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Boho-chic

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Short floaty skirt, 2005
Short floaty skirt, 2005

Boho-chic is a style of fashion drawing on various bohemian and hippie influences, which, at its height in late 2005 was associated particularly with actress Sienna Miller, model Kate Moss in the United Kingdom and actress/businesswoman Mary-Kate Olsen in the United States. It has been seen since the early 1990s and, although appearing to wane from time to time, has repeatedly re-surfaced in varying guises. Many elements of boho-chic became popular in the late 1960s and some date back much further, being associated, for example, with pre-Raphaelite women of the mid-to-late 19th century.

Luxe Grunge (also known as "luxe bohemian") may be a synonym;[1] a chicer updated grunge-boho collection with an unkempt approach to wardrobe. First motivated by Seattle's groundbreaking rock scene in the 1990s – the modern update contains all the mainstays of yesterday's grunge (flannel, plaid, layers and leg warmers) alongside today's sophisticated pieces, including capes, shawls and jackets ([www.theitlists.com], Sept 2006). Grunge elements featured strongly in fashion collections in Autumn 2006, including styles referred to "cocktail grunge" and "modern goth".[2] Lisa Armstrong, fashion editor of the London Times, referred to Patrick Lichfield's iconic 1969 photograph of Talitha Getty on a Marrakesh roof-top as "typif[ying] the luxe bohemian look"[3]

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Fashion

Fashion

Fashion is a form of self-expression and autonomy at a particular period and place and in a specific context, of clothing, footwear, lifestyle, accessories, makeup, hairstyle, and body posture. The term implies a look defined by the fashion industry as that which is trending. Everything that is considered fashion is available and popularized by the fashion system.

Bohemianism

Bohemianism

Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary, or spiritual pursuits. In this context, bohemians may be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds. Bohemian is a 19th-century historical and literary topos that places the milieu of young metropolitan artists and intellectuals - particularly those of the Latin Quarter in Paris - in a context of poverty, hunger, appreciation of friendship, idealization of art and contempt for money. Based on this topos, the most diverse real-world subcultures are often referred to as "bohemian" in a figurative sense, especially if they show traits of a precariat.

Hippie

Hippie

A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in British English, is someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to different countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and was used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village, in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, and Chicago's Old Town community. The term hippie was used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularize use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen elsewhere earlier.

Sienna Miller

Sienna Miller

Sienna Rosie Diana Miller is an American-British actress. Born in New York City and raised in London, she began her career as a photography model, appearing in the pages of Italian Vogue and for the 2003 Pirelli calendar. Her acting breakthrough came in the 2004 films Layer Cake and Alfie. She subsequently portrayed socialite Edie Sedgwick in Factory Girl (2006) and author Caitlin Macnamara in The Edge of Love (2008), and was nominated for the 2008 BAFTA Rising Star Award. Her role as The Baroness in G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra (2009) was followed by a brief sabbatical from the screen amid increased tabloid scrutiny.

Kate Moss

Kate Moss

Katherine Ann Moss is a British model. Arriving at the end of the "supermodel era", Moss rose to fame in the early 1990s as part of the heroin chic fashion trend. Her collaborations with Calvin Klein brought her to fashion icon status. She is known for her waifish figure, and role in size zero fashion. Moss has had her own clothing range, has been involved in musical projects, and is also a contributing fashion editor for British Vogue. In 2012, she came second on the Forbes top-earning models list, with estimated earnings of $9.2 million in one year. The accolades she has received for modelling include the 2013 British Fashion Awards acknowledging her contribution to fashion over 25 years, while Time named her one of the world's 100 most influential people in 2007.

Mary-Kate Olsen

Mary-Kate Olsen

Mary-Kate Olsen is an American businesswoman, fashion designer, equestrian, and former actress. She began her acting career nine months after her birth, sharing the role of Michelle Tanner with her twin sister Ashley Olsen in the television sitcom Full House (1987–1995). They also starred in numerous films together.

Chic

Chic

Chic, meaning "stylish" or "smart", is an element of fashion. It was originally a French word.

Grunge

Grunge

Grunge is an alternative rock genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the American Pacific Northwest state of Washington, particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. Grunge fuses elements of punk rock and heavy metal, but without punk's structure and speed. The genre featured the distorted electric guitar sound used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Like these genres, grunge typically uses electric guitar, bass guitar, drums and vocals. Grunge also incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth. Lyrics are typically angst-filled and introspective, often addressing themes such as social alienation, self-doubt, abuse, neglect, betrayal, social and emotional isolation, addiction, psychological trauma and a desire for freedom.

Seattle

Seattle

Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of King County, Washington. With a 2020 population of 737,015, it is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The Seattle metropolitan area's population is 4.02 million, making it the 15th-largest in the United States. Its growth rate of 21.1% between 2010 and 2020 makes it one of the nation's fastest-growing large cities.

Gothic fashion

Gothic fashion

Gothic fashion is a clothing style marked by dark, mysterious, antiquated, homogenous, and often genderless features. It is worn by members of the Goth subculture. Dress, typical gothic fashion includes dyed black hair, exotic hairstyles, dark lipstick and dark clothing. Both male and female goths can wear dark eyeliner, dark nail polish and lipstick for a dramatic effect. Male goths use cosmetics at a higher rate than other men. Styles are often borrowed from the punk fashion and can also draw influence from Victorians and Elizabethan fashion. Goth fashion is sometimes confused with heavy metal fashion and emo fashion.

Lisa Armstrong (writer)

Lisa Armstrong (writer)

Lisa Armstrong is a British author and journalist. She is Head of Fashion of The Daily Telegraph.

Talitha Getty

Talitha Getty

Talitha Dina Getty was a Dutch actress, socialite, and model who was regarded as a style icon of the late 1960s. She lived much of her adult life in Britain and, in her final years, was closely associated with the Moroccan city of Marrakesh. Her husband was the oil heir and subsequent philanthropist John Paul Getty Jr.

Lexicography

Sherlock Holmes "upon the sofa in a purple dressing gown" in The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle (Illustration by Sidney Paget, Strand Magazine, 1891)
Sherlock Holmes "upon the sofa in a purple dressing gown" in The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle (Illustration by Sidney Paget, Strand Magazine, 1891)

"Boho"

"BoHo" is a shortened form of bohemian, self descriptive of the style.

Virginia Nicholson (granddaughter of Vanessa Bell, one of the pivotal figures of the unconventional, but influential "Bloomsbury Group" in the first half of the 20th century) has described it as a "curious slippery adjective".[4] Although the original Bohemians were inhabitants of central Europe, the term has, as Nicholson noted, "attached itself to individuals as disparate as Shakespeare and Sherlock Holmes". The writer and historian A. N. Wilson remarked that, "in his dress-sense as in much else", Winston Churchill was "pre-First World War Bohemian", his unbleached linen suit causing surprise when he arrived in Canada in 1943.[5]

In Arthur Conan Doyle's first short story about Holmes for The Strand, Doctor Watson noted that the detective "loathed every form of society with his whole Bohemian soul" and "remained in our lodgings in Baker-street, buried among his old books and alternating from week to week between cocaine and ambition..".[6] Designer Savannah Miller, elder sister of actress Sienna Miller, described a "real bohemian" as "someone who has the ability to appreciate beauty on a deep level, is a profound romantic, doesn't know any limits, whose world is their own creation, rather than living in a box".[7]

"Chic"

"Chic" was borrowed from French in the late 19th century and has come to mean stylish or elegant.

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Sherlock Holmes

Sherlock Holmes

Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective created by British author Arthur Conan Doyle. Referring to himself as a "consulting detective" in the stories, Holmes is known for his proficiency with observation, deduction, forensic science and logical reasoning that borders on the fantastic, which he employs when investigating cases for a wide variety of clients, including Scotland Yard.

The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle

The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle

"The Adventure of the Blue Carbuncle" is one of 56 short Sherlock Holmes stories written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the seventh story of twelve in the collection The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. It was first published in The Strand Magazine in January 1892.

Bohemian style

Bohemian style

The Bohemian style focuses on color, life, and culture as its main aspects, seeking to replicate the romani nomadic lifestyle. The word Bohemian comes from the French word "bohémien",meaning romani. A person living what is referred to as a "bohemian lifestyle" is typically a writer or an artist, living an unconventional lifestyle, often living in a colony with others. The Bohemian clothing style seeks to reflect the unconventional or "bohemian" lifestyle, evolving over the years.

Bloomsbury Group

Bloomsbury Group

The Bloomsbury Group—or Bloomsbury Set—was a group of associated English writers, intellectuals, philosophers and artists in the first half of the 20th century, including Virginia Woolf, John Maynard Keynes, E. M. Forster and Lytton Strachey. This loose collective of friends and relatives was closely associated with the University of Cambridge for the men and King's College London for the women, and they lived, worked or studied together near Bloomsbury, London. According to Ian Ousby, "although its members denied being a group in any formal sense, they were united by an abiding belief in the importance of the arts." Their works and outlook deeply influenced literature, aesthetics, criticism, and economics as well as modern attitudes towards feminism, pacifism, and sexuality. A well-known quote, attributed to Dorothy Parker, is "they lived in squares, painted in circles and loved in triangles".

Bohemia

Bohemia

Bohemia is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech Republic. Bohemia can also refer to a wider area consisting of the historical Lands of the Bohemian Crown ruled by the Bohemian kings, including Moravia and Czech Silesia, in which case the smaller region is referred to as Bohemia proper as a means of distinction.

A. N. Wilson

A. N. Wilson

Andrew Norman Wilson is an English writer and newspaper columnist known for his critical biographies, novels and works of popular history. He is an occasional columnist for the Daily Mail and a former columnist for the London Evening Standard. He has been an occasional contributor to The Times Literary Supplement, New Statesman, The Spectator and The Observer.

Bohemianism

Bohemianism

Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary, or spiritual pursuits. In this context, bohemians may be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds. Bohemian is a 19th-century historical and literary topos that places the milieu of young metropolitan artists and intellectuals - particularly those of the Latin Quarter in Paris - in a context of poverty, hunger, appreciation of friendship, idealization of art and contempt for money. Based on this topos, the most diverse real-world subcultures are often referred to as "bohemian" in a figurative sense, especially if they show traits of a precariat.

Linen

Linen

Linen is a textile made from the fibers of the flax plant.

Arthur Conan Doyle

Arthur Conan Doyle

Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle was a British writer and physician. He created the character Sherlock Holmes in 1887 for A Study in Scarlet, the first of four novels and fifty-six short stories about Holmes and Dr. Watson. The Sherlock Holmes stories are milestones in the field of crime fiction.

Savannah Miller

Savannah Miller

Savannah Elizabeth Louise Miller is an American-English fashion designer. After working with Alexander McQueen and Matthew Williamson, she created the label "Twenty8Twelve" with her sister, Sienna Miller. In October 2012 she launched her own collection, "Savannah".

Chic

Chic

Chic, meaning "stylish" or "smart", is an element of fashion. It was originally a French word.

Elegance

Elegance

Elegance is beauty that shows unusual effectiveness and simplicity.

Elements

Furry gilet, Autumn 2005
Furry gilet, Autumn 2005

The boho look, which owed much to the hippie styles that developed in the middle to late 1960s, became especially popular after Sienna Miller's appearance at the Glastonbury Festival in 2004,[8] although some of its features were apparent from photographs of her taken in October 2003[9] and of others living in or around the postal district of W10 (North Kensington), an area of London associated with bohemian culture since the mid-1950s.

By the spring of 2005, boho was almost ubiquitous in parts of London and was invading stores in almost every British high street.[10] Its adherents were sometimes referred to as "Siennas",[11] this eponym even being applied to Miller herself: "Sienna's Sienna-ishness", as Jessica Brinton put it in the Sunday Times in 2007.[12] Features included "floaty" skirts (notably long white ones), furry gilets, embroidered tunics, cropped jackets, large faux-coin belts, sheepskin (UGG) boots and cowboy boots, baggy cardigans and "hobo bags". Demand was so great that there were allegations the following year of some sub-contractors' having used cheap child labour in India for zari embroidery and beading.[13]

Footless tights or "leggings", of which Miller was a proponent, were a contributory factor in the halving of sales of stockings in Britain between 2003 and 2007.[14]

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Gilet

Gilet

A gilet or body warmer is a sleeveless jacket resembling a waistcoat or blouse. It may be waist- to knee-length and is typically straight-sided rather than fitted; however, historically, gilets were fitted and embroidered. In 19th-century dressmaking a gilet was a dress bodice shaped like a man's waistcoat.

Hippie

Hippie

A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in British English, is someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to different countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and was used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village, in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, and Chicago's Old Town community. The term hippie was used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularize use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen elsewhere earlier.

Sienna Miller

Sienna Miller

Sienna Rosie Diana Miller is an American-British actress. Born in New York City and raised in London, she began her career as a photography model, appearing in the pages of Italian Vogue and for the 2003 Pirelli calendar. Her acting breakthrough came in the 2004 films Layer Cake and Alfie. She subsequently portrayed socialite Edie Sedgwick in Factory Girl (2006) and author Caitlin Macnamara in The Edge of Love (2008), and was nominated for the 2008 BAFTA Rising Star Award. Her role as The Baroness in G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra (2009) was followed by a brief sabbatical from the screen amid increased tabloid scrutiny.

Glastonbury Festival

Glastonbury Festival

Glastonbury Festival is a five-day festival of contemporary performing arts that takes place in Pilton, Somerset, England. In addition to contemporary music, the festival hosts dance, comedy, theatre, circus, cabaret, and other arts. Leading pop and rock artists have headlined, alongside thousands of others appearing on smaller stages and performance areas. Films and albums have been recorded at the festival, and it receives extensive television and newspaper coverage.

North Kensington

North Kensington

North Kensington is an area of west London. It is north of Notting Hill and south of Kensal Green and in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. The names North Kensington and Ladbroke Grove describe the same area.

Cowboy boot

Cowboy boot

Cowboy boots are a specific style of riding boot, historically worn by cowboys. They have a high heel that is traditionally made of stacked leather, rounded to pointed toe, high shaft, and, traditionally, no lacing. Cowboy boots are normally made from cowhide leather, which may be decoratively hand tooled, but are also sometimes made from "exotic" skins like alligator, snake, ostrich, lizard, eel, elephant, stingray, elk, buffalo, and so on.

Hobo bag

Hobo bag

The hobo bag is a style of handbag or purse that is typically large and characterized by a crescent shape, a slouchy posture and a long strap designed to wear over the shoulder. Hobo bags are made out of soft, flexible materials and tend to slump, or slouch, when set down. There are many different sizes and shapes of this popular woman's fashion accessory.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi.

Zari

Zari

Zari is an even thread traditionally made of fine gold or silver used in traditional Indian, Bangladeshi and Pakistani garments, especially as brocade in saris etc. This thread is woven into fabrics, primarily silk, to make intricate patterns and elaborate designs of embroidery called zardozi. Zari was popularised during the Moghul era; the port of Surat was linked to the Meccan pilgrimage route which served as a major factor for re-introducing this ancient craft in India. During the Vedic ages, the gold embroidery was associated with the grandeur and regal attire of gods, kings, and literary figures (gurus).

Tights

Tights

Tights are a kind of cloth garment, most often sheathing the body from the waist to the toe tips with a tight fit, hence the name. They come in absolute opaque, opaque, sheer and fishnet styles — or a combination, such as the original concept of the American term pantyhose with sheer legs and opaque panty.

Leggings

Leggings

Leggings are several types of leg attire that have varied through the years. Modern usage from the 1960s onwards has come to refer to elastic close-fitting high-rise garments worn over the legs typically by women, such as leg warmers or tights. Usage from the 18th century refers to men's wear, usually made of cloth or leather that is wrapped around the leg down to the ankle. In the 19th century, leggings usually referred to infants' leg clothing that were matched with a jacket, as well as leg-wrappings made of leather or wool and worn by soldiers and trappers. Leggings prominently returned to women's fashion in the 1960s, drawing from the form-fitting clothing of dancers. With the widespread adoption of the synthetic fibre Lycra and the rise in popularity of aerobics, leggings came to further prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and eventually made their way into streetwear. Leggings are a part of the late 2010s into the 2020s athleisure fashion trend of wearing activewear outside sporting activities and in casual settings.

Trends

Sienna Miller at the London premiere of Factory Girl, 2007
Sienna Miller at the London premiere of Factory Girl, 2007

Sienna Miller in the mid 2000s

Sienna Miller's relationship with – and, for a time, engagement to – actor Jude Law, after they had starred together in the 2004 film, Alfie, kept both her and her style of dress[15] in the media headlines during 2004–05. In December 2004, Vogue featured Miller on its front cover and described her as "the girl of the year".[16] Later, the ending of her relationship with Law (which resumed temporarily in 2009–10) seemed to signal that boho too was past its peak. In fact, as early as May 2005 the Sunday Times Style magazine had declared that "overexposed" white peasant skirts were "going down"[17] and had advised adherents of boho to "update your boho mojo" by mixing the look with metallic items (anticipating so-called "boho-rock" in 2006) or with layers.[18] By the end of 2005, Miller herself, who claimed later that her boho look was not very original – "I think I'd just come back from traveling or something"[19] – had adopted other styles of dress and her shorter, bobbed hairstyle – ironically a feature of bohemian fashion in the quarter century before World War II – helped to define a new trend in 2007.[20] She was quoted in Vogue as saying "no more boho chic ... I feel less hippie. I just don't want to wear anything floaty or coin-belty ever again. No more gilets ...".[21] Even so, in 2008, Miller reflected that

It was a strange social experiment, to be responsible for all that. It made me self-conscious, which, inherently, I'm not. People would say, "I'm sick of boho", and now I stand up and say, "But I liked those clothes – it's not my fault that they were copied, you wore them and now you're sick of them. Also, I did not start the trend."[19]

2007–08: folk, "diluted", and Balearic boho

In the autumn of 2006, The Times' style director Tina Gaudoin observed that "when the women's wear buyer at M[arks] & S[pencer] is quoted saying 'boho is over', you know the trend is well and truly six foot under."[22] Even so, the so-called "folk" look of spring 2007, with its smock tops and flounce hemmed dresses, owed much to boho-chic, while embracing such trends as the re-emergence of the mini-dress: as the Sunday Times put it, "if you are still bemoaning the passing of the gypsy look, then the folk trend could be your saving grace".[23] The Sunday Times cited the 1960s singer Mary Hopkin as influencing the use of bandannas,[23] while, around the same time, Sienna Miller's appearance as 1960s "starlet" Edie Sedgwick in the film Factory Girl positioned her once more as a bohemian style icon. London Lite observed in May 2007 that:

You may baulk at the very word, but this summer's style has definite nuances of boho – albeit in a very diluted form. Sienna Miller's gipsy skirt brigade somehow didn't finish this feminine trend off for good, and some of the less contrived ingredients – embroidery, leather, gentle frills – are back

Mischa Barton in 2006

Noting that "this time it's much more about a deconstructed, looser version of English Country Garden style", London Lite recalled the early 1970s designs of Laura Ashley – "all folds of floral cotton and centre partings".[24] Actresses Mischa Barton and Milla Jovovich were cited as exponents of this look, while Jade Jagger (daughter of Sir Mick Jagger, of the Rolling Stones, and Bianca Jagger) was said to be promoting her own style of "Balearic boho" on the Mediterranean island of Ibiza,[24] a long-time haven for beatniks and hippies who colonised the village of Sant Carles in the 1960s.[25]

The Tatler wrote of Jagger – "the original 'Boho'" – that she "lives, breathes and creates a certain kind of contemporary "bohemian" chic", although Jagger herself claimed to be "a little wary of the word "bohemian"", describing her approach as "daring to mix ... combining things that are unexpected".[26] Jagger modelled for designer Matthew Williamson, whose style has been described as combining "Ibiza glamour" with "London cool".[27] Sienna Miller has written that, when she first met Williamson, whose muse she became,[28] in her mother's kitchen in 2001

she had a magazine on the table with Jade Jagger wearing the most beautiful bright dress I had ever seen. I remember thinking it was my dream dress. I now feel that way about almost every dress of Matthew's I have worn".[29]

In 2011 "destination dressing" for Ibiza was still deemed to "embrace boho chic with a hint of understated glamour"[30]

When, in August 2007, Sienna and Savannah Miller launched their own fashion label, Twenty8Twelve (so-called after Sienna's birthday, 28 December), one commentator referred to Sienna's "own brand of Notting Hillbilly chic" (a reference to London W10) and remarked that, "with [her] love of all things boho, it's unsurprising to see a thread of louche, folksy styling running through the line".[31] However, the same writer observed wryly that "quite how many French peasants hoed fields in printed smocks is undocumented" and felt that one particular shirt-dress was "a little too reminiscent of Nancy in Oliver Twist".[31] The following year, the Sunday Times, noting that one in two Americans and one in five Britons were reportedly sporting tattoos, observed that Miller "complete[d] her luxe-layabout look with a cluster of stars on her silken shoulder";[32] that she had also a tattoo of a bluebird, the subject of both a poem by Charles Bukowski and a drawing by Edie Sedgwick; and that Kate Moss displayed "two swallows diving into her buttock crack".

Recession of 2008–10: broderie, exotic lingerie, 70s glam/beatnik

In 2008 fashion consultant Gok Wan cited a broderie anglaise top worn by Nadine Coyle of the group Girls Aloud as evidence that "the folk/boho look is so hot for summer",[33] while Marks & Spencer employed the headline "Bohemian Rhapsody" to summarise its summer range, which owed much to the colours and patterns of the early 1970s.[34] At the beginning of June that year fashion writer Carrie Gorman announced that "this week, shopping is about going bright and bold with a boho feel", citing, among other trends, multi-coloured tank tops ("or dress, according to your height") by Harlow, said to be the favorite label of American actress Rachel Bilson.[35] Bilson has cited Kate Moss and actress Diane Keaton as among her stylistic influences;[36] striped multi-colored panties with brodierie edging were a feature of her photographic shoot for Stuff magazine in 2004.[37]

Another, rather distinctive, exponent of the "vintage" look was actress and singer Zooey Deschanel, who, in June 2008, appeared on the front cover of the magazine BlackBook in a black lace-edged swimsuit.[38] In the same year, a journalist wrote of Deschanel:

... she's the antistarlet ... She tiptoes in looking like a graceful version of boho-chic 29-year-olds found everywhere from Brooklyn to Silver Lake, with an Obama [Democratic Presidential candidate] button on her vintage coat and [t]he New Yorker rolled up in her pocket...[39]

Deschanel's "kooky" style[40] subsequently found a popular outlet as Los Angeles teacher Jess Day, whom she played in the Fox TV sitcom, New Girl (2011-2018). Jess's fashion preferences, including some striking brassières in a range of colours,[41] attracted much interest, while, around the same time, Anastasia (Ana) Steel's tastes in E. L. James' best-selling erotic novel Fifty Shades of Grey (2011) were thought to have assisted sales of exotic lingerie.[42] Blue was a favoured color (Natalie Portman as Dr. Emma Kurtzman was shown dressing hastily for work in a lacy blue bra in the 2011 film, No Strings Attached) and was Ana's own preference: "I'm in the pale blue lacy perfect-fit bra. Thank heavens".[43] In 2010, the winning German entry for the Eurovision Song Contest proclaimed, "I even did my hair for you/I bought new underwear, they're blue" (Satellite, sung by Lena). In 2013 X Factor contestant Diana Vickers wore blue panties (with a short white top bearing the legend, "LOST MY MIND") for a widely publicised photoshoot for the magazine FHM.[44]

Although boho once again appeared to be on the wane by 2009, elements of it were clearly in evidence in collections for spring and summer 2010. Fashion Union advertised "spring's new bohemian trend in full bloom" and "hippie chic tops on loveworn denims",[45] while Avon introduced a perfumed spray called "Boho Chic". Monsoon, founded in 1973 and still described by the Sunday Times in 2010 as "the boho chic fashion retailer", saw its pre-tax profits rise dramatically during the recession of the late noughties: from £3.6 million in 2008 to £32.6 million in the year to August 2009.[46]

Women wearing bohemian clothing
Women wearing bohemian clothing

In 2010 the Sunday Times anticipated that the medieval head chain – "a step on from the hippie head band" – would be a feature of that year's festival circuit, "instantly adding summer bohemia to your look". Socialite Nicole Richie's "beatnik/disco-glam mash-up" was cited as an example of this trend, while Peaches Geldof, model and daughter of rock musician Bob Geldof, was identified as another who had adopted the look.[47] Later in the year the Sunday Times lauded the "haute hippie, bohemian splendour and punked up classics" that were putting "a modern spin on 1970s style". These included a cream crochet dress by Marc Jacobs ("haute hippie") and a devoré dress and fringed scarf by Pucci ("boho splendour").[48]

By the late autumn of 2010 The Times noted the desirability in the UK of fake fur ("Recession chic lets Britain go full pelt for the fake fur"), with Marks and Spencer and Sainsbury's TU retailing bestselling coats at a time of economic stringency. According to Lisa Armstrong, "everyone from Kate Moss to Alexa Chung, Fearne Cotton to Kylie [Minogue], Rachel Bilson and Taylor Momsen to Carine Roitfeld ha[d] been swaddling themselves in exotic cat prints with varying degrees of success".[49] Armstrong speculated also that the "Impossible Boot", based on a 1930s snow boot and so-called by its designer Penelope Chilvers because it had "proved a headache to make", might, despite its relatively high cost (£325–375), displace the Ugg,[49] which had been a durable boho accessory. As Armstrong put it wrily, the Impossible was "perfect for après-ski" in the fashionably bohemian London districts of Primrose Hill or Dalston. Since then, many younger artists/designers have begun to revive the boho style, as can be seen on such sites as ‘etsy’ and ‘boho-andromeda.com’, which illustrate how boho has never, and probably will never, leave the true art and fashion world.

Children's fashion

Many parents have also embraced the Boho Chic trends and elements to create and purchase apparel for their children. This particular trend is inspired by the casual American fashion of the 1960s, but as the counterculture included the influences of earlier time periods in its eclectic embrace of style and personal values, it often includes hints of the Victorian, a nod to the fabrics and details of the 1940s, or a homage to the intellectuals of the 1950s.[50]

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Factory Girl (2006 film)

Factory Girl (2006 film)

Factory Girl is a 2006 American biographical film directed by George Hickenlooper. It is based on the rapid rise and fall of 1960s underground film star and socialite Edie Sedgwick, known for her association with the artist Andy Warhol.

Engagement

Engagement

An engagement or betrothal is the period of time between the declaration of acceptance of a marriage proposal and the marriage itself. During this period, a couple is said to be fiancés, betrothed, intended, affianced, engaged to be married, or simply engaged. Future brides and grooms may be called fiancée (feminine) or fiancé (masculine), the betrothed, a wife-to-be or husband-to-be, respectively. The duration of the courtship varies vastly, and is largely dependent on cultural norms or upon the agreement of the parties involved.

Jude Law

Jude Law

David Jude Heyworth Law is an English actor. He received a British Academy Film Award, as well as nominations for two Academy Awards, two Tony Awards, and four Golden Globe Awards. In 2007, he received an Honorary César and was named a knight of the Order of Arts and Letters by the French government.

Alfie (2004 film)

Alfie (2004 film)

Alfie is a 2004 romantic comedy-drama film inspired by the 1966 British film of the same name and its 1975 sequel, starring Jude Law as the title character, originally played by Michael Caine in the 1966 film and Alan Price in the 1975 sequel. The film was co-written, directed, and produced by Charles Shyer.

Bob cut

Bob cut

A bob cut, also known as a bob, is a short to medium length haircut, in which the hair is typically cut straight around the head at approximately jaw level, but no longer than shoulder-length, often with fringe or bangs at the front. The standard bob cut exposes the back of the neck and keeps all of the hair well above the shoulders.

Folk art

Folk art

Folk art covers all forms of visual art made in the context of folk culture. Definitions vary, but generally the objects have practical utility of some kind, rather than being exclusively decorative. The makers of folk art are typically trained within a popular tradition, rather than in the fine art tradition of the culture. There is often overlap, or contested ground with 'naive art'. "Folk art" is not used in regard to traditional societies where ethnographic art continue to be made.

Miniskirt

Miniskirt

A miniskirt is a skirt with its hemline well above the knees, generally at mid-thigh level, normally no longer than 10 cm (4 in) below the buttocks; and a dress with such a hemline is called a minidress or a miniskirt dress. A micro-miniskirt or microskirt is a miniskirt with its hemline at the upper thigh, at or just below crotch or underwear level.

Mary Hopkin

Mary Hopkin

Mary Hopkin, credited on some recordings as Mary Visconti from her marriage to Tony Visconti, is a Welsh singer-songwriter best known for her 1968 UK number 1 single "Those Were the Days". She was one of the first artists to be signed to The Beatles' Apple label.

Edie Sedgwick

Edie Sedgwick

Edith Minturn Sedgwick Post was an American actress and fashion model, known for being one of Andy Warhol's superstars. Sedgwick became known as "The Girl of the Year" in 1965 after starring in several of Warhol's short films in the 1960s. She was dubbed an "It Girl", while Vogue magazine also named her a "Youthquaker".

Laura Ashley

Laura Ashley

Laura Ashley was a Welsh fashion designer and businesswoman. She originally made furnishing materials in the 1950s, expanding the business into clothing design and manufacture in the 1960s. The Laura Ashley style is characterised by Romantic designs – often with a 19th-century rural feel – and the use of natural fabrics.

Milla Jovovich

Milla Jovovich

Milica Bogdanovna Jovovich, known professionally as Milla Jovovich, is an American actress and model. Her starring roles in numerous science-fiction and action films led the music channel VH1 to deem her the "reigning queen of kick-butt" in 2006. In 2004, Forbes determined that she was the highest-paid model in the world.

Jade Jagger

Jade Jagger

Jade Sheena Jezebel Jagger is a British-French jewellery designer, home designer, and former model. She is the daughter of Rolling Stones lead singer Mick Jagger and 1970s fashion model and human rights advocate Bianca Jagger.

Influence and exponents

Kate Moss and Sienna Miller

Many, including actress Lindsay Lohan,[51] attributed the boho look to supermodel Kate Moss (who in 1997 had been associated, through an advertising campaign for Calvin Klein, with the so-called "heroin chic" or "waif" look). In fact the Australian journalist Laura Demasi used the term "boho-chic" as early as October 2002 with reference to Moss and Jade Jagger. In April 2004, the British-born fashion writer Plum Sykes was quoted as saying of a lynx mini-top, "Very cool, very bohemian, very Kate Moss–y";[52] and in 2006 Times fashion editor Lisa Armstrong described a plaited leather belt of the previous year as a "Boho 'Kate' belt".[53] Nevertheless, it was the apparently unaffected ease with which Sienna Miller (dubbed by some as the "new Kate Moss"[54]) carried off the look that brought it into the mainstream: even in advertisements for Chloé early in 2005 Miller was shown as if casually shopping, while she told Vogue that she had a laid-back approach to grooming, including cutting her own hair.[16]

Established in 1993, the UK clothing label 'OVERIDER' described as 'the brand of a free spirit' and favoured for its understated, effortless, bohemian style exemplifies the 2014 Boho-chic trend.

In 2008 the Sunday Times applied the term "real chic" to a group of "the chicest celebrities", including Miller and actresses Julie Christie and Marion Cotillard, who "handle the glare of fame with a large dose of reality", Miller being described as "a professional free spirit who, annoyingly, seems to have more fun than anyone else".[55] In that year, Miller's appearance as the poet Dylan Thomas's wife, Caitlin Macnamara in the film The Edge of Love caused one journalist to refer to "a new romantic style: woe-ho chic"[56] This referred to the austerity clothing of the 1940s, worn also in the film by Keira Knightley:

A beguillingly shambolic Sienna is seen sobbing on the beach busting a wartime make-do-and-mend look: boiled-wool cardie over flowery tea dress over folded-down wellies over long woolly socks.[57]

One reviewer observed of Miller's role that "Caitlin is meant to be a boho girl and free spirit, which is a posh way of saying she's a drunk who is promiscuous".[58]

Rachel Zoe

American celebrity stylist Rachel Zoe has been credited as helping to popularise boho style in the '00s.[59][60] Writing in Guardian, Lauren Cochrane wrote, that Zoe "was one of the first stylists to put the vintage "look" on the red carpet."[60] A retrospective piece published in Grazia in 2000 said of Zoe: "Styling her clients not just for the red carpet but for pap-bait Starbucks runs, she was the architect of the boho-meets-rock chic look that came to define a new breed of Hollywood ‘it’-girls who were as adept at setting trends as they were at causing trouble: Nicole Richie, Lindsay Lohan, Mischa Barton exemplified the moment (pre their The Row paring-down, the Olsens - not Zoe clients - were working a similar look)."[61] The look championed by Zoe was exemplified by oversized accessories such as sunglasses[62] and handbags paired with loose-fitting tops and dresses.[61]

Appeal and impact

The cross-generational appeal of boho influenced, among other things, the ranges that brought about a revival in the fortunes of Marks and Spencer in 2005–06. An illustration of this, just as boho as such appeared to near its end, was M&S's use of 1960s' icon Twiggy and younger models such as Laura Bailey ("the natural choice for the season's bohemian chic"[63]) for a major advertising campaign in late 2005. In 2006 the Sunday Times identified fur gilets and "ugg-a-likes" as preferred winter wear for middle-aged women whom it described as the "botox-and-better-sex-after-40 brigade".[64]

Exemplars

Notwithstanding an early tendency to be associated with photographic spreads for "lads' magazines") Rachel Stevens[65] were both held up in the mid-noughties as exemplars of boho. So, a few years later, were Diana Vickers and another teenaged singer, Pixie Lott.

A fringe suede leather handbag.
A fringe suede leather handbag.

In 2007 London Lite contrasted the "gay glamour" of American actress Goldie Hawn with the "more relaxed, boho look" of her daughter, actress Kate Hudson, noting that "keeping the colours neutral, [Hudson]'s careful not to break any style rules, with classy knitwear and good-quality accessories".[66]

Another well-judged exponent of boho, in the second series of ITV's Murder in Suburbia (2005), was Detective Sergeant Emma Scribbins, the character played by Lisa Faulkner.

Fast fashion

The impact of boho illustrated certain broader trends in what Shane Watson referred to as "the way we dress now":[67] that fashion was increasingly being dictated, not by the main houses, but what Watson called "the triple-F crowd" (the F referring to the f's in "famous and fashion-forward"), of which Kate Moss, Lindsay Lohan and Sienna Miller were exemplars. Once they had spotted new fashions, young women were not prepared to wait a season for them to become available and, consequently, the familiar boundaries between summer wear and that for autumn and winter were becoming blurred. As Jane Shepherdson, brand director of the clothing chain Topshop, put it, "when Sienna wore that gilet, we had to pull them forward fast ... She was doing boho in the autumn, and we were expecting it to be a trend for the following spring. Girls see it and they want it immediately".[67]

The practice of meeting such demand, pioneered by the Spanish firm Zara, and of which Shepherdson, until she left Topshop in 2006, was the leading British proponent,[68] became known as "fast fashion".[69]

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Lindsay Lohan

Lindsay Lohan

Lindsay Dee Lohan is an American actress and singer. Born in New York City and raised on Long Island, Lohan was signed to Ford Models at the age of three. Having appeared as a regular on the television soap opera Another World at age 10, her breakthrough came in the Walt Disney Pictures film The Parent Trap (1998). The film's success led to appearances in the television films Life-Size (2000) and Get a Clue (2002), and the big-screen productions Freaky Friday (2003) and Confessions of a Teenage Drama Queen (2004). Lohan's early work won her childhood stardom, while the teen comedy sleeper hit Mean Girls (2004) affirmed her status as a teen idol and established her as a Hollywood leading actress.

Kate Moss

Kate Moss

Katherine Ann Moss is a British model. Arriving at the end of the "supermodel era", Moss rose to fame in the early 1990s as part of the heroin chic fashion trend. Her collaborations with Calvin Klein brought her to fashion icon status. She is known for her waifish figure, and role in size zero fashion. Moss has had her own clothing range, has been involved in musical projects, and is also a contributing fashion editor for British Vogue. In 2012, she came second on the Forbes top-earning models list, with estimated earnings of $9.2 million in one year. The accolades she has received for modelling include the 2013 British Fashion Awards acknowledging her contribution to fashion over 25 years, while Time named her one of the world's 100 most influential people in 2007.

Calvin Klein

Calvin Klein

Calvin Richard Klein is an American fashion designer who launched the company that would later become Calvin Klein Inc., in 1968. In addition to clothing, he also has given his name to a range of perfumes, watches, and jewellery.

Heroin chic

Heroin chic

Heroin chic was a style popularized in early-1990s fashion and characterized by pale skin, dark circles underneath the eyes, emaciated features, androgyny and stringy hair—all traits associated with abuse of heroin or other drugs. American supermodel Gia Carangi is remembered for being the originator of the trend. Heroin chic was partly a reaction against the "healthy" and vibrant look of leading 1980s models such as Cindy Crawford, Elle Macpherson, and Claudia Schiffer. A 1996 article in the Los Angeles Times stated that the fashion industry had "a nihilistic vision of beauty" that was reflective of drug addiction.

Chloé

Chloé

Chloé is a French high-end luxury fashion house founded in 1952 by Gaby Aghion. During the next year of 1953 Aghion joined forces with Jacques Lenoir, formally managing the business side of the brand, allowing Aghion to purely pursue the creative growth of Chloé. Its headquarters are located in Paris, France. The house is owned by luxury brands holding company Richemont Group. Chloé has been worn by many celebrities, including Marion Cotillard, Sienna Miller, Madonna, January Jones, Maggie Gyllenhaal, Cameron Diaz, Emma Stone, Clémence Poésy and Katie Holmes.

Julie Christie

Julie Christie

Julie Frances Christie is a British actress. An icon of the "Swinging Sixties", Christie is the recipient of numerous accolades including an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe, and a Screen Actors Guild Award. She has appeared in six films ranked in the British Film Institute's BFI Top 100 British films of the 20th century, and in 1997, she received the BAFTA Fellowship for lifetime achievement.

Marion Cotillard

Marion Cotillard

Marion Cotillard is a French actress, film producer, singer, and environmentalist who is widely known for her roles in independent films and blockbusters in both European and Hollywood productions. She has received various accolades, including an Academy Award, a British Academy Film Award, a Golden Globe Award, a European Film Award, a Lumières Award, and two César Awards. She became a Knight of the Order of Arts and Letters in France in 2010, and was promoted to Officer in 2016. She has served as a spokeswoman for Greenpeace since 2001. Cotillard was the face of the Lady Dior handbag for nine years. Since 2020, she is the face of Chanel's fragrance Chanel No. 5.

Dylan Thomas

Dylan Thomas

Dylan Marlais Thomas was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion", as well as the "play for voices" Under Milk Wood. He also wrote stories and radio broadcasts such as A Child's Christmas in Wales and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog. He became widely popular in his lifetime and remained so after his death at the age of 39 in New York City. By then, he had acquired a reputation, which he had encouraged, as a "roistering, drunken and doomed poet".

Austerity

Austerity

Austerity is a set of political-economic policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both. There are three primary types of austerity measures: higher taxes to fund spending, raising taxes while cutting spending, and lower taxes and lower government spending. Austerity measures are often used by governments that find it difficult to borrow or meet their existing obligations to pay back loans. The measures are meant to reduce the budget deficit by bringing government revenues closer to expenditures. Proponents of these measures state that this reduces the amount of borrowing required and may also demonstrate a government's fiscal discipline to creditors and credit rating agencies and make borrowing easier and cheaper as a result.

Keira Knightley

Keira Knightley

Keira Christina Righton is an English actress. Known for her work in both independent films and blockbusters, particularly period dramas, she has received several accolades, including nominations for two Academy Awards, three British Academy Film Awards, and a Laurence Olivier Award. In 2018, she was appointed an OBE at Buckingham Palace for services to drama and charity.

Laura Bailey (model)

Laura Bailey (model)

Laura Bailey is an English model and photographer. She was born in Oxford, and her most notable campaigns include Guess jeans, L'Oreal, Jaguar, Jaeger, Marks and Spencer, Bella Freud, Ray-Ban, Oetker Collection hotel, Bodas, Temperley London and Solange Azagury-Partridge.Bailey is the brand ambassador for the house of CHANEL.

List of men's magazines

List of men's magazines

This is a list of magazines primarily marketed to men. The list has been split into subcategories according to the target audience of the magazines. This list includes 'adult' pornographic magazines as well as more mainstream ones. Not included here are automobile, trains, modelbuilding periodicals and gadget magazines which happen to have a predominantly male audience.

Boho-rock and gothic

Theda Bara (1885–1955)
Theda Bara (1885–1955)

By Midsummer 2006, the Sunday Times had discerned a trend that fused aspects of boho-chic with "heavy metal attitude": "It's about wearing a studded leather jacket with a flimsy chiffon number, stomping about town in biker boots ... and wearing anything with a skull on it".[70] The newspaper referred to this style, which had been a feature of collections for Autumn 2006 by Christian Dior and John Galliano, as "boho-rock" and noted that both Sienna Miller and Kate Moss had adopted it. "Gothic rock"[71] had similar connotations. A look described by the Sunday Times in Autumn 2006 as "modern goth" was a more stylised version, exuding a "bondage vibe" and contrasting "soft, light fabrics ... with the harsh sleekness of patent [leather]".[72]

The gothic look was in vogue again in the autumn of 2007, a sleeker "dark Victorian style" being associated with, among others, Sienna Miller, twin actresses Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen (through their clothing label, The Row), the Australian model Gemma Ward[73] and the rising Ukrainian singer Mika Newton (the latter notably in photographs associated with her début album of 2005, Anomaliya).

Pre-Raphaelites

Florence Welch

"In 2009 the rise of British singer Florence Welch (as Florence + the Machine) coincided with the publication of Franny Moyle's study of the private lives of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood of the mid-19th century (Desperate Romantics, 2009) and its dramatisation by BBC television. Welch has cited as her stylistic icons singer Marianne Faithfull, who had been closely associated with the Rolling Stones in the 1960s,[74] and her former English teacher who used to "come to school in crushed-velvet gowns like a medieval maiden[75] However, her stage image called to mind the pre-Raphaelite muses[76] who, in certain respects, had anticipated the hippie styles of a century later.[77] Indeed, Welch herself declared her attraction to "doomed romantic heroines, like Tennyson's [poem] The Lady of Shalott"[78] The cover of Welch's second album Ceremonials (2011) drew very clearly on later Pre-Raphaelite images.[79]

Reflecting on Welch's broader influence, one rock journalist noted in 2010 that "even Cheryl Cole [of Girls Aloud and an X Factor judge] has gone gothic princess on her ... single, "Promise This", and she's looking very Florence in the video, all black leotards and raggedy tutus".[80]

Karen Elson in June 2010
Karen Elson in June 2010

Karen Elson

Other redheads whose personal style combined elegance with boho and gothic features were English model Lily Cole and model/singer Karen Elson. Elson told a Times journalist that she had always been "the weird looking one" in modelling circles and remarked of herself and her then husband Jack White of the rock duo White Stripes that "there's going to be a point when our children view us as the Addams Family".[81] (In the 1960s incarnation of The Addams Family for ABC television, based on the characters created by Charles Addams for The New Yorker in 1938, Carolyn Jones had created a gothic icon with her portrayal of Morticia Addams.) Like Welch, Elson exuded pre-Raphaelite features, though a marked gothic strain was also apparent when, as a singer on stage in 2009, she wore a long salmon dress with black lace edging. Similarly, her lingerie portfolio that year for Agent Provocateur combined gothic and boho-rock features,[82] there being, for example, a certain resonance between a black and white brassiere and panties set that formed part of that collection and the black swimsuit in which Zooey Deschanel was photographed in 2008.[83]

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

In 2011 some detected a pre-Raphaelite line to the Alexander McQueen dress, designed by Sarah Burton, for Catherine Middleton's wedding to Prince William, Duke of Cambridge,[84] Middleton's somewhat medieval headdress called to mind images from paintings by such later pre-Raphaelites as John Waterhouse and Edward Burne-Jones,[85] the overall impression being especially apparent in a side-on double page photograph of the couple by Max Mumby on the cover of the following day's edition of the London Times.[86]

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Heavy metal music

Heavy metal music

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and United States. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock and acid rock, heavy metal bands developed a thick, monumental sound characterized by distorted guitars, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats and loudness.

Christian Dior

Christian Dior

Christian Ernest Dior was a French fashion designer, best known as the founder of one of the world's top fashion houses, Christian Dior SE, which is now owned by parent company LVMH. His fashion houses are known all around the world, specifically "on five continents in only a decade" (Sauer). He was the second child of a family of seven, born to Maurice Dior and Madeleine Martin, in the town of Granville.

John Galliano

John Galliano

John Charles Galliano is a Gibraltarian-Spanish fashion designer. He was the creative director of his eponymous label John Galliano and French fashion houses Givenchy and Dior. Since 2014, Galliano has been the creative director of Paris-based fashion house Maison Margiela. Galliano has been named British Designer of the Year four times. In a 2004 poll for the BBC, he was named the fifth most influential person in British culture.

Gothic fashion

Gothic fashion

Gothic fashion is a clothing style marked by dark, mysterious, antiquated, homogenous, and often genderless features. It is worn by members of the Goth subculture. Dress, typical gothic fashion includes dyed black hair, exotic hairstyles, dark lipstick and dark clothing. Both male and female goths can wear dark eyeliner, dark nail polish and lipstick for a dramatic effect. Male goths use cosmetics at a higher rate than other men. Styles are often borrowed from the punk fashion and can also draw influence from Victorians and Elizabethan fashion. Goth fashion is sometimes confused with heavy metal fashion and emo fashion.

Bondage (BDSM)

Bondage (BDSM)

Bondage in the BDSM subculture, is the practice of consensually tying, binding, or restraining a partner for erotic, aesthetic, or somatosensory stimulation. A partner may be physically restrained in a variety of ways, including the use of rope, cuffs, bondage tape, or self-adhering bandage.

Ashley Olsen

Ashley Olsen

Ashley Fuller Olsen is an American businesswoman and former actress. She began her acting career at the age of nine months, sharing the role of Michelle Tanner with her twin sister Mary-Kate Olsen in the television sitcom Full House (1987–1995). They also starred in numerous films together.

Gemma Ward

Gemma Ward

Gemma Louise Ward is an Australian model and actress. Born in Perth, Western Australia, Ward was first scouted at the age of 14, and made her Australian Fashion Week debut aged 15. She later became the youngest model to appear on the cover of the American edition of Vogue, subsequently appearing on the covers of both Teen Vogue and Time. Vogue Paris would later declare her as one of the top 30 models of the 2000s. Ward is widely considered to be a supermodel.

John Everett Millais

John Everett Millais

Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, was an English painter and illustrator who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. He was a child prodigy who, aged eleven, became the youngest student to enter the Royal Academy Schools. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded at his family home in London, at 83 Gower Street. Millais became the most famous exponent of the style, his painting Christ in the House of His Parents (1849–50) generating considerable controversy, and he produced a picture that could serve as the embodiment of the historical and naturalist focus of the group, Ophelia, in 1851–52.

Florence Welch

Florence Welch

Florence Leontine Mary Welch is an English singer, the lead vocalist and primary songwriter of the indie rock band Florence and the Machine. The band's debut studio album, Lungs (2009), topped the UK Albums Chart and won the Brit Award for Best British Album. Their next four albums also achieved chart success. In 2018, Welch released a book titled Useless Magic, a collection of lyrics and poems written by her, along with illustrations.

Franny Moyle

Franny Moyle

Franny Moyle is a British television producer and author. Her first book Desperate Romantics: The Private Lives of the Pre-Raphaelites (2009) was adapted into the BBC drama serial Desperate Romantics by screenwriter Peter Bowker. Her second book, Constance: The Tragic and Scandalous Life of Mrs. Oscar Wilde was published in 2011 to critical acclaim. In 2016 she released Turner: The Extraordinary Life and Momentous Times of J.M.W. Turner, published by Viking. In 2021, her book, The King's Painter: The Life and Times of Hans Holbein, was published by Abrams Press in New York.

Desperate Romantics

Desperate Romantics

Desperate Romantics is a six-part television drama serial about the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, first broadcast on BBC Two between 21 July and 25 August 2009.

Marianne Faithfull

Marianne Faithfull

Marianne Evelyn Gabriel Faithfull is an English singer and actress. She achieved popularity in the 1960s with the release of her hit single "As Tears Go By" and became one of the lead female artists during the British Invasion in the United States.

Terminology

In advance of Glastonbury 2004, the Sunday Times coined the term "festival chic", for a style with some similarities to boho.[87] It subsequently labelled a photographic spread of Sienna Miller, Lauren Bailey, Erin O'Connor and other muses of Matthew Williamson as "boho babes",[88] advised its readers to "think art-school chic" by adopting layers of clashing colours[18] and, in 2006, noted that "last year's boho babe" had become "this year's boho-rock chick".[89]

Almost an extension of "festival chic", the Telegraph coined the term "foho" to describe the evolution of the boho style in the summer of 2007.[90] According to the newspaper, this look, which took its influence from both boho style and "the heavy influence of folk culture", had been seen on the likes of Sienna Miller and Kate Moss.

The London Evening Standard referred to "hippie chic" (a term used in the 1990s with reference to the velvet kaftans created by Tom Ford for the Italian house of Gucci) in a feature about "gypsy queens",[91] while the Sunday Times, reflecting on what "the fashion world called ... boho chic", referred to Sienna Miller's having created "the retro hippie look that swept Britain's high streets".[92] In 2007 London Lite hailed the return of "hippy, hippy chic"[93] and, as noted, Fashion Union marketed "hippie chic" tops in 2010.

"Boho-by-default" was an unflattering description used by Lisa Armstrong to describe the style of women ("gargoyles" as opposed to "summer goddesses") who, for summer wear, "drag the same greying, crumpled boho-by-default mess out of storage every year".[94]

Morocco and Talitha Getty

In 2006, the Sunday Times described the Moroccan resort and seaport of Essaouira as the "boho/barefoot-chic beach" because of its association with fashionable "Euro aesthetes with their Talitha Getty-esque kaftans".[64] The latter was a reference to an iconic photograph of Talitha Pol, wife of John Paul Getty, that was taken by Patrick Lichfield in Marrakesh in 1969. This image was described by Lisa Armstrong as "typif[ying] the luxe bohemian look".[95] Anticipating Glastonbury 2005, Hedley Freeman in the Guardian had recommended the wearing of headscarves to achieve "Talitha Getty chic".[96]

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Erin O'Connor

Erin O'Connor

Erin O'Connor, MBE is a British fashion model.

Kaftan

Kaftan

A kaftan or caftan is a variant of the robe or tunic. Originating in Asia, it has been worn by a number of cultures around the world for thousands of years. In Russian usage, kaftan instead refers to a style of men's long suit with tight sleeves. It may be made of wool, cashmere, silk, or cotton, and may be worn with a sash. Popular during the time of the Ottoman Empire, detailed and elaborately designed garments were given to ambassadors and other important guests at the Topkapı Palace. Variations of the kaftan were inherited by cultures throughout Asia and were worn by individuals in Russia, Southwest Asia and Northern Africa.

Tom Ford

Tom Ford

Thomas Carlyle Ford is an American fashion designer and filmmaker. He launched his eponymous luxury brand in 2005, having previously served as the creative director at Gucci and Yves Saint Laurent. Ford wrote and directed the films A Single Man (2009) and Nocturnal Animals (2016). He currently serves as the chairman of the Board of the Council of Fashion Designers of America.

Gucci

Gucci

Gucci is an Italian high-end luxury fashion house based in Florence, Italy. Its product lines include handbags, ready-to-wear, footwear, accessories, and home decoration; and it licenses its name and branding to Coty, Inc. for fragrance and cosmetics under the name Gucci Beauty.

Morocco

Morocco

Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the westernmost country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. Morocco also claims the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast. It spans an area of 446,300 km2 (172,300 sq mi) or 710,850 km2 (274,460 sq mi), with a population of roughly 37 million. Its official and predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber; the Moroccan dialect of Arabic and French are also widely spoken. Moroccan identity and culture is a vibrant mix of Berber, Arab, and European cultures. Its capital is Rabat, while its largest city is Casablanca.

Essaouira

Essaouira

Essaouira, known until the 1960s as Mogador, is a port city in the western Moroccan region of Marakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast. It has 77,966 inhabitants as of 2014.

Talitha Getty

Talitha Getty

Talitha Dina Getty was a Dutch actress, socialite, and model who was regarded as a style icon of the late 1960s. She lived much of her adult life in Britain and, in her final years, was closely associated with the Moroccan city of Marrakesh. Her husband was the oil heir and subsequent philanthropist John Paul Getty Jr.

Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield

Patrick Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield

Thomas Patrick John Anson, 5th Earl of Lichfield was an English photographer from the Anson family. He inherited the Earldom of Lichfield in 1960 from his paternal grandfather. In his professional practice he was known as Patrick Lichfield.

Marrakesh

Marrakesh

Marrakesh or Marrakech is the fourth largest city in the Kingdom of Morocco. It is one of the four Imperial cities of Morocco and is the capital of the Marrakesh-Safi region. The city is situated west of the foothills of the Atlas Mountains. Marrakesh is 580 km (360 mi) southwest of Tangier, 327 km (203 mi) southwest of the Moroccan capital of Rabat, 239 km (149 mi) south of Casablanca, and 246 km (153 mi) northeast of Agadir.

Related trends

Karlie Kloss poses on the runway at the Anna Sui show in September 2011.
Karlie Kloss poses on the runway at the Anna Sui show in September 2011.

Olsen twins and American bobo

In the United States, Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, especially the former, were credited with a "homeless" look, first identified as such in Greenwich Village, New York in late 2004, that had many "boho" features (large sunglasses, flowing skirts, boots and loose jumpers). This was sometimes referred to as "ashcan chic".[97] The term, "bobo chic" (also known as "hobo-grunge",[98] "heroin chic" or "luxe grunge"), had similar connotations, "bobo" (or "BoBo") being a contraction of "bourgeois" and "bohemian" coined by New York Times columnist David Brooks in his book, Bobos in Paradise (2000).

Bobo chic was associated in particular with punks in the SoHo area of Lower Manhattan, to the south of Greenwich Village. It was described by a student fashion writer as "paying to look poor" and having been "made popular by silver screen stars who all look like they got dressed in the dark like the Olsen twins, Kirsten Dunst and Chloë Sevigny".[99] In 2008 English actress Sophie Winkleman, who had attended Cambridge University in the 1990s, remarked wryly that she had "wor[n] floaty dresses at university ... thinking that I looked poetic and wistful. I actually looked homeless".[100] Another British commentator referred to Mary-Kate Olsen's "everything-but-the-kitchen-sink approach to dressing", but noted that, by 2006, the Olsens' merchandising empire was recording annual sales of £500 million.[101]

Cocktail grunge and the catwalk

A "catwalk", a refinement in 2006, of which actresses Kate Bosworth and Thandie Newton were said to be exponents, was referred to as "cocktail grunge" – "looking done-undone ... it's what Marianne Faithfull and Blondie would be wearing if they were young now".[102] – while a journalist who interviewed supermodel Helena Christensen in 2011 observed that, fresh from a photoshoot, she "flopped in a leather armchair like a sexy, ageing beatnik" and that, while "not a hippie, exactly", she lived in "groovy bohemia in Manhattan, where you can spot [her] moseying around the flea markets on the weekends".[103] At the end of the 2000s (decade), this combination of apparently conflicting features was adopted by teenaged actress Taylor Momsen, who, in 2010, became the "face" of the British retailing chain New Look. Momsen described her style as "sweet and tough, grunge meets Chanel – a giant oxymoron" and claimed that she chose her outfits from "whatever clean clothes she finds on her floor" ("although no one ever believes me").[104]

French bobos and similar stylists

In the world of Parisian fashion, the term bobo (short for Bourgeois Bohème), which also had political connotations, was applied to "typically discerning customers who are left wing and Left Bank";[105] or, put another way, "that subset of thirty- or forty-something-year-olds who don't allow their socialist leanings to interfere with an enjoyment of material pleasures".[106] As such, la gauche caviar [the caviar left] was sometimes applied as an epithet to bobos.[107]

The bobo style of dress has been described as "retro-hippie-shabby-chic",[106] its elements including jersey tops, boiled wool jackets, smart jeans, Converse training shoes and leather bags by Jerome Dreyfuss (born 1974).[108] A leading exponent was actress and singer Vanessa Paradis, who particularly favoured the designs of Isabel Marant (born 1967), while English actress Michelle Dockery, best known for her part as Lady Mary Crawley in the early 20th century drama Downton Abbey (2010–14), cited Anglo-French actress Charlotte Gainsbourg as one of her style icons: "I love that she looks like she's just thrown it on. Simplicity is true elegance".[109] Around the same time, another British actress Karen Gillan, best known as Amy Pond in the BBC's science-fiction series Doctor Who, defined the look of 1960s model Jean Shrimpton, whom she greatly admired and had just portrayed in a filmed drama for television, as "messy, waifish, bony". She herself professed a liking for vintage clothing:

"When girls do the walk of shame ... I think they look best like that, slightly dishevelled." The Kate Moss look? "Yeah".[110]

Some of the teenaged rock bands, such as Second Sex[111] and the Plastiscines, that emerged in France c. 2006 and were known collectively as les bébés rockers ("baby rockers"), were initially derided in some sections of the press because of their bobo backgrounds: as Kate Spicer observed in the Sunday Times, "it's as if a bunch of privileged Islington kids had picked up their guitars and proclaimed themselves the new Sex Pistols".[112] By 2010 bobos – "free-thinkers at the weekend, but bankers Monday to Friday" – were said to be squeezing out young, genuinely creative Parisians from their traditional neighborhoods,[113] with Porte de Bagnolet, in the 20th arrondissement, cited as an alternative base for "the next generation of diverse Parisian voices".[114]

Spanish Gypsies, 1917 (National Geographic)
Spanish Gypsies, 1917 (National Geographic)

The name "Bourgeois Boheme" was adopted in 2005 by a British company, founded by Alicia Lai, that marketed "ethnically sourced" fashion accessories and cosmetics and, by 2009, had moved into handmade shoes crafted from such materials as hemp and organic cotton.[115]

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Karlie Kloss

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Anna Sui

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Ashley Olsen

Ashley Olsen

Ashley Fuller Olsen is an American businesswoman and former actress. She began her acting career at the age of nine months, sharing the role of Michelle Tanner with her twin sister Mary-Kate Olsen in the television sitcom Full House (1987–1995). They also starred in numerous films together.

Greenwich Village

Greenwich Village

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Hobo

Hobo

A hobo is a migrant worker in the United States. Hoboes, tramps and bums are generally regarded as related, but distinct: a hobo travels and is willing to work; a tramp travels, but avoids work if possible; and a bum neither travels nor works.

Heroin chic

Heroin chic

Heroin chic was a style popularized in early-1990s fashion and characterized by pale skin, dark circles underneath the eyes, emaciated features, androgyny and stringy hair—all traits associated with abuse of heroin or other drugs. American supermodel Gia Carangi is remembered for being the originator of the trend. Heroin chic was partly a reaction against the "healthy" and vibrant look of leading 1980s models such as Cindy Crawford, Elle Macpherson, and Claudia Schiffer. A 1996 article in the Los Angeles Times stated that the fashion industry had "a nihilistic vision of beauty" that was reflective of drug addiction.

Bourgeoisie

Bourgeoisie

The bourgeoisie is a sociologically defined social class, equivalent to the middle or upper middle class. They are distinguished from, and traditionally contrasted with, the proletariat by their affluence, and their great cultural and financial capital. They are sometimes divided into a petty, middle, large, upper, and ancient bourgeoisie and collectively designated as "the bourgeoisie".

Bobos in Paradise

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Lower Manhattan

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Kirsten Dunst

Kirsten Dunst

Kirsten Caroline Dunst is an American actress. She made her acting debut in the short Oedipus Wrecks directed by Woody Allen in the anthology film New York Stories (1989). She then gained recognition for her role as child vampiress Claudia in the horror film Interview with the Vampire (1994), which earned her a Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress. She also had roles in her youth in Little Women (1994) and the fantasy films Jumanji (1995) and Small Soldiers (1998).

Chloë Sevigny

Chloë Sevigny

Chloë Stevens Sevigny is an American actress, model, filmmaker and fashion designer. Known for her work in independent films, often appearing in controversial or experimental features, Sevigny is the recipient of several accolades, including a Golden Globe Award, a Satellite Award, an Independent Spirit Award, as well as nominations for an Academy Award and three Screen Actors Guild Awards. She also has a career in fashion design concurrent with her acting work. Over the years, her alternative fashion sense has earned her a reputation as a "style icon".

Kate Bosworth

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Bohemian roots

Although boho-chic in the early years of the 21st century represented a definite style, it was not a "movement." Nor was it noticeably associated with bohemianism as such. Jessica Brinton saw it as "the tagging and selling of the bohemian dream to the masses for £5.99".[116] Indeed, the Sunday Times thought it ironic that "fashionable girls wore ruffly floral skirts in the hope of looking bohemian, nomadic, spirited and non-bourgeois", whereas "gypsy girls themselves ... are sexy and delightful precisely because they do not give a hoot for fashion".[117] By contrast, in the first half of the 20th century, aspects of bohemian fashion were a reflection of the lifestyle itself.

In fact, most of the components of boho had, in one way or another, drifted in and out of fashion since the "Summer of Love" of 1967 when hippiedom and psychedelia were at their peak. As journalist Bob Stanley put it, "the late 1960s are never entirely out of fashion, they just need a fresh angle to make them de jour".[118]

Discover more about Bohemian roots related topics

Bohemian style

Bohemian style

The Bohemian style focuses on color, life, and culture as its main aspects, seeking to replicate the romani nomadic lifestyle. The word Bohemian comes from the French word "bohémien",meaning romani. A person living what is referred to as a "bohemian lifestyle" is typically a writer or an artist, living an unconventional lifestyle, often living in a colony with others. The Bohemian clothing style seeks to reflect the unconventional or "bohemian" lifestyle, evolving over the years.

Summer of Love

Summer of Love

The Summer of Love was a social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people, mostly young people sporting hippie fashions of dress and behavior, converged in San Francisco's neighborhood of Haight-Ashbury. More broadly, the Summer of Love encompassed the hippie music, hallucinogenic drugs, anti-war, and free-love scene throughout the West Coast of the United States, and as far away as New York City.

Hippie

Hippie

A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in British English, is someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to different countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and was used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village, in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, and Chicago's Old Town community. The term hippie was used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularize use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen elsewhere earlier.

Psychedelia

Psychedelia

Psychedelia refers to the psychedelic subculture of the 1960s and the psychedelic experience. This includes psychedelic art, psychedelic music and style of dress during that era. This was primarily generated by people who used psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline and psilocybin and also non-users who were participants and aficionados of this subculture. Psychedelic art and music typically recreate or reflect the experience of altered consciousness. Psychedelic art uses highly distorted, surreal visuals, bright colors and full spectrums and animation to evoke, convey, or enhance the psychedelic experience. Psychedelic music uses distorted electric guitar, Indian music elements such as the sitar, tabla, electronic effects, sound effects and reverb, and elaborate studio effects, such as playing tapes backwards or panning the music from one side to another.

Source: "Boho-chic", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boho-chic.

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External links

Estilo Moda Boho https://andreampds.com/estilo-boho/

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