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Bullacta exarata

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Korean mud snail
Bullacta exarata shell.png
Drawing of apertural view of a shell of Bullacta exarata
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
(unranked):
Superfamily:
Family:
Genus:
Bullacta

Bergh, 1901[2]
Species:
B. exarata
Binomial name
Bullacta exarata
(Philippi, 1849)
Synonyms[4][5]

Atyscaphander Annandale, 1924[3]
Sinohaminea Tchang, 1933
Bullaea caurina Benson, 1856
Bullaea exarata Philippi, 1849
Haminoea sinensis A. Adams, 1850
Sinohaminea tsangkouensis Tchang, 1933

Bullacta exarata, common name the Korean mud snail,[6] is a species of a sea snail or bubble snail, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Haminoeidae, the bubble snails.

Bullacta exarata is a commercially important mollusc which is used as a food item in eastern China.[7]

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Common name

Common name

In biology, a common name of a taxon or organism is a name that is based on the normal language of everyday life; and is often contrasted with the scientific name for the same organism, which is Latinized. A common name is sometimes frequently used, but that is not always the case.

Species

Species

In biology, a species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. It is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour, or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

Sea snail

Sea snail

Sea snail is a common name for slow-moving marine gastropod molluscs, usually with visible external shells, such as whelk or abalone. They share the taxonomic class Gastropoda with slugs, which are distinguished from snails primarily by the absence of a visible shell.

Family (biology)

Family (biology)

Family is one of the eight major hierarchical taxonomic ranks in Linnaean taxonomy. It is classified between order and genus. A family may be divided into subfamilies, which are intermediate ranks between the ranks of family and genus. The official family names are Latin in origin; however, popular names are often used: for example, walnut trees and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae, but that family is commonly referred to as the "walnut family".

Haminoeidae

Haminoeidae

Haminoeidae, commonly known as the haminoeid bubble snail family, is a taxonomic family of sea snails, marine opisthobranch gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Haminoeoidea.

Taxonomy

Bullacta exarata is the only species in the genus Bullacta. cf.[4]

Bullacta is the type genus of the family Bullactidae Thiele, 1926, as shown in the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi (2005).[8]

Based on phylogenetic genetic analysis by Malaquias (2010),[1] Bullacta exarata should be placed in the family Haminoeidae.[1]

Distribution

Bullacta exarata is endemic to coastlines of the South and East China Seas from Hainan to the Bohai Sea in north-eastern China,[1][9] the western coast and south coast of Korea[1] and Japan.[10] An ecotype of this snail introduced from further south has become invasive in Laizhou Bay, with population densities of over 160 snails per square meter.[11]

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Endemism

Endemism

Endemism is the state of a species being found in a single defined geographic location, such as an island, state, nation, country or other defined zone; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. For example, the Cape sugarbird is found exclusively in southwestern South Africa and is therefore said to be endemic to that particular part of the world.

South China Sea

South China Sea

The South China Sea, or South East Asian Sea, is a marginal sea of the Western Pacific Ocean. It is bounded in the north by the shores of South China, in the west by the Indochinese Peninsula, in the east by the islands of Taiwan and northwestern Philippines, and in the south by Borneo, eastern Sumatra and the Bangka Belitung Islands, encompassing an area of around 3,500,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). It communicates with the East China Sea via the Taiwan Strait, the Philippine Sea via the Luzon Strait, the Sulu Sea via the straits around Palawan, the Strait of Malacca via the Singapore Strait, and the Java Sea via the Karimata and Bangka Straits. The Gulf of Thailand and the Gulf of Tonkin are also part of South China Sea. The shallow waters south of the Riau Islands are also known as the Natuna Sea.

East China Sea

East China Sea

The East China Sea is an arm of the Western Pacific Ocean, located directly offshore from East China. It covers an area of roughly 1,249,000 square kilometers (482,000 sq mi). The sea’s northern extension between mainland China and the Korean Peninsula is the Yellow Sea, separated by an imaginary line between the eastern tip of Qidong at the Yangtze River estuary and the southwestern tip of South Korea's Jeju Island.

Hainan

Hainan

Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea. Hainan Island, the largest and most populous island in China, makes up the vast majority (97%) of the province. The name means "south of the sea", reflecting the island's position south of the Qiongzhou Strait, which separates it from Leizhou Peninsula and the China mainland.

Bohai Sea

Bohai Sea

The Bohai Sea is a marginal sea approximately 77,000 km2 (30,000 sq mi) in area on the east coast of Mainland China. It is the northwestern and innermost extension of the Yellow Sea, to which it connects to the east via the Bohai Strait. It has a mean depth of approximately 18 meters (59 ft), with a maximum depth of about 80 meters (260 ft) located in the northern part of the Bohai Strait.

Ecotype

Ecotype

In evolutionary ecology, an ecotype, sometimes called ecospecies, describes a genetically distinct geographic variety, population, or race within a species, which is genotypically adapted to specific environmental conditions.

Invasive species

Invasive species

An invasive or alien species is an introduced species to an environment that becomes overpopulated and harms its new environment. Invasive species adversely affect habitats and bioregions, causing ecological, environmental, and/or economic damage. The term can also be used for native species that become harmful to their native environment after human alterations to its food web – for example the purple sea urchin which has decimated kelp forests along the northern California coast due to overharvesting of its natural predator, the California sea otter. Since the 20th century, invasive species have become a serious economic, social, and environmental threat.

Laizhou Bay

Laizhou Bay

Laizhou Bay is a bay on the southern shore of the Bohai Sea, bounded by the northwestern coastline of the Shandong Peninsula west of the Port of Longkou and the eastern coastline of Dongying south of the Yellow River estuary. It is named after the county-level city of Laizhou to its east, and is the smallest of the three main bays of the Bohai Sea.

Description

The shell is bullate, fairly thick, white, spirally striate, with a well-developed periostracum.[3] There is no spire and no umbilicus.[3] The columella is smooth and simple.[3] The aperture extends for the whole length of the shell, and is narrower above than below.[3] The apertural lip extends upwards beyond the apex of the shell.[3]

The height of the shell is 8 mm and the width of the shell is 6 mm.[12]

The animal cannot withdraw itself into the shell, which contains the visceral hump only.[3] The cephalic disc is large and slipper-shaped, feebly emarginate on the dorsal surface behind and with a narrow free margin.[3]

The cephalic disc, which is rounded in front, occupies about half of the whole bulk in a contracted state.[3] The edge of the mantle is smooth, without processes of any kind.[3] It, the edge of the mantle (which is slightly retroverted over that of the shell), the foot and the epipodia are (in alcohol) of a pale green colour.[3] The greater part of the mantle, however, under the shell is colourless and transparent.[3] The foot is short, truncate before and behind, and with the epipodia (in much contracted specimens) apparently not well developed.[3] The eyes are minute and quite invisible on the surface.[3] The eyespots are deeply sunk in the tissues.[3] The gill, which is situated far back on the right side, is large and consists of a considerable number of fleshly lobes.[3]

Drawing of one row of teeth in the radula of Bullacta exarata. C - central tooth, L - lateral tooth, 1-12 - marginal teeth.
Drawing of one row of teeth in the radula of Bullacta exarata.
C - central tooth,
L - lateral tooth,
1-12 - marginal teeth.

Digestive system: The mouth is a minute transverse slit in the front of the cephalic disc.[3] The jawss are large, but imperfectly cornified.[3] The jaws are angular and minutely, irregularly serrate.[3] They are composed of numerous minute prismatic rods.[3] On the margin many of these rods are transverse and project slightly, forming a minute serration.[3] The radular sack is small.[3] The radula has the formula 12.1.1.1.12.[3] The central tooth is a simple flat triangular plate.[3] The single lateral tooth is well differentiated from the marginal teeth, from which it is separated by a considerable space, and points in the opposite direction.[3] The marginal teeth are slender, elongate, curved rod-like bodies somewhat expanded at the base.[3] They decrease in size gradually from the second or third marginal, which is slightly larger than the first, outwards.[3]

There is a long, narrow, thin-walled oesophagus with a single coil; before entering the muscular gizzard it is considerably dilated.[3] A longitudinal strand of muscular tissue runs up its dorsal surface for a short distance from the gizzard.[3] The gizzard is large and it contains three horn-shaped, transversely ridged chitinous plates arranged in a triangle.[3] It is maintained in position by a stout transverse muscle on either side, the proximal end of the muscle being fixed to a constriction in the outer wall of the gizzard.[3] The gizzard contains three large, stout chitinous bodies, which are smooth and heart-shaped at their base on its external surface.[3] Internally they are convex, curved and tapering, with stout, somewhat serrate reversed V-shaped transverse ridges.[3] The intestine after leaving the gizzard bears three small, almost spherical, diverticula, one behind the base of each of the chitinous plates.[3] The wall of the intestine is thin and its structure simple; it has a single closely adpressed bend.[3]

Drawing of penis-sack of Bullacta exarata.
Drawing of penis-sack of Bullacta exarata.
Drawing of penis extracted from the sack.
Drawing of penis extracted from the sack.
Drawing of stylet extracted from the penis.
Drawing of stylet extracted from the penis.

Reproductive system: The male intromittent organ is provided with an elongate chitinous stylet.[3] The penis is enclosed in an oval sack.[3] When extracted therefrom it is an almost cylindrical organ with two coils, or constrictions, in its course, bluntly pointed at the apex and much contracted proximally.[3] Its walls are highly muscular, but all the muscles are longitudinal and there is no circular muscular bulb.[3] Its outstanding feature is the presence of a long, slender, sharply pointed, scimitar-shaped, black, horny stylet with a saddle-shaped base which is sometimes prolonged into a long, sharply pointed spur.[3] In some individuals, however, the spur is completely absent.[3]

The female genitalia include a well-developed uterus but no spermatheca.[3] The hermaphrodite gland is small in immature specimen.[3]

Nervous system: The central nervous system closely resembles that of Aliculastrum cylindricum.[3]

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Gastropod shell

Gastropod shell

The gastropod shell is part of the body of a gastropod or snail, a kind of mollusc. The shell is an exoskeleton, which protects from predators, mechanical damage, and dehydration, but also serves for muscle attachment and calcium storage. Some gastropods appear shell-less (slugs) but may have a remnant within the mantle, or in some cases the shell is reduced such that the body cannot be retracted within it (semi-slug). Some snails also possess an operculum that seals the opening of the shell, known as the aperture, which provides further protection. The study of mollusc shells is known as conchology. The biological study of gastropods, and other molluscs in general, is malacology. Shell morphology terms vary by species group.

Periostracum

Periostracum

The periostracum is a thin, organic coating that is the outermost layer of the shell of many shelled animals, including molluscs and brachiopods. Among molluscs, it is primarily seen in snails and clams, i.e. in gastropods and bivalves, but it is also found in cephalopods such as Allonautilus scrobiculatus. The periostracum is an integral part of the shell, and it forms as the shell forms, along with the other shell layers. The periostracum is used to protect the organism from corrosion.

Spire (mollusc)

Spire (mollusc)

A spire is a part of the coiled shell of molluscs. The spire consists of all of the whorls except for the body whorl. Each spire whorl represents a rotation of 360°. A spire is part of the shell of a snail, a gastropod mollusc, a gastropod shell, and also the whorls of the shell in ammonites, which are fossil shelled cephalopods.

Columella (gastropod)

Columella (gastropod)

The columella or pillar is a central anatomical feature of a coiled snail shell, a gastropod shell. The columella is often only clearly visible as a structure when the shell is broken, sliced in half vertically, or viewed as an X-ray image.

Aperture (mollusc)

Aperture (mollusc)

The aperture is an opening in certain kinds of mollusc shells: it is the main opening of the shell, where the head-foot part of the body of the animal emerges for locomotion, feeding, etc.

Apex (mollusc)

Apex (mollusc)

In anatomy, an apex is part of the shell of a mollusk. The apex is the pointed tip of the shell of a gastropod, scaphopod, or cephalopod.

Mantle (mollusc)

Mantle (mollusc)

The mantle is a significant part of the anatomy of molluscs: it is the dorsal body wall which covers the visceral mass and usually protrudes in the form of flaps well beyond the visceral mass itself.

Radula

Radula

The radula is an anatomical structure used by mollusks for feeding, sometimes compared to a tongue. It is a minutely toothed, chitinous ribbon, which is typically used for scraping or cutting food before the food enters the esophagus. The radula is unique to the mollusks, and is found in every class of mollusk except the bivalves, which instead use cilia, waving filaments that bring minute organisms to the mouth.

Digestive system of gastropods

Digestive system of gastropods

The digestive system of gastropods has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filter feeders, and even parasites.

Stylet (anatomy)

Stylet (anatomy)

A stylet is a hard, sharp, anatomical structure found in some invertebrates. For example, the word stylet or stomatostyle is used for the primitive piercing mouthparts of some nematodes and some nemerteans. In these groups the stylet is a hardened protrusible opening to the stomach. These stylets are adapted for the piercing of cell walls and usually function by providing the operative organism with access to the nutrients contained within the prey cell.

Reproductive system of gastropods

Reproductive system of gastropods

The reproductive system of gastropods varies greatly from one group to another within this very large and diverse taxonomic class of animals. Their reproductive strategies also vary greatly, see Mating of gastropods.

Spermatheca

Spermatheca

The spermatheca, also called receptaculum seminis, is an organ of the female reproductive tract in insects, e.g. ants, bees, some molluscs, oligochaeta worms and certain other invertebrates and vertebrates. Its purpose is to receive and store sperm from the male or, in the case of hermaphrodites, the male component of the body. Spermathecae can sometimes be the site of fertilization when the oocytes are sufficiently developed.

Ecology

The habitat for this species includes intertidal flats, including the supratidal zone and subtidal zone.[10]

Bullacta exarata is a hermaphroditic species.[11]

Its life cycle has been extensively studied:

  • Vitellogenesis (Ying & Yang, 2001)[13]
  • Oogenesis (Ying, 2002)[14]
  • Spermatogenesis (Ying et al., 2002)[15]
  • Reproductive system (Ying et al., 2002)[16]
  • Spermatozoa (Ying et al., 2004)[7]

Bullacta exarata feeds on diatoms.[1] It is an important consumer in the tidal flat ecosystem.[10]

Bacteria identified in the digestive system of Bullacta exarata include the genera Photobacterium, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio, some genera from the family Enterobacteriaceae and others.[17]

According to the measurement of hygienic indicator bacteria Escherichia coli in 2001, the meat of Bullacta exarata meets national standards (3 cells of Escherichia coli in one gram of fresh meat) in Shanghai province and in most of Zhejiang province.[18]

Heavy metals in the tissues of Bullacta exarata from the Yangtze Estuary were measured by Lu et al. in 2001.[19] In Shanghai, the coast is seriously polluted[18] and measured pollutants in the meat of Bullacta exarata were in 2003 as follows:

  • 20.70 mg of petroleum hydrocarbons in one kg of wet weight (exceeds grade I of biological standard)[18]
  • 13.10 mg of zinc in one kg of wet weight[18]
  • 33.60 mg of copper in one kg of wet weight (exceeds grade II of biological standard)[18]

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Bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria are ubiquitous, mostly free-living organisms often consisting of one biological cell. They constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste, and the deep biosphere of Earth's crust. Bacteria are vital in many stages of the nutrient cycle by recycling nutrients such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. The nutrient cycle includes the decomposition of dead bodies; bacteria are responsible for the putrefaction stage in this process. In the biological communities surrounding hydrothermal vents and cold seeps, extremophile bacteria provide the nutrients needed to sustain life by converting dissolved compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide and methane, to energy. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals. Most bacteria have not been characterised and there are many species that cannot be grown in the laboratory. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology.

Digestive system of gastropods

Digestive system of gastropods

The digestive system of gastropods has evolved to suit almost every kind of diet and feeding behavior. Gastropods as the largest taxonomic class of the mollusca are very diverse: the group includes carnivores, herbivores, scavengers, filter feeders, and even parasites.

Photobacterium

Photobacterium

Photobacterium is a genus of gram-negative, oxidase positive and catalase positive bacteria in the family Vibrionaceae. Members of the genus are bioluminescent, that is they have the ability to emit light.

Bacillus

Bacillus

Bacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria, a member of the phylum Bacillota, with 266 named species. The term is also used to describe the shape (rod) of other so-shaped bacteria; and the plural Bacilli is the name of the class of bacteria to which this genus belongs. Bacillus species can be either obligate aerobes which are dependent on oxygen, or facultative anaerobes which can survive in the absence of oxygen. Cultured Bacillus species test positive for the enzyme catalase if oxygen has been used or is present.

Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas is a genus of Gram-negative, Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the family Pseudomonadaceae and containing 191 described species. The members of the genus demonstrate a great deal of metabolic diversity and consequently are able to colonize a wide range of niches. Their ease of culture in vitro and availability of an increasing number of Pseudomonas strain genome sequences has made the genus an excellent focus for scientific research; the best studied species include P. aeruginosa in its role as an opportunistic human pathogen, the plant pathogen P. syringae, the soil bacterium P. putida, and the plant growth-promoting P. fluorescens, P. lini, P. migulae, and P. graminis.

Vibrio

Vibrio

Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod (comma) shape, several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood. Being highly salt tolerant and unable to survive in fresh water, Vibrio spp. are commonly found in various salt water environments. Vibrio spp. are facultative anaerobes that test positive for oxidase and do not form spores. All members of the genus are motile. They are able to have polar or lateral flagellum with or without sheaths. Vibrio species typically possess two chromosomes, which is unusual for bacteria. Each chromosome has a distinct and independent origin of replication, and are conserved together over time in the genus. Recent phylogenies have been constructed based on a suite of genes.

Enterobacteriaceae

Enterobacteriaceae

Enterobacteriaceae is a large family of Gram-negative bacteria. It was first proposed by Rahn in 1936, and now includes over 30 genera and more than 100 species. Its classification above the level of family is still a subject of debate, but one classification places it in the order Enterobacterales of the class Gammaproteobacteria in the phylum Pseudomonadota. In 2016, the description and members of this family were emended based on comparative genomic analyses by Adeolu et al.

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli

Escherichia coli, also known as E. coli, is a Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes (EPEC, ETEC etc.) can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for food contamination incidents that prompt product recalls. Most strains do not cause disease in humans and are part of the normal microbiota of the gut; such strains are harmless or even beneficial to humans (although these strains tend to be less studied than the pathogenic ones). For example, some strains of E. coli benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 or by preventing the colonization of the intestine by pathogenic bacteria. These mutually beneficial relationships between E. coli and humans are a type of mutualistic biological relationship — where both the humans and the E. coli are benefitting each other. E. coli is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh faecal matter under aerobic conditions for three days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards.

Shanghai

Shanghai

Shanghai is one of the four direct-administered municipalities of the People's Republic of China (PRC). The city is located on the southern estuary of the Yangtze River, with the Huangpu River flowing through it. The population of the city proper is the third most populous in the world, with 24.89 million inhabitants in 2021, while the urban area is the most populous in China with 39,300,000 residents. As of 2018, the Greater Shanghai metropolitan area was estimated to produce a gross metropolitan product (nominal) of nearly 9.1 trillion RMB. Shanghai is one of the world's major centers for finance, business and economics, research, science and technology, manufacturing, transportation, tourism, and culture, and the Port of Shanghai is the world's busiest container port.

Yangtze

Yangtze

The Yangtze or Yangzi is the longest river in Eurasia, the third-longest in the world, and the longest in the world to flow entirely within one country. It rises at Jari Hill in the Tanggula Mountains of the Tibetan Plateau and flows 6,300 km (3,900 mi) in a generally easterly direction to the East China Sea. It is the seventh-largest river by discharge volume in the world. Its drainage basin comprises one-fifth of the land area of China, and is home to nearly one-third of the country's population.

Pollution in China

Pollution in China

Pollution in China is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in China. Various forms of pollution have increased as China has industrialised, which has caused widespread environmental health problems.

Petroleum

Petroleum

Petroleum, also known as crude oil, or simply oil, is a naturally occurring yellowish-black liquid mixture of mainly hydrocarbons, and is found in geological formations. The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that consist of refined crude oil. A fossil fuel, petroleum is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, mostly zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and subjected to both prolonged heat and pressure.

Human use

Bullacta exarata is a commercially important mollusc in eastern China.[7] Common names in Mandarin Chinese include Tutie (Chinese: ; pinyin: tiě) and Niluo (Chinese: ; pinyin: luó).[21] It is exported as a food source to Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan and to Southeast Asia.[22] It is also used in traditional Chinese medicine and there were isolated various compounds with pharmacological activities from Bullacta exarata.[23]

Mass mortalities of Bullacta exarata in Zhejiang in 1995 caused economic losses.[17] The species is being cultivated in mariculture, especially in Zhejiang Province, where there was a cultivated area of 8,000 ha in 1999.[17]

For example, Bullacta exarata was the main farming species at the farming area of about 10 100 mu (6.73266 km2) in the Cixi City, with an estimated annual output of 15 million RMB.[24]

Bullacta exarata has high nutrition value.[10] There is high amount of omega-3 fatty acids in the canned meat of Bullacta exarata (there is 600 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid in 100 g of meat).[20]

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of Chinese (Sinitic) dialects that are natively spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing dialect, the basis of the phonology of Standard Chinese, the official language of China. Because Mandarin originated in North China and most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as Northern Chinese. Many varieties of Mandarin, such as those of the Southwest and the Lower Yangtze, are not mutually intelligible with the standard language. Nevertheless, Mandarin as a group is often placed first in lists of languages by number of native speakers.

Chinese language

Chinese language

Chinese is a group of languages spoken natively by the ethnic Han Chinese majority and many minority ethnic groups in Greater China. About 1.3 billion people speak a variety of Chinese as their first language.

Pinyin

Pinyin

Hanyu Pinyin, often shortened to just pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Mandarin Chinese in China, and to some extent, in Singapore and Malaysia. It is often used to teach Mandarin, normally written in Chinese form, to learners already familiar with the Latin alphabet. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones, but pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written in the Latin script, and is also used in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The word Hànyǔ literally means "Han language", while Pīnyīn (拼音) means "spelled sounds".

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia, South-eastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north-west of mainland Australia which is part of Oceania. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. Apart from the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in South Asia, Maritime Southeast Asia is the only other subregion of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere. Mainland Southeast Asia is completely in the Northern Hemisphere. Timor-Leste and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts in Southeast Asia that are south of the Equator.

Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an alternative medical practice drawn from traditional medicine in China. It has been described as "fraught with pseudoscience", with the majority of its treatments having no logical mechanism of action.

Mariculture

Mariculture

Mariculture or marine farming is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other animal products, in enclosed sections of the open ocean, fish farms built on littoral waters, or in artificial tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater. An example of the latter is the farming of marine fish, including finfish and shellfish like prawns, or oysters and seaweed in saltwater ponds. Non-food products produced by mariculture include: fish meal, nutrient agar, jewellery, and cosmetics.

Zhejiang

Zhejiang

Zhejiang is an eastern, coastal province of the People's Republic of China. Its capital and largest city is Hangzhou, and other notable cities include Ningbo and Wenzhou. Zhejiang is bordered by Jiangsu and Shanghai to the north, Anhui to the northwest, Jiangxi to the west and Fujian to the south. To the east is the East China Sea, beyond which lies the Ryukyu Islands. The population of Zhejiang stands at 64.6 million, the 8th highest among China. It has been called 'the backbone of China' due to being a major driving force in the Chinese economy and being the birthplace of several notable people, including the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek and entrepreneur Jack Ma. Zhejiang consists of 90 counties.

Nutrition

Nutrition

Nutrition is the biochemical and physiological process by which an organism uses food to support its life. It provides organisms with nutrients, which can be metabolized to create energy and chemical structures. Failure to obtain sufficient nutrients causes malnutrition. Nutritional science is the study of nutrition, though it typically emphasizes human nutrition.

Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega-3 fatty acid

Omega−3 fatty acids, also called Omega-3 oils, ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) characterized by the presence of a double bond, three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. They are widely distributed in nature, being important constituents of animal lipid metabolism, and they play an important role in the human diet and in human physiology. The three types of omega−3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). ALA can be found in plants, while DHA and EPA are found in algae and fish. Marine algae and phytoplankton are primary sources of omega−3 fatty acids. DHA and EPA accumulate in fish that eat these algae. Common sources of plant oils containing ALA include walnuts, edible seeds, and flaxseeds as well as hempseed oil, while sources of EPA and DHA include fish and fish oils, and algae oil.

Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid

Eicosapentaenoic acid is an omega-3 fatty acid. In physiological literature, it is given the name 20:5(n-3). It also has the trivial name timnodonic acid. In chemical structure, EPA is a carboxylic acid with a 20-carbon chain and five cis double bonds; the first double bond is located at the third carbon from the omega end.

Source: "Bullacta exarata", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, October 31st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bullacta_exarata.

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References

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference[3]

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Further reading
  • "Bullacta exarata". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
  • Ge B.-M., Bao Y.-X., Cheng H.-Y. & Zheng X. (2006). "Population Distribution of Bullacta exarata in Cixi Shore, Southern Hangzhou Bay in Summer". Fisheries Science. ISSN 1003-1111. abstract.
  • Gu, X.; You, Z.; Wang, Y.; Ding, W.; Xu, H. (1997). "Preliminary study on growth of mud snail Bullacata exarata". Journal of Zhejiang College of Fisheries. 16 (1): 6–11.
  • (in Chinese) Li S.-g. (2005). "The Biology of Bullacta exarata (泥螺的生物学)". Reservoir Fisheries 4: 42-54.
  • (in Chinese) Liu H. (2003). "Technology for aquiculture of Bullacta exarata in benefit ponds in salt fields (盐场效益池泥螺养殖技术初探)". Jiangsu Province Salt Science & Technology 3: 15-16.
  • (in Chinese) Wang Y., You Z., Zuo H. & Wang G. (2003). "Study on Ecological Habit of Mud Slug, Bullacta exarata (养殖泥螺生态习性研究)". Journal of Ningbo University (Natural Science & Engineering Edition) 3: 240-244.
  • (in Chinese) Wang Y.-n. & Yu H. (2006). "Techniques for Culture of Bullacta exarata in Retaining Water Intertidal Zone (泥螺的滩涂蓄水养殖技术)". Fisheries Science & Technology Information 5: 238-240.
  • (in Chinese) Xu P. (2003). "A Study on Breeding and Enhancement Technique of Bullacta exarata (Philipi) (泥螺Bullacta exarata(Philippi)育苗及增养殖技术探讨)". Modern Fisheries Information 4: 24-26.
  • Ye S.-F. & Lu J.-J. (2001). "Characteristics and ecological significance of the developing population of Bullacata exarata (Philippi, 1848) (Mollusca: Gastropoda, Atyidae) in the Yangtze estuary, China". Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin 10(3): 216-222. ISSN 1004-8227. abstract.
  • (in Chinese) You Z., Wang Y. & Ding W. (1994). "Effects of environmental factors on Bullacta exarata (Gastropoda, Scaphandridae) at different developmental stages". Journal of Zhejiang College of Fisheries 13(2): 79-85.
  • (in Chinese) Zhang Z. (2001). "Technology Exploration of Pickled Bullacta exarata (腌制泥螺的工艺探讨)". Journal of Shaoxing College of Arts and Sciences (Natural Science) 7: 71-73.
  • Zhu S.-Y., Wu Y.P., Sheng H. D. et al. (2008). "Artificial hybridization and juvenile nursery of Bullacta exarata". J. Zhejiang. Ocean. Univ. 1: 32-36. Natural Science.
  • (in Chinese) Zuo H., Wang Y., Xu J. & Wang G. (2005). "Key Technique on Bullacta exarata Culture (泥螺生态系管养的技术要点)". Fisheries Science 1: 29-30.
  • (in Chinese) 泥螺. (overview of Bullacta exarata).

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