Get Our Extension

Caldwell, Idaho

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Caldwell, Idaho
Downtown Caldwell, Idaho
Downtown Caldwell, Idaho
Nickname: 
The Treasure of the Valley
Motto: 
More to Offer
Location of Caldwell in Canyon County, Idaho.
Location of Caldwell in Canyon County, Idaho.
Caldwell, Idaho is located in the United States
Caldwell, Idaho
Caldwell, Idaho
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 43°39′30″N 116°40′49″W / 43.65833°N 116.68028°W / 43.65833; -116.68028Coordinates: 43°39′30″N 116°40′49″W / 43.65833°N 116.68028°W / 43.65833; -116.68028
CountryUnited States
StateIdaho
CountyCanyon
Established1883
Government
 • MayorJarom Wagoner
Area
 • City22.67 sq mi (58.71 km2)
 • Land22.61 sq mi (58.57 km2)
 • Water0.06 sq mi (0.14 km2)
Elevation
2,375 ft (724 m)
Population
 • City46,237
 • Estimate 
(2019)[3]
58,481
 • Density2,586.05/sq mi (998.47/km2)
 • Metro
624,000
Time zoneUTC−7 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−6 (Mountain)
ZIP codes
83605-83607
Area code(s)208, 986
FIPS code16-12250
GNIS feature ID0397514
Websitewww.cityofcaldwell.com

Caldwell (locally CALL-dwel) is a city in and the county seat of Canyon County, Idaho.[4] The population was 59,996 at the time of the 2020 United States census.[5]

Caldwell is considered part of the Boise metropolitan area. Caldwell is the location of the College of Idaho.

Discover more about Caldwell, Idaho related topics

County seat

County seat

A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is in use in Canada, China, Hungary, Romania, Taiwan, and the United States. The equivalent term shire town is used in the US state of Vermont and in some other English-speaking jurisdictions. County towns have a similar function in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, as well as historically in Jamaica.

Canyon County, Idaho

Canyon County, Idaho

Canyon County is located in the U.S. state of Idaho. As of the 2020 Census, the population was 231,105, making it the second-most populous county in Idaho. The county seat is Caldwell, and its largest city is Nampa. Canyon County is part of the Boise metropolitan area.

2020 United States census

2020 United States census

The United States census of 2020 was the 24th decennial United States census. Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2020. Other than a pilot study during the 2000 census, this was the first U.S. census to offer options to respond online or by phone, in addition to the paper response form used for previous censuses. The census was taken during the COVID-19 pandemic, which affected its administration. The census recorded a resident population of 331,449,281 in the fifty states and the District of Columbia, an increase of 7.4 percent, or 22,703,743, over the preceding decade. The growth rate was the second-lowest ever recorded, and the net increase was the sixth highest in history. This was the first census where the 10 most-populous states each surpassed 10 million residents, and the first census where the 10 most-populous cities each surpassed 1 million residents.

Boise metropolitan area

Boise metropolitan area

The Boise–Nampa, Idaho Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) is an area that encompasses Ada, Boise, Canyon, Gem, and Owyhee counties in southwestern Idaho, anchored by the cities of Boise and Nampa. It is the main component of the wider Boise–Mountain Home–Ontario, ID–OR Combined Statistical Area, which adds Elmore and Payette counties in Idaho and Malheur County, Oregon. It is the state's largest officially designated metropolitan area and includes Idaho's three largest cities: Boise, Nampa, and Meridian. Nearly 40 percent of Idaho's total population lives in the area.

College of Idaho

College of Idaho

The College of Idaho is a private liberal arts college in Caldwell, Idaho. Founded in 1891, it is the state's oldest private liberal arts college and has an enrollment of over 1,000 students. The college's alumni include eight Rhodes Scholars, three governors, four professional football players, and one professional baseball player. Its PEAK Curriculum allows students to study in four knowledge areas - humanities, natural sciences, social sciences, and a professional field - and earn a major and three minors in four years.

History

The present-day location of Caldwell is located along a natural passageway to the Inland and Pacific Northwest. Native American tribes from the west coast, north Idaho and as far away as Colorado would come to the banks of the Boise River for annual trading fairs, or rendezvous. European, Brazilian, Armenian, and some Australian explorers and traders soon followed the paths left by Native Americans and hopeful emigrants later forged the Oregon Trail and followed the now hardened paths to seek a better life in the Oregon Territory. Pioneers of the Trail traveled along the Boise River to Canyon Hill and forded the river close to the Silver Bridge on Plymouth Street.

Indian Creek in downtown, Caldwell
Indian Creek in downtown, Caldwell

During the Civil War, the discovery of gold in Idaho's mountains brought a variety of new settlers into the area. Many never made it to the mines but chose to settle along the Boise River and run ferries, stage stations, and freighting businesses. These early entrepreneurs created small ranches and farms in the river valleys. Caldwell's inception occurred largely as a result of the construction of the Oregon Short Line Railroad, which connected Wyoming to Oregon through Idaho. Robert E. Strahorn came to the Boise River Valley in 1883 to select a route for the railroad. He rejected the grade into Boise City as too steep and chose a site thirty miles to the west. He drove a stake into an alkali flat of sagebrush and greasewood and the City of Caldwell was platted. Caldwell was named after one of Strahorn's business partners, Alexander Caldwell, a former Senator from the State of Kansas.

When Caldwell was platted in August 1883, its founder, the Idaho and Oregon Land Improvement Company, started persuading settlers and businessmen to move to the area. Within four months, Caldwell had 600 residents living in 150 dwellings, 40 businesses in operation, a school, a telephone exchange and two newspapers. On January 15, 1890, the Board of Commissioners of Ada County issued a handwritten order incorporating the City of Caldwell. The College of Idaho was founded in Caldwell in 1891 and still is in existence today. In 1892, Canyon County was established from a portion of Ada County. Caldwell was named the county seat. Irrigation canals and waterways were constructed throughout Canyon County. These facilities provided the foundation for an agricultural based economy in Caldwell. The Oregon Short Line Railroad became part of the larger Union Pacific Railroad network and in 1906 the Caldwell freight and passenger depot was constructed. Caldwell experienced moderate growth as an agricultural processing, commercial retail and educational center during the twentieth century.[6]

In 2009, the City of Caldwell completed a revitalization project to restore Indian Creek, which runs through downtown Caldwell, but had been used for sewage disposal by local industries, and had been covered over. The restored creek includes suspended bridges, walkways and picnic tables.[7]

Discover more about History related topics

Pacific Northwest

Pacific Northwest

The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east. Though no official boundary exists, the most common conception includes the U.S. states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and the Canadian province of British Columbia. Some broader conceptions reach north into Alaska and Yukon, south into northern California, and east into western Montana. Other conceptions may be limited to the coastal areas west of the Cascade and Coast mountains. The variety of definitions can be attributed to partially overlapping commonalities of the region's history, culture, geography, society, ecosystems, and other factors.

Boise River

Boise River

The Boise River is a 102-mile-long (164 km) tributary of the Snake River in the Northwestern United States. It drains a rugged portion of the Sawtooth Range in southwestern Idaho northeast of Boise, as well as part of the western Snake River Plain. The watershed encompasses approximately 4,100 square miles (11,000 km2) of highly diverse habitats, including alpine canyons, forest, rangeland, agricultural lands, and urban areas.

Oregon Trail

Oregon Trail

The Oregon Trail was a 2,170-mile (3,490 km) east–west, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. The eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of what is now the state of Kansas and nearly all of what are now the states of Nebraska and Wyoming. The western half of the trail spanned most of the current states of Idaho and Oregon.

Boise River and Canal Bridge

Boise River and Canal Bridge

The Boise River and Canal Bridge, in Caldwell, Idaho, is a three-span, 390 ft (120 m) Warren camelback through-truss design constructed in 1922 by the American Bridge Company from plans submitted by Caldwell city engineer Fred H. McConnel. The site is where Oregon Trail pioneers forded the Boise River. The bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.11 square miles (57.26 km2), of which, 22.06 square miles (57.14 km2) is land and 0.05 square miles (0.13 km2) is water.[8]

Climate

Caldwell experiences a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk) with short, cold winters and hot, dry summers.

Climate data for Caldwell, Idaho
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 66
(19)
70
(21)
84
(29)
94
(34)
102
(39)
106
(41)
110
(43)
112
(44)
104
(40)
94
(34)
79
(26)
69
(21)
112
(44)
Average high °F (°C) 37.1
(2.8)
46.1
(7.8)
57.4
(14.1)
66.3
(19.1)
75.1
(23.9)
84.2
(29.0)
92.6
(33.7)
91.7
(33.2)
80.8
(27.1)
67.0
(19.4)
49.3
(9.6)
37.9
(3.3)
65.5
(18.6)
Average low °F (°C) 21.1
(−6.1)
26.2
(−3.2)
32.6
(0.3)
38.5
(3.6)
46.2
(7.9)
52.8
(11.6)
58.1
(14.5)
55.8
(13.2)
45.8
(7.7)
36.6
(2.6)
28.4
(−2.0)
21.3
(−5.9)
38.6
(3.7)
Record low °F (°C) −31
(−35)
−21
(−29)
−6
(−21)
12
(−11)
22
(−6)
29
(−2)
37
(3)
31
(−1)
23
(−5)
15
(−9)
−4
(−20)
−34
(−37)
−34
(−37)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 1.55
(39)
1.11
(28)
1.29
(33)
1.13
(29)
1.01
(26)
0.67
(17)
0.30
(7.6)
0.35
(8.9)
0.59
(15)
0.73
(19)
1.28
(33)
1.39
(35)
11.4
(290.5)
Source 1: NOAA (normals, 1971–2000)[9]
Source 2: The Weather Channel (Records)[10]

Discover more about Geography related topics

United States Census Bureau

United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy. The Census Bureau is part of the U.S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States.

Semi-arid climate

Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is a dry climate sub-type. It is located on regions that receive precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.

Köppen climate classification

Köppen climate classification

The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen, notably in 1918 and 1936. Later, German climatologist Rudolf Geiger (1894–1981) introduced some changes to the classification system, which is thus sometimes called the Köppen–Geiger climate classification.

Precipitation

Precipitation

In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls from clouds due to gravitational pull. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, rain, sleet, snow, ice pellets, graupel and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates" or falls. Thus, fog and mist are not precipitation but colloids, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes, possibly acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called showers.

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
1890779
190099728.0%
19103,543255.4%
19205,10644.1%
19304,974−2.6%
19407,27246.2%
195010,48744.2%
196012,23016.6%
197014,21916.3%
198017,69924.5%
199018,4004.0%
200025,96741.1%
201046,23778.1%
202059,99629.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[11]

2010 census

At the 2010 census,[2] there were 46,237 people, 14,895 households and 10,776 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,096.0 inhabitants per square mile (809.3/km2). There were 16,323 housing units at an average density of 739.9 per square mile (285.7/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 77.5% White, 0.6% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.1% from other races, and 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 35.4% of the population.

There were 14,895 households, of which 46.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 15.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.4% had a male householder with no wife present, and 27.7% were non-families. 21.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.51.

The median age in the city was 28.2 years. 33.1% of residents were under the age of 18; 11.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 28.4% were from 25 to 44; 18.2% were from 45 to 64; and 8.9% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 49.4% male and 50.6% female.

The median household income was $37,336. The per capita income was $15,731. About 20.2% of the population was below the poverty line.[13]

Discover more about Demographics related topics

1890 United States census

1890 United States census

The United States census of 1890 was taken beginning June 2, 1890, but most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in 1921 when a building caught fire and in the subsequent disposal of the remaining damaged records. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier.

1900 United States census

1900 United States census

The United States census of 1900, conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1900, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21.01% from the 62,979,766 persons enumerated during the 1890 census.

1910 United States census

1910 United States census

The United States census of 1910, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 census. The 1910 census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation.

1920 United States census

1920 United States census

The United States census of 1920, conducted by the Census Bureau during one month from January 5, 1920, determined the resident population of the United States to be 106,021,537, an increase of 15.0 percent over the 92,228,496 persons enumerated during the 1910 census.

1930 United States census

1930 United States census

The United States census of 1930, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 census.

1940 United States census

1940 United States census

The United States census of 1940, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.6 percent over the 1930 population of 122,775,046 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940.

1950 United States census

1950 United States census

The United States census of 1950, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 150,697,361, an increase of 14.5 percent over the 131,669,275 persons enumerated during the 1940 census.

1960 United States census

1960 United States census

The United States census of 1960, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 179,323,175, an increase of 19 percent over the 151,325,798 persons enumerated during the 1950 census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over 200,000. This census's data determined the electoral votes for the 1964 and 1968 presidential elections. This was also the last census in which New York was the most populous state.

1970 United States census

1970 United States census

The United States census of 1970, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 203,392,031, an increase of 13.4 percent over the 179,323,175 persons enumerated during the 1960 census.

1980 United States census

1980 United States census

The United States census of 1980, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11.4 percent over the 203,184,772 persons enumerated during the 1970 census. It was the first census in which a state—California—recorded a population of 20 million people, as well as the first in which all states recorded populations of over 400,000.

1990 United States census

1990 United States census

The United States census of 1990, conducted by the Census Bureau, was the first census to be directed by a woman, Barbara Everitt Bryant. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9.8 percent over the 226,545,805 persons enumerated during the 1980 census.

2000 United States census

2000 United States census

The United States census of 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2 percent over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 census. This was the twenty-second federal census and was at the time the largest civilly administered peacetime effort in the United States.

Arts and culture

Indian Creek in downtown Caldwell
Indian Creek in downtown Caldwell

Caldwell has held an annual Indian Creek Festival every September since 2003. The event includes a fun run and a tug of war.[14] Indian Creek Plaza, located in downtown Caldwell, includes an ice ribbon each winter, as well as many events throughout the year.[15]

Parks and recreation

Public pool in Caldwell
Public pool in Caldwell

Caldwell has 12 city parks, two golf courses (Purple Sage and Fairview), a city pool,[16] and two skateparks.[17]

Education

Caldwell has five secondary schools—including Caldwell High School and Vallivue High School—and six elementary schools.[18]

The College of Idaho is located in Caldwell and is one of the oldest four-year institutions in the state.

Infrastructure

Caldwell Industrial Airport is located southeast of downtown.

Caldwell has a high-quality water system, which remained untreated and met all federal guidelines until the 1990s when the Federal Government mandated chlorination.

Notable people

Discover more about Notable people related topics

George Blankley

George Blankley

George C. Blankley was an American football and basketball coach and college athletics administrator. He served as the head basketball coach at Boise Junior College—now Boise State University—from 1948 to 1962, compiling a record of 206–139. Blankey was also the head football coach at Boise Junior College from the middle of the 1950 season through the 1951 season, assuming the responsibility after Coach Lyle Smith was called into the United States Navy during the early part of the Korean War. Blankley compiled a record of 16–2 as head football coach of BJC. In 1962 was hired as athletic director and head football coach at General Beadle State College—now known as Dakota State University—in Madison, South Dakota. He resigned as head football coach following the 1969 season, compiling a record of 27–39–1 in eight seasons.

Daniel Carter (LDS composer)

Daniel Carter (LDS composer)

Daniel Lyman Carter is a composer/songwriter. Much of his work reflects his membership in the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. He was born in Caldwell, Idaho.

Dame Darcy

Dame Darcy

Darcy Megan Stanger, better known by the pen name Dame Darcy, is an alternative cartoonist, fine artist, musician, cabaret performer, and animator/filmmaker. Her "Neo-Victorian" comic book series Meat Cake was published by Fantagraphics Books from 1993–2008. The Meat Cake Bible compilation was released in June 2016 and nominated for The Eisner Award July 2017. Vegan Love: Dating and Partnering for the Cruelty-Free Gal, with Fashion, Makeup & Wedding Tips, written by Maya Gottfried and illustrated by Dame Darcy, was the Silver Medalist winners of the Independent Publisher Book Awards in 2018.

A. J. Feeley

A. J. Feeley

Adam Joshua Feeley is a former American football quarterback. He was drafted by the Philadelphia Eagles of the National Football League (NFL) in the fifth round of the 2001 NFL Draft, and went on to play for the Miami Dolphins, San Diego Chargers, Carolina Panthers, and St. Louis Rams as well as his two nonconsecutive stints with the Eagles. He played college football for the University of Oregon.

Mike Garman

Mike Garman

Michael Douglas Garman is an American former professional baseball player. A relief pitcher, he played for five different teams in Major League Baseball (MLB) between 1969 and 1978. He was a first-round draft selection of the Boston Red Sox in the 1967 MLB draft. Listed at 6 feet 3 inches (191 cm) and 215 pounds (98 kg), he threw and batted right-handed.

Lawrence H. Gipson

Lawrence H. Gipson

Lawrence Henry Gipson was an American historian, who won the 1950 Bancroft Prize and the 1962 Pulitzer Prize for History for volumes of his magnum opus, the fifteen-volume history of "The British Empire Before the American Revolution", published 1936–70. He was a leader of the "Imperial school" of historians who studied the British Empire from the perspective of London, and generally praised the administrative efficiency and political fairness of the Empire.

Ron Hadley

Ron Hadley

Ronald Arthur Hadley is a former professional football player, a linebacker with the NFL's San Francisco 49ers in 1987 and 1988, when the 49ers won Super Bowl XXIII.

Maria Dahvana Headley

Maria Dahvana Headley

Maria Dahvana Headley is an American novelist, memoirist, editor, translator, poet, and playwright. She is a New York Times-bestselling author as well as editor.

Professional Disc Golf Association

Professional Disc Golf Association

The Professional Disc Golf Association (PDGA) is a 501(c)(4) nonprofit membership organization dedicated to the promotion and sustainable growth of disc golf. The PDGA is the global governing body of disc golf. The organization promotes the sport through tournament development, course development, rules and competitive standards, media and sponsor relations, and public education and outreach.

Gary Hubler

Gary Hubler

Gary Hubler was a crop duster and commercial transport pilot with over 17,000 flight hours from Caldwell, Idaho. He was most notable for being Champion of the Formula 1 class of the Reno Air Races from 2002 through 2006.

David Kamo

David Kamo

David Kamo is an American professional motorcycle enduro racer. He races for the Factory KTM Off Road Team. He is currently competing on a KTM 450XC-F in the American Motorcyclist Association National Hare and Hound series, Best In The Desert (BITD) series, International Six Days Enduro, World Enduro Championship and Western Hare Scrambles series.

James Knight (coach)

James Knight (coach)

James Carnahan Knight was an American football player and coach. He played college football at Princeton University in 1895 and at the University of Michigan in 1901. He was the head football coach at the University of Washington from 1902 to 1904 and compiled a 15–4–1 record.

Source: "Caldwell, Idaho", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 24th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caldwell,_Idaho.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
  • Bud, an early 20th-century dog from the Caldwell area
References
  1. ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 9, 2020.
  2. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  3. ^ "Quick Facts, Caldwell city, Idaho". Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  4. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  5. ^ United States Census Bureau. "QuickFacts Caldwell city, Idaho". Retrieved November 20, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 26, 2016. Retrieved December 9, 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Indian Creek Restoration". Cooperative Conservation America. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  8. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2012.
  9. ^ "Climatography of the United States NO.81" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2014. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  10. ^ "Monthly Averages for Caldwell, ID". The Weather Channel. Retrieved January 16, 2011.
  11. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  12. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
  13. ^ "Caldwell Quick Facts". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 18, 2012. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  14. ^ Lea, Dan (September 16, 2010). "Go with the flow at Indian Creek Festival". Idaho Press Tribune. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  15. ^ JaclyTravel. Things To Do in Caldwell, Idaho: Downtown & Indian Creek Plaza, retrieved October 16, 2022
  16. ^ "City of Caldwell". Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  17. ^ "Caldwell, Idaho skatepark". northwestskatepark.com. Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  18. ^ "Caldwell School District". Retrieved February 26, 2012.
  19. ^ Gys van Beek
Further reading
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.