Cain and Abel (comics)
|Cain and Abel|
|Publisher||DC Comics |
The House of Mystery #175 (July – August 1968)
DC Special #4 (July – September 1969)
|Team affiliations||The Dreaming|
Council of Immortals
|Notable aliases||Cain: |
Apparently indestructible and possibly immortal; diabolical cunning; bears the "Mark of Cain" which protects him from all harm
Possibly immortal and apparently indestructible; Resurrects from any fatal wound inflicted by Cain
Cain and Abel are a pair of fictional characters in the DC Comics universe based on the biblical Cain and Abel. They are key figures in DC's "Mystery" line of the late 1960s and 1970s, which became the mature-readers imprint Vertigo in 1993.
Cain is based on the Biblical Cain and Abel on the Biblical Abel, but are altogether different characters than their Biblical counterparts. Cain and Abel are one of many human (with pet companions) key figures in DC's "Mystery" line-up referred to as horror hosts of the late 1960s and 1970s, which later became a part of the mature-readers imprint Vertigo. They are depicted as brothers and they are also sons of DC Comics' Eve (another DC horror host based on a Biblical figure called Eve). In 1993, host characters like Cain, Abel, Eve and Lucien were retconned as a part of the Dreaming in the critically acclaimed Sandman comic books. The character Cain is also commonly associated with his pet gargoyle Gregory.
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In 1968, Cain was created to "host" the EC-style horror comic anthologies The House of Mystery (which had begun publishing in 1950). Cain, "the Able Care-Taker", created by Bob Haney, Jack Sparling and Joe Orlando, first appeared in The House of Mystery #175 (July – August 1968), modeled on writer Len Wein, who was new to the field. (A photograph of Wein as Cain can be found in Elvira's House of Mystery #4 [June 1986].)
The House of Mystery was cancelled in 1983. The final issue showed Cain in front of the House for sale, with his bags packed, and Gregory, his pet gargoyle, behind him. In the mid-1980s, Cain became a supporting character in Blue Devil (as caretaker of the "House of Weirdness"), with Abel and Gregory making occasional appearances as well.
In 1969, Abel was created to "host" the companion EC-style horror anthology The House of Secrets (which in its Silver Age run, was published from 1956 to 1966). In 1969, DC editor Joe Orlando created the design for Abel, based on his assistant, Mark Hanerfeld:
I started out basing it on the biblical Cain and Abel but then I turned to the people that were around me. It's just a writer's trick to take people's personalities and inject them into your characters. Mark stuttered when he got nervous. He was short and heavy so Abel was short and heavy. Abel was a good counterpoint to Cain who was tall and thin.
Abel's first comics appearance was in DC Special #4 (July – September 1969), ironically written by Hanerfeld and illustrated by Bill Draut. The House of Secrets was revived with #81 (August – September 1969) and Abel began hosting immediately.
In 1978, The House of Secrets (along with another horror title, The Witching Hour) was merged into The Unexpected (which itself was canceled in 1982).
During the 1970s, Cain and Abel (along Eve) also co-hosted the horror/humor anthology Plop! Both comics had been running Dial H for Hero and Eclipso, respectively, before the introduction of the new host characters.
The cover of Vertigo's mostly-reprint Welcome Back to the House of Mystery (July 1998) showed Cain returning to the House with Abel and Gregory. Both of the anthologies that Cain and Abel debuted in are cited as one of the comic books that Neil Gaiman grew up with which helped pave the way for Cain and Abel revival within The Sandman comic books.
On the letters page of Weird Mystery Tales #3 (November 1972), Destiny stated that Cain, along with Abel and Eve, were not the same characters as their Biblical counterparts, whom Destiny said he found much more pleasant. Cain, Eve and, to a lesser extent, Abel, subsequently taunt Destiny for being dull. The Dreaming's early issues (#1-4, #8) established that Cain and Abel are their biblical counterparts. It was annotated that they did not know whether they were or if they had false memories but found evidence tying them to their biblical counterparts during the course of the story. In the 8th issue, their wives, Jumella (Abel's twin and Cain's wife) and Aclima (Cain's twin and Abel's wife), who are also their twin sisters, and Seth were introduced to the DC Universe.
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Fictional character biography
House of Mystery/Secrets
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Cain told tales of various people who boarded at the House of Mystery. Abel stammeringly took abuse from both Cain and the House of Secrets itself, and had an "imaginary" (it was always rendered in quotes) girlfriend named Goldie, who berated him too. In the early issues, Abel told the stories directly to Goldie, although he always appeared to be alone. He said she was a ghost.
Cain is a thin, long-limbed man with an angular, drawn face, glasses, a tufty beard, and hair drawn into two points above his ears. Cain is often mean to Abel, but he is jovial and a friendly storyteller to children and did everything he could to help Superman when the need once arose; however, he has no qualms trapping innocent people inside his television set and he was once employed by a vicious mink furrier. Abel is a nervous, stammering, kind-hearted man. Abel also has a tufty beard and hair that comes to points above his ears, though his hair is black rather than brown. He is shorter and fatter than Cain, with a more open face. It is eventually stated (in The Sandman vol. 2 #40) that the only time he doesn't stutter is when he is telling a story, and this was characteristic of his earlier appearances. Cain owns a large green draconian gargoyle named Gregory, who first appeared (as a baby) in The House of Mystery #175, apparently the offspring of enchanted sculptures who come to the house for a French sculptor who murdered the artist who designed them. Gregory grew to maturity over the course of the series and continued to appear in Sandman stories. Gregory ate the Earth-1 counterparts of writer Paul Kupperberg and editor Jack C. Harris. Cain also used to have a black cat named Oskar, who did not get along with Gregory.
Abel moved in with Cain in the House of Mystery shortly before DC Special #4, which Cain states is a temporary situation until the House of Secrets is transported (which occurred in The House of Secrets #81, which appeared one month later). Their ages are vague, but Abel presents a story that he claims to have heard from Cain, who scared him with it as a child in 1957. The story in question originally appeared in Tales of the Unexpected #17 (September 1957).
In the final issue of The House of Mystery, Karen Berger, whom Cain first met in issue #292—the first issue she edited for DC—arrives as an unexpected guest at Cain's birthday party, takes him through a secret door that leads to the DC offices, and tells him that his series has been canceled and that he is too old-fashioned. The House is torn down, and Cain metafictionally analyzes his own existence as a character in a comic book.
In 1985, the characters were revived by writer Alan Moore, who introduced them into his Swamp Thing series in the issue #33, retelling the Swamp Thing's original origin story as depicted in a 1971 issue of House of Secrets. Cain kills Abel for revealing a secret (the difference between a mystery and a secret is that a mystery can be shared and still remains a mystery) and declares to Abby Holland, "I invented murder!" In Blue Devil #20 (January 1986), Cain is the caretaker of "The House of Weirdness" until Blue Devil moves in, and discovers that Abel is there, too. He states that the California mansion is owned by "a publishing company back East".
During the Crisis, although not mentioned in that series, Elvira stumbled onto the House of Mystery, which charged her to find Cain, who had disappeared. Metropolis can be seen through a window in the garage of the House of Weirdness. Cain and Blue Devil can be seen peering at Elvira in Elvira's House of Mystery. Cain and Abel reappeared in Swamp Thing #49-50, where they acted as observers and commentators on a fierce battle in Hell.
They were depicted together in Abel's first appearance, and they parted to their respective Houses at the end of the story, the House of Secrets having been recently moved, with Cain promising things not to go the way they happened before. Although Cain would abuse Abel, he was not shown killing him until Swamp Thing vol. 2 #33. More often than not, though, they did not appear together, and Cain directed more of his taunts at the reader, while Abel tried to reassure Goldie or the reader. Indeed, in The House of Mystery #257 (April 1978), an asylum escapee, "Killer" Cowan, kills six people on Christmas Eve, storming into the House of Mystery wearing a Santa Claus suit and demands Cain to keep him occupied by entertaining him with stories. Cain protests that he does not want to entertain someone who ruins all that the holiday stands for. Abel is said to be a voyeur in Secrets of Sinister House #14, and shown to be such in The Sandman vol. 2 #60.
The Sandman and The Dreaming
The second volume of The Sandman, written by Neil Gaiman, reintroduced the characters. It is implied by dialogue between Lucifer and Cain (who had been sent by Dream as a messenger due to his invulnerability) that the biblical Cain and Abel came to live in the Dreaming at Dream's invitation. To support this, Lucifer quotes the verse in the Bible which says that Cain was sent to live in the Land of Nod. This could be a post-Crisis retcon, however, as Destiny claimed in Weird Mystery Tales #3 that they were not the same as the Biblical Cain and Abel. The nature of reality in the Dreaming is often multiple and when Cain, Abel, and Eve are telling young Daniel Hall three stories, Cain objects to Abel's "Lil' Endless" style retelling of their origin claiming that "... they (the Endless) didn't even look remotely human, none of us did!" Abel later responds to Matthew the Raven's query about whether they are their biblical namesakes or not by stating; "...oh, none of this happened on Earth..." before being interrupted by Cain. Eve also states that she is not Cain's mother to which Cain replies, "You're everyone's mother". This sequence of events would seem to indicate that rather than being the actual literal beings Cain, Abel, and Eve the Dreaming's incarnation of them are closer to their archetypal roles of first murderer, first victim, and first mother. This is supported by several incidents when Cain or Abel have identified themselves as such and claimed that their cycle of murder and resurrection is punishment for their role in the first murder. This would also allow Joe Kubert's DC Comics adaptation of the Cain and Abel story from the Bible, in which he ignored their "Mystery" likenesses, to fit neatly into canon.
Cain frequently kills Abel in a kind of macabre form of obsessive-compulsive disorder, re-enacting the first murder. In the Dreaming, Abel's death is impermanent, and he seems to recover after a few hours. Cain seems unable to control his frequent murders of Abel, and occasionally expresses remorse over them; there is a genuine bond between the two, beneath the surface contempt. Abel remains dedicated to Cain, and frequently dreams of a more harmonious relationship between the two.
In turn, in the graphic novel The Sandman: The Wake, Cain is so distraught when Abel is murdered permanently by the Kindly Ones, he sinks into a rambling mess when asking the new Dream to restore him. In preparation for the funeral services for the deceased Dream, Cain's anger boils over yet again when Abel reveals a secret, but he is calmed by a reprimand and restrained from murdering Abel. He displays a contract, renewed in 1989 (the year The Sandman began) that states that only he is allowed to kill Abel, because Abel can resurrect only when Cain kills him.
In the first appearance of the characters in The Sandman vol. 2 #2, Cain gives Abel an egg that soon hatches into another gargoyle, a small golden one. Abel is delighted and names the gargoyle "Irving", but Cain forcefully insists that the names of gargoyles must always begin with a "G". When Abel resists, Cain murders him, and after Abel revives he renames the gargoyle "Goldie", after a friend of his who "went away".
The main function of Cain and Abel throughout The Sandman is as comic relief. However, the two play significant (though not key) roles at several points in the series; it is they who take Morpheus in until his strength is restored following his 72-year-long imprisonment. In the fourth story arc, Season of Mists, Cain is sent to Hell to give a message to Lucifer because the Mark of Cain protects him. Those who would harm Cain would have the full wrath of God visited upon them. Lucifer merely finds this funny, since he is already in Hell.
Cain and Abel also aid The Corinthian with the child Daniel during The Kindly Ones, the penultimate story arc of the series. They also appear with Morpheus in The Books of Magic #3.
Recently, both Cain and Abel have appeared in the new House of Mystery title. Abel appeared in the missing House of Mystery with Goldie, claiming to be on a secret mission to retrieve the various nightmares that were still in the house when it vanished. Meanwhile, Cain, under the guise of a mysterious coachman, plotted with various groups to retake the House of Mystery, which he saw as his rightful property. Eventually, Cain was able to broker a deal to become the co-manager of the House of Mystery's current incarnation as a bar, and both he and Abel have become regular members of the series' cast.
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Gregory is a large green gargoyle and the pet of Cain. He communicates in "grunts", which the inhabitants of the Dreaming appear to understand. He helps Goldie re-assemble Abel when Cain kills him. He first appeared as the child of two stone gargoyles in The House of Mystery #175, wherein his parents perched on the House of Mystery until they were able to kill their sculptor, a boarder in the house who had murdered their designer, and left without their egg. He later appears during the Blackest Night crossover event, defending Scandal Savage, the new owner of the House of Mystery, from the members of the Suicide Squad.
Eve, a minor fixture of the DC Comics universe, is based on the Biblical Eve, the mother of humanity and the wife of Adam within the Bible narrative in the Book of Genesis, while being an altogether new and different character. She was depicted as an original horror host for the publication company. She is depicted as the mother of both Cain and Abel (though she often denied it) and Who's Who in the DC Universe stated that they were cousins. She would be revived by Vertigo Comics with her character being retconned as part of the Dreaming. She is one of four recurring hosts of horror / suspense anthologies that were revived in The Sandman that are part of the Dreaming, with the other three being Cain, Abel and Lucien.
Eve originally appeared in Secrets of Sinister House #6 (August–September 1972); she was the series' principal host, often in stock images, usually with her raven. After issue #15, in which Eve reveals in the letter column that her raven, Edgar Allen [sic], is an enchanted deceased human, editor Joe Orlando departed from the series and so did she, the series focusing on "sinister house"s. That month (December 1973), she started hosting one story per month in Weird Mystery Tales.
She became the principal host of Weird Mystery Tales with issue #15, replacing Destiny, who had moved to Secrets of Haunted House as its principal host. In Plop!, Eve, Cain, and Abel each tell one story per issue. She also made a few appearances in The House of Mystery and The House of Secrets.
In Weird Mystery Tales #3 (November – December 1972), Destiny insisted that Eve, Cain, and Abel are not their Biblical eponyms. When she is shown in The Sandman vol. 2 #2, Lucien's comment about her addresses her unfriendly nature prior to Dream's return, stating that she confines herself to nightmares.
In her early appearances, she appears only as a crone, is often identified as a witch, and has a tendency to sharp speech. In her first appearance, she scares Cain and Abel and shouts at them, "Get out of the kitchen when it gets too hot, you cowardly mortals! Old Eve doesn't care..." Her letter column, which was answered in character, was called "Witch's Tales". She appeared as a principal character in stories in Secrets of Sinister House #9 and 11 and Weird Mystery Tales #18. In issue #9, she stays in an apartment building under an assumed name (she denies it is her in the letters column of issue #13), where the smell of her cooking causes her neighbor to report her to the superintendent, so she curses the neighbor to repeat a day — which begins wonderfully and ends in two deaths — over and over again.
Eve lives in a cave in the Dreaming and is often accompanied by Dream's raven. The first raven, Lucien, taught her how to bury Abel after Cain murdered him and she has been accompanied by a raven ever since. She is kind and has a maternal nature, though she retains her sharp language. Most of the time she appears as a black-haired woman of indeterminate age, but sometimes appears as a young, attractive maiden, a middle-aged mother, or an elderly crone. When she is first seen in The Sandman #2, she looks little different from her original appearances. Next, in issue #24, she has put on much weight, has a friendlier face and shows her ability to de-age as she embraces Matthew. Her largest appearance is in issue #40, wherein she appears young and beautiful for the first time.
An incarnation of Eve appears as a major character in Lucifer portrayed by Inbar Lavi, depicted as an antagonist and one of the love interests of the titular character. The original release described her as "the original sinner herself" and "the first love" of Lucifer. Lavi talked about her role of the character: "I think personally the most interesting thing about Eve was the concept of sin and how she’s considered to be the original sinner. But I don’t really see it that way. Eve is brave enough to go after her curiosity and her passion and to me, that’s very courageous. I wasn’t playing her as someone who made a mistake. I was playing her as someone who is very curious and excited to learn".
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Reception and analysis
Both Cain and Abel are listed as part of the top 10 of characters by Comic Book Resources that are wanted to see from the Sandman comics that is planned to be adapted by Netflix. Bibek Bhattacharya of Mint felt that the backstories of DC's major Biblically adapted characters (Cain, Abel and Eve) from The Sandman were well-told and opined that they were even more interesting than the original Biblical tales told in the Book of Genesis itself.
Within the comics, Abel is depicted as a more meek man who is commonly a victim to Cain’s murders in various gruesome ways, much like a recurring dark comedy trope. The theme was adapted from the original tale in Genesis 4. Abel is slain by Cain within the narrative by jealousy of the Hebrew God where he accepted Abel's offering, but not Cain's. In the Biblical narrative, Cain was the first murderer and Abel was the first murder victim, so it is the same within DC Comics stories. The relationship of Hilda Spellman and Zelda Spellman within Chilling Adventures of Sabrina has been compared to the dynamic of Gaiman's portrayal of both Cain and Abel by editors such as Christian Holub of Entertainment Weekly and David Opie of Digital Spy.
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In other media
- Cain appears in the Justice League Action episode "Trick or Threat", voiced by Trevor Devall. He is the owner of the House of Mystery, a house filled with magical artifacts, capable of disappearing, and acts as the narrator of the episode. He tells the viewers of the time when Klarion the Witch Boy turned Batman, Zatanna, Doctor Fate, and John Constantine into children on Halloween so that he could lure them into the House of Mystery and steal the Helmet of Fate.
- Both Cain and Abel appear in the TV series Lucifer:
- Tom Welling portrays Cain. At the start of season 3, he goes by Lt. Marcus Pierce, but is later revealed to be as Cain. Lucifer, looking to help him find a way to die, assists Cain throughout the season, but eventually kills him in the end after his mark is removed.
- Abel appears in the episode "Infernal Guinea Pig", portrayed by Lauren Lapkus.
- Cain and Abel appear in the TV adaptation of The Sandman. Cain is portrayed by Sanjeev Bhaskar, while Abel is portrayed by Asim Chaudhry.
- Cain and Abel also have a one-page cameo in The Batman Adventures #5 as wardens of Arkham, although this may be a hallucination of Dr. Crane.
- Cain and Abel appears in All-New Batman: The Brave and the Bold #12 based on the TV show.
- Cain and Abel appear in the Sandman Audible adaptation. Cain is portrayed by Michael Roberts, while Abel is portrayed by Kerry Shale.
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Source: "Cain and Abel (comics)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 9th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cain_and_Abel_(comics).
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The Sandman: Preludes & Nocturnes
The Sandman (comic book)
Death of the Endless
Lucifer (DC Comics)
Titania (DC Comics)
Sandman (Wesley Dodds)
House of Mystery
House of Secrets (DC Comics)
The Sandman: The Dream Hunters
Presence (DC Comics)
The Dreaming (comics)
The Unexpected (1968 comic book)
The Sandman Universe
Black Orchid (comics)
The Sandman (TV series)
- ^ a b c d Wallace, Dan (2008), "Bushmaster", in Dougall, Alastair (ed.), The DC Comics Encyclopedia, New York: Dorling Kindersley, p. 63, ISBN 978-0-7566-4119-1, OCLC 213309017
- ^ Wallace, Dan (2008), "Bushmaster", in Dougall, Alastair (ed.), The DC Comics Encyclopedia, New York: Dorling Kindersley, p. 63, ISBN 978-0-7566-4119-1, OCLC 213309017
- ^ a b Lealos, Shawn S. (15 July 2019). "10 Characters We Hope To See In Netflix's Sandman". CBR. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
In The Sandman comics, Cain is invulnerable, and he and his brother were sent to live in The Dreaming thanks to Morpheus' invitation. They also might not be the literal Cain and Abel from the Bible, but abstract archetypes of the first murderer and first victim. The characters' appearances almost always end with Cain killing Abel once again.
- ^ a b Polo, Susana (2020-10-22). "Yes, Sandman is a horror comic — and it'll terrify you". Polygon. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ Clough, Rob (2020-08-06). "DC's Sandman explained". Looper.com. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
Cain and Abel are not how you remember them from the Bible, but that's because they're not Biblical references, they're comic book revivals. The two were the Cryptkeeper-style hosts of DC Comics' EC-imitating horror anthology series, House of Mystery and House of Secrets.
- ^ a b c "The "Outsider": Neil Gaiman and the Old Testament". The Creative Process. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ a b Cowsill, Alan; Irvine, Alex; Korte, Steve; Manning, Matt; Wiacek, Win; Wilson, Sven (2016). The DC Comics Encyclopedia: The Definitive Guide to the Characters of the DC Universe. DK Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-4654-5357-0.
- ^ a b Mark Waid. Millennium Edition: House of Mystery #1 (September 2000), inside back cover
- ^ Wells, John (2014). American Comic Book Chronicles: 1965-1969. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 215. ISBN 978-1605490557.
- ^ a b Cronin, Brian (17 September 2017). "Comic Legends: Which Comic Creators Were the Models for Cain and Abel?". CBR. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ "The House of Mystery: The Strangest Home in the DC Universe". Comic Years. 2019-08-14. Archived from the original on 2020-12-04. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ Wells, John (2014). American Comic Book Chronicles: 1965-1969. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 215. ISBN 978-1605490557.
- ^ Cooke, Jon B. (Spring 1998). "Orlando's Weird Adventures: Interview with that man of mystery, the late Joe Orlando". Comic Book Artist. No. 1.
- ^ Wells, John (2014). American Comic Book Chronicles: 1965-1969. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 242. ISBN 978-1605490557.
- ^ Grickowski, Fish. "Neil Gaiman's The Sandman world thriving in Vertigo comics, and now Netflix". edmontonjournal. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- ^ a b Clough, Rob (6 August 2020). "DC's Sandman explained". Looper.com. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ The House of Mystery #213
- ^ a b The House of Mystery #254
- ^ DC Special #4, pp 44 and 48
- ^ The House of Mystery #321
- ^ Blue Devil #21
- ^ Elvira's House of Mystery #1
- ^ a b Gaiman, Neil. "The Lucien question on Jeopardy tonight". Tumblr. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ Latin-Bertone, Joshua (27 October 2020). "A Beginner's Guide to DC Horror". DC. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- ^ The Sandman vol. 2 #40
- ^ Swamp Thing vol. 2 #33
- ^ Limited Collectors' Edition C-36 (The Most Spectacular Stories Ever Told... From The Bible) (June – July 1975)
- ^ Wallace, Dan (2008), Dougall, Alastair (ed.), The DC Comics Encyclopedia, New York: Dorling Kindersley, ISBN 978-0-7566-4119-1, OCLC 213309017
- ^ "A guide to non-Neil Gaiman stories set in the 'Sandman' universe". WMQ Comics. 2018-03-05. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ Sacks, Jason; Dallas, Keith (2014). American Comic Book Chronicles: The 1970s. TwoMorrows Publishing. p. 55. ISBN 978-1605490564.
- ^ Secrets of Sinister House #16
- ^ a b Schedeen, Jesse (30 October 2013). "The Sandman Retrospective". IGN. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ Thompson, Steven (February 2015). "Those Were Weird Times: Weird Mystery Tales". Back Issue!. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing (#78): 23–30.
- ^ Cassell, Dewey (April 2007). "The Hellish Humor of Plop!". Back Issue!. TwoMorrows Publishing (#21): 21–27.
- ^ Liu, Narayan (22 August 2020). "Lucifer: Where Does Eve Fit Into Season 5?". CBR. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ Potier, Laura (28 July 2020). "Lucifer: Every Biblical Figure (Including Michael) Explained". ScreenRant. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ Chancellor, Agard. "'Lucifer' final season first look: Inbar Lavi's Eve returns in exclusive photo". EW.com.
- ^ Vinney, Cynthia (8 June 2019). "Lucifer: 5 Reasons Why We Are Team Eve (and 5 Reasons Why We Are Team Chloe)". ScreenRant. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ Holbrook, Damian. "Thrilling Eve! 'Lucifer' Casts Inbar Lavi as the First Lady of Eden". TV Insider. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ "INBAR LAVI [LUCIFER]". A BOOK OF MAGAZINE. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ Bhattacharya, Bibek (22 November 2020). "Sunday Lounge: Neil Gaiman on writing 'The Sandman' and the new Netflix series". Mintlounge. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- ^ a b Opie, David (2 November 2018). "10 chilling details you might've missed in Sabrina". Digital Spy. Retrieved 25 November 2020.
- ^ a b Holub, Christian. "Did you catch this 'Sandman' homage in 'Chilling Adventures of Sabrina'?". EW.com. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
- ^ "Five Thoughts on Lucifer's "The Sin Bin"". Multiversity Comics. 2017-12-12. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ "With "Infernal Guinea Pig", Lucifer brings up a special guest". The A.V. Club. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ a b Ramos, Dino-Ray (January 28, 2021). "Neil Gaiman's 'The Sandman' Casts Tom Sturridge, Gwendoline Christie, Vivienne Acheampong, Boyd Holbrook, Charles Dance, Asim Chaudhry And Sanjeev Bhaskar". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved January 28, 2021.
- ^ "Audible's The Sandman". Multiversity Comics. 2020-07-17. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
- ^ "Dirk Maggs Talks Audible's Adaptation Of The Sandman". TRIPWIRE. 2020-07-19. Retrieved 2020-11-18.
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