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C3 (railcar)

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C3
LIRR C3 5019 on Train 6506.jpg
C3 cab car #5019 trailing at Mineola
In service1998–present
ManufacturerKawasaki Rail Car, Inc.[1]
Replacedall C1 bi-levels, P72 and P75 single-levels
Constructed1997–1999
Entered serviceFall 1998
Number built134 cars
C car with toilet, 23
T cars (no toilets), 67
TT car with toilet, 44
Fleet numbersC car, 5001–5023
T car, 4002–4134
(even numbers)
TT car, 4001–4087
(odd numbers)
CapacitySeated passengers[1][2]
C car, 137
T car, 143
TT car 137
Operator(s)Long Island Rail Road
Line(s) servedRonkonkoma Branch
Port Jefferson Branch
Oyster Bay Branch
Montauk Branch
Specifications
Car length85 ft 0 in (25,910 mm)
Width9 ft 10.5 in (3,010 mm)
Height14 ft 5.59 in (4,409 mm)
Maximum speed100 mph (161 km/h)
WeightC Car: 148,771 lb (67,481 kg)
T Car: 141,375 lb (64,127 kg)
TT Car: 144,338 lb (65,471 kg)
Power supply480 V AC 60 Hz
Coupling systemType H tightlock knuckle coupler
Track gauge4 ft 8+12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge

The C3 is a bi-level coach railroad car built by Kawasaki. Ordered by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority for use on the Long Island Rail Road, the cars began to enter revenue service in 1997. The rail cars are pulled and pushed by EMD DE30AC and DM30AC over both electrified and non-electrified territory.[3]

The C3 cars are powered by 480 V AC Head End Power (HEP) supplied from the locomotive.[2]

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Bilevel rail car

Bilevel rail car

A bilevel car or double-decker coach is a type of rail car that has two levels of passenger accommodation, as opposed to one, increasing passenger capacity.

Metropolitan Transportation Authority

Metropolitan Transportation Authority

The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) is a public benefit corporation responsible for public transportation in the New York City metropolitan area of the U.S. state of New York. The MTA is the largest public transit authority in the United States, serving 12 counties in Downstate New York, along with two counties in southwestern Connecticut under contract to the Connecticut Department of Transportation, carrying over 11 million passengers on an average weekday systemwide, and over 850,000 vehicles on its seven toll bridges and two tunnels per weekday.

Long Island Rail Road

Long Island Rail Road

The Long Island Rail Road, often abbreviated as the LIRR, is a commuter rail system in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of New York, stretching from Manhattan to the eastern tip of Suffolk County on Long Island. With an average weekday ridership of 354,800 passengers in 2016, it is the busiest commuter railroad in North America. It is also one of the world's few commuter systems that runs 24/7 year-round. It is publicly owned by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which refers to it as MTA Long Island Rail Road. In 2021, the system had a ridership of 49,167,600, or about 216,500 per weekday as of the second quarter of 2022.

EMD DE30AC and DM30AC

EMD DE30AC and DM30AC

The EMD DE30AC and DM30AC are a class of 46 locomotives built between 1997–1999 by Electro-Motive Division in the Super Steel Plant in Schenectady, New York, for the Long Island Rail Road of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York. Originally divided equally between the two types, the fleet currently consists of 24 DE30AC locomotives and 20 DM30AC locomotives.

Description

There are three types of C3 cars: cab car with toilet (C Car), trailer car (T Car), and trailer car with toilet (TT car). The C car is normally at the opposite end of a consist from the locomotive.[1][2]

The C3 railcars are connected to one another by a standard mechanical H type tightlock coupling, which is used across the board on all modern passenger equipment. MU, COMM, and 480 volt line are the electrical jumpers. Air connections between the cars are made through two air hoses, brake pipe, and main reservoir.[2][3]

The C3s are the first trains on the LIRR to feature automated announcements with LED destination sign displays, announcing the current station, the following station, and destinations along the routes.[4] However, over the years of service, the components often fell into disrepair, obliging the train crew to make announcements instead.

Additionally, despite being based largely on the C1s, the C3s are not mechanically compatible with their C1 prototypes.[5]

Due to their height, the C3 coaches cannot fit through the 63rd Street Tunnel, and are thus unable to serve Grand Central Madison.[6]

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Public toilet

Public toilet

A public toilet, restroom, public bathroom or washroom is a room or small building with toilets and sinks for use by the general public. The facilities are available to customers, travelers, employees of a business, school pupils and prisoners and are commonly separated into male and female toilets, although some are unisex, especially for small or single-occupancy public toilets.

Tightlock coupling

Tightlock coupling

Type H Tightlock couplers are a variety of Janney coupler, typically used on North American mainline passenger rail cars. They are designed with mechanical features which reduce slack in normal operation and prevent telescoping in derailments, yet remain compatible with other Janney types used by North American freight railroads.

63rd Street Tunnel

63rd Street Tunnel

The 63rd Street Tunnel is a double-deck subway and railroad tunnel under the East River between the boroughs of Manhattan and Queens in New York City. Opened in 1989, it is the newest of the East River tunnels, as well as the newest rail river crossing in the New York metropolitan area. The upper level of the 63rd Street Tunnel carries the IND 63rd Street Line of the New York City Subway. The lower level carries Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) trains to Grand Central as part of the East Side Access project.

Grand Central Madison station

Grand Central Madison station

The Grand Central Madison station is a commuter rail terminal for the Long Island Rail Road (LIRR) in the Midtown East neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. Part of the East Side Access project, the new terminal started construction in 2008 and opened on January 25, 2023. Sometimes called the LIRR's East Side station, it sits beneath Grand Central Terminal, which serves the MTA's Metro-North Railroad.

History

The C3s were ordered following the successful experiment of using the C1 railcars on the LIRR's non-electrified branches, to replace the aging P72 and P75 coaches which were in use at the time in diesel territory.[4] Delivery of the C3s was delayed for over a year due to production problems.[4]

Design

The C3s design was largely on their C1 prototypes, with a few key differences.[5] Seating inside the C3 cars is arranged as 2–2 abreast, with some rows being 2–1 abreast.[4][5] The lack of a middle seat contrasts with the seating onboard the C1 prototypes; the C1s had 3–2 abreast seating, which received poor feedback from passengers.[5][7] The C3s also feature technological upgrades, including the LED destination sign displays and automated announcements.[4]

As the C3 cars are designed to use high-level platforms, passengers enter the train on either end of the railcar on a midlevel, entering a vestibule, thence climb or descend a short flight of steps to the upper and lower seating levels; accessible seating is available on the entrance (middle) level.[3][5] The cars can accommodate two wheelchairs.[3] The seats are cantilevered, mainly to make cleaning easier.[4]

The doors on the sides of the railcars are single-leaf doors, which slide open.[3]

The C3s, like the C1s, are roughly 14 feet 6 inches (4.42 m) in height, and, as aforementioned, cannot serve Grand Central Madison due to their height exceeding the maximum clearance in the 63rd Street Tunnel.[3][6]

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Source: "C3 (railcar)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C3_(railcar).

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References
  1. ^ a b c "Long Island Rail Road Commuter Bi-Level". Kawasaki Rail Car Inc. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  2. ^ a b c d BI-LEVEL C-3 CARS Operator's Manual, Transit Documentation Consultants, January 2000
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Long Island Rail Road Commuter Bi-Level". July 26, 2010. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved April 3, 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Rather, John (January 3, 1999). "With New Cars, L.I.R.R. Gathers a Bit of Momentum; Diesel Lines Go to the Head of the Class; Electric Service is Next Project". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved January 25, 2023.
  5. ^ a b c d e Dunn, John (2013). Comeng: A History of Commonwealth Engineering. Vol. 5: 1985–1990. Kenthurst, New South Wales: Rosenberg Publishing. ISBN 978-1-922013-52-1.
  6. ^ a b "Chapter 28: Comments and Responses on the Draft Environmental Impact Statement". East Side Access Environmental Impact Statement (PDF). mta.info. MTA Capital Construction. March 2001. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 15, 2018. Retrieved February 2, 2018.
  7. ^ Lambert, Bruce (May 31, 1997). "The Tall Little Train That Usually Could". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331.
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