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British Rail Class 377

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British Rail Class 377
Electrostar
20.09.17 Watford Junction 377705 (37247367081).jpg
A Southern Class 377/7 at Watford Junction in 2017
377613 MSO Interior.jpg
The interior of a Southern Class 377/6
In serviceMay 2003 – present
ManufacturerBombardier Transportation
Built atDerby Litchurch Lane Works
Family nameElectrostar
Replaced
Number built211 units
(excluding 28 375/3 conversions)
SuccessorClass 700 (Thameslink)
Formation
  • 377/1/2/4/5: 4 cars per unit (DMOC-MOSL-PTOSL-DMOC)
  • 377/3: 3 cars per unit (DMOC-PTOSL-DMOS)
  • 377/6/7: 5 cars per unit (DMOC-MOSL-PTOSL-MOS(2)-DMOS)
Owner(s)Porterbrook[1]
Operator(s)
Specifications
Car length20.4 m (66 ft 11+18 in)
Width2.80 m (9 ft 2+14 in)
Height3.78 m (12 ft 4+78 in)
Maximum speed100 mph (161 km/h)
Weight
  • 173.6 t (170.9 long tons; 191.4 short tons) (377/1, /2, /4, /5)
  • 133.1 t (131.0 long tons; 146.7 short tons) (377/3 only)
Traction motors4–8 × 200 kW (270 hp)
Power output
  • 1,200 kW (1,600 hp) (377/1, /2, /4, /5)
  • 800 kW (1,100 hp) (377/3 only)
  • 1,400 kW (1,900 hp) (377/6 and /7)
Electric system(s)
Current collector(s)
Multiple workingWithin class, Class 378[2] and Class 379[2]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge

The British Rail Class 377 Electrostar is a British dual-voltage electric multiple unit passenger train (EMU) built by Bombardier Transportation on its Electrostar platform at Derby Litchurch Lane Works from 2001 to 2014.

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Bombardier Electrostar

Bombardier Electrostar

The Bombardier Electrostar is a family of electric multiple-unit (EMU) passenger trains manufactured by Bombardier Transportation at their Derby Litchurch Lane Works in England between 1999 and 2017. It has become the most common new EMU type in the United Kingdom since the privatisation of British Rail with a number of variants. Electrostar trains are most common on high-volume suburban commuter routes around London; and on mainline services from London south to Surrey and the south coast, east to Essex, and north to Cambridge and Stansted Airport.

Electric multiple unit

Electric multiple unit

An electric multiple unit or EMU is a multiple-unit train consisting of self-propelled carriages using electricity as the motive power. An EMU requires no separate locomotive, as electric traction motors are incorporated within one or a number of the carriages. An EMU is usually formed of two or more semi-permanently coupled carriages, but electrically powered single-unit railcars are also generally classed as EMUs. The great majority of EMUs are passenger trains, but versions also exist for carrying mail.

Bombardier Transportation

Bombardier Transportation

Bombardier Transportation was a Canadian-German rolling stock and rail transport manufacturer, headquartered in Berlin, Germany. It was one of the world's largest companies in the rail vehicle and equipment manufacturing and servicing industry. Bombardier Transportation had many regional offices, production and development facilities worldwide. It produced a wide range of products including passenger rail vehicles, locomotives, bogies, propulsion and controls. In February 2020, the company had 36,000 employees, and 63 manufacturing and engineering locations around the world. Formerly a division of Bombardier Inc., the company was acquired by French manufacturer Alstom on 29 January 2021.

Derby Litchurch Lane Works

Derby Litchurch Lane Works

Derby Litchurch Lane Works is a railway rolling stock factory in Derby, England. It was opened in the 19th century by the Midland Railway. The plant has produced rolling stock under the ownership of the Midland Railway. It is now owned by Alstom.

Description

Southern Class 377/1 departing Warnham
Southern Class 377/1 departing Warnham
Southern Class 377/2 at Milton Keynes Central
Southern Class 377/2 at Milton Keynes Central
Southern Class 377/4 at Hassocks
Southern Class 377/4 at Hassocks
Southern Class 377/6 about to depart at London Victoria
Southern Class 377/6 about to depart at London Victoria
Southern Class 377/7 at East Croydon
Southern Class 377/7 at East Croydon

The trains work suburban services in South London, and main-line commuter services to Sussex, Surrey, Kent and the South Coast, on which they replaced 4Cig and 4Vep slam-door stock that was more than 40 years old and did not meet modern health and safety requirements. Built in the early 2000s, the units had a troubled introduction. Being fully air-conditioned, their higher power consumption compared to the trains they replaced led to major upgrades being required to the 750 V DC third-rail power supply used in the former Southern region.[3] The collapse of Railtrack following the Hatfield accident further delayed this upgrade work, and the new stock did not enter squadron service until 2003.

Class 377s are fitted with external CCTV. There is an open area for wheelchairs or prams, and both intermediate coaches have toilets. Bodyside power doors are electrically operated, a move away from the air-powered systems of previous generation EMUs. Dual-voltage units are fitted with a Brecknell Willis high-speed pantograph, incorporating a pair of aerofoils on the pan knuckle to steady the pan head against the OLE contact wire.[4] The configuration of a 5-car Class 377 unit is:

  • DMOC(A) – 2 motors on inner bogie, sander, auxiliary converter module
  • MOSL – 2 motors on inner bogie, standard toilet (not found on 377/3s)
  • PTSOL – pantograph, transformer, compressor, universal-access toilet
  • MOS – 2 motors on inner bogie, standard-class interior (only found on Class 377/6 and 377/7 units)
  • DMOS(B) – 2 motors on inner bogie, sander, auxiliary converter module

In the 4-car units the driving cars are composite. The first-class saloon is between the driving cab and the first set of passenger doors. 4-car units also do not contain the MOS coach.

Couplers

The Class 377 use Dellner instead of Tightlock couplings used on the Class 375s.[5] Southern's 375s were all reclassified to Class 377/3s upon conversion. These reclassified units can still be identified by their 3-car formation. Note that Southeastern's 375s (sub-classes 375/3, 375/6, and 375/7) were also later converted from Tightlock to Dellner couplers but were not reclassified. Its sub-class 375/8 and 375/9 units were fitted with Dellner couplers, as built.[6]

Traction current supply

All units can receive power via third-rail pick-up which provides 750 V DC. There are eight pick-up shoes per unit (twice the number of previous generation 4-car electric multiple units), and this enables them to ride smoothly over most third-rail gaps. The units in the 377/2, 377/5 and 377/7 sub-classes are dual-voltage, and are fitted with a pantograph to pick up 25 kV AC from overhead lines. On these units (and on single-voltage sub-class 377/6), the shoe mechanism is air-operated so that when powered down, or working on AC overhead lines, the shoe is raised out of the way. This is used on trains from Hemel Hempstead to Clapham Junction, which use part of the West Coast Main Line between Hemel Hempstead and Willesden Junction, and then the West London Line towards Clapham Junction. These trains change to third-rail DC supply on a dual-voltage section of the West London line north of Shepherd's Bush.[7] Since March 2009, dual-voltage Class 377 units operated some Thameslink Bedford to Brighton, Rochester and Ashford services (see below). The Bedford to Brighton services are now run by Class 700s, while the Class 377/5s themselves are now operated by Southeastern.

Among the remaining units, the trailer coach in each unit has a recess in its roof where a pantograph could be fitted, to allow for future conversion to overhead AC power.

Additional units and the Thameslink Programme

In April 2007, as part of the Route Utilisation Strategy for the Brighton Main Line, it was announced that Southern would procure an additional 48 Class 377 carriages to replace an identical number of Class 319 carriages (12 x 4-car units) due to be transferred to First Capital Connect.[8] Eleven further dual-voltage units were then added to the order, making a total of 23. The units were commissioned at Southern's Selhurst depot in Croydon before being transferred to First Capital Connect's Bedford Cauldwell depot. The first of these, unit 377501, was delivered to Cauldwell depot on 27 February 2009 after making its first appearance through the Thameslink Central London core. The 377/5s operated mainly on Bedford to Brighton services but in the peaks formed part of First Capital Connect's and Southeastern's joint service to places such as Rochester and Ashford.

Delays in the construction of the Class 377/5s for First Capital Connect saw the temporary transfer of eight of Southern's Class 377/2s to FCC to enable it to implement the planned timetable changes on 22 March 2009. The loss of these units until September 2009 was covered by the temporary cascade of a number of Class 350/1s to Southern from London Midland, which operated services between East Croydon and Milton Keynes.[9]

In September 2011, it was announced that Southern had begun the procurement of 130 vehicles, due to delays in the procurement of new Thameslink rolling stock that would prevent transfer of the 377/5s in time for the December 2013 timetable change.[10] The contract was awarded to Bombardier in December 2011.[11][12] The additional eight five-car units (from an option in the contract for 40 additional vehicles) are dual-voltage and known as Class 377/7.[13]

In December 2011, three Class 377/2 units were transferred from Southern to First Capital Connect to allow more 12-car services to operate.[14]

During mid-2013, the first of the new Class 377/6s arrived from Derby for type testing, and since October 2013, these units have been used in passenger service, initially in peak-hour services on the Sutton and Mole Valley lines, Epsom Downs Branch, Tattenham Corner Line and the Caterham Line.

Southeastern received 25 Class 377 units (the 23 Class 377/5s and 2 Class 377/1s) in recent years, as specified in Department for Transport documents, published in September 2013, relating to the new combined Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern Franchise.[15]

Refurbishment

Porterbrook is funding the £55 million five-year Project Aurora programme to refurbish 214 Class 377 Electrostars operated on Southern services.[16] The work started in 2020 and is being done at Selhurst depot. 377 430 was the first unit to be completed in early 2021.[17] Changes include the installation of screens showing live GTR and London Underground service information, the provision of USB and power points, energy-saving LED lighting and a passenger-counting system which will enable GTR to analyse how busy individual services are.[18]

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Milton Keynes Central railway station

Milton Keynes Central railway station

Milton Keynes Central railway station serves Central Milton Keynes and the surrounding area of Milton Keynes, England. The station is located on the West Coast Main Line about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of London. The station is served by Avanti West Coast intercity services, and by West Midlands Trains regional services.

Hassocks railway station

Hassocks railway station

Hassocks railway station is on the Brighton Main Line in England, serving the village of Hassocks, West Sussex. It is 43 miles 42 chains (70.0 km) down the line from London Bridge via Redhill and is situated between Burgess Hill and Preston Park. It is managed by Southern.

London Victoria station

London Victoria station

Victoria station, also known as London Victoria, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Victoria, in the City of Westminster, managed by Network Rail. Named after the nearby Victoria Street, the main line station is a terminus of the Brighton Main Line to Gatwick Airport and Brighton and the Chatham Main Line to Ramsgate and Dover via Chatham. From the main lines, trains can connect to the Catford Loop Line, the Dartford Loop Line, and the Oxted line to East Grinstead and Uckfield. Southern operates most commuter and regional services to south London, Sussex and parts of east Surrey, while Southeastern operates trains to south-east London and Kent, alongside limited services operated by Thameslink. Gatwick Express trains run direct to Gatwick. The Underground station is on the Circle and District lines between Sloane Square and St James's Park, and the Victoria line between Pimlico and Green Park. The area around the station is an important interchange for other forms of transport: a local bus station is in the forecourt and Victoria Coach Station is nearby.

Kent

Kent

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Greater London to the north-west, Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west, and Essex to the north across the estuary of the River Thames; it faces the French department of Pas-de-Calais across the Strait of Dover. The county town is Maidstone. It is the fifth most populous county in England, the most populous non-Metropolitan county and the most populous of the home counties.

British Rail Class 421

British Rail Class 421

The British Rail Class 421 (4CIG) electric multiple units were built at BR's Holgate Road carriage works between 1964 and 1972. Units were built in two batches, and were initially introduced on services on the Brighton Main Line. Later units were introduced on services to Portsmouth. These units replaced older Southern Railway-designed units, such as the 5Bel "Brighton Belle" units, and 4Cor units. The fleet's lifespan was 46 years.

British Rail Class 423

British Rail Class 423

The British Rail Class 423, electric multiple unit passenger trains were mostly built by British Rail (BR) at York Works from 1967 to 1974, although the MBSOs and TSOs of the first 20, 7701-7720, were built at Derby Works. They have manually opening doors next to every seating row and were the last coaching stock built in this pattern for BR. They were mostly found working outer-suburban services in South London and rural services in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire, up to 2005 when they were finally replaced by Electrostar and Desiro units. The fleet had a working life of 38 years.

Direct current

Direct current

Direct current (DC) is one-directional flow of electric charge. An electrochemical cell is a prime example of DC power. Direct current may flow through a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through semiconductors, insulators, or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. The electric current flows in a constant direction, distinguishing it from alternating current (AC). A term formerly used for this type of current was galvanic current.

Railtrack

Railtrack

Railtrack was a group of companies that owned the track, signalling, tunnels, bridges, level crossings and all but a handful of the stations of the British railway system from 1994 until 2002. It was created as part of the privatisation of British Rail, listed on the London Stock Exchange, and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. In 2002, after experiencing major financial difficulty, most of Railtrack's operations were transferred to the state-controlled non-profit company Network Rail. The remainder of Railtrack was renamed RT Group plc and eventually dissolved on 22 June 2010.

Hatfield rail crash

Hatfield rail crash

The Hatfield rail crash was a railway accident on 17 October 2000, at Hatfield, Hertfordshire. It was caused by a metal fatigue-induced derailment, killing four people and injuring more than 70.

Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television

Closed-circuit television (CCTV), also known as video surveillance, is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point-to-point (P2P), point-to-multipoint (P2MP), or mesh wired or wireless links. Even though almost all video cameras fit this definition, the term is most often applied to those used for surveillance in areas that require additional security or ongoing monitoring.

Brecknell Willis

Brecknell Willis

Brecknell Willis is a British company headquartered in Chard, Somerset, and brand-name of electrification equipment for railways, mostly pantographs and contact shoes.

Pantograph (transport)

Pantograph (transport)

A pantograph is an apparatus mounted on the roof of an electric train, tram or electric bus to collect power through contact with an overhead line. By contrast, battery electric buses and trains are charged at charging stations. The pantograph is a common type of current collector; typically, a single or double wire is used, with the return current running through the rails. The term stems from the resemblance of some styles to the mechanical pantographs used for copying handwriting and drawings.

Current operations

Southern

  • Mainline and Redhill Routes: London to Brighton, Horsham, Reigate, Tonbridge, Eastbourne, Ore, Portsmouth, Southampton, Littlehampton and Bognor Regis
  • East Coastway: Brighton to Eastbourne, Hastings, Ore and selected workings along the Seaford branch line
  • West Coastway: Brighton to Portsmouth, Littlehampton, Bognor Regis and Southampton (selected workings)
  • West London Route: Clapham Junction to Watford Junction
  • Oxted Line: London to East Grinstead
  • Outer Suburban services: Central London to Tattenham Corner, Epsom, Horsham, Dorking, Guildford
  • Inner Suburban services: Central London to Caterham, Sutton, Epsom Downs, West Croydon, Beckenham Junction via Crystal Palace

Southeastern

In December 2016 Southeastern (Govia) received 8 units (377501-377508), transferred from Thameslink. In September 2017 these were joined by an additional 17 units (377509-523 & 377163/164)

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Brighton Main Line

Brighton Main Line

The Brighton Main Line is a major railway line in the United Kingdom that links Brighton, on the south coast of England, with central London. In London the line has two branches, out of London Victoria and London Bridge stations respectively, which join up in Croydon and continue towards Brighton as one line. The line is electrified throughout using the third rail system.

Seaford branch line

Seaford branch line

The Seaford branch line is a rural railway line in East Sussex constructed in 1864 primarily to serve the port of Newhaven and the town of Seaford. It now sees fairly regular trains across the line except for the branch to the closed Newhaven Marine station.

Southeastern (train operating company 2006–2021)

Southeastern (train operating company 2006–2021)

London & South Eastern Railway Limited, trading as Southeastern, was a British train operating company owned by Govia that operated passenger rail services in South East England. It was the key operator of commuter and regional services in South East London and Kent, and also served parts of East Sussex.

Govia Thameslink Railway

Govia Thameslink Railway

Govia Thameslink Railway (GTR) is a train operating company that operates the Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern (TSGN) rail franchise in England. Within the franchise, GTR runs the Thameslink, Great Northern, Southern and Gatwick Express services. GTR is a subsidiary of Govia, which is itself a joint venture between the British Go-Ahead Group (65%) and French company Keolis (35%).

Aborted proposals

Great Northern

In 2016, 19 of the 23 Class 377/5 units were planned to be transferred to Great Northern, for use on non-stop London-Cambridge services. However, the 29 former Thameslink Class 387/1s were transferred, instead.[19] The Class 377/5s were later transferred to Southeastern, as part of their requirement for additional capacity.

Fleet details

Class Operator No. built Year built Cars Unit nos. Notes
377/1 Southern 64 2002–03 4 377101-162 All 3rd rail routes. 377163 and 377164 transferred from Southern to Southeastern in October 2017.[20]
Southeastern 377163 - 164
377/2 Southern 15 2003–04 377201-215 Dual-voltage units.
These are used on Metro routes in South London and occasionally main line workings to the South Coast.
377/3 28 2001–02 3 377301-328 3-car units converted from Class 375 Nos. 375311-338 by having their Tightlock couplers replaced by Dellners.
Originally used on Coastway services but have now moved to London suburban services, being partly replaced by Class 313s.
377/4 75 2004–05 4 377401-475 All 3rd rail routes. 377 442 returned back to /4 status Mid July 2021 after spending years as a 377/3.
377/5 Southeastern 23 2008–09 377501-523 Dual-voltage units.
All units were transferred from Thameslink to Southeastern during 2016–17 to bolster their existing Class 375 fleet.
377/6 Southern 26 2012–13 5 377601-626[13] Used on London suburban routes, extending as far as Dorking and Horsham, as well as Tattenham Corner/Caterham services, splitting and attaching at Purley. Run to Brighton at weekends. Also used on the East/West Coastway during events such as the Eastbourne Airshow.
377/7 8 2014 377701-708[13] Additional 8 dual-voltage five-car units intended to be used on the East Croydon – Milton Keynes Central services, and metro duties shared with the 377/6s.[21] The 40 vehicles were built in 5-car formation with dual voltage configuration, costing circa £60 million in total, and they were delivered during 2014 for service entry in December of that year.
Southern Class 377
Southern Class 377
Southeastern Class 377
Southeastern Class 377

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Southern (Govia Thameslink Railway)

Southern (Govia Thameslink Railway)

Southern is the brand name used by the Govia Thameslink Railway (GTR) train operating company on the Southern routes of the Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern franchise in England. It is a subsidiary of Govia, a joint venture between transport groups Go-Ahead and Keolis, and has operated the South Central franchise since August 2001 and the Gatwick Express service since June 2008. When the passenger rail franchise was subsumed into GTR, Southern was split from Gatwick Express and the two became separate brands, alongside the Thameslink and Great Northern brands.

Southeastern (train operating company)

Southeastern (train operating company)

SE Trains Limited, trading as Southeastern, is a train operator, owned by DfT OLR Holdings for the Department for Transport, that took over operating the South Eastern franchise in South East England from privately owned London & South Eastern Railway on 17 October 2021.

British Rail Class 375

British Rail Class 375

The British Rail Class 375 is an electric multiple unit train that was built by Bombardier Transportation at Derby Litchurch Lane Works, from 1999 to 2005. The class form part of the Electrostar family of units, which also includes classes 357, 376, 377, 378, 379 and 387, is the most numerous type of EMU introduced since the privatisation of British Rail.

British Rail Class 313

British Rail Class 313

The British Rail Class 313 is a dual-voltage electric multiple unit (EMU) train built by British Rail Engineering Limited's Holgate Road carriage works between February 1976 and April 1977. They were the first production units that were derived from British Rail's 1971 prototype suburban EMU design which, as the BREL 1972 family, eventually encompassed 755 vehicles over five production classes. They were the first second-generation EMUs to be constructed for British Rail and the first British Rail units with both a pantograph for 25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead lines and contact shoe equipment for 750 V DC third rail supply. They were, additionally, the first units in Britain to employ multi-function automatic Tightlock couplers, which include electrical and pneumatic connections allowing the coupling and uncoupling of units to be performed unassisted by the driver whilst in the cab.

Accidents and incidents

On 28 November 2016, a fire broke out in the MOSL car of a Southern Class 377 (unit 377442) at Eastbourne station, causing damage to the ceiling and interior. The cause was later identified to be faulty wiring within a hand dryer located in the toilet.[22]

On 17 February 2018, a 377 (unit 377454) hit a car on a level crossing at Barns Green near Horsham. The two occupants of the car died at the scene.[23]

On 8 May 2019, 377142 collided with the buffer stop at London Victoria station.[24]

On 23 August 2020, 377317 was derailed at the exit of the Tonbridge Jubilee Sidings.[25]

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Barns Green

Barns Green

Barns Green is a village in the Horsham district of West Sussex, England. It lies on the Billingshurst to Itchingfield road 2+1⁄2 miles (4.0 km) north of Billingshurst. It is noted for the annual half marathon race of the same name, held around the end of September.

Horsham railway station

Horsham railway station

Horsham railway station serves the town of Horsham in West Sussex, England. It is 37 miles 56 chains (60.7 km) down the line from London Bridge, measured via Redhill, on the Arun Valley Line and the Sutton & Mole Valley Lines, and train services are provided by Southern. Services on the Sutton & Mole Valley Line from London Victoria via Dorking terminate here, the others continue into the Arun Valley: a half-hourly service from London Victoria to Southampton Central or Portsmouth Harbour (alternating) and Bognor Regis. These trains usually divide here with the front (Southampton/Portsmouth) portion travelling fast and the rear half providing stopping services.

Buffer stop

Buffer stop

A buffer stop, bumper, bumping post, bumper block or stopblock (US), is a device to prevent railway vehicles from going past the end of a physical section of track.

London Victoria station

London Victoria station

Victoria station, also known as London Victoria, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Victoria, in the City of Westminster, managed by Network Rail. Named after the nearby Victoria Street, the main line station is a terminus of the Brighton Main Line to Gatwick Airport and Brighton and the Chatham Main Line to Ramsgate and Dover via Chatham. From the main lines, trains can connect to the Catford Loop Line, the Dartford Loop Line, and the Oxted line to East Grinstead and Uckfield. Southern operates most commuter and regional services to south London, Sussex and parts of east Surrey, while Southeastern operates trains to south-east London and Kent, alongside limited services operated by Thameslink. Gatwick Express trains run direct to Gatwick. The Underground station is on the Circle and District lines between Sloane Square and St James's Park, and the Victoria line between Pimlico and Green Park. The area around the station is an important interchange for other forms of transport: a local bus station is in the forecourt and Victoria Coach Station is nearby.

Tonbridge Jubilee Sidings

Tonbridge Jubilee Sidings

Tonbridge Jubilee Sidings are located in Tonbridge, Kent, England, on the Redhill to Tonbridge Line to the west of Tonbridge station.

Source: "British Rail Class 377", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, February 1st), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Rail_Class_377.

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References
  1. ^ Sherratt, Philip, ed. (2023). "ROSCO Fleets". Modern Railways: Review 2023. Stamford: Key Publishing. pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-80282-569-5.
  2. ^ a b Pritchard, R. N. (2012). British railways locomotives & coaching stock 2012. Platform 5. pp. 292, 294. ISBN 978-1-902336-92-3. OCLC 795598388.
  3. ^ Ford, Roger (May 2003). "SR power upgrade agreements signed". Modern Railways. London. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011.
  4. ^ First Capital Connect: Class 377 Drivers' Guide p.91 "The pantograph" 2009.
  5. ^ "Dellner Couplers AB — Automatic and Semi-Permanent Couplers". Retrieved 10 October 2014.
  6. ^ "Southern Electric Fleet Review Summer 2004". Southern Electric Group. 21 April 2006. Archived from the original on 23 February 2013.
  7. ^ Jacobs, G. (ed) (2008). Railway Track Diagrams 5: Southern and TfL (3rd edition). Bradford-on-Avon: Quail. p. 1R.
  8. ^ "More trains arriving on busy rail routes". Department for Transport. 4 April 2007. Archived from the original on 5 July 2007.
  9. ^ 350s with Southern until November Today's Railways UK issue 95 November 2009 page 65
  10. ^ "Battle of awarding of Thameslink contract to Siemens continues unabated as Southern potentially throws a lifeline to Bombardier's Derby works". Railway Herald. No. 283. Scunthorpe. 19 September 2011. p. 3. ISSN 1751-8091. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 30 October 2022.
  11. ^ "Boost for Derby as Bombardier wins Southern order". Railnews. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  12. ^ "DfT acts to ease Thameslink trains logjam". Railnews. 16 November 2012. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
  13. ^ a b c Today's Railways UK. Sheffield. March 2013. Issue 135. Page 31. The article states that the additional 8 units were initially 377624-634 but have been reclassified due to the dual-voltage option being taken up.
  14. ^ First Capital Connect runs first 12 car Thameslink train Rail issue 686 29 December 2011 page 14
  15. ^ "Thameslink, Southern and Great Northern Franchise: Invitation to Tender" (PDF). London: Department for Transport. September 2013. p. 75. Retrieved 9 October 2013.
  16. ^ "GTR launches £55m Electrostar refurbishment". Railway Gazette International. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  17. ^ "Southern's first refurbished Electrostar returns to service". Railway Gazette International. 9 February 2021. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  18. ^ "GTR launches £55m Electrostar refurbishment". Railway Gazette International. 16 September 2020. Retrieved 10 February 2021.
  19. ^ "Trio of GTR Class 387/1s readied for move to Great Northern duties". PressReader. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
  20. ^ "Coming to a station near you: 68 extra train carriages on busiest Southeastern routes". Southeastern. Retrieved 18 September 2017.
  21. ^ "Procurement of New Rolling Stock" (Press release). Southern. 15 November 2012. Archived from the original on 29 March 2013.
  22. ^ "Hand dryer caused Eastbourne train fire". Eastbourne Herald. 2 December 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  23. ^ "Barns Green: Boy and granddad die as train hits car". BBC News. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  24. ^ Clifton, Katy (8 May 2019). "Victoria station crash: Southern Rail train 'hits buffers causing loud bang and smoke' in front of shocked commuters". Evening Standard. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  25. ^ Network Rail [@NetworkRailSE] (24 August 2020). "Due to Sunday's low-speed derailment of an empty train in the depot near Tonbridge Station our engineers are continuing to work to re-rail the train and check the signalling and track systems in the area" (Tweet). Retrieved 24 August 2020 – via Twitter.
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