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California roll

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California roll
California Sushi (26571101885).jpg
California roll sushi with roe
Alternative namesCalifornia maki
CourseMain course
Place of originCanada, United States
Region or stateNorth America
Main ingredientsRice, cucumber, crab meat or imitation crab, and avocado
Food energy
(per serving)
1 serving (2 pieces), 129[1] kcal

California roll (カリフォルニアロール, kariforunia rōru)) or California maki is an uramaki (inside-out makizushi roll) containing crab (or imitation crab), avocado, and cucumber. Sometimes crab salad is substituted for the crab stick, and often the outer layer of rice is sprinkled with toasted sesame seeds or roe (such as tobiko from flying fish).

As one of the most popular styles of sushi in Canada and the United States, the California roll has been influential in sushi's global popularity, and in inspiring sushi chefs around the world to create non-traditional fusion cuisine.[2]

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Crab meat

Crab meat

Crab meat or crab marrow is the meat found within a crab. It is used in many cuisines around the world, prized for its soft, delicate and sweet taste. Crab meat is low in fat and provides around 340 kilojoules (82 kcal) of food energy per 85-gram (3 oz) serving. Brown crab, blue crabs, blue swimming crabs, and red swimming crabs are among the most commercially available species of crabmeat globally.

Avocado

Avocado

The avocado is a medium-sized, evergreen tree in the laurel family (Lauraceae). It is native to the Americas and was first domesticated by Mesoamerican tribes more than 5,000 years ago. Then as now it was prized for its large and unusually oily fruit. The tree likely originated in the highlands bridging south-central Mexico and Guatemala. Its fruit, sometimes also referred to as an alligator or avocado pear, is botanically a large berry containing a single large seed. Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating, and are often propagated through grafting to maintain consistent fruit output. Avocados are presently cultivated in the tropical and Mediterranean climates of many countries. Mexico is the world's leading producer of avocados as of 2020, supplying nearly 30% of the global harvest in that year.

Cucumber

Cucumber

Cucumber is a widely-cultivated creeping vine plant in the Cucurbitaceae family that bears usually cylindrical fruits, which are used as culinary vegetables. Considered an annual plant, there are three main varieties of cucumber—slicing, pickling, and seedless—within which several cultivars have been created. The cucumber originates from South Asia, but now grows on most continents, as many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market. In North America, the term wild cucumber refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, though the two are not closely related.

Roe

Roe

Roe or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses, of fish and certain marine animals such as shrimp, scallop, sea urchins and squid. As a seafood, roe is used both as a cooked ingredient in many dishes, and as a raw ingredient for delicacies such as caviar.

Tobiko

Tobiko

Tobiko (とびこ) is flying fish roe in Japanese cuisine, known for its use in sushi.

Flying fish

Flying fish

The Exocoetidae are a family of marine fish in the order Beloniformes class Actinopterygii, known colloquially as flying fish or flying cod. About 64 species are grouped in seven to nine genera. While they cannot fly in the same way a bird does, flying fish can make powerful, self-propelled leaps out of the water where their long wing-like fins enable gliding for considerable distances above the water's surface. The main reason for this behavior is thought to be to escape from underwater predators, which include swordfish, mackerel, tuna, and marlin, among others, though their periods of flight expose them to attack by avian predators such as frigate birds.

Canada

Canada

Canada is a country in North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering over 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Its southern and western border with the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometres (5,525 mi), is the world's longest binational land border. Canada's capital is Ottawa, and its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver.

United States

United States

The United States of America, commonly known as the United States or America, is a country primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 states, a federal district, five major unincorporated territories, nine Minor Outlying Islands, and 326 Indian reservations. The United States is also in free association with three Pacific Island sovereign states: the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau. It is the world's third-largest country by both land and total area. It shares land borders with Canada to its north and with Mexico to its south. It has maritime borders with the Bahamas, Cuba, Russia, and other nations. With a population of over 333 million, it is the most populous country in the Americas and the third most populous in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C. and the most populous city and financial center is New York City.

Fusion cuisine

Fusion cuisine

Fusion cuisine is cuisine that combines elements of different culinary traditions that originate from different countries, regions, or cultures. They can occur naturally and become aspects of culturally relevant cuisines, or they can be part of the post-1970s movement for contemporary restaurant innovations.

Ingredients

The main wrapped ingredients are the avocado and crab meat,[3] or imitation crab (surimi crab), and the optional mayonnaise; these are all typically wrapped with seaweed, although soy paper can be used.[4] The cucumber may have been used since the beginning,[5] or added later,[6] depending on the account. The inside-out roll may be sprinkled on the outside with sesame seeds, although tobiko (flying fish roe),[7][8] or masago (capelin roe) may be used.

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Surimi

Surimi

Surimi is a paste made from fish or other meat. The term can also refer to a number of East Asian foods that use that paste as their primary ingredient. It is available in many shapes, forms, and textures, and is often used to mimic the texture and color of the meat of lobster, crab, grilled Japanese eel or shellfish.

Tobiko

Tobiko

Tobiko (とびこ) is flying fish roe in Japanese cuisine, known for its use in sushi.

Flying fish

Flying fish

The Exocoetidae are a family of marine fish in the order Beloniformes class Actinopterygii, known colloquially as flying fish or flying cod. About 64 species are grouped in seven to nine genera. While they cannot fly in the same way a bird does, flying fish can make powerful, self-propelled leaps out of the water where their long wing-like fins enable gliding for considerable distances above the water's surface. The main reason for this behavior is thought to be to escape from underwater predators, which include swordfish, mackerel, tuna, and marlin, among others, though their periods of flight expose them to attack by avian predators such as frigate birds.

Capelin

Capelin

The capelin or caplin is a small forage fish of the smelt family found in the North Atlantic, North Pacific and Arctic oceans. In summer, it grazes on dense swarms of plankton at the edge of the ice shelf. Larger capelin also eat a great deal of krill and other crustaceans. Among others, whales, seals, Atlantic cod, Atlantic mackerel, squid and seabirds prey on capelin, in particular during the spawning season while the capelin migrate south. Capelin spawn on sand and gravel bottoms or sandy beaches at the age of two to six years. When spawning on beaches, capelin have an extremely high post-spawning mortality rate which, for males, is close to 100%. Males reach 20 cm (8 in) in length, while females are up to 25.2 cm (10 in) long. They are olive-coloured dorsally, shading to silver on sides. Males have a translucent ridge on both sides of their bodies. The ventral aspects of the males iridesce reddish at the time of spawn.

Roe

Roe

Roe or hard roe is the fully ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses, of fish and certain marine animals such as shrimp, scallop, sea urchins and squid. As a seafood, roe is used both as a cooked ingredient in many dishes, and as a raw ingredient for delicacies such as caviar.

History

The identity of the creator of the California roll is disputed. Several chefs from Los Angeles have been cited as the dish's originator, as well as one chef from Vancouver, British Columbia.

The earliest mention in print of a 'California roll' was in the Los Angeles Times and an Ocala, Florida newspaper on November 25, 1979.[9] Less than a month later an Associated Press story credited a Los Angeles chef named Ken Seusa at the Kin Jo sushi restaurant near Hollywood as its inventor. The AP article cited Mrs. Fuji Wade, manager of the restaurant, as its source for the claim. Food writer Andrew F. Smith observes that this claim stood uncontested for more than 20 years.[9][10]

Others[11][12][13] attribute the dish to Ichiro Mashita, another Los Angeles sushi chef from the former Little Tokyo restaurant "Tokyo Kaikan".[6] According to this account, Mashita began substituting the toro (fatty tuna) with avocado in the off-season, and after further experimentation, developed the prototype, back in the 1960s[14][15][16] (or early 1970s[17]).[5]

Accounts of these first 'California Rolls' describe a dish very different from the one today. Early California roll recipes used frozen king crab legs, since surimi imitation crab was not yet available locally and importing it was not convenient.[18] One story, drawn directly from a firsthand source (namely Teruo Imaizumi, Mashita's assistant), was that in 1964, the pair developed a prototype which used cubed avocado, king crab, cucumber and ginger, made into a hand-roll (rather than makizushi rolled using a makisu).[a][5] Other food writers state that the cucumber, mayonnaise, and sesame seed were originally missing, and these ingredients were only added later.[6] The early California roll was wrapped traditional style, with the nori seaweed on the outside, which American customers tended to peel off. Therefore, the roll "inside-out", i.e., uramaki version was eventually developed.[23] This adaptation has also been credited to Mashita by figures associated with the restaurant.[17][b]

Japanese-born chef Hidekazu Tojo, a resident of Vancouver since 1971, claimed he created the California roll at his restaurant in the late 1970s.[24] Tojo insists he is the innovator of the "inside-out" sushi, and it got the name "California roll" because its contents of crab and avocado were abbreviated to C.A., which is the acronym for the state of California. Because of this splendid coincidence, Tojo was set on the name California Roll. According to Tojo, he single-handedly created the California roll at his Vancouver restaurant, including all the modern ingredients of cucumber, cooked crab, and avocado.[25] However, this conflicts with many food historian's accounts, which describe a changing, evolving dish that emerged in the Los Angeles area.[26][6] In 2016 the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries named Tojo a goodwill ambassador for Japanese cuisine.[27]

Regardless of who invented it, after becoming a favorite in southern California the dish became popular all across the United States by the 1980s. The California roll was featured by Gourmet magazine in 1980,[3] and taken up by a restaurant critic for The New York Times the following year.[28] The roll contributed to sushi's growing popularity in the United States by easing diners into more exotic sushi options.[29] Sushi chefs have since devised many kinds of rolls, beyond simple variations of the California roll.

It also made its way to Japan ("reverse imported"),[30] where it may be called California maki or Kashū Maki (加州巻き).[2][31]

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Los Angeles

Los Angeles

Los Angeles, often referred to by its initials L.A., is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Southern California. Los Angeles is also the largest city in the state of California and the second most populous city in the United States after New York City, as well as one of the world's most populous megacities. With a population of roughly 3.9 million residents within the city limits as of 2020, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic and cultural diversity, being the home of the Hollywood film industry, and its sprawling metropolitan area. The city lies in a basin in Southern California adjacent to the Pacific Ocean in the west and extending through the Santa Monica Mountains and north into the San Fernando Valley, with the city bordering the San Gabriel Valley to its east. It covers about 469 square miles (1,210 km2), and is the county seat of Los Angeles County, which is the most populous county in the United States with an estimated 9.86 million residents as of 2022.

Los Angeles Times

Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper that started publishing in Los Angeles in 1881. Based in the LA-adjacent suburb of El Segundo since 2018, it is the sixth-largest newspaper by circulation in the United States. The publication has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes. It is owned by Patrick Soon-Shiong and published by the Times Mirror Company. The newspaper’s coverage emphasizes California and especially Southern California stories.

Associated Press

Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is an American non-profit news agency headquartered in New York City. Founded in 1846, it operates as a cooperative, unincorporated association, and produces news reports that are distributed to its members, U.S. newspapers and broadcasters. Since the award was established in 1917, the AP has earned 56 Pulitzer Prizes, including 34 for photography. It is also known for publishing the widely used AP Stylebook.

Hollywood, Los Angeles

Hollywood, Los Angeles

Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California. Its name has come to be a shorthand reference for the U.S. film industry and the people associated with it. Many notable film studios, such as Columbia Pictures, Walt Disney Studios, Paramount Pictures, Warner Bros., and Universal Pictures, are located near or in Hollywood.

Little Tokyo, Los Angeles

Little Tokyo, Los Angeles

Little Tokyo, also known as Little Tokyo Historic District, is an ethnically Japanese American district in downtown Los Angeles and the heart of the largest Japanese-American population in North America. It is the largest and most populous of only three official Japantowns in the United States, all of which are in California. Founded around the beginning of the 20th century, the area, sometimes called Lil' Tokyo, J-Town, 小東京 (Shō-tōkyō), is the cultural center for Japanese Americans in Southern California. It was declared a National Historic Landmark District in 1995.

Chūtoro

Chūtoro

Chūtoro (中トロ) is the name for medium fatty tuna when served in sushi restaurants. A bluefin tuna yields akami, chūtoro, and ōtoro .

King crab

King crab

King crabs are a taxon of decapod crustaceans chiefly found in cold seas. Because of their large size and the taste of their meat, many species are widely caught and sold as food, the most common being the red king crab.

Makisu

Makisu

In Japanese cooking, a makisu (巻き簾) is a small mat woven from bamboo and cotton string that is used in food preparation. Makisu are most commonly used to make a kind of rolled sushi called makizushi (巻き寿司), commonly called maki. They are also used to shape other soft foods such as omelets, and to squeeze excess liquid out of food.

Nori

Nori

Nori (海苔) is a dried edible seaweed used in Japanese cuisine, made from species of the red algae genus Pyropia, including P. yezonesis and P. tenera. It has a strong and distinctive flavor, and is often used to wrap rolls of sushi or onigiri.

Hidekazu Tojo

Hidekazu Tojo

Hidekazu Tojo is a Japanese-Canadian chef based in Vancouver, British Columbia.

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is a cabinet level ministry in the government of Japan responsible for oversight of the agriculture, forestry and fishing industries. Its acronym is MAFF. The current Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is Taku Etō.

Goodwill ambassador

Goodwill ambassador

Goodwill ambassador is a post-nominal honorific title, a professional occupation and/or authoritative designation that is assigned to a person who advocates for a specific cause or global issue on the basis of their notability such as a public figure, advocate or an authoritative expert. Sometimes the role of a goodwill ambassador is presented as "Ambassador" or "Goodwill Ambassador" preceding the first and last name, the titled name of the individual is always presented with an organizational, regional or national affiliation. Goodwill ambassadors generally deliver goodwill by promoting ideals or positions from one entity to another, or to a population to establish a benevolent relationship. A goodwill ambassador may be an individual from one country who resides in or travels to another country, on a diplomatic mission at a peer to peer level; that is: country to country, state to state, city to city, or as an intermediate emissary representative of the people of a specific organization or cultural group such as an indigenous tribe, marginalized people or enclave population.

Source: "California roll", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_roll.

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See also
Notes
  1. ^ In Imaizumi's account, as reported by Kamp, the roll was developed with the intent to placate the immigrant Japanese clientele during tuna's off-season and only later caught on with Caucasian clients too squeamish to eat raw fish on the first try.[5] That native Japanese were the initial target is also reinforced by Corson's writings.[19] However, Issenberg writes that the American diners (i.e. Caucasians) were already toro connoisseurs, and that it was instead their appetites that needed to be satiated during the off-season.[20][21] Issenberg also discounts the "myth" that prompting by an executive of the restaurant's proprietorship, EIWA, was instrumental in the invention,.[20] Calling it a "narrative of institutional ingenuity", Issenberg states this was an attempt for the managerial higher echelons to assert partial credit for an innovation brought about by their lower ranking employees.[22][6]
  2. ^ In Issenberg 2007 and other references, the chief eyewitness source for the California roll story is Noritoshi Kanai of Mutual Trading, an importer that was the supplier to the restaurant. In the San Diego Union piece, it is his daughter Atsuko Kanai, vice president of Mutual Trading, who credits Mashita with making the roll "inside-out".
References
  1. ^ "Nutrition, Carbohydrate and Calorie Counter". Calories in California Sushi Rolls. Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Renton, Alex (February 26, 2006). "How Sushi ate the World". The Guardian. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  3. ^ a b Review of Inagiku restaurant, at the Bonaventure Hotel, 5th and Figueroa streets, Los Angeles, in: Bates, Caroline (July 1980), "Specialités de la Maison—California", Gourmet, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 40–43
  4. ^ Feiden, Margo (1989). Margo Feiden's The calorie factor: the dieter's companion. Simon & Schuster. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-671-43646-9.
  5. ^ a b c d Kamp, David (2009). The United States of Arugula: The Sun Dried, Cold Pressed, Dark Roasted, Extra Virgin Story of the American Food Revolution. Crown/Archetype. pp. 315–316. ISBN 978-0-307-57534-0.
  6. ^ a b c d e Dwyer, Lexi (2012-03-07). "Deconstructing the California Roll". Gourmet. Archived from the original on 2015-09-15., citing author Trevor Corson himself, rather than his book, Corson 2008.
  7. ^ Riegert, Keith; Kaplan, Samuel (2013), The MANual: Trivia. Testosterone. Tales of Badassery. Raw Meat. Fine Whiskey. Cold Truth., Simon and Schuster, p. 116, ISBN 978-1-612-43201-4
  8. ^ Gardner, Abby; McCormick, Meghan; Spee, Christine; Zivan, David (March 2007), Photography by E. Anthony Valainis, "Roll Call: a Roster of the City's Best Sushi Spots", Indianapolis, p. 146
  9. ^ a b Smith, Andrew F. (2012). American Tuna: The Rise and Fall of an Improbable Food. University of California Press. p. 91. and notes 31 and 32
  10. ^ "Raw Fish is the Rage around Los Angeles". The News Journal. Associated Press. December 19, 1979. p. 68.
  11. ^ "Sushi: The Story of the California Roll". FreshMAG. The most widely spread story is that Ichiro Mashita invented the roll when he realized that the oily texture of avocado is a perfect substitute for toro, a fatty tuna. Since Americans did not like seeing and chewing the nori on the outside, he created the roll "inside-out".
  12. ^ Tomicki, Hadley (October 24, 2012). "Will The Real Inventor of The California Roll Please Stand Up?". Grub Street. Ichiro Mashita of Downtown L.A.'s former Tokyo Kaikan, has long been largely credited with inventing and naming the dish, after the chef substituted avocado for toro in a similar uramaki construction in the late sixties.
  13. ^ "The History of the California Roll". Shogun Orlando. You can't walk into a sushi restaurant without finding the California roll on the menu. Despite their prevalence in sushi culture, the history of the roll is enigmatic. The most commonly accepted creator of this roll is Ichiro Mashita.
  14. ^ Issenberg (2007), pp. 89–91.
  15. ^ Corson (2008), p. 82.
  16. ^ McInerney, Jay (June 10, 2007). "Raw". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2008. (book review of Corson 2007 and Issenberg 2007)
  17. ^ a b Hunt, Maria (August 24, 2005). "East-West Fusion: nontraditional ingredients give sushi local flavor". San Diego Union-Tribune. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  18. ^ Issenberg (2007), p. 91.
  19. ^ Corson (2007) The Zen of Fish apud Ku (2013), p. 47
  20. ^ a b Ku (2013), p. 45.
  21. ^ Issenberg (2007), p. 90.
  22. ^ Issenberg2007, pp. 89–90.
  23. ^ Issenberg (2007), pp. 90–91.
  24. ^ White, Madeleine (October 23, 2012). "Meet the man behind the California roll". The Globe and Mail.
  25. ^ Great Big Story (April 24, 2017), The California Roll Was Invented in Canada, archived from the original on 2021-12-21, retrieved June 20, 2017
  26. ^ Woo, Michelle (October 25, 2012). "Who Invented The California Roll?". OC Weekly. This story, however, conflicts with other accounts of how the roll was born. These food historians believe that the first California roll was served during the late 1960s at Tokyo Kaikan, a restaurant in Los Angeles' Little Tokyo.
  27. ^ "Vancouver chef Tojo honoured by Japanese government". CBC.ca. The Canadian Press. June 10, 2016. Retrieved May 16, 2021.
  28. ^ Smith (2013), 3, p. 885.
  29. ^ Kestler, John (June 18, 2006). "The Sushification of America". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
  30. ^ Hibino, Mitsutoshi (1999), Sushi no rekishi wo tazuneru すしの歴史を訪ねる, Iwanami, p. 38
  31. ^ Iwama, Kazuhiro (2013), "Shanhai no nihonshoku bunka: menyū no genchika ni kansuru hiaringu chōsa" 上海の日本食文化─メニューの現地化に関するヒアリング調査報告─ [Japanese Food Culture in Shanghai : A Report of Listening Research on the Menu Localization], The Journal of Chiba University of Commerce, 51 (9): 38
Bibliography

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