. Skills are technical as well as artistic. A handler must groom and display the dog for a judge in specific ways but a true showman can accentuate the best features of the dog and even mask any faults. Many professional handlers train and condition the dogs they accept into their program as they see fit. This means that dogs owned by others are away from home with their handlers for months at a time. Professional showmen may handle dogs as a sole source of income.

Flyball

Flyball

Flyball is a dog sport in which teams of dogs race against each other from the start to the finish line, over a line of hurdles, to a box that releases a tennis ball to be caught when the dog presses the spring-loaded pad, then back to their handlers while carrying the ball.

Tracking (dog)

Tracking (dog)

Tracking refers to a dog's ability to detect, recognize and follow a specific scent. Possessing heightened olfactory abilities, dogs, especially scent hounds, are able to detect, track and locate the source of certain odours. A deeper understanding of the physiological mechanisms and the phases involved in canine scent tracking has allowed humans to utilize this animal behaviour in a variety of professions. Through domestication and the human application of dog behaviour, different methods and influential factors on tracking ability have been discovered. While tracking was once considered a predatory technique of dogs in the wild, it has now become widely used by humans.

Herding

Herding

Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. Herding can refer either to the process of animals forming herds in the wild, or to human intervention forming herds for some purpose. While the layperson uses the term "herding" to describe this human intervention, most individuals involved in the process term it mustering, "working stock", or droving.

Breed recognition

The Canaan dog was first recognized by the Israel Kennel Club in 1953 and by the FCI (Federation Cynologique Internationale) in 1966. The first accepted standard was written by Dr. Menzel. In 1986, the first Canaan dogs were brought to Finland from Sha'ar Hagai Kennel, in Israel. The Canaan Dog is today recognized by all the world's kennel clubs and is being bred in many countries. There are breed clubs in the U.S.,[21] Canada, the U.K.,[22] Finland, Germany, Israel[23] and France.[24]

Canada

The first Canaan dog came to Canada May 16, 1970. The dogs came from a kennel in Delaware. The Canadian Canaan Club was formed in 1972, and the first executive of the Club was elected on March 15, 1973. The club has since been dissolved. The Canaan dog obtained entry into the Miscellaneous Class of the Canadian Kennel Club on December 1, 1975. In January 1993, the breed was accepted in the Working Group, as the Canadian Kennel Club did not have a Herding group at that time.[25]

United Kingdom

The first Canaan Dog was brought to the UK from Lebanon in 1965, before they were a recognized breed. In December 1970, they were recognized by the Kennel Club, and the breed was placed in the Utility Group. In May 1992 the inaugural meeting of the Canaan Dog Club of the United Kingdom took place. Since 1996 the breed has begun to grow in numbers in the UK, though it is still quite numerically small.[26]

United States

On September 7, 1965, Menzel sent four dogs to Ursula Berkowitz of Oxnard, California, the first Canaan dogs in the United States. The Canaan Dog Club of America was formed the same year,[27] and stud book records were kept from these first reports. In June 1989, the Canaan dog entered the American Kennel Club (AKC) Miscellaneous Class, and then joined the Herding Group in 1997.[27] Its profile was raised when John F. Kennedy Jr. purchased a Canaan dog, Friday, in 1995.[8] Canaan dogs were registered in the AKC Stud Book as of June 1, 1997. The dogs began competing in conformation on August 12, 1997. The United Kennel Club recognized the Canaan Dog in 1992 as part of the Sighthound & Pariah Dog Group[28] and has the Israel Canaan Dog Club of America as the parent club.[29] About 50 puppies are born each year.[30]

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Finland

Finland

Finland, officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe. It shares land borders with Sweden to the northwest, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east, with the Gulf of Bothnia to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the south, across from Estonia. Finland covers an area of 338,455 square kilometres (130,678 sq mi) with a population of 5.6 million. Helsinki is the capital and largest city. The vast majority of the population are ethnic Finns. Finnish and Swedish are the official languages, Swedish is the native language of 5.2% of the population. Finland's climate varies from humid continental in the south to the boreal in the north. The land cover is primarily a boreal forest biome, with more than 180,000 recorded lakes.

Israel

Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia. Situated between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Red Sea, it is bordered by Lebanon to the north, by Syria to the northeast, by Jordan to the east, by Egypt to the southwest, and by the Palestinian territories — the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest — with which it shares legal boundaries. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.

Canada

Canada

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest binational land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

Germany

Germany

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central Europe. It is the second-most populous country in Europe after Russia, and the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is situated between the Baltic and North seas to the north, and the Alps to the south; it covers an area of 357,022 square kilometres (137,847 sq mi), with a population of almost 84 million within its 16 constituent states. Germany borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, and France, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands to the west. The nation's capital and most populous city is Berlin and its financial centre is Frankfurt; the largest urban area is the Ruhr.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also includes overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, giving it one of the largest discontiguous exclusive economic zones in the world. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain over 68 million people.

Delaware

Delaware

Delaware is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Maryland to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean to its east. The state takes its name from the adjacent Delaware Bay, in turn named after Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor.

Canadian Kennel Club

Canadian Kennel Club

The Canadian Kennel Club, founded in 1888 and chartered under the Animal Purebred Act, is one of the national kennel clubs of Canada. It maintains breed registries services for those purebred dogs approved for its control by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and provides governance for all CKC-approved dog conformation shows, dog trials and canine events. The CKC is a non-member partner with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale.

The Kennel Club

The Kennel Club

The Kennel Club (KC) is the official kennel club of the United Kingdom. It is the oldest recognised kennel club in the world. Its role is to oversee various canine activities including dog shows, dog agility and working trials. It also operates the national register of pedigree dogs in the United Kingdom and acts as a lobby group on issues involving dogs in the UK. Its headquarters are on Clarges Street in Mayfair, London, with business offices in Aylesbury.

Oxnard, California

Oxnard, California

Oxnard is a city in Ventura County, California, United States. On California's South Coast, it is the most populous city in Ventura County and the 22nd-most-populous city in California. Incorporated in 1903, Oxnard lies approximately 60 miles (97 km) west of downtown Los Angeles and is part of the larger Greater Los Angeles area.

American Kennel Club

American Kennel Club

The American Kennel Club (AKC) is a registry of purebred dog pedigrees in the United States. In addition to maintaining its pedigree registry, this kennel club also promotes and sanctions events for purebred dogs, including the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show, an annual event which predates the official forming of the AKC, the National Dog Show and the AKC National Championship. The AKC is a non-member partner with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. The AKC recognizes 200 dog breeds, as of 2022.

John F. Kennedy Jr.

John F. Kennedy Jr.

John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr., often referred to as John-John or JFK Jr., was an American lawyer, journalist, and magazine publisher. He was a son of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, and a younger brother of Caroline Kennedy. Three days after his father was assassinated, he rendered a final salute during the funeral procession on his third birthday.

Sighthound

Sighthound

Sighthounds, also called gazehounds, are a type of dog, hounds that hunt primarily by sight and speed, rather than by scent and endurance as scent hounds do.

Source: "Canaan Dog", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 29th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canaan_Dog.

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References
  1. ^ a b Palika, Liz (2007). "PART II: BREED PROFILES". The Howell Book of Dogs: The Definitive Reference to 300 Breeds and Varieties. Wiley. p. 184. ISBN 978-0-470-00921-5.
  2. ^ a b Mier, M.; Shkolnik, A. (1981). "Water economy and thermoregulation of the Slughi, Canaan and Pointer dogs". Israel Journal of Zoology. Weizmann Science Press of Israel. 30–31: 97.
  3. ^ a b "Oldest-Ever Evidence of Canines Proves Israel's Canaan Dogs Roamed Mideast 9,000 Years Ago". Nov 26, 2017.
  4. ^ "The Canaan dog: an ancient breed of Palestine" (PDF).
  5. ^ a b c Boyd, Lee (1995). Canaan Dog. TFH Publications. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0793808007.
  6. ^ "CDCA: What is a Canaan Dog?". cdca.org. Retrieved 2022-05-26.
  7. ^ De Prisco, Andrew; Bovsun, Mara; Woy, Joann (2015). The New Complete Dog Book: Official Breed Standards and All-New Profiles for 200 Breeds (21st ed.). I-5 Publishing. p. 769. ISBN 978-1-62187-091-3.
  8. ^ a b Brulliard, Nicolas (March 28, 2012). "In Israel, a battle to save the ancient Canaan dog". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
  9. ^ "Kelef K'Naani".
  10. ^ "The Israel Canaan Dog". www.icdb.org.il. Retrieved 2021-07-01.
  11. ^ a b c Farina, William (2 April 2014). Man Writes Dog: Canine Themes in Literature, Law and Folklore. pp. 58–59. ISBN 9781476614557.
  12. ^ a b Garfield, Simon (2020). "Ch2-How Dogs Began". Dog's Best Friend:A Brief History of an Unbreakable Bond. Orion. p. 28. ISBN 9781474610766.
  13. ^ a b "Pure-bred Dogs". American Kennel Gazette. American Kennel Club. 108: 149. 1991.
  14. ^ "From Rudolphina Menzel to Unit "Oketz" – Dogs on Top". archives.mod.gov.il. Retrieved 2021-08-31.
  15. ^ Udasin, Sharon (January 27, 2016). "Facing eviction, Canaan dog breeder turns to public to recruit relocation funds". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved January 16, 2020.
  16. ^ "Report on the Canaan Dog by Israel Nature Reserves and National Parks Authority". Archived from the original on January 18, 2013.
  17. ^ Shiboleth, Myrna. "Dogs of the Desert" – via tripod.com.
  18. ^ a b FCI Breed Standard
  19. ^ Menzel, R. and R. "1960 - Israel Kennel Club". thecanaandog.co.uk. Translated by Lee Boyd. Wittenberg, Lutherstadt: A. Ziemsen Verlag. Archived from the original on October 16, 2010 – via British Canaan Dog Society.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  20. ^ Hartnagle-Taylor, Jeanne Joy; Taylor, Ty (2010). Stockdog Savvy. Alpine Publications. ISBN 978-1-57779-106-5.
  21. ^ "CDCA: The Canaan Dog Club of America, Inc". cdca.org. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  22. ^ "British Canaan Dog Society – Canaan Dogs in the UK". canaandog.co.uk. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  23. ^ "The Canaan Dog Home Page, ICDCA, updated monthly". www.icdca.com. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  24. ^ "Canaan Club de France (en)". www.canaanclubdefrance.fr. Archived from the original on 2020-10-15. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
  25. ^ "Canaan Dog Breed Standard" (PDF). January 2004.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". canaandog.co.uk. Retrieved 2022-09-28.
  27. ^ a b "CDCA: About Us". cdca.org. Retrieved 2022-09-28.
  28. ^ "Breed Standards : Canaan Dog | United Kennel Club (UKC)". www.ukcdogs.com. Retrieved 2022-09-28.
  29. ^ "Israel Canaan Dog Club of America". www.icdca.org. Retrieved 2022-09-28.
  30. ^ "CDCA: FAQ - Answers to Frequently Asked Questions". cdca.org. Retrieved 2022-09-28.
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