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California–Texas rivalry

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Map of the United States highlighting      California and      Texas
Map of the United States highlighting      California and      Texas

The California–Texas rivalry (alternatively the Texas–California rivalry) is a rhetorical rivalry between the two U.S. states of California and Texas. California and Texas are the United States' two most populous states. The two largest states in the American Mainland, with the largest economies, they both have a significant amount of state culture.[1] The states are often opposed politically, with California being progressive and generally supporting the Democratic Party, while Texas is conservative and generally supports the Republican Party.[2] Texas is commonly seen as having little government intervention and regulation, while in California the state takes a larger role in public policies.[3] There are also exceptions, discussed as part of the perceived rivalry, in which Texas has increased state intervention against immigration and abortion, and California has reduced state intervention.[4][5]

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U.S. state

U.S. state

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory where it shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the third-largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles and San Francisco Bay areas are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Texas

Texas

Texas is a state in the South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 30 million residents in 2022, it is the second-largest U.S. state by both area and population. Texas shares borders with the states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south and southwest; and has a coastline with the Gulf of Mexico to the southeast.

List of U.S. states and territories by population

List of U.S. states and territories by population

The states and territories included in the United States Census Bureau's statistics for the United States include the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Separate statistics are maintained for the five permanently inhabited territories of the United States.

Contiguous United States

Contiguous United States

The contiguous United States consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states and the Federal District of the United States of America. The term excludes the only two non-contiguous states, Alaska and Hawaii, and all other offshore insular areas, such as American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The colloquial term "Lower 48" is used also, especially in relation to just Alaska.

List of U.S. states and territories by GDP

List of U.S. states and territories by GDP

This is a list of U.S. states and territories by Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This article presents the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia and their nominal GDP at current prices.

Culture of the United States

Culture of the United States

The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western, and European origin, yet its influences includes the cultures of African American, Asian American, Latin American, Native American, and Pacific Islander American peoples and their cultures. The United States has its own distinct social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, music, arts, social habits, cuisine, and folklore. The United States is an ethnically and culturally diverse country as a result of large-scale European immigration throughout its history, its hundreds of indigenous tribes and cultures, and through African American slavery followed by emancipation. America is an anglophone country with a legal system derived from English common law.

Politics of the United States

Politics of the United States

The politics of the United States function within a framework of a constitutional federal republic and presidential system, with three distinct branches that share powers. These are: the U.S. Congress which forms the legislative branch, a bicameral legislative body comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate; the executive branch which is headed by the president of the United States, who serves as country's head of state and government; and the judicial branch, composed of the Supreme Court and lower federal courts, and which exercises judicial power.

Progressivism in the United States

Progressivism in the United States

Progressivism in the United States is a political philosophy and reform movement in the United States advocating for policies that are generally considered left-wing, left-wing populist, libertarian socialist, social democratic, and environmentalist. In mainstream American politics, progressives generally advocate for a universal healthcare system, wage equity and labor rights, economic justice, social justice, opposition to the military–industrial complex, an increase in corporate regulation, the abolition of capital punishment, and action on climate change.

Democratic Party (United States)

Democratic Party (United States)

The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. Founded in 1828, it was predominantly built by Martin Van Buren, who assembled a wide cadre of politicians in every state behind war hero Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party. Its main political rival has been the Republican Party since the 1850s. The party is a big tent, and is less ideologically uniform than the Republican Party due to the broader list of unique voting blocs that compose it, though modern liberalism is the majority ideology in the party.

Conservatism in the United States

Conservatism in the United States

Conservatism in the United States is a political and social philosophy based on a belief in limited government, individualism, traditionalism, republicanism, and limited federal governmental power in relation to U.S. states. Conservative and Christian media organizations, along with American conservative figures, are influential, and American conservatism is one of the majority political ideologies within the Republican Party.

Republican Party (United States)

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency in the 1980s, conservatism has been the dominant ideology of the GOP. It has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party since the mid-1850s. The Republican Party's historical predecessor is considered to be Northern members of the Whig Party, with Republican presidents Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford B. Hayes, Chester A. Arthur, and Benjamin Harrison all being Whigs before switching to the party, from which they were elected. The collapse of the Whigs, which had previously been one of the two major parties in the country, strengthened the party's electoral success.

Politics

One area in which the rivalry between California and Texas has been described is politics.

The Democratic Party has had a trifecta in California since 2011, while the Republican Party has had a trifecta in Texas since 2003.[6] Democrats have won the United States presidential elections in California in every election since 1992, while Republicans have won the United States presidential elections in Texas in every election since 1980.

California has enacted numerous progressive policies, such as Medicaid expansion, a $15 per hour minimum wage, and significant actions to reduce climate change, hence being hailed as a global leader in climate action. Meanwhile, Texas has adopted various conservative policies, such as reducing taxes, restricting abortion, not raising the minimum wage, and fostering a business-friendly climate.

Voters look to both states for examples of how policies from across the political spectrum would look if implemented nationally.[6] Many companies have moved to Texas due to lower regulations and significant tax incentives, as well as California's stricter response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[1] Elon Musk, the CEO of Tesla, Inc. and SpaceX, has symbolized such business migration – moving Tesla's Gigafactory and global headquarters to Texas. While Texas has largely welcomed new businesses, the fear of socially progressive attitudes migrating to the state from California has led to a degree of backlash in the state, including Texas Governor Greg Abbott running his re-election campaign in 2018 on the slogan "Don't California My Texas."[7]

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Politics of California

Politics of California

The recent and current politics of the U.S. state of California are complex and involve a number of entrenched interests. (For historical politics, see Politics of California before 1900).

Politics of Texas

Politics of Texas

For about a hundred years, from after Reconstruction until the 1990s, the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics.

Government trifecta

Government trifecta

A government trifecta is a political situation in which the same political party controls the executive branch and both chambers of the legislative branch in countries that have a bicameral legislature and an executive that is not fused. The term is primarily used in the United States, where the term originated—being borrowed from horse race betting—but also in Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and France.

1992 United States presidential election in California

1992 United States presidential election in California

The 1992 United States presidential election in California took place on November 3, 1992, and was part of the 1992 United States presidential election. Voters chose 54 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1980 United States presidential election in Texas

1980 United States presidential election in Texas

The 1980 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 4, 1980. All 50 states, and the District of Columbia, were part of the 1980 United States presidential election. Texas voters chose 26 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president of the United States.

Minimum wage in the United States

Minimum wage in the United States

In the United States, the minimum wage is set by U.S. labor law and a range of state and local laws. The first federal minimum wage was instituted in the National Industrial Recovery Act of 1933, signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, but later found to be unconstitutional. In 1938, the Fair Labor Standards Act established it at $0.25 an hour. Its purchasing power peaked in 1968, at $1.60. Since 2009, it has been $7.25 per hour.

Climate change

Climate change

In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate change in a broader sense also includes previous long-term changes to Earth's climate. The current rise in global average temperature is more rapid than previous changes, and is primarily caused by humans burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use, deforestation, and some agricultural and industrial practices increase greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat that the Earth radiates after it warms from sunlight. Larger amounts of these gases trap more heat in Earth's lower atmosphere, causing global warming.

COVID-19 pandemic

COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identified in an outbreak in the Chinese city of Wuhan in December 2019. Attempts to contain it there failed, allowing the virus to spread to other areas of Asia and later worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern on 30 January 2020, and a pandemic on 11 March 2020. As of 27 January 2023, the pandemic had caused more than 670 million cases and 6.82 million confirmed deaths, making it one of the deadliest in history.

Elon Musk

Elon Musk

Elon Reeve Musk is a business magnate and investor. He is the founder, CEO and chief engineer of SpaceX; angel investor, CEO and product architect of Tesla, Inc.; owner and CEO of Twitter, Inc.; founder of The Boring Company; co-founder of Neuralink and OpenAI; and president of the philanthropic Musk Foundation. With an estimated net worth of around $139 billion as of December 23, 2022, primarily from his ownership stakes in Tesla and SpaceX, Musk is the second-wealthiest person in the world, according to both the Bloomberg Billionaires Index and Forbes's real-time billionaires list.

Governor (United States)

Governor (United States)

In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as head of state and head of government therein. As such, governors are responsible for implementing state laws and overseeing the operation of the state executive branch. As state leaders, governors advance and pursue new and revised policies and programs using a variety of tools, among them executive orders, executive budgets, and legislative proposals and vetoes. Governors carry out their management and leadership responsibilities and objectives with the support and assistance of department and agency heads, many of whom they are empowered to appoint. A majority of governors have the authority to appoint state court judges as well, in most cases from a list of names submitted by a nominations committee.

Greg Abbott

Greg Abbott

Gregory Wayne Abbott is an American politician, attorney, and former jurist serving as the 48th governor of Texas since 2015. A member of the Republican Party, he served as the 50th attorney general of Texas from 2002 to 2015 and as a member of the Texas Supreme Court from 1996 to 2001.

2018 Texas gubernatorial election

2018 Texas gubernatorial election

The 2018 Texas gubernatorial election took place on November 6, 2018, to elect the governor of Texas, concurrently with the election of Texas's Class I U.S. Senate seat, as well as other congressional, state and local elections throughout the United States and Texas. Incumbent Republican Governor Greg Abbott won re-election to a second term in office defeating Democratic nominee Lupe Valdez, the former sheriff of Dallas County, and Libertarian nominee Mark Tippetts, a former member of the Lago Vista city council.

Source: "California–Texas rivalry", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California–Texas_rivalry.

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References
  1. ^ a b Cowan, Jill (December 10, 2020). "Why We're Talking About the California-Texas Rivalry, Again". The New York Times. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  2. ^ Miller, Kenneth P. (2020). Texas vs. California: A History of Their Struggle for the Future of America.
  3. ^ Riquier, Andrea. "Texas vs. California: polar opposite public policies". MarketWatch. Retrieved July 9, 2022.
  4. ^ "Battle Over Sanctuary Cities Pits California Against Texas". www.bloomberg.com. June 19, 2017.
  5. ^ "California aims to shield against Texas-style abortion laws". AP NEWS. May 23, 2022. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  6. ^ a b Miller, Kenneth P. (November 1, 2020). "America's political future is a California-Texas duel". USA TODAY. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  7. ^ Hooks, Christopher (March 2021). "Californians Could Ruin Texas—But Not the Way You Might Think". Texas Monthly.

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