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Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War

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This is a select bibliography of post World War II English language books (including translations) and journal articles about the Revolutionary and Civil War era of Russian (Soviet) history. The sections "General Surveys" and "Biographies" contain books; other sections contain both books and journal articles. Book entries may have references to reviews published in English language academic journals or major newspapers when these could be considered helpful. Additional bibliographies can be found in many of the book-length works listed below; see Further Reading for several book and chapter length bibliographies. The External Links section contains entries for publicly available select bibliographies from universities.

Inclusion criteria

The period covered is 1904–1923, beginning approximately with the 1905 Russian Revolution and ending approximately with the death of Lenin. The works on the Revolution and Civil War in the Russian Empire extend to 1926.[1]

Topics covered include the Russian Revolution (1905), the February and October Revolutions in 1917, and the Russian Civil War, as well as closely related events, and biographies of prominent individuals involved in the Revolution and Civil War. A limited number of English translations of significant primary sources are included along with references to larger archival collections. This bibliography does not include newspaper articles (except primary sources and references), fiction or photo collections created during or about the Revolution or Civil War.

For works on the Russo-Japanese War, see Bibliography of the Russo-Japanese War; for works on the Russian involvement in World War I, see Bibliography of Russia during World War I.

Works included below are referenced in the notes or bibliographies of scholarly secondary sources or journals. Included works should: be published by an independent academic or notable non-governmental publisher; be authored by an independent and notable subject matter expert; or have significant independent scholarly journal reviews. Works published by non-academic government entities are excluded.

This bibliography is restricted to history.[a]

Citation style

This bibliography uses APA style citations. Entries do not use templates. References to reviews and notes for entries do use citation templates. Where books which are only partially related to Ukrainian history are listed, the titles for chapters or sections should be indicated if possible, meaningful, and not excessive.

If a work has been translated into English, the translator should be included and a footnote with appropriate bibliographic information for the original language version should be included.

When listing works with titles or names published with alternative English spellings, the form used in the latest published version should be used and the version and relevant bibliographic information noted if it previously was published or reviewed under a different title.

Discover more about Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War related topics

1905 Russian Revolution

1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905, also known as the First Russian Revolution, occurred on 22 January 1905, and was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. The mass unrest was directed against the Tsar, nobility, and ruling class. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. In response to the public pressure, Tsar Nicholas II enacted some constitutional reform. This took the form of establishing the State Duma, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906. Despite popular participation in the Duma, the parliament was unable to issue laws of its own, and frequently came into conflict with Nicholas. Its power was limited and Nicholas continued to hold the ruling authority. Furthermore, he could dissolve the Duma, which he often did.

Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known as Vladimir Lenin, was a Russian revolutionary, politician, and political theorist. He served as the first and founding head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924. Under his administration, Russia, and later the Soviet Union, became a one-party socialist state governed by the Communist Party. Ideologically a Marxist, his developments to the ideology are called Leninism.

Russian Empire

Russian Empire

The Russian Empire was the final period of the Russian monarchy from 1721 to 1917, ruling across large parts of Eurasia. It succeeded the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad, which ended the Great Northern War. The rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighbouring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Qajar Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and Qing China. It also held colonies in North America between 1799 and 1867. Covering an area of approximately 22,800,000 square kilometres (8,800,000 sq mi), it remains the third-largest empire in history, surpassed only by the British Empire and the Mongol Empire; it ruled over a population of 125.6 million people per the 1897 Russian census, which was the only census carried out during the entire imperial period. Owing to its geographic extent across three continents at its peak, it featured great ethnic, linguistic, religious, and economic diversity.

Russian Revolution

Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a period of political and social revolution that took place in the former Russian Empire which began during the First World War. This period saw Russia abolish its monarchy and adopt a socialist form of government following two successive revolutions and a bloody civil war. The Russian Revolution can also be seen as the precursor for the other European revolutions that occurred during or in the aftermath of WWI, such as the German Revolution of 1918.

Russian Civil War

Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire sparked by the overthrowing of the monarchy and the new republican government's failure to maintain stability, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. It resulted in the formation of the RSFSR and later the Soviet Union in most of its territory. Its finale marked the end of the Russian Revolution, which was one of the key events of the 20th century.

Russo-Japanese War

Russo-Japanese War

The Russo-Japanese War was fought between the Empire of Japan and the Russian Empire during 1904 and 1905 over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and the Korean Empire. The major theatres of military operations were located in Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria, and the Yellow Sea and the Sea of Japan. Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean both for its navy and for maritime trade. Vladivostok remained ice-free and operational only during the summer; Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by the Qing dynasty of China from 1897, was operational year round. Russia had pursued an expansionist policy east of the Urals, in Siberia and the Far East, since the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Since the end of the First Sino-Japanese War in 1895, Japan had feared Russian encroachment would interfere with its plans to establish a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria.

Bibliography of the Russo-Japanese War

Bibliography of the Russo-Japanese War

This is a select bibliography of post World War II English language books and journal articles about the Russo-Japanese War, the period leading up to the war, and the immediate aftermath. It specifically excludes topics related to the Russian Revolution; see Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War for information on these subjects. Book entries may have references to reviews published in academic journals or major newspapers when these could be considered helpful.

Eastern Front (World War I)

Eastern Front (World War I)

The Eastern Front or Eastern Theater of World War I was a theater of operations that encompassed at its greatest extent the entire frontier between Russia and Romania on one side and Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire, and Germany on the other. It stretched from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Black Sea in the south, involved most of Eastern Europe, and stretched deep into Central Europe as well. The term contrasts with "Western Front", which was being fought in Belgium and France.

Bibliography of Russia during World War I

Bibliography of Russia during World War I

This is a select bibliography of post World War II English language books and journal articles about the Russia during the First World War, the period leading up to the war, and the immediate aftermath. For works on the Russian Revolution, please see Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War. Book entries may have references to reviews published in English language academic journals or major newspapers when these could be considered helpful.

APA style

APA style

APA style is a writing style and format for academic documents such as scholarly journal articles and books. It is commonly used for citing sources within the field of behavioral and social sciences, including sociology, education, health sciences, criminal justice, and anthropology, as well as psychology. It is described in the style guide of the American Psychological Association (APA), which is titled the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. The guidelines were developed to aid reading comprehension in the social and behavioral sciences, for clarity of communication, and for "word choice that best reduces bias in language". APA style is widely used, either entirely or with modifications, by hundreds of other scientific journals, in many textbooks, and in academia. The current edition is its seventh revision.

General surveys of Soviet history

These works contain significant overviews of the Revolution and Civil War era.

  • Figes, O. (2015). Revolutionary Russia, 1891-1991. New York: Metropolitan Books.
  • Heller, M., Nekrich, A. M., & Carlos, P. B. (1986). Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the present. New York: Simon and Schuster.[2][3]
  • Hosking, G. (1987). The First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from Within (2nd Edition). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.[4][5][6]
  • Kort, M. G. (2019). The Soviet Colossus (8th Edition). London: Routledge.[7]
  • Kenez, P. (2017). A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to its Legacy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lewin, M. (2016). The Soviet Century. (G. Elliot, Ed.). New York: Verso.[8][9]
  • Malia, M. (1995). Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia 1917-1991. New York: Free Press.[10][11]
  • McAuley, M. (1992). Soviet Politics 1917-1991. Oxford University Press.[12]
  • McCauley, M. (2007). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union (Longman History Of Russia). London: Routledge.[13][14]
  • Nove, A. (1993). An Economic History of the USSR 1917-1991 (3rd Edition). London: Arkana Publishing.
  • Suny, R. G. (1997). The Soviet Experiment: Russia, The USSR, and the Successor States. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Suny, R. G. (Ed.). (2006). The Cambridge History of Russia: Volume 3, The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[b][15][16]
  • Suny, R. G. (2013). The Structure of Soviet History: Essays and Documents (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.[17]

Discover more about General surveys of Soviet history related topics

History of the Soviet Union

History of the Soviet Union

The history of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (USSR) reflects a period of change for both Russia and the world. Though the terms "Soviet Russia" and "Soviet Union" often are synonymous in everyday speech, when referring to the foundations of the Soviet Union, "Soviet Russia" often specifically refers to brief period between the October Revolution of 1917 and the creation of the Soviet Union in 1922.

Henry Holt and Company

Henry Holt and Company

Henry Holt and Company is an American book-publishing company based in New York City. One of the oldest publishers in the United States, it was founded in 1866 by Henry Holt and Frederick Leypoldt. Currently, the company publishes in the fields of American and international fiction, biography, history and politics, science, psychology, and health, as well as books for children's literature. In the US, it operates under Macmillan Publishers.

Alexander Nekrich

Alexander Nekrich

Aleksandr Moiseyevich Nekrich, 3 March 1920, Baku – 31 August 1993, Boston) was a Soviet Russian historian. He emigrated to the United States in 1976. He is known for his works on the history of the Soviet Union, especially under Joseph Stalin’s rule.

Geoffrey Hosking

Geoffrey Hosking

Geoffrey Alan Hosking is a British historian of Russia and the Soviet Union and formerly Leverhulme Research Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College, London. He also co-founded Nightline.

Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses. After the retirement of William P. Sisler in 2017, the university appointed as Director George Andreou.

Michael Kort

Michael Kort

Michael Kort is an American historian, academic, and author who studies and has written extensively about the history of the Soviet Union. He teaches at Boston University.

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press in the world. It is also the King's Printer.

Martin Malia

Martin Malia

Martin Edward Malia was an American historian specializing in Russian history. He taught at the University of California at Berkeley from 1958 to 1991.

Free Press (publisher)

Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was an American independent book publisher that later became an imprint of Simon & Schuster. It was one of the best-known publishers specializing in serious nonfiction, including path-breaking sociology books of the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. After a period under new ownership in the 1980s of publishing neoconservative books, it was purchased by Simon & Schuster in 1994. By 2012, the imprint ceased to exist as a distinct entity; however, some books were still being published using the Free Press imprint.

Martin McCauley (historian)

Martin McCauley (historian)

Martin McCauley is an Irish historian and former senior lecturer at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, at University College London. He is a member of the Limehouse Group of Analysts and a regular commentator in the media on Russian affairs.

Alexander Nove

Alexander Nove

Alexander Nove, FRSE, FBA was a Professor of Economics at the University of Glasgow and a noted authority on Russian and Soviet economic history. According to Ian D. Thatcher, "[T]he consensus is that he was one of the most significant scholars of 'Soviet' studies in its widest sense and beyond."

Arkana Publishing

Arkana Publishing

Arkana Publishing is a publishing imprint of Penguin Group of mainly esoteric literature.

Period surveys

  • Beevor, A. (2022). Russia: Revolution and Civil War, 1917—1921. New York: Viking Press.
  • Brenton, T. (2017). Was Revolution Inevitable?: Turning Points of the Russian Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.[18]
  • Carr, E. H. (1985). A History of Soviet Russia: The Bolshevik Revolution, 1917–1923. (3 vols). New York: W. W. Norton and Company.[19][20]
  • Chamberlin, W. H. (1935/1987). The Russian Revolution 1917-1918, Vol. 1: From the Overthrow of the Tsar to the Assumption of Power by the Bolsheviks. Princeton: Princeton University Press.[21]
  • Daniels, R. V. (1972). The Russian Revolution. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.[22][23]
  • Dowler, W. (2010). Russia in 1913. DeKalb: DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press.[24][25]
  • Engelstein, L. (2017). Russia in Flames: War, Revolution, Civil War, 1914–1921. New York: Oxford University Press.[26][27]
  • Figes, O. (1997). A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution. New York: Viking Press.[28][29]
  • Fitzpatrick, S. (2017). The Russian Revolution. (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.[30][31][32]
  • Lee, S. J. (2003). Lenin and Revolutionary Russia. London: Routledge.
  • Kowalski, R. I. (1997). The Russian Revolution, 1917–1921 London: Routledge.[33][34]
  • Lewin, M. (2005). Lenin's Last Struggle. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.[35]
  • Lieven, D. (2016). The End of Tsarist Russia: The March to World War I and Revolution. New York: Penguin Books.[36][37]
  • Lincoln, W. B. (1986). Passage Through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution, 1914-1918. New York: Simon and Schuster.[38]
  • Malone, R. (2004). Analysing the Russian Revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Marples, D. R. (2014). Lenin's Revolution: Russia, 1917–1921. London: Routledge.
  • McMeekin, S. (2017). The Russian Revolution: A New History. New York: Basic Books.
  • Miéville, C. (2017). October: The Story of the Russian Revolution. New York: Verso.
  • Pipes, R. (1990). The Russian Revolution. New York: Knopf.
  • Rabinowich, A. (1991). Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.[39]
  • ———. (2007). The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.[40][41]
  • ———. (2017). The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. Chicago: Haymarket Books.[42]
  • Read, C. (1996). From Tsar to Soviets: The Russian People and Their Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.[43]
  • ———. (2013). War and Revolution in Russia, 1914–22. London: Macmillan.[44]
  • Schapiro, L. B. (1984). The Russian Revolutions of 1917: The Origins of Modern Communism. New York: Basic Books.[45]
  • Service, R. W. (1991). The Russian Revolution 1900–1927. London: Macmillan.[c]
  • Smith, S. A. (2017). Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928. New York: Oxford University Press.[46][47]
  • Smele, J. (2016). The “Russian” Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World. New York: Oxford University Press.[d][48][49][50]
  • Ulam, A. B. (1965). The Bolsheviks: The Intellectual and Political History of the Triumph of Communism in Russia. New York: Macmillan.[51][52]
  • Wade, R. A. (1969).The Russian Search For Peace, February - October 1917. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press[53][54]
  • ———. (2000). The Russian Revolution, 1917. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Williams, B. (2021). Late Tsarist Russia, 1881–1913 (Routledge Studies in the History of Russian and Eastern Europe). New York: Routledge.[55]
  • Zygar, M. (2017). The Empire Must Die: Russia’s Revolutionary Collapse, 1900-1917. New York: PublicAffairs.[56]

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Russia: Revolution and Civil War, 1917—1921

Russia: Revolution and Civil War, 1917—1921

Russia: Revolution and Civil War, 1917—1921 is a history of the Russian Revolution and Civil War, written by Antony Beevor and published by Viking Press and Weidenfeld & Nicolson in 2022 in a hardback edition and by Tantor Audio as an audiobook.

E. H. Carr

E. H. Carr

Edward Hallett Carr was a British historian, diplomat, journalist and international relations theorist, and an opponent of empiricism within historiography. Carr was best known for A History of Soviet Russia, a 14-volume history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to 1929, for his writings on international relations, particularly The Twenty Years' Crisis, and for his book What Is History? in which he laid out historiographical principles rejecting traditional historical methods and practices.

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent "Bill" Daniels (1926–2010) was an American historian and educator specializing in the history of the Soviet Union. He is best remembered as the author of two seminal monographs on the history of Soviet Russia —The Conscience of the Revolution (1960) and Red October (1967) — and as author or editor of an array of widely used Russian history textbooks which helped to shape the thinking of two generations of American college students.

Laura Engelstein

Laura Engelstein

Laura Engelstein is an American historian who specializes in Russian and European history. She served as Henry S. McNeil Professor Emerita of Russian History at Yale University and taught at Cornell University and Princeton University. Her numerous publications have included Moscow, 1905: Working-Class Organization and Political Conflict (1982); The Keys to Happiness: Sex and the Search for Modernity in Fin-de-Siecle Russia (1992); Castration and the Heavenly Kingdom: A Russian Folktale (1999); Slavophile Empire: Imperial Russia’s Illiberal Path (2009); and Russia in Flames: War, Revolution, Civil War, 1914–1921 (2017). In 2000, she co-edited an essay collection with Stephanie Sandler, Self and Story in Russian History. A translation with Grazyna Drabik of Andrzej Bobkowski's Wartime Notebooks: France, 1940–1944, is set to be released in November 2018. Her research interests lie in the "social and cultural history of late imperial Russia, with attention to the role of law, medicine, and the arts in public life," as well as "themes in the history of gender, sexuality, and religion." Shortly before fall 2014, Engelstein retired from her work as a professor at Yale University.

Orlando Figes

Orlando Figes

Orlando Guy Figes is a British historian and writer. Until his retirement, he was Professor of History at Birkbeck College, University of London.

Moshe Lewin

Moshe Lewin

Moshe "Misha" Lewin was a scholar of Russian and Soviet history. He was a major figure in the school of Soviet studies which emerged in the 1960s.

Dominic Lieven

Dominic Lieven

Dominic Lieven is a research professor at Cambridge University and a Fellow of the British Academy and of Trinity College, Cambridge.

China Miéville

China Miéville

China Tom Miéville is a British speculative fiction author, essayist, comic book writer, socialist political activist, and literary critic. He often describes his work as weird fiction and is allied to the loosely associated movement of writers called New Weird.

Richard Pipes

Richard Pipes

Richard Edgar Pipes was an American academic who specialized in Russian and Soviet history. He published several books critical of communist regimes throughout his career. In 1976, he headed Team B, a team of analysts organized by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) who analyzed the strategic capacities and goals of the Soviet military and political leadership. Pipes was the father of American historian Daniel Pipes.

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch is an American historian. He is Professor Emeritus of History at the Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught from 1968 until 1999, and Affiliated Research Scholar at the St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2013. He is recognized internationally as a leading expert on the Bolsheviks, the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Russian Civil War.

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro was the leading British scholar of the origins and development of the Soviet political system. He taught for many years at the London School of Economics, where he was Professor of Political Science with Special Reference to Russian Studies. Schapiro was best known for his magisterial study, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, though his early work on the rise to power of the Bolshevik Party, The Origins of the Communist Autocracy, was his most intellectually ambitious and innovative contribution to the field of Soviet studies. Because of his prominence in the field and his insistence on viewing the USSR through a normative lens, Schapiro accumulated his share of detractors, including those who were uncomfortable with his embrace of totalitarianism as a descriptor of Soviet rule and those who alleged that his reputed ties to British intelligence services made him little more than a political propagandist. Nothing could be further from the truth than this latter claim, which ignores the depth and rigor of Schapiro's scholarship.

Robert Service (historian)

Robert Service (historian)

Robert John Service is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death. He was until 2013 a professor of Russian history at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and a senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is best known for his biographies of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. He has been a fellow of the British Academy since 1998.

Social history

Workers

Soldiers and sailors

Peasants

Women and families

Religion

Other

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Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch is an American historian. He is Professor Emeritus of History at the Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught from 1968 until 1999, and Affiliated Research Scholar at the St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2013. He is recognized internationally as a leading expert on the Bolsheviks, the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Russian Civil War.

Bread and Authority in Russia

Bread and Authority in Russia

Bread and Authority in Russia, 1914—1921, is a history book by Lars T. Lih about the food crisis in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union.

Donald Raleigh (historian)

Donald Raleigh (historian)

Donald J. Raleigh is an American scholar specializing in twentieth-century Russian history. He is the Jay Richard Judson Distinguished Professor of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He obtained his BA degree from Knox College in 1971, followed by MA and PhD degrees from Indiana University. He has written extensively on the Russian Revolution, on local history, and on Soviet oral history. He edited the scholarly journal Soviet (Russian) Studies in History and the monograph series The New Russian History.

Robert Service (historian)

Robert Service (historian)

Robert John Service is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death. He was until 2013 a professor of Russian history at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and a senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is best known for his biographies of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. He has been a fellow of the British Academy since 1998.

Paul Avrich

Paul Avrich

Paul Avrich was a historian of the 19th and early 20th century anarchist movement in Russia and the United States. He taught at Queens College, City University of New York, for his entire career, from 1961 to his retirement as distinguished professor of history in 1999. He wrote ten books, mostly about anarchism, including topics such as the 1886 Haymarket Riot, 1921 Sacco and Vanzetti case, 1921 Kronstadt naval base rebellion, and an oral history of the movement.

Helen Rappaport

Helen Rappaport

Helen F. Rappaport, is a British author and former actress. She specialises in the Victorian era and revolutionary Russia.

Rex A. Wade

Rex A. Wade

Rex Arvin Wade is an American historian and author who has written extensively about the 1917 Russian Revolution. He has taught courses in Russian and Soviet history at George Mason University since 1986.

Neal Bascomb

Neal Bascomb

Neal Bascomb is an American journalist and author. He is known for his books on popular history.

Red Mutiny: Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin

Red Mutiny: Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin

Red Mutiny: Eleven Fateful Days on the Battleship Potemkin is a 2007 book by American writer Neal Bascomb. It was released on May 17, 2007 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. The book focuses on the events of the Battleship Potemkin uprising.

Orlando Figes

Orlando Figes

Orlando Guy Figes is a British historian and writer. Until his retirement, he was Professor of History at Birkbeck College, University of London.

Oliver Henry Radkey

Oliver Henry Radkey

Oliver Henry Radkey Jr. was an American historian of Russian and Soviet history. He was a professor of Russian history at the University of Texas at Austin.

Henry Abramson

Henry Abramson

Henry Abramson is the dean of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences in Flatbush, New York. Before that, he served as the Dean for Academic Affairs and Student Services at Touro College's Miami branch. He is notable for his teachings on Jewish history and Judaism as a religion.

Economy

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New Economic Policy

New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy (NEP) was an economic policy of the Soviet Union proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient. Lenin characterized the NEP in 1922 as an economic system that would include "a free market and capitalism, both subject to state control," while socialized state enterprises would operate on "a profit basis."

R. W. Davies

R. W. Davies

Robert William Davies, better known as R. W. Davies or Bob Davies, was a British historian, writer and professor of Soviet Economic Studies at the University of Birmingham.

Sheila Fitzpatrick

Sheila Fitzpatrick

Sheila May Fitzpatrick is an Australian historian, whose main subjects are history of the Soviet Union and history of modern Russia, especially the Stalin era and the Great Purges, of which she proposes a "history from below", and is part of the "revisionist school" of Communist historiography. She has also critically reviewed the concept of totalitarianism and highlighted the differences between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in debates about comparison of Nazism and Stalinism.

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch is an American historian. He is Professor Emeritus of History at the Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught from 1968 until 1999, and Affiliated Research Scholar at the St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2013. He is recognized internationally as a leading expert on the Bolsheviks, the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Russian Civil War.

Stephen Smith (historian)

Stephen Smith (historian)

Born in 1952, Smith completed his undergraduate studies at Oriel College, Oxford (1970–73), graduating with a modern history degree. In 1974, he was then awarded a Master of Social Science degree in Soviet studies from the University of Birmingham, where he remained to carry out doctoral studies; his PhD was awarded in 1980 for his thesis "The Russian Revolution and the factories of Petrograd, February 1917 to June 1918".

The Revolution of 1905

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1905 Russian Revolution

1905 Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution of 1905, also known as the First Russian Revolution, occurred on 22 January 1905, and was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire. The mass unrest was directed against the Tsar, nobility, and ruling class. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, and military mutinies. In response to the public pressure, Tsar Nicholas II enacted some constitutional reform. This took the form of establishing the State Duma, the multi-party system, and the Russian Constitution of 1906. Despite popular participation in the Duma, the parliament was unable to issue laws of its own, and frequently came into conflict with Nicholas. Its power was limited and Nicholas continued to hold the ruling authority. Furthermore, he could dissolve the Duma, which he often did.

Bloody Sunday (1905)

Bloody Sunday (1905)

Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday was the series of events on Sunday, 22 January [O.S. 9 January] 1905 in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators, led by Father Georgy Gapon, were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

October Manifesto

October Manifesto

The October Manifesto, officially "The Manifesto on the Improvement of the State Order", is a document that served as a precursor to the Russian Empire's first Constitution, which was adopted the following year in 1906. The Manifesto was issued by Tsar Nicholas II, under the influence of Sergei Witte (1849–1915), on 30 October [O.S. 17 October] 1905 as a response to the Russian Revolution of 1905. Nicholas strenuously resisted these ideas, but gave in after his first choice to head a military dictatorship, Grand Duke Nicholas, threatened to shoot himself in the head if the Tsar did not accept Witte's suggestion. Nicholas reluctantly agreed, and issued what became known as the October Manifesto, promising basic civil rights and an elected parliament called the Duma, without whose approval no laws were to be enacted in Russia in the future. According to his memoirs, Witte did not force the Tsar to sign the October Manifesto, which was proclaimed in all the churches.

Russian Constitution of 1906

Russian Constitution of 1906

The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament. It was enacted on 6 May [O.S. 23 April] 1906, on the eve of the opening of the first State Duma. This first-ever Russian Constitution was a revision of the earlier Fundamental Laws, which had been published as the Code of Laws of the Russian Empire in 1832. It was granted during the Russian Revolution of 1905, in a last-ditch effort by the imperial government to preserve its own existence and keep the empire from disintegration.

Sidney Harcave

Sidney Harcave

Sidney S. Harcave was an American historian who specialised in Russian history.

February and October Revolutions

February

October

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February Revolution

February Revolution

The February Revolution, known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

Russian Provisional Government

Russian Provisional Government

The Russian Provisional Government was a provisional government of the Russian Republic, announced two days before and established immediately after the abdication of Nicholas II. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention. The provisional government, led first by Prince Georgy Lvov and then by Alexander Kerensky, lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power in the October Revolution in October [November, N.S.] 1917.

Alexander Kerensky

Alexander Kerensky

Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who led the Russian Provisional Government and the short-lived Russian Republic for three months from late July to early November 1917.

Dual power

Dual power

"Dual power" was a term first used by communist Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin (1870–1924) in the Pravda article titled "The Dual Power" which described a situation in the wake of the February Revolution, the first of two Russian Revolutions in 1917. Two powers coexisted with each other and competed for legitimacy: the Soviets, particularly the Petrograd Soviet, and the continuing official state apparatus of the Russian Provisional Government of the Social Revolutionaries.

October Revolution

October Revolution

The October Revolution, officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution in the Soviet Union, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was a key moment in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923. It was the second revolutionary change of government in Russia in 1917. It took place through an armed insurrection in Petrograd on 7 November 1917 [O.S. 25 October]. It was the precipitating event of the Russian Civil War.

Red Guards (Russia)

Red Guards (Russia)

Red Guards were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power". Red Guards were a transitional military force of the collapsing Imperial Russian Army and the base formations of Bolsheviks during the October Revolution and the first months of the Russian Civil War. Most of them were formed in the time frame of the Russian Revolution of 1917, and some of the units were reorganized into the Red Army during 1918. The Red Guards formations were organized across most of the former Russian Empire, including territories outside the contemporary Russian Federation such as Finland, Poland, Estonia, Ukraine, and others. They were not centralized and were formed by decision of a local political party and local soviet members. By fighting to protect and extend the power of the Soviets, they aided the creation of a new state that would give "all power to the soviets": the Soviet Union.

Tsuyoshi Hasegawa

Tsuyoshi Hasegawa

Tsuyoshi Hasegawa is an American historian specializing in modern Russian and Soviet history and the relations between Russia, Japan, and the United States. He taught at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he was director of the Cold War Studies program until his retirement in 2016.

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent "Bill" Daniels (1926–2010) was an American historian and educator specializing in the history of the Soviet Union. He is best remembered as the author of two seminal monographs on the history of Soviet Russia —The Conscience of the Revolution (1960) and Red October (1967) — and as author or editor of an array of widely used Russian history textbooks which helped to shape the thinking of two generations of American college students.

Sergey Nikolsky

Sergey Nikolsky

Sergey Mikhailovich Nikolsky was a Russian mathematician. He was born in Talitsa, which was at that time located in Kamyshlovsky Uyezd, Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. He had been an Academician since November 28, 1972. He also had won many scientific awards. At the age of 92 he was still actively giving lectures in Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology. In 2005, he was only giving talks at scientific conferences, but was still working in MIPT, at the age of 100. He died in Moscow in November 2012 at the age of 107.

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch is an American historian. He is Professor Emeritus of History at the Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught from 1968 until 1999, and Affiliated Research Scholar at the St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2013. He is recognized internationally as a leading expert on the Bolsheviks, the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Russian Civil War.

Violence and terror

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Cheka

Cheka

The All-Russian Extraordinary Commission, abbreviated as VChK, and commonly known as Cheka, was the first of a succession of Soviet secret-police organizations. Established on December 5 1917 by the Sovnarkom, it came under the leadership of Felix Dzerzhinsky, a Polish aristocrat-turned-Bolshevik. By late 1918, hundreds of Cheka committees had sprung up in the RSFSR at the oblast, guberniya, raion, uyezd, and volost levels.

Chekism

Chekism

Chekism is a term to describe the situation in the Soviet Union where the secret police strongly controlled all spheres of society. It is also used by critics of the current Kremlin authorities to describe the power enjoyed by law-enforcement agencies in contemporary Russia.

Human rights in the Soviet Union

Human rights in the Soviet Union

Human rights in the Soviet Union were severely limited. The Soviet Union was a one-party state until 1990 and a totalitarian state from 1927 until 1953 where members of the Communist Party held all key positions in the institutions of the state and other organizations. Freedom of speech was suppressed and dissent was punished. Independent political activities were not tolerated, whether these involved participation in free labor unions, private corporations, independent churches or opposition political parties. The freedom of movement within and especially outside the country was limited. The state restricted rights of citizens to private property.

Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing. It is a member of the Association of American University Presses. After the retirement of William P. Sisler in 2017, the university appointed as Director George Andreou.

Anna Geifman

Anna Geifman

Anna Geifman is an American historian. Her fields of interest include political extremism, terrorism, and the history of Russian revolutionary movements.

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University. Its mission is to disseminate scholarship within academia and society at large.

Greenwood Publishing Group

Greenwood Publishing Group

Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. (GPG), also known as ABC-Clio/Greenwood, is an educational and academic publisher which is today part of ABC-Clio. Established in 1967 as Greenwood Press, Inc. and based in Westport, Connecticut, GPG publishes reference works under its Greenwood Press imprint, and scholarly, professional, and general interest books under its related imprint, Praeger Publishers. Also part of GPG is Libraries Unlimited, which publishes professional works for librarians and teachers.

Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the university press of the University of Oxford. It is the largest university press in the world, and its printing history dates back to the 1480s. Having been officially granted the legal right to print books by decree in 1586, it is the second oldest university press after Cambridge University Press.

Kritika (journal)

Kritika (journal)

Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Slavica Publishers. It covers the history and culture of Russia and Eurasia. The editors-in-chief are Andrew Jenks, Susan Morrissey, and Willard Sunderland.

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez is a historian specializing in Russian and Eastern European history and politics.

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press is the university press of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by King Henry VIII in 1534, it is the oldest university press in the world. It is also the King's Printer.

Arno J. Mayer

Arno J. Mayer

Arno Joseph Mayer, is an American historian who specializes in modern Europe, diplomatic history, and the Holocaust, and is currently the Dayton-Stockton Professor of History, Emeritus, at Princeton University.

Government

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Soviet Union

Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), was a transcontinental country that spanned much of Eurasia from 1922 to 1991. A flagship communist state, it was nominally a federal union of fifteen national republics; in practice, both its government and its economy were highly centralized until its final years. It was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, with the city of Moscow serving as its capital as well as that of its largest and most populous republic: the Russian SFSR. Other major cities included Leningrad, Kiev, Minsk, Tashkent, Alma-Ata, and Novosibirsk. It was the largest country in the world, covering over 22,402,200 square kilometres (8,649,500 sq mi) and spanning eleven time zones.

Bolsheviks

Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, also known in English as the Bolshevists, were a far-left, revolutionary Marxist faction founded by Vladimir Lenin that split with the Mensheviks from the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), a revolutionary socialist political party formed in 1898, at its Second Party Congress in 1903.

History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1927)

History of Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union (1917–1927)

The ten years 1917–1927 saw a radical transformation of the Russian Empire into a socialist state, the Soviet Union. Soviet Russia covers 1917–1922 and Soviet Union covers the years 1922 to 1991. After the Russian Civil War (1917–1923), the Bolsheviks took control. They were dedicated to a version of Marxism developed by Vladimir Lenin. It promised the workers would rise, destroy capitalism, and create a socialist society under the leadership of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The awkward problem was the small proletariat, in an overwhelmingly peasant society with limited industry and a very small middle class. Following the February Revolution in 1917 that deposed Nicholas II of Russia, a short-lived provisional government gave way to Bolsheviks in the October Revolution. The Bolshevik Party was renamed the Russian Communist Party (RCP).

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), also known by various other names during its history, was the founding and ruling party of the Soviet Union. The CPSU was the sole governing party of the Soviet Union until 1990 when the Congress of People's Deputies modified Article 6 of the 1977 Soviet Constitution, which had previously granted the CPSU a monopoly over the political system. The party has its roots in the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP). The RSDLP was founded in 1898, when Russia was ruled by an absolute monarchy. The broad anti-Tsarist ideology was the driving factor in its initial growth. Russians across the political spectrum flocked to the party, as Marxists, socialists, and centrists made up its ranks. Despite the Tsar's harsh oppression including imprisoning and even executing party members, the RSDLP continued to grow albeit underground. Initially the party operated in a unified and cohesive manner, but by 1900 cracks within party unity began to show.

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez is a historian specializing in Russian and Eastern European history and politics.

Richard Pipes

Richard Pipes

Richard Edgar Pipes was an American academic who specialized in Russian and Soviet history. He published several books critical of communist regimes throughout his career. In 1976, he headed Team B, a team of analysts organized by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) who analyzed the strategic capacities and goals of the Soviet military and political leadership. Pipes was the father of American historian Daniel Pipes.

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch is an American historian. He is Professor Emeritus of History at the Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught from 1968 until 1999, and Affiliated Research Scholar at the St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2013. He is recognized internationally as a leading expert on the Bolsheviks, the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Russian Civil War.

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro was the leading British scholar of the origins and development of the Soviet political system. He taught for many years at the London School of Economics, where he was Professor of Political Science with Special Reference to Russian Studies. Schapiro was best known for his magisterial study, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, though his early work on the rise to power of the Bolshevik Party, The Origins of the Communist Autocracy, was his most intellectually ambitious and innovative contribution to the field of Soviet studies. Because of his prominence in the field and his insistence on viewing the USSR through a normative lens, Schapiro accumulated his share of detractors, including those who were uncomfortable with his embrace of totalitarianism as a descriptor of Soviet rule and those who alleged that his reputed ties to British intelligence services made him little more than a political propagandist. Nothing could be further from the truth than this latter claim, which ignores the depth and rigor of Schapiro's scholarship.

Methuen Publishing

Methuen Publishing

Methuen Publishing Ltd is an English publishing house. It was founded in 1889 by Sir Algernon Methuen (1856–1924) and began publishing in London in 1892. Initially Methuen mainly published non-fiction academic works, eventually diversifying to encourage female authors and later translated works. E. V. Lucas headed the firm from 1924 to 1938.

Yuri Slezkine

Yuri Slezkine

Yuri Lvovich Slezkine is a Russian-born American historian and translator. He is a professor of Russian history, Sovietologist, and Director of the Institute of Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. He is best known as the author of the book The Jewish Century (2004) and The House of Government: A Saga of The Russian Revolution (2017).

The House of Government

The House of Government

The House of Government: A Saga of the Russian Revolution is a 2017 study of the history of the Russian Revolution, the formation of the Soviet Union, and its early history from the days of the New Economic Policy into the early days of Stalinist Rule by the Russian-born American historian Yuri Slezkine. The book consists of "three strains": "The first is a family saga involving numerous named and unnamed residents of the House of Government." The second strain is analytical. It looks at the revolution and subsequent Soviet administration through the lens of the millenarian cult and "aims to capture the rise and fall of Bolshevism through a building and its residents, via a study in eschatology – the creation of an apocalyptic cult, its unexpected success, and its equally unexpected failure." "The third strain is literary...Each episode in the Bolshevik Family Saga, and each stage in the history of the Bolshevik prophecy is accompanied by a discussion of the literary works that sought to interpret and mythologize them."

Foreign policy and external relations

Ideology, philosophy, and propaganda

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Marxism

Marxism

Marxism is a left-wing to far-left method of socioeconomic analysis that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, better known as historical materialism, to understand class relations and social conflict and a dialectical perspective to view social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. As Marxism has developed over time into various branches and schools of thought, no single, definitive Marxist theory exists.

Leninism

Leninism

Leninism is a political ideology developed by Russian Marxist revolutionary Vladimir Lenin that proposes the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat led by a revolutionary vanguard party as the political prelude to the establishment of communism. The function of the Leninist vanguard party is to provide the working classes with the political consciousness and revolutionary leadership necessary to depose capitalism in the Russian Empire (1721–1917). Leninist revolutionary leadership is based upon The Communist Manifesto (1848), identifying the communist party as "the most advanced and resolute section of the working class parties of every country; that section which pushes forward all others." As the vanguard party, the Bolsheviks viewed history through the theoretical framework of dialectical materialism, which sanctioned political commitment to the successful overthrow of capitalism, and then to instituting socialism; and, as the revolutionary national government, to realise the socio-economic transition by all means.

Trotskyism

Trotskyism

Trotskyism is the political ideology and branch of Marxism developed by Ukrainian-Russian revolutionary Leon Trotsky and some other members of the Left Opposition and Fourth International. Trotsky self-identified as an orthodox Marxist, a revolutionary Marxist, and Bolshevik–Leninist, a follower of Marx, Engels, and 3L: Vladimir Lenin, Karl Liebknecht, and Rosa Luxemburg. He supported founding a vanguard party of the proletariat, proletarian internationalism, and a dictatorship of the proletariat based on working-class self-emancipation and mass democracy. Trotskyists are critical of Stalinism as they oppose Joseph Stalin's theory of socialism in one country in favour of Trotsky's theory of permanent revolution. Trotskyists criticize the bureaucracy and anti-democratic current developed in the Soviet Union under Stalin.

Marxist bibliography

Marxist bibliography

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation. Marxist methodology uses economic and sociopolitical inquiry and applies that to the critique and analysis of the development of capitalism and the role of class struggle in systemic economic change.

Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

Ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) was Marxism–Leninism, an ideology of a centralised command economy with a vanguardist one-party state to realise the dictatorship of the proletariat. The Soviet Union's ideological commitment to achieving communism included the development of socialism in one country and peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries while engaging in anti-imperialism to defend the international proletariat, combat capitalism and promote the goals of communism. The state ideology of the Soviet Union—and thus Marxism–Leninism—derived and developed from the theories, policies and political praxis of Lenin and Stalin.

Ideological repression in the Soviet Union

Ideological repression in the Soviet Union

Ideological repression in the Soviet Union targeted various worldviews and the corresponding categories of people.

Stephen F. Cohen

Stephen F. Cohen

Stephen Frand Cohen was an American scholar of Russian studies. His academic work concentrated on modern Russian history since the Bolshevik Revolution and Russia's relationship with the United States.

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez is a historian specializing in Russian and Eastern European history and politics.

Stephen Smith (historian)

Stephen Smith (historian)

Born in 1952, Smith completed his undergraduate studies at Oriel College, Oxford (1970–73), graduating with a modern history degree. In 1974, he was then awarded a Master of Social Science degree in Soviet studies from the University of Birmingham, where he remained to carry out doctoral studies; his PhD was awarded in 1980 for his thesis "The Russian Revolution and the factories of Petrograd, February 1917 to June 1918".

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro was the leading British scholar of the origins and development of the Soviet political system. He taught for many years at the London School of Economics, where he was Professor of Political Science with Special Reference to Russian Studies. Schapiro was best known for his magisterial study, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, though his early work on the rise to power of the Bolshevik Party, The Origins of the Communist Autocracy, was his most intellectually ambitious and innovative contribution to the field of Soviet studies. Because of his prominence in the field and his insistence on viewing the USSR through a normative lens, Schapiro accumulated his share of detractors, including those who were uncomfortable with his embrace of totalitarianism as a descriptor of Soviet rule and those who alleged that his reputed ties to British intelligence services made him little more than a political propagandist. Nothing could be further from the truth than this latter claim, which ignores the depth and rigor of Schapiro's scholarship.

Background

Non-Bolshevik political parties

Discover more about Non-Bolshevik political parties related topics

Mensheviks

Mensheviks

The Mensheviks were one of the three dominant factions in the Russian socialist movement, the others being the Bolsheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries.

Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

Russian Social Democratic Labour Party

The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, also known as the Russian Social Democratic Workers' Party or the Russian Social Democratic Party, was a socialist political party founded in 1898 in Minsk.

Socialist Revolutionary Party

Socialist Revolutionary Party

The Socialist Revolutionary Party, or the Party of Socialist-Revolutionaries, was a major political party in late Imperial Russia, and both phases of the Russian Revolution and early Soviet Russia.

Left Socialist-Revolutionaries

Left Socialist-Revolutionaries

The Party of Left Socialist-Revolutionaries was a revolutionary socialist political party formed during the Russian Revolution.

Constitutional Democratic Party

Constitutional Democratic Party

The Constitutional Democratic Party, also called Constitutional Democrats and formally the Party of People's Freedom, was a centrist, liberal political party in the Russian Empire that promoted Western constitutional monarchy — among other policies — and attracted a base ranging from moderate conservatives to mild socialists. Party members were called Kadets from the abbreviation K-D of the party name. Konstantin Kavelin's and Boris Chicherin's writings formed the theoretical basis of the party's platform. Historian Pavel Miliukov was the party's leader throughout its existence.

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent "Bill" Daniels (1926–2010) was an American historian and educator specializing in the history of the Soviet Union. He is best remembered as the author of two seminal monographs on the history of Soviet Russia —The Conscience of the Revolution (1960) and Red October (1967) — and as author or editor of an array of widely used Russian history textbooks which helped to shape the thinking of two generations of American college students.

Oliver Henry Radkey

Oliver Henry Radkey

Oliver Henry Radkey Jr. was an American historian of Russian and Soviet history. He was a professor of Russian history at the University of Texas at Austin.

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Schapiro

Leonard Bertram Naman Schapiro was the leading British scholar of the origins and development of the Soviet political system. He taught for many years at the London School of Economics, where he was Professor of Political Science with Special Reference to Russian Studies. Schapiro was best known for his magisterial study, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, though his early work on the rise to power of the Bolshevik Party, The Origins of the Communist Autocracy, was his most intellectually ambitious and innovative contribution to the field of Soviet studies. Because of his prominence in the field and his insistence on viewing the USSR through a normative lens, Schapiro accumulated his share of detractors, including those who were uncomfortable with his embrace of totalitarianism as a descriptor of Soviet rule and those who alleged that his reputed ties to British intelligence services made him little more than a political propagandist. Nothing could be further from the truth than this latter claim, which ignores the depth and rigor of Schapiro's scholarship.

The Russian Civil War

Red Army

White armies

Discover more about The Russian Civil War related topics

Russian Civil War

Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire sparked by the overthrowing of the monarchy and the new republican government's failure to maintain stability, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. It resulted in the formation of the RSFSR and later the Soviet Union in most of its territory. Its finale marked the end of the Russian Revolution, which was one of the key events of the 20th century.

Green armies

Green armies

The Green armies, also known as the Green Army or Greens (Зелёные), were armed peasant groups which fought against all governments in the Russian Civil War from 1917 to 1922. The Green armies were semi-organized local militias that opposed the Bolsheviks, Whites, and foreign interventionists, and fought to protect their communities from requisitions or reprisals carried out by third parties. The Green armies were politically and ideologically neutral, but at times associated with the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. The Green armies had at least tacit support throughout much of Russia. However, their primary base, the peasantry, were largely reluctant to wage an active campaign during the Russian Civil War and eventually dissolved following Bolshevik victory in 1922.

Kronstadt rebellion

Kronstadt rebellion

The Kronstadt rebellion was a 1921 insurrection of Soviet sailors and civilians against the Bolshevik government in the Russian SFSR port city of Kronstadt. Located on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland, Kronstadt defended the former capital city, Petrograd, as the base of the Baltic Fleet. For sixteen days in March 1921, rebels in Kronstadt's naval fortress rose in opposition to the Soviet government they had helped to consolidate. Led by Stepan Petrichenko, it was the last major revolt against the Bolshevik regime on Russian territory during the Russian Civil War.

Tambov Rebellion

Tambov Rebellion

The Tambov Rebellion of 1920–1921 was one of the largest and best-organized peasant rebellions challenging the Bolshevik government during the Russian Civil War. The uprising took place in the territories of the modern Tambov Oblast and part of the Voronezh Oblast, less than 480 kilometres (300 mi) southeast of Moscow.

Donald Raleigh (historian)

Donald Raleigh (historian)

Donald J. Raleigh is an American scholar specializing in twentieth-century Russian history. He is the Jay Richard Judson Distinguished Professor of History at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He obtained his BA degree from Knox College in 1971, followed by MA and PhD degrees from Indiana University. He has written extensively on the Russian Revolution, on local history, and on Soviet oral history. He edited the scholarly journal Soviet (Russian) Studies in History and the monograph series The New Russian History.

Red Army

Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, often shortened to the Red Army, was the army and air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established in January 1918. The Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Starting in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in 1991.

John Erickson (historian)

John Erickson (historian)

John Erickson, FRSE, FBA, FRSA was a British historian and defence expert who wrote extensively on the Second World War. His two best-known books – The Road to Stalingrad and The Road to Berlin – dealt with the Soviet response to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, covering the period from 1941 to 1945. He was respected for his knowledge of the Soviet Union during the Cold War. His Russian language skills and knowledge gained him respect.

Lavr Kornilov

Lavr Kornilov

Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov was a Russian military intelligence officer, explorer, and general in the Imperial Russian Army during World War I and the ensuing Russian Civil War. Kornilov was of Siberian Cossack origin. Today he is best remembered for the Kornilov Affair, an unsuccessful endeavor in August/September 1917 that was intended to strengthen Alexander Kerensky's Provisional Government, but which led to Kerensky eventually having Kornilov arrested and charged with attempting a coup d'état, and ultimately undermined Kerensky's rule.

Alexander Kolchak

Alexander Kolchak

Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak was an Imperial Russian admiral, military leader and polar explorer who served in the Imperial Russian Navy and fought in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905 and the First World War. During the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922 he established an anti-communist government in Siberia — later the Provisional All-Russian Government — and became recognised as the "Supreme Leader and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces" by the other leaders of the White movement from 1918 to 1920. His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia.

Anton Denikin

Anton Denikin

Anton Ivanovich Denikin was a Russian Lieutenant General in the Imperial Russian Army (1916), who later served as the Deputy Supreme Ruler of the Russian State during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922. He was also a military leader of South Russia. His slogan was “Russia - One and Indivisible”.

Pyotr Wrangel

Pyotr Wrangel

Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel, also known as Peter von Wrangel, was a Russian officer of Baltic German origin in the Imperial Russian Army. During the later stages of the Russian Civil War, he was commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia. After his side lost the civil war in 1920, he left Russia. He was known as one of the most prominent exiled White émigrés and military dictator of South Russia.

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez is a historian specializing in Russian and Eastern European history and politics.

The Revolution and Civil War in the Russian Empire (1904-1926)

  • Hopkirk, P. (1985). Setting the East Ablaze: Lenin's Dream of an Empire in Asia. New York: W W Norton.
  • Hughes, J. (2009). Stalin, Siberia and the Crisis of the New Economic Policy (Cambridge Russian, Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[324][325]
  • Lohr, E., Tolz, V., Semyonov, A., & Hagen, M. (Eds.). (2014). The Empire and Nationalism at War. Bloomington IN: Slavica.
  • Radkey, O. H. (1976). The Unknown Civil War in Soviet Russia: A Study of the Green Movement in the Tambov Region, 1920-1921. Palo Alto: Hoover Institution Press.
  • Rieber, A. J. (2014). The Struggle for the Eurasian Borderlands: From the Rise of Early Modern Empires to the End of the First World War. New York: Cambridge University Press.[326][327]
  • Rosenberg, W. G. (1961). A.I. Denikin and the Anti-Bolshevik movement in South Russia. Amherst: Amherst College Press.
  • Singleton, S. (1966). The Tambov Revolt (1920-1921). Slavic Review, 25(3), 497–512.
  • Snyder, T. (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999. New Haven: Yale University Press.[r]
  • Staliūnas, D., & Aoshima, Y., (eds.). (2021). The Tsar, the Empire, and the Nation: Dilemmas of Nationalization in Russia's Western Borderlands, 1905–1915. Historical Studies in Eastern Europe and Eurasia. Budapest: Central European University Press.[328]
  • White, J. (1968). The Kornilov Affair. A Study in Counter-Revolution. Soviet Studies, 20(2), 187–205.

Ukraine

  • Adams, A. E. (1963). Bolsheviks in the Ukraine: The Second Campaign, 1918-1919. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Baker, M. (1999). Beyond the National: Peasants, Power, and Revolution in Ukraine. Journal of Ukrainian Studies, 24(1), 39–67.
  • Borys, J. & Armstrong, J. A. (1980). The Sovietization of Ukraine, 1917-1923: The Communist Doctrine and Practice of National Self-Determination. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies.
  • Bruski, J. J., & Bałuk-Ulewiczowa, T. (2016). Between Prometheism and Realpolitik: Poland and Soviet Ukraine, 1921-1926. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press.
  • Guthier, S. (1979). The Popular Base of Ukrainian Nationalism in 1917. Slavic Review, 38(1), 30–47.
  • Hunczak, T. (1977). The Ukraine 1917–1921: A Study in Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute.
  • Kenez, P. (1971, 1977). Civil war in South Russia (2 vols.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Kuchabsʹkyĭ, V. & Fagan, G. (2009). Western Ukraine in Conflict with Poland and Bolshevism, 1918-1923. Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press.[329][330]
  • Procyk, A. (1995). Russian Nationalism and Ukraine: The Nationality Policy of the Volunteer Army during the Civil War. Edmonton: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press.
  • Reshetar, J. S. (1952). The Ukrainian Revolution, 1917-1920, A Study in Nationalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Skirda, A. (2004). Nestor Makhno, Anarchy's Cossack: The Struggle for Free Soviets in the Ukraine 1917-1921. Edinburgh: AK Press.
  • Stachiw, M. (1969). Western Ukraine at the Turning Point of Europe's History 1918-1923. (2 vols.). New York: Shevchenko Scientific Society.
  • Velychenko, S. (2010). State Building in Revolutionary Ukraine: A Comparative Study of Government and Bureaucrats, 1917–22. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Veryha, W. (1984). Famine in Ukraine in 1921–1923 and the Soviet Government's Countermeasures. Nationalities Papers, 12(2), 265–286.
  • Von, H. & Hunczak, T. (1977). The Ukraine, 1917-1921: A Study in Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Von, H. & Herbert J. (2011). War in a European Borderland: Occupations and Occupation Plans in Galicia and Ukraine; 1914-1918. Seattle: University of Washington.
  • Yekelchyk, S. (2019). The Ukrainian Meanings of 1918 and 1919. Harvard Ukrainian Studies, 36(1/2), 73–86.

The Baltics, Finland and Siberia

Transcaucasia and the Middle East

Eastern Europe, Turkey and the Balkans

  • Biskupski, M. (1990). War and the Diplomacy of Polish Independence, 1914–18. The Polish Review, 35(1), 5–17.
  • Bruski, J. J., & Bałuk-Ulewiczowa, T. (2016). Between Prometheism and Realpolitik: Poland and Soviet Ukraine, 1921-1926. Krakow: Jagiellonian University Press.
  • Dziewanowski, M. K. (1981). Joseph Piłsudski, a European Federalist, 1918-1922. Palo Alto: Hoover Institution Press.[t]
  • Gasiorowski, Z. (1971). Joseph Piłsudski in the Light of American Reports, 1919-1922. The Slavonic and East European Review,49(116), 425–436.
  • Gökay, B. (1996). Turkish Settlement and the Caucasus, 1918-20. Middle Eastern Studies, 32(2), 45–76.
  • ———. (1997). Clash of Empires: Turkey between Russian Bolshevism and British Imperialism, 1918-1923. London: I.B. Tauris.
  • Latawski, P. (2016). The Reconstruction of Poland, 1914-23. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Petroff, S. (2000). Remembering a Forgotten War: Civil War in Eastern European Russia and Siberia, 1918-1920. Boulder: East European Monographs.
  • Yamauchi, M. (1991). The Green Crescent Under the Red Star: Enver Pasha in Soviet Russia 1919–1922. Tokyo: Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa.[342]
  • Wandycz, P. (1990). Poland on the Map of Europe in 1918. The Polish Review, 35(1), 19–25.

The Polish—Soviet War

Central Asia

Discover more about The Revolution and Civil War in the Russian Empire (1904-1926) related topics

Oliver Henry Radkey

Oliver Henry Radkey

Oliver Henry Radkey Jr. was an American historian of Russian and Soviet history. He was a professor of Russian history at the University of Texas at Austin.

Alfred Rieber

Alfred Rieber

Alfred J. Rieber is an American historian specializing in Russian and Soviet history.

Ukraine after the Russian Revolution

Ukraine after the Russian Revolution

Various factions fought over Ukrainian territory after the collapse of the Russian Empire following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and after the First World War ended in 1918, resulting in the collapse of Austria-Hungary, which had ruled Ukrainian Galicia. The crumbling of the empires had a great effect on the Ukrainian nationalist movement, and in a short period of four years a number of Ukrainian governments sprang up. This period was characterized by optimism and by nation-building, as well as by chaos and civil war. Matters stabilized somewhat in 1921 with the territory of modern-day Ukraine divided between Soviet Ukraine and Poland, and with small ethnic-Ukrainian regions belonging to Czechoslovakia and to Romania.

Southern Front of the Russian Civil War

Southern Front of the Russian Civil War

The Southern Front of the Russian Civil War was a theatre of the Russian Civil War.

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez is a historian specializing in Russian and Eastern European history and politics.

Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War

Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War spread to the east in May 1918, with a series of revolts along the route of the Trans-Siberian Railway, on the part of the Czechoslovak Legion and officers of the Russian Army. Provisional anti-Bolshevik local governments were formed in many parts of Siberia and other eastern regions during that summer. The Red Army mounted a counter-offensive in the autumn, and in 1919 defeated the White commander Aleksandr Kolchak in Siberia. Smaller-scale conflicts in the region went on until 1923.

Siberian Army

Siberian Army

The Siberian Army was an anti-Bolshevik army during the Russian Civil War, which fought from June 1918 – July 1919 in Siberia – Ural Region.

Far Eastern Republic

Far Eastern Republic

The Far Eastern Republic, sometimes called the Chita Republic, was a nominally independent state that existed from April 1920 to November 1922 in the easternmost part of the Russian Far East. Although theoretically independent, it largely came under the control of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR), which envisaged it as a buffer state between the RSFSR and the territories occupied by Japan during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922. Its first president was Alexander Krasnoshchyokov.

Alfred E. Senn

Alfred E. Senn

Alfred Erich Senn was a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, or simply Transcaucasia, was a republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.

Don Republic

Don Republic

The Don Republic was an independent self-proclaimed anti-Bolshevik republic formed by the Armed Forces of South Russia on the territory of Don Cossacks against another self-proclaimed Don Soviet Republic. The Don Republic existed during the Russian Civil War after the collapse of the Russian Empire from 1918 to 1920.

Kuban People's Republic

Kuban People's Republic

The Kuban People's Republic (KPR), or Kuban National Republic (KNR), was an anti-Bolshevik state during the Russian Civil War, comprising the territory of the modern-day Kuban region in Russia.

International involvement in the Revolution and Civil War

The United States

  • Bacino, L. J. (1999). Reconstructing Russia: U.S. Policy in Revolutionary Russia, 1917–1922 Kent, OH: Kent State University Press.[379][380]
  • Dukes, P. (2012). The USA in the Making of the USSR: The Washington Conference, 1921-1922, and 'uninvited Russia'. London: Routledge.[381]
  • Fisher, H. H. (1927). The Famine in Soviet Russia, 1919–1923: The Operations of the American Relief Administration. New York: Macmillan.
  • Foglesong, D. S. (1995). America's Secret War against Bolshevism: U.S. Intervention in the Russian Civil War, 1917-1920. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press.[382][383]
  • ———. (1995). The United States, Self-determination and the Struggle Against Bolshevism in the Eastern Baltic Region, 1918–1920. Journal of Baltic Studies, 26(2), 107–144.
  • Herman, A. L. (2017). 1917: Lenin, Wilson, and the Birth of the New World Disorder. New York: HarperCollins.
  • House, J. M. (2016). Wolfhounds and Polar Bears: The American Expeditionary Force in Siberia, 1918–1920. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.[384]
  • Karolevitz, R. F. & Fenn, R. S. (1974). Flight of Eagles: The Story of the American Kościuszko Squadron in the Polish-Russian War 1919-1920. Sioux Falls, SD: Brevet Press.[385]
  • Kennan, G. F. (1956). Soviet-American Relations, 1917 - 1920 (2 Vols. Vol. 1:Russia Leaves the War Vol. 2: The Decision to Intervene). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Moore, J. R., Meade, Harry H., & Jahns, Lewis E. (2008). History of the American Expedition Fighting the Bolsheviks: Us Military Intervention in Soviet Russia 1918-1919. St Petersburg, FL: Red and Black Publishers.
  • Nelson, J. C. (2019). The Polar Bear Expedition: The Heroes of America's Forgotten Invasion of Russia, 1918-1919. New York: William Morrow.
  • Patenaude, B. M. (2002). The Big Show in Bololand: The American Relief Expedition to Soviet Russia in the Famine of 1921. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.[386][387]
  • Richard, C. (1986). "The Shadow of a Plan": The Rationale Behind Wilson's 1918 Siberian Intervention. The Historian, 49(1), 64–84.
  • Richard, C. J. (2012). When the United States Invaded Russia: Woodrow Wilson's Siberian Disaster. Landham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.[388]
  • Saul, N. E. (2001). War and Revolution: The United States and Russia, 1914-1921. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.[389]
  • ———. (2006). Friends or Foes?: The United States and Soviet Russia, 1921-1941. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.[390][391]
  • Shimkin, Michael. & Shimkin, Mary. (1985). From Golden Horn to Golden Gate: The Flight of the Siberian Russian Flotilla. Californian History, 64(4), 290–294.
  • Smith, D. (2019). The Russian Job: The Forgotten Story of How America Saved the Soviet Union from Ruin. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  • Untergerger, B. (1987). Woodrow Wilson and the Bolsheviks: The "Acid Test" of Soviet-American Relations. Diplomatic History, 11(2), 71–90.
  • Weissman, B. (1970). The Aftereffects of the American Relief Mission to Soviet Russia. The Russian Review, 29(4), 411–421.

Discover more about International involvement in the Revolution and Civil War related topics

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War or Allied Powers intervention in the Russian Civil War consisted of a series of multi-national military expeditions which began in 1918. The Allies first had the goal of helping the Czechoslovak Legion in securing supplies of munitions and armaments in Russian ports; during which the Czechoslovak Legion controlled the entire Trans-Siberian Railway and several major cities in Siberia at times between 1918 and 1920. By 1919 the Allied goal became to help the White forces in the Russian Civil War. When the Whites collapsed the Allies withdrew their forces from Russia by 1920 and further withdrawing from Japan by 1922.

Czechoslovak Legion

Czechoslovak Legion

The Czechoslovak Legion were volunteer armed forces composed predominantly of Czechs and Slovaks fighting on the side of the Entente powers during World War I. Their goal was to win the support of the Allied Powers for the independence of Bohemia and Moravia from the Austrian Empire and of Slovak territories from the Kingdom of Hungary, which were then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. With the help of émigré intellectuals and politicians such as the Czech Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk and the Slovak Milan Rastislav Štefánik, they grew into a force of over 100,000 strong.

Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force

The Canadian Siberian Expeditionary Force was a Canadian military force sent to Vladivostok, Russia, during the Russian Revolution to bolster the allied presence, oppose the Bolshevik Revolution and attempt to keep Russia in the fight against Germany. Composed of 4,192 soldiers and authorized in August 1918, the force returned to Canada between April and June 1919. The force was commanded by Major General James H. Elmsley. During this time, the C.S.E.F. saw little fighting, with fewer than 100 troops proceeding "up country" to Omsk, to serve as administrative staff for 1,500 British troops aiding the anti-Bolshevik White Russian government of Admiral Alexander Kolchak. Most Canadians remained in Vladivostok, undertaking routine drill and policing duties in the volatile port city.

George F. Kennan

George F. Kennan

George Frost Kennan was an American diplomat and historian. He was best known as an advocate of a policy of containment of Soviet expansion during the Cold War. He lectured widely and wrote scholarly histories of the relations between the USSR and the United States. He was also one of the group of foreign policy elders known as "The Wise Men".

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez

Peter Kenez is a historian specializing in Russian and Eastern European history and politics.

Alfred E. Senn

Alfred E. Senn

Alfred Erich Senn was a professor of history at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.

Robert Service (historian)

Robert Service (historian)

Robert John Service is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death. He was until 2013 a professor of Russian history at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and a senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is best known for his biographies of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. He has been a fellow of the British Academy since 1998.

John Wheeler-Bennett

John Wheeler-Bennett

Sir John Wheeler Wheeler-Bennett was a conservative English historian of German and diplomatic history, and the official biographer of King George VI. He was well known in his lifetime, and his interpretation of the role of the German Army influenced a number of British historians.

American Expeditionary Force, North Russia

American Expeditionary Force, North Russia

The American Expeditionary Force, North Russia was a contingent of about 5,000 United States Army troops that landed in Arkhangelsk, Russia as part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War. It fought the Red Army in the surrounding region during the period of September 1918 through to July 1919.

North Russia intervention

North Russia intervention

The North Russia intervention, also known as the Northern Russian expedition, the Archangel campaign, and the Murman deployment, was part of the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War after the October Revolution. The intervention brought about the involvement of foreign troops in the Russian Civil War on the side of the White movement. The movement was ultimately defeated, while the Allied forces withdrew from Northern Russia after fighting a number of defensive actions against the Bolsheviks, such as the Battle of Bolshie Ozerki. The campaign lasted from March 1918, during the final months of World War I, to October 1919.

Arthur L. Herman

Arthur L. Herman

Arthur L. Herman is an American popular historian, currently serving as a senior fellow at Hudson Institute.

Douglas Smith (writer)

Douglas Smith (writer)

Douglas Smith is an American writer, historian and translator best known for his books about the history of Russia.

The Russo-Japanese War

Biographies

Tsar Nicholas II

Nicholas II of Russia.
Nicholas II of Russia.
  • Frankland, N. (1961). Imperial Tragedy: Nicholas II, Last of the Tsars. New York: Coward-McCann.[392]
  • Ferro, M. (1995). Nicholas II: Last of the Tsars. New York: Oxford University Press.[393]
  • Lieven, D. (1993). Nicholas II: Emperor of all the Russias. London: John Murray Publishing.[394][395]
  • Massie, R. K. (2012). Nicholas and Alexandra: The Classic Account of the Fall of the Romanov Dynasty. New York: Modern Library.
  • Maylunas, A., & Mironenko, S. (2000). Lifelong Passion: Nicholas and Alexandra: Their Own Story. New York: Doubleday.
  • Montefiore, S. (2016). The Romanovs: 1613-1918. New York: Knopf.[396]
  • Perry, J. C. & Pleshakov, C. V. (1999). The Flight Of The Romanovs: A Family Saga. New York: Basic Books.[397]
  • Radzinsky, E. (1992). The Last Tsar: The Life And Death Of Nicholas II. New York: Doubleday.[398]
  • Rappaport, H. (2009). The Last Days of the Romanovs: Tragedy at Ekaterinburg. New York: St. Martin's Press.
  • Service, R. W. (2017). The Last of the Tsars: Nicholas II and the Russian Revolution. New York: Pegasus Books.

Vladimir Lenin

This is a list of works about Vladimir Lenin. For a bibliography of works by Lenin, see Vladimir Lenin bibliography.

Lenin speaking in 1919.
Lenin speaking in 1919.
  • Merridale, C. (2017). Lenin on the Train. New York: Penguin Books.
  • Payne, R. (1964). The Life and Death of Lenin. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Pipes, R. (1996). The Unknown Lenin: From the Secret Archive. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Rappaport, H. (2010). Conspirator: Lenin in Exile. New York: Basic Books.
  • Read, C. (2005). Lenin: A Revolutionary Life. London: Routledge.
  • Sebestyen, V. (2017). Lenin: The Man, the Dictator, and the Master of Terror. New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Service, R. W. (2000). Lenin: A Biography. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
  • Shukman, H. (1966). Lenin and the Russian Revolution. London: B.T. Batsford.
  • Theen, R. (2004). Lenin: Genesis and Development of a Revolutionary. Princeton: Princeton University Press.[303]
  • Volkogonov, D. (1994). Lenin: Life and Legacy. London: HarperCollins.

Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky.
Leon Trotsky.

This is a list of works about Leon Trotsky. For a bibliography of works by Trotsky, see Leon Trotsky bibliography.

Joseph Stalin

Works included here have a focus or significant material on Stalin during the revolutionary period. See main article for more works.

Other Biographies

  • Abraham, R. (1987). Alexander Kerensky: The First Love of the Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Cohen, S. F. (1980). Bukharin and the Bolshevik Revolution: A Political Biography, 1888-1938. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Fuhrmann, J. T. (2012). Rasputin: The Untold Story. Hoboken: Wiley Press.
  • Haupt G. & Marie, J. (1974). Makers of the Russian Revolution. Biographies of Bolshevik Leaders. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Getzler, I. (1967). Martov: Political Biography: A Political Biography of a Russian Social Democrat. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kröner, A. W. (2010). The White Knight of the Black Sea: The Life of General Peter Wrangel. The Hague: Leuxenhoff.[y]
  • McNeal, R. H. (1972). Bride of the Revolution: Krupskaya and Lenin. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
  • Smith, D. (2016). Rasputin: Faith, Power, and the Twilight of the Romanovs. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Discover more about Biographies related topics

Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II Alexandrovich Romanov, known in the Russian Orthodox Church as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer, was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Congress Poland and Grand Duke of Finland, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917. During his reign, Nicholas gave support to the economic and political reforms promoted by his prime ministers, Sergei Witte and Pyotr Stolypin. He advocated modernization based on foreign loans and close ties with France, but resisted giving the new parliament major roles. Ultimately, progress was undermined by Nicholas's commitment to autocratic rule, strong aristocratic opposition and defeats sustained by the Russian military in the Russo-Japanese War and World War I. By March 1917, public support for Nicholas had collapsed and he was forced to abdicate the throne, thereby ending the Romanov dynasty's 304-year rule of Russia (1613–1917).

Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse)

Alexandra Feodorovna (Alix of Hesse)

Alexandra Feodorovna, Princess Alix of Hesse and by Rhine at birth, was the last Empress of Russia as the consort of Emperor Nicholas II from their marriage on 26 November [O.S. 14 November] 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March [O.S. 2 March] 1917. A favourite granddaughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, she was, like her grandmother, one of the most famous royal carriers of haemophilia and bore a haemophiliac heir, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia. Her reputation for encouraging her husband's resistance to the surrender of autocratic authority and her known faith in the Russian mystic Grigori Rasputin severely damaged her popularity and that of the Romanov monarchy in its final years. She and her immediate family were all killed while in Bolshevik captivity in 1918, during the Russian Revolution. In 2000, the Russian Orthodox Church canonized her as Saint Alexandra the Passion Bearer.

Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia

Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia

Alexei Nikolaevich was the last Tsesarevich. He was the youngest child and only son of Emperor Nicholas II and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna. He was born with haemophilia, which his parents tried treating with the methods of a peasant faith healer named Grigori Rasputin.

House of Romanov

House of Romanov

The House of Romanov was the reigning imperial house of Russia from 1613 to 1917. They achieved prominence after the Tsarina, Anastasia Romanova, was married to the First Tsar of Russia, Ivan the Terrible.

Marc Ferro

Marc Ferro

Marc Ferro was a French historian.

Dominic Lieven

Dominic Lieven

Dominic Lieven is a research professor at Cambridge University and a Fellow of the British Academy and of Trinity College, Cambridge.

John Murray (publishing house)

John Murray (publishing house)

John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its long history including, Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, Thomas Malthus, David Ricardo, and Charles Darwin. Since 2004, it has been owned by conglomerate Lagardère under the Hachette UK brand. Business publisher Nicholas Brealey became an imprint of John Murray in 2015.

John Curtis Perry

John Curtis Perry

John Curtis Perry also known as John Perry is an East Asian and Oceanic studies professor and historian. He is the Henry Willard Denison Professor Emeritus of History at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. He was also the director of that school's Maritime Studies program and founding president of the Institute for Global Maritime Studies, until his retirement in 2014.

Edvard Radzinsky

Edvard Radzinsky

Edvard Stanislavovich Radzinsky is a Russian playwright, television personality, screenwriter, and the author of more than forty popular history books.

Helen Rappaport

Helen Rappaport

Helen F. Rappaport, is a British author and former actress. She specialises in the Victorian era and revolutionary Russia.

Catherine Merridale

Catherine Merridale

Catherine Anne Merridale, FBA is a British writer and historian with a special interest in Russian history.

Richard Pipes

Richard Pipes

Richard Edgar Pipes was an American academic who specialized in Russian and Soviet history. He published several books critical of communist regimes throughout his career. In 1976, he headed Team B, a team of analysts organized by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) who analyzed the strategic capacities and goals of the Soviet military and political leadership. Pipes was the father of American historian Daniel Pipes.

Historiography

Memory studies

  • Corney, F.C. (2020). Revolution and Memory. In A Companion to the Russian Revolution, D. Orlovsky (Ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
  • Laruelle, M., & Karnysheva, M. (2020). Memory Politics and the Russian Civil War: Reds versus Whites. London: Bloomsbury.[343]

Discover more about Historiography related topics

Historiography in the Soviet Union

Historiography in the Soviet Union

Soviet historiography is the methodology of history studies by historians in the Soviet Union (USSR). In the USSR, the study of history was marked by restrictions imposed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Soviet historiography is itself the subject of modern studies.

Marxist historiography

Marxist historiography

Marxist historiography, or historical materialist historiography, is an influential school of historiography. The chief tenets of Marxist historiography include the centrality of social class, social relations of production in class-divided societies that struggle against each other, and economic constraints in determining historical outcomes. Marxist historians follow the tenets of the development of class-divided societies, especially modern capitalist ones.

Edward Acton (academic)

Edward Acton (academic)

Edward David Joseph Lyon-Dalberg-Acton FRHistS is a British academic and former Vice-Chancellor of the University of East Anglia. His title from birth is The Honourable but is never referred as such professionally or on the University website.

Robert Service (historian)

Robert Service (historian)

Robert John Service is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death. He was until 2013 a professor of Russian history at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and a senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is best known for his biographies of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. He has been a fellow of the British Academy since 1998.

Stephen Smith (historian)

Stephen Smith (historian)

Born in 1952, Smith completed his undergraduate studies at Oriel College, Oxford (1970–73), graduating with a modern history degree. In 1974, he was then awarded a Master of Social Science degree in Soviet studies from the University of Birmingham, where he remained to carry out doctoral studies; his PhD was awarded in 1980 for his thesis "The Russian Revolution and the factories of Petrograd, February 1917 to June 1918".

Kritika (journal)

Kritika (journal)

Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Slavica Publishers. It covers the history and culture of Russia and Eurasia. The editors-in-chief are Andrew Jenks, Susan Morrissey, and Willard Sunderland.

Ronald Grigor Suny

Ronald Grigor Suny

Ronald Grigor Suny is an American historian and political scientist. Suny is the William H. Sewell Jr. Distinguished University Professor of History at the University of Michigan and served as director of the Eisenberg Institute for Historical Studies, 2009 to 2012 and was the Charles Tilly Collegiate Professor of Social and Political History at the University of Michigan from 2005 to 2015, and is Emeritus Professor of political science and history at the University of Chicago.

Rex A. Wade

Rex A. Wade

Rex Arvin Wade is an American historian and author who has written extensively about the 1917 Russian Revolution. He has taught courses in Russian and Soviet history at George Mason University since 1986.

Reference Works

  • The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the former Soviet Union. (1994). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Jackson, G. D., & Devlin, R. J. (1989). Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. New York: Greenwood.
  • Kasack, W. & Atack, R. (1988). Dictionary of Russian literature since 1917. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Minahan, J. (2012). The Former Soviet Union's Diverse Peoples: A Reference Sourcebook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.
  • Orlovsky, D. (2020). A Companion to the Russian Revolution. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Pushkarev, S. G., Fisher, R. T., & Vernadsky, G. (1970). Dictionary of Russian Historical Terms from the Eleventh Century to 1917. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Shukman, H. (1988). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the Russian Revolution. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Smele, J. D. (2015). Historical Dictionary of the Russian Civil Wars, 1916-1926 (2 vols.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  • Smith, S. A. (2014). The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism. New York: Oxford University Press.[409][410]
  • Vronskaya, J. & Čuguev, V. (1992). The Biographical Dictionary of the Former Soviet Union: Prominent people in all fields from 1917 to the present. London: Bowker-Saur.

Other studies

Discover more about Other studies related topics

Paul Avrich

Paul Avrich

Paul Avrich was a historian of the 19th and early 20th century anarchist movement in Russia and the United States. He taught at Queens College, City University of New York, for his entire career, from 1961 to his retirement as distinguished professor of history in 1999. He wrote ten books, mostly about anarchism, including topics such as the 1886 Haymarket Riot, 1921 Sacco and Vanzetti case, 1921 Kronstadt naval base rebellion, and an oral history of the movement.

Geoffrey Hosking

Geoffrey Hosking

Geoffrey Alan Hosking is a British historian of Russia and the Soviet Union and formerly Leverhulme Research Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College, London. He also co-founded Nightline.

Weatherhead East Asian Institute

Weatherhead East Asian Institute

The Weatherhead East Asian Institute (WEAI) at Columbia University is a community of scholars affiliated with Columbia's schools, bringing together over 50 full-time faculty, a diverse group of visiting scholars and professionals, and students from the United States and abroad. Its mission is to train new generations of experts on East Asian topics in the humanities, social sciences, and the professions and to enhance understanding of East Asia in the wider community. Since its establishment in 1949 as the East Asian Institute, the WEAI has been the center for modern and contemporary East Asia research, studies, and publication at Columbia, covering China, Japan, Taiwan, Hong Kong, Korea, Mongolia, Tibet, and, increasingly, the countries of Southeast Asia.

Robert H. McNeal

Robert H. McNeal

Robert H. (Hatch) McNeal (1930–1988) was an American historian, author, and expert on the history of the Soviet Union.

Boris Nicolaevsky

Boris Nicolaevsky

Boris Ivanovich Nicolaevsky was a Russian Marxist activist, archivist, and historian. Nicolaevsky is best remembered as one of the leading Menshevik public intellectuals of the 20th century.

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch

Alexander Rabinowitch is an American historian. He is Professor Emeritus of History at the Indiana University, Bloomington, where he taught from 1968 until 1999, and Affiliated Research Scholar at the St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, since 2013. He is recognized internationally as a leading expert on the Bolsheviks, the Russian Revolution of 1917, and the Russian Civil War.

Robert Service (historian)

Robert Service (historian)

Robert John Service is a British historian, academic, and author who has written extensively on the history of the Soviet Union, particularly the era from the October Revolution to Stalin's death. He was until 2013 a professor of Russian history at the University of Oxford, a Fellow of St Antony's College, Oxford, and a senior Fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. He is best known for his biographies of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, and Leon Trotsky. He has been a fellow of the British Academy since 1998.

English language translations of primary sources

Vladimir Lenin

Collected Works

  • Essential Works of Lenin. New York: Bantam Books. (1966).
  • Collected Works (45 vols.). (1977). Moscow: Progress Publishers.

Major individual works related to the Revolution and Civil War

Archives

Leon Trotsky

Collected works

Major Individual Works related to the Revolution and Civil War

Archives

Other works

Collected works

  • Akhapkin, Y. (Ed.). (1970). First Decrees of Soviet Power. London: Lawrence and Wishart.
  • Brovkin, V. N. (Ed.). (1991). Dear Comrades: Menshevik Reports on the Bolshevik Revolution and the Civil War. Palo Alto: Hoover Institution Press.
  • Browder, R. P. & Kerensky, A. F. (Eds.). (1961). The Russian Provisional Government 1917: Documents. (3 vols.). Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
  • Bunyan, J. & Fisher, H. H. (Eds.). (1934) Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1918 - Documents and Materials. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.
  • ———. (1976). Intervention, Civil War, and Communism in Russia, April–December, 1918: Documents and Materials. New York: Octagon Books.
  • ———. (2019). Origin of Forced Labor in the Soviet State, 1917 -1921: Documents and Materials. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Butt, V. P., Swain, G., Murphy, A. B., & Myshov, N. A. (Eds.). (1996). The Russian Civil War: Documents from the Soviet Archives. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  • Daly, J. W., Trofimov, L. (2009). Russia in War and Revolution, 1914-1922: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.
  • Daniels, R. V. (Ed.). (2001). A Documentary History of Communism in Russia: From Lenin to Gorbachev (3rd Edition). Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
  • Degras, J. (1978). Soviet Documents on Foreign Policy: 1933–1941. (3 vols.). New York: Octagon Books.
  • Elwood, R. C., Gregor, R., Hodnett, G., Schwartz, D. V., & McNeal, R. H. (1974). Resolutions and Decisions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: The Russian Social Democratic Labour Party: 1898-October 1917. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • Gregor, R. (1974). Resolutions and Decisions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union: Vol. 2, The Early Soviet Period, 1917-1929. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  • McCauley, M. (1996). The Russian revolution and the Soviet state 1917-1921: Documents. New York: Macmillan.
  • Storella, C. J., Sokolov, A. K. (2013). The Voice of the People: Letters from the Soviet Village, 1918–1932. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Szczesniak, B. (1959). The Russian Revolution and Religion: A Collection of Documents Concerning the Suppression of Religion by the Communists, 1917–1925. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Varneck, E. & Fisher, H. H. (1935). The Testimony of Kolchak and Other Siberian Materials. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press.

Individual works related to the Revolution and Civil War

Part 1: 14(2), 93-108.
Part 2: 14(3), 184-200.
Part 3: 14(4), 301-321.
Part 4: 15(1), 37-48.
  • Wrangel, P. N. (1957). Always With Honour: Memoirs of General Wrangel. New York: Robert Speller & Sons. Text.[aq]

Archives

Discover more about English language translations of primary sources related topics

Progress Publishers

Progress Publishers

Progress Publishers was a Moscow-based Soviet publisher founded in 1931.

Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism

Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism

Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism, originally published as Imperialism, the Newest Stage of Capitalism, is a book written by Vladimir Lenin in 1916 and published in 1917. It describes the formation of oligopoly, by the interlacing of bank and industrial capital, in order to create a financial oligarchy, and explains the function of financial capital in generating profits from the exploitation colonialism inherent to imperialism, as the final stage of capitalism. The essay synthesises Lenin's developments of Karl Marx's theories of political economy in Das Kapital (1867).

April Theses

April Theses

The April Theses were a series of ten directives issued by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin upon his April 1917 return to Petrograd from his exile in Switzerland via Germany and Finland. The theses were mostly aimed at fellow Bolsheviks in Russia and returning to Russia from exile. He called for soviets, denounced liberals and social revolutionaries in the Provisional Government, called for Bolsheviks not to cooperate with the government, and called for new communist policies. The April Theses influenced the July Days and October Revolution in the next months and are identified with Leninism.

Decree on Peace

Decree on Peace

The Decree on Peace, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies on the 8 November [O.S. 26 October] 1917, following the success of the October Revolution. It was published in the Izvestiya newspaper, #208, 9 November [O.S. 27 October] 1917. It proposed an immediate withdrawal of Russia from World War I. The decree was ultimately implemented through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. Woodrow Wilson's famous "Fourteen Points" of January 1918 were largely a response to this Decree.

Decree on Land

Decree on Land

The Decree on Land, written by Vladimir Lenin, was passed by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies on 8 November [O.S. 26 October] 1917, following the success of the October Revolution.

Lenin's Testament

Lenin's Testament

Lenin's Testament is a document dictated by Vladimir Lenin in late 1922 and early 1923. In the testament, Lenin proposed changes to the structure of the Soviet governing bodies. Sensing his impending death, he also gave criticism of Bolshevik leaders Zinoviev, Kamenev, Trotsky, Bukharin, Pyatakov and Stalin. He warned of the possibility of a split developing in the party leadership between Trotsky and Stalin if proper measures were not taken to prevent it. In a post-script he also suggested Joseph Stalin be removed from his position as General Secretary of the Russian Communist Party's Central Committee.

Leon Trotsky bibliography

Leon Trotsky bibliography

The following is a chronological list of books by Leon Trotsky, a Marxist theoretician, including hardcover and paperback books and pamphlets published during his life and posthumously during the years immediately following his assassination in the summer of 1940. Included are the original Russian or German language titles and publication information, as well as the name and publication information of the first English language edition.

Lessons of October

Lessons of October

Lessons of October is a polemical essay of about 60 printed pages in length by Leon Trotsky, first published in Moscow in October 1924 as the preface to the third volume of his Collected Works. The essay was harshly critical of the purported revolutionary failings of Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamenev, two key members of the collective leadership which briefly ruled Soviet Russia in the months after the death of V. I. Lenin. Publication of the essay was used as a pretext for the Soviet leadership to isolate and attack Trotsky, whom the leadership mutually perceived as a threat to accede to supreme power.

History of the Russian Revolution

History of the Russian Revolution

History of the Russian Revolution is a two-volume book by Leon Trotsky on the Russian Revolution of 1917. The first volume is dedicated to the political history of the February Revolution and the October Revolution, to explain the relations between these two events. The book was initially published in Germany in 1930. The original language is Russian, but it was translated into English by Max Eastman in 1932; in the English translation the second volume, originally consisting of two parts, is split into two volumes. The book was considered anti-stalinist in the Soviet Union and only made it to publication in Russia as late as in 1997.

Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, as well as to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks." It was founded in 1971 by American writer Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library. Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of books or individual stories in the public domain. All files can be accessed for free under an open format layout, available on almost any computer. As of 3 October 2015, Project Gutenberg had reached 50,000 items in its collection of free eBooks.

Alexander Kerensky

Alexander Kerensky

Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who led the Russian Provisional Government and the short-lived Russian Republic for three months from late July to early November 1917.

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent Daniels

Robert Vincent "Bill" Daniels (1926–2010) was an American historian and educator specializing in the history of the Soviet Union. He is best remembered as the author of two seminal monographs on the history of Soviet Russia —The Conscience of the Revolution (1960) and Red October (1967) — and as author or editor of an array of widely used Russian history textbooks which helped to shape the thinking of two generations of American college students.

Source: "Bibliography of the Russian Revolution and Civil War", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bibliography_of_the_Russian_Revolution_and_Civil_War.

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Further reading

Bibliographies

Bibliographies contain English and non-English language entries unless noted otherwise. This bibliography does not include bibliographies which do not contain English language entries.

Bibliographies of the Revolution and Civil War

  • Engelstein, L. (2017). Bibliographic Essay In Russia in Flames: War, Revolution, Civil War, 1914-1921. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Figes, O. (2014). A Short Guide To Further Reading In Revolutionary Russia, 1891-1991: A History. New York: Metropolitan Books.[as]
  • Frame, M. (1995). The Russian Revolution, 1905–1921: A Bibliographic Guide to Works in English. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.[as]
  • Grierson, P. (1969). Grierson, Philip. Books on Soviet Russia, 1917-1942: a bibliography and a guide to reading. Twickenham, UK: Anthony C. Hall.
  • Fitzpatrick, S. (2017). Selected Bibliography in The Russian Revolution. (4th ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Greenbaum, A. (2007). Bibliographic Essay In Klier, J. & Lambroza, S., Pogroms: Anti-Jewish Violence in Modern Russian History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • McMeekin, S. (2017). Published and Online Works Cited or Profitably Consulted, Including Memoirs In The Russian Revolution: A New History. New York: Basic Books.
  • Miéville, C. (2017). Further Reading In October: The Story of the Russian Revolution. New York: Verso.[as]
  • Pearson, R. (1989). Russia and Eastern Europe. 1789-1985. A Bibliographic Guide. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
  • Pipes, R. (1990). One Hundred Works On The Russian Revolution In The Russian Revolution. New York: Knopf.[as]
  • ———. (2011). Select Bibliography In Russia Under the Bolshevik Regime: 1919–1924. New York: Knopf.
  • Sebestyen, V. (2017). Select Bibliography In Lenin: The Man, the Dictator, and the Master of Terror. New York: Pantheon Books.[as]
  • Smele, J. (2003). The Russian Revolution and Civil War: 1917-1921: An Annotated Bibliography. London: Bloomsbury Continuum.[450]
  • ———. (2016). Bibliography In The “Russian” Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Smith, S. A. (2017). Notes In Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Zygar, M. (2017). References In The Empire Must Die: Russia's Revolutionary Collapse, 1900–1917. New York: PublicAffairs.

Bibliographies of Russian history including significant material on the Revolution and Civil War

  • Edelheit, A. J., & Edelheit, H. (1992). The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union: A selected bibliography of sources in English. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.[451]
  • Grierson, P. (1969). Books on Soviet Russia: 1917 - 1942; a bibliography and a guide to reading. Twickenham, UK: Anthony C. Hall.
  • Horecky, P. L. (1971). Russia and the Soviet Union: A Bibliographic Guide to Western-language Publications. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Kenez, P. (2016). Soviet History: A Bibliography. In A History of the Soviet Union from the Beginning to its Legacy (3rd Edition). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.[at]
  • Schaffner, B. L. (1995). Bibliography of the Soviet Union, its predecessors and successors. Metuchen: Scarecrow Press.
  • Spapiro, D. (1962). A select bibliography of works in English on Russian history,1801-1917. Oxford: Blackwell.[as]
  • Simmons, E. J. (1962). Russia: Selective and Annotated Bibliography. The Slavic and East European Journal, 6(2), 148–158.

Bibliographies of the Soviet-Polish War

Bibliographies of primary source documents

  • Arans, D. (1988). How We Lost the Civil War: Bibliography of Russian emigre memoirs on the Russian Revolution, 1917-1921. Newtonville: Oriental Research Partners.

Journals

The list below contains journals frequently referenced in this bibliography. The list below contains journals referenced in this bibliography and which have substantial contributions about Slavic and Russian history.

Notes
  1. ^ Memoirs and diaries with a clear historical importance as shown by academic citations and publishing are included in a section.
  2. ^ Contains a 60 page scholarly select bibliography of works relating to the history of the Soviet Union.
  3. ^ A very short (107pp.) survey of the Russian Revolution. Covers very little about the Civil War or the period from 1921-1927. Contains an excellent 14 select bibliography of English language works.
  4. ^ Contains an extensive 46 bibliography of English and non-English works on the “Russian” Civil Wars.
  5. ^ Covers the period from the October Revolution through the Stalinist 1930s.
  6. ^ See Prodrazvyorstka.
  7. ^ See also The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd in Early Soviet State Formation section.
  8. ^ See Battle of Tsaritsyn.
  9. ^ See Yakov Sverdlov.
  10. ^ While primarily a biography of Stalin, contains significant information about the early Soviet state formation.
  11. ^ See Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic.
  12. ^ a b c d see Karl Kautsky.
  13. ^ The notes at the end of each essay (chapter) includes substantial bibliographic entries.
  14. ^ a b See Georgi Plekhanov.
  15. ^ See Battle of Tsaritsyn.
  16. ^ For more about the Antonov Movement, see Tambov Rebellion
  17. ^ See Terek Soviet Republic.
  18. ^ For Lithuania and Belarus, see Chapters 2-3; for Ukraine, see Chapters 6-7; content on Poland focuses on World War II.
  19. ^ See Chapters 3 ("Tiny Revolutions in Russia") and 6 ("The History of Siberia").
  20. ^ See Józef Piłsudski.
  21. ^ See Congress of the Peoples of the East and Minutes of the Congress of the Peoples of the East. Baku, September 1920.
  22. ^ a b See Jadid.
  23. ^ See Basmachi movement.
  24. ^ Originally published in three volumes by Oxford University Press (1954, 1959, 1963).
  25. ^ See Pyotr Wrangel.
  26. ^ See Nikolai Sukhanov.
  27. ^ See Alexander Guchkov.
  28. ^ Contains text of telegrams in Russian with English translation.
  29. ^ see Russian Social Democratic Labour Party
  30. ^ see Second All-Russian Congress of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies' Soviets
  31. ^ Declaration of the seizure of power during the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies.
  32. ^ see 7th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
  33. ^ see All-Russian Congress of Soviets
  34. ^ see 8th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
  35. ^ see 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
  36. ^ see 11th Congress of the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks)
  37. ^ Original work translated into English by Max Eastman and published by Simon and Schuster in 1932.
  38. ^ Original work published in English in 1925 by the Marxist Educational Society of Detroit
  39. ^ Original work published in English by Boni & Liveright in 1919; second edition published in 1922 contains an introduction by Vladimir Lenin.
  40. ^ English Translation by Joel Carmichael for Princeton University Press, 1984.
  41. ^ see Nikolai Sukhanov
  42. ^ An excerpt from Tseretelli's unpublished memoir.
  43. ^ Originally published: Berlin, 1928 in Russian and German.
  44. ^ See Grigory Zinoviev
  45. ^ a b c d e f Contains works in English only.
  46. ^ Contains only English language works. 3rd Edition has an updated (2016) bibliography with specific sections on the Revolution and Civil War era.
References
  1. ^ Smele, J. (2016). "Chapter 6: 1921-26. The Ends of the "Russian" Civil Wars". The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916-1926: Ten Years That Shook the World 1st Edition. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0190233044.
  2. ^ Meyer, Alfred G.; Heller, Mikhail; Nekrich, Aleksandr; Carlos, Phyllis B. (1988). "Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present". Russian Review. 47 (3): 344. doi:10.2307/130610. JSTOR 130610.
  3. ^ Dallin, Alexander (1988). "Utopia in Power: The History of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the Present. By Mikhail Heller and Aleksandr M. Nekrich. Translated by Phyllis B. Carlos. New York: Summit Books, 1986". Slavic Review. 47 (2): 319–320. doi:10.2307/2498472. JSTOR 2498472. S2CID 164819869.
  4. ^ Ragsdale, Hugh (1989). "Reviewed work: The First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from Within, Geoffrey Hosking". Russian History. 16 (1): 98–99. JSTOR 24657684.
  5. ^ Hagen, Mark Von (1987). "Soviet History - the First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from Within. By Geoffrey Hosking. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985. 527 - Russia: A History of the Soviet Period. By Woodford Mc Clellan. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1986". Slavic Review. 46: 118–122. doi:10.2307/2498626. JSTOR 2498626. S2CID 251374593.
  6. ^ Viola, Lynne; Hosking, Geoffrey (1986). "The First Socialist Society: A History of the Soviet Union from within". Russian Review. 45 (3): 340. doi:10.2307/130140. JSTOR 130140.
  7. ^ McClellan, Woodford (1986). "The Soviet Colossus: A History of the USSR. By Michael Kort. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1985. Xiii, 318 - Russia: The Roots of Confrontation. By Robert V. Daniels. Foreword by Edwin O. Reischauer. American Foreign Policy Library (Edited by Edwin O. Reischauer). Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1985. Xv, 411 pp". Slavic Review. 45 (3): 552–554. doi:10.2307/2499061. JSTOR 2499061.
  8. ^ Getty, J. Arch (2007). "The Soviet Century . By Moshe Lewin. London: Verso, 2005". The Journal of Modern History. 79: 225–226. doi:10.1086/517582.
  9. ^ Gregory, Paul (2005). "Reviewed work: The Soviet Century, Moshe Lewin". The Journal of Economic History. 65 (3): 864–867. JSTOR 3875024.
  10. ^ "Reviewed work: The Soviet Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia, 1917-1991, Martin Malia". The Wilson Quarterly. 18 (4): 98–99. 1994. JSTOR 40259142.
  11. ^ Kotsonis, Yanni (1999). "The Ideology of Martin Malia". The Russian Review. 58 (1): 124–130. doi:10.1111/0036-0341.611999061. JSTOR 2679709.
  12. ^ Clark, William A. (1993). "Reviewed work: Soviet Politics 1917-1991, Mary McAuley". Russian History. 20 (1/4): 374–375. doi:10.1163/187633193X00829. JSTOR 24657364.
  13. ^ Hornsby, Robert (2008). "Reviewed work: The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, Martin McCauley". Europe-Asia Studies. 60 (5): 863–864. JSTOR 20451552.
  14. ^ Rosefielde, Steven (2008). "Reviewed work: The Rise and Fall of the Soviet Union, Martin McCauley". The Russian Review. 67 (2): 355–356. JSTOR 20620785.
  15. ^ Smith, Mark B. (2009). "Reviewed work: The Cambridge History of Russia. Volume 3: The Twentieth Century, Ronald Grigor Suny". The Slavonic and East European Review. 87 (3): 564–567. JSTOR 40650434.
  16. ^ Nathans, Benjamin (2009). "The Cambridge History of Russia. Volume 3, the Twentieth Century. Edited by Ronald Grigor Suny. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007". The Journal of Modern History. 81 (3): 756–758. doi:10.1086/649129.
  17. ^ Baberowski, Jörg (2006). "Review of The Structure of Soviet History. Essays and Documents". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. 54 (4): 630. JSTOR 41051798. Retrieved 2021-01-14.
  18. ^ Legvold, Robert (2017). "Review of Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928; Caught in the Revolution; Was Revolution Inevitable? Turning Points of the Russian Revolution". Foreign Affairs. 96 (5): 187–188. JSTOR 44821910. Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  19. ^ Legvold, R. (1997). "Review: A History of Soviet Russia by Edward Hallett Carr". Foreign Affairs. 76 (5): 230. doi:10.2307/20048246. JSTOR 20048246.
  20. ^ Clarkson, J. D. (1952). "Review: A History of Soviet Russia by Edward Hallett Carr". The Journal of Modern History. The University of Chicago Press. 24 (3): 318–319. doi:10.1086/237532. JSTOR 1875495.
  21. ^ Engerman, D. C. (1999). "Review: William Henry Chamberlin And Russia's Revolt Against Western Civilization". Russian History. 26 (1): 45–64. doi:10.1163/187633199X00030. JSTOR 24659246.
  22. ^ Elwood, R. C. (1973). "Review: The Russian Revolution by Robert V. Daniels". The Russian Review. Wiley. 32 (3): 330–331. doi:10.2307/128269. JSTOR 128269.
  23. ^ Lofland, D. A. (1983). "Reviewed Works: Revolutionary Russia, 1917 by John M. Thompson; The Russian Revolution by Robert V. Daniels". Russian History. Brill. 10 (1): 117–118. JSTOR 24652804.
  24. ^ Lohr, Eric (2012). "Russia in 1913. By Wayne Dowler. De Kalb: Northern Illinois University Press, 2010. Pp. X+351. $38.00". The Journal of Modern History. 84 (2): 535–536. doi:10.1086/664691.
  25. ^ Gaudin, Corinne (2011). "Reviewed work: Russia in 1913, Wayne Dowler". Russian Review. 70 (4): 700–701. JSTOR 41290056.
  26. ^ Orlovsky, D. (2017). "Review Essay: The Russian Revolution at 100". Slavic Review. 76 (3): 763–771. doi:10.1017/slr.2017.184.
  27. ^ Korobeinikov, A. (2019). "Review: Russia in Flames. War, Revolution, Civil War, 1914–1921". Europe-Asia Studies. 71 (9). doi:10.1080/09668136.2019.1674531. S2CID 211342100.
  28. ^ Suny, R. G. (1999). "Reviewed Work: A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution. by Orlando Figes". The Journal of Modern History. The University of Chicago Press. 71 (1): 263–266. doi:10.1086/235245. JSTOR 10.1086/235245. S2CID 152001885.
  29. ^ Zelnik, R. E. (1999). "Reviewed Work: A People's Tragedy: A History of the Russian Revolution. by Orlando Figes". Slavic Review. Cambridge University Press. 57 (2): 453–455. doi:10.2307/2501883. JSTOR 2501883.
  30. ^ Wildman, A. (1984). "The Russian Revolution. By Sheila Fitzpatrick". Slavic Review. 43 (2): 309–311. doi:10.2307/2497861. JSTOR 2497861.
  31. ^ Koenker, D. (1986). "Reviewed Work: The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick". The Journal of Modern History. 58 (4): 1000–1001. doi:10.1086/243141. JSTOR 1880165.
  32. ^ Suny, R. G. (1983). "Reviewed Work: The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick". The Russian Review. 42 (4): 417–418. doi:10.2307/129491. JSTOR 129491.
  33. ^ Shmelev, A. (1999). "Review: The Revolution Turns Eighty: New Literature on the Russian Revolution and Its Aftermath". Contemporary European History. 8 (1): 127–139. doi:10.1017/S0960777399000168. JSTOR 20081693.
  34. ^ Thatcher, I. D. (1998). "Reviewed Works: Critical Companion to the Russian Revolution 1914-1921 by Edward Acton, Vladimir Iu. Cherniaev, William G. Rosenberg; The Russian Revolution 1917-1921 by Ronald Kowalski". The Slavonic and East European Review. 76 (4): 746–749. JSTOR 4212759.
  35. ^ Page, S. W. (1969). "Reviewed Works: Lenin's Last Struggle by Moshe Lewin, A. M. Sheridan Smith; Encounters with Lenin by Nikolay (N. V. Volsky), Paul Rosta, Brian Pearce". The American Historical Review. 74 (5): 1668–1669. doi:10.2307/1841410. JSTOR 1841410.
  36. ^ Sanborn, J. (2016). "Reviewed Work: Towards the Flame: Empire, War, and the End of Tsarist Russia by Lieven, Dominic". The Slavonic and East European Review. 94 (4): 752–754. doi:10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.94.4.0752. JSTOR 10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.94.4.0752.
  37. ^ Legvold, R. (2015). "Reviewed Work: The End of Tsarist Russia: The March to World War I and Revolution". Foreign Affairs. 94 (5): 193. JSTOR 24483773.
  38. ^ Häfner, L. (1987). "Reviewed Work: Passage through Armageddon. The Russians in War and Revolution 1914–1918 by Bruce W. Lincoln". PVS-Literatur. 28 (1): 74–75. JSTOR 24208542.
  39. ^ Katkov, George (1972). "Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising. By Alexander Rabinowitch. Indiana University International Studies. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1968". Slavic Review. 31 (4): 896–897. doi:10.2307/2493788. JSTOR 2493788.
  40. ^ a b Corney, Frederick C. (2009). "Reviewed work: The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd, Alexander Rabinowitch". The Russian Review. 68 (1): 159–160. JSTOR 20620964.
  41. ^ Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (2010). "The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd. By Alexander Rabinowitch. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007". The Journal of Modern History. 82: 247–249. doi:10.1086/649489.
  42. ^ Oppenheim, Samuel A. (1978). "The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. By Alexander Rabinowitch. New York: W. W. Norton, 1976". Slavic Review. 37 (4): 669–670. doi:10.2307/2496133. JSTOR 2496133.
  43. ^ Hosking, G. (1997). "Reviewed Works: A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution 1891-1924 by Orlando Figes; From Tsar to Soviets: The Russian People and Their Revolution, 1917-21 by Christopher Read". The Slavonic and East European Review. 75 (3): 553–559. JSTOR 4212457.
  44. ^ Raleigh, D. J. (2014). "Reviewed Work: War and Revolution in Russia, 1914–22: The Collapse of Tsarism and the Establishment of Soviet Power by Read, Christopher". The Slavonic and East European Review. 96 (1): 163–165. doi:10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.92.1.0163. JSTOR 10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.92.1.0163.
  45. ^ Campbell, John C.; Schapiro, Leonard (1984). "The Russian Revolutions of 1917: The Origins of Modern Communism". Foreign Affairs. 62 (5): 1258. doi:10.2307/20042043. JSTOR 20042043.
  46. ^ a b Legvold, Robert (2017). "Review: Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928; Caught in the Revolution; Was Revolution Inevitable? Turning Points of the Russian Revolution". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2 February 2020.
  47. ^ a b Fedyashin, A. (2017). "Review: S. A. Smith, Russia in Revolution: An Empire in Crisis, 1890 to 1928". European History Quarterly. 47 (4): 787–789. doi:10.1177/0265691417729639as. S2CID 148995760.
  48. ^ Lohr, E. (2017). "Book Review: The "Russian" Civil Wars, 1916–1926: Ten Years that Shook the World. By Jonathan D. Smele". Slavic Review. 74 (4): 1123–1124. doi:10.1017/slr.2017.321. S2CID 165406152.
  49. ^ Wade, Rex A. (2016). "Reviewed Work: The 'Russian' Civil Wars, 1916–1926: Ten Years That Shook the World by Smele, Jonathan D.". The Slavonic and East European Review. 94 (4): 760–762. doi:10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.94.4.0760. JSTOR 10.5699/slaveasteurorev2.94.4.0760.
  50. ^ Kroner, Anthony (2017). "Book Review: The 'Russian' Civil Wars 1916–1926: Ten Years That Shook the World". Revolutionary Russia. 30 (1): 142–145. doi:10.1080/09546545.2017.1305540. S2CID 219715426.
  51. ^ Daniels, Robert V.; Ulam, Adam B. (1966). "The Bolsheviks: The Intellectual and Political History of the Triumph of Communism in Russia". Russian Review. 25 (3): 303. doi:10.2307/126959. JSTOR 126959.
  52. ^ Randall, Francis B. (1967). "Reviewed work: The Bolsheviks: The Intellectual and Political History of the Triumph of Communism in Russia, Adam B. Ulam". The Journal of Modern History. 39 (2): 204–205. doi:10.1086/240068. JSTOR 1877505.
  53. ^ Radkey, Oliver H.; Wade, Rex A. (1970). "The Russian Search for Peace. February-October 1917". Russian Review. 29 (4): 464. doi:10.2307/127302. JSTOR 127302.
  54. ^ Pethybridge, Roger (1973). "Reviewed work: The Russian Search for Peace: February-October, 1917, R. A. Wade". The Slavonic and East European Review. 51 (123): 332. JSTOR 4206738.
  55. ^ Fedyashin, A. (2022). "Review of Late Tsarist Russia, 1881–1913". The Russian Review. 81 (3): 566–598. doi:10.1111/russ.12378.
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  57. ^ McNeal, Robert H. (1976). "Reviewed work: The Soviets: The Russian Workers, Peasants and Soldiers Councils, 1905-1921, OSKAR ANWEILER, Ruth Hein". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 18 (1): 96–98. JSTOR 40867045.
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  166. ^ Dunn, Ethel (1989). "Reviewed work: Women in the Soviet Countryside: Women's Roles in Rural Development in the Soviet Union., Susan Bridger". Slavic Review. 48 (1): 122. doi:10.2307/2498705. JSTOR 2498705.
  167. ^ Edmondson, L. (1998). "Reviewed Work: Bolshevik Women by Barbara Evans Clements". The Slavonic and East European Review. 76 (4): 745–746. JSTOR 4212758.
  168. ^ DenBeste-Barnett, M. (1998). "Reviewed Work: Bolshevik Women by Barbara Evans Clements". The Slavic and East European Journal. 42 (4): 783–785. doi:10.2307/309816. JSTOR 309816.
  169. ^ Goldman, W. (1998). "Reviewed Work: Bolshevik Women. by Barbara Evans Clements". Slavic Review. 57 (4): 919–921. doi:10.2307/2501084. JSTOR 2501084.
  170. ^ "Book Reviews". The Russian Review. 81 (2): 363–398. 2022-04-01. doi:10.1111/russ.12367. ISSN 0036-0341.
  171. ^ "Book Reviews". The Russian Review. 81 (2): 363–398. 2022-04-01. doi:10.1111/russ.12367. ISSN 0036-0341.
  172. ^ Worobec, Christine D. (1995). "Reviewed work: Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-1936, Wendy Z. Goldman". Journal of Social History. 28 (4): 937–940. doi:10.1353/jsh/28.4.937. JSTOR 3788619.
  173. ^ Ohr, Nellie Hauke (1996). "Reviewed work: Women, the State, and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-1936, Wendy Z. Goldman, Judy Barr; Inessa Armand: Revolutionary and Feminist, R. C. Elwood". The Journal of Modern History. 68 (1): 258–262. doi:10.1086/245339. JSTOR 2124386.
  174. ^ Engelstein, Laura (1995). "Reviewed work: Women, the State and Revolution: Soviet Family Policy and Social Life, 1917-1936, Wendy Z. Goldman". The American Historical Review. 100 (2): 557. doi:10.2307/2169117. JSTOR 2169117.
  175. ^ Huber, Joan; Lapidus, Gail Warshofsky (1979). "Women in Soviet Society: Equality, Development, and Social Change". Social Forces. 57 (4): 1428. doi:10.2307/2577299. JSTOR 2577299.
  176. ^ Jancar, Barbara W. (1979). "Reviewed work: Women in Soviet Society: Equality, Development and Social Change, Gail Warshofsky Lapidus". Soviet Studies. 31 (4): 603–605. JSTOR 150925.
  177. ^ a b Williamson, N. E. (1975). "Reviewed Work: The Surrogate Proletariat: Moslem Women and Revolutionary Strategies in Soviet Central Asia, 1919-1929. by Gregory J. Massell". American Journal of Sociology. 81 (1): 216–218. doi:10.1086/226063. JSTOR 2777083.
  178. ^ Starr, S. F. (1975). "Reviewed Work: The Surrogate Proletariat: Moslem Women and Revolutionary Strategies in Soviet Central Asia, 1919-1929 by Gregory K. Massell". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 6 (2): 355–356. doi:10.2307/202258. JSTOR 202258.
  179. ^ Lazzerini, E. J. (1975). "Reviewed Work: The Surrogate Proletariat: Moslem Women and Revolutionary Strategies in Soviet Central Asia, 1919-1929. by Gregory J. Massell". Slavic Review. 34 (2): 398–399. doi:10.2307/2495208. JSTOR 2495208.
  180. ^ Newman, Barbara Evans (2011). "Reviewed work: Equality and Revolution: Women's Rights in the Russian Empire, 1905-1917, Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild". Russian Review. 70 (2): 346–347. JSTOR 41061873.
  181. ^ Rosneck, Karen (2012). "Reviewed work: Equality and Revolution: Women's Rights in the Russian Empire, 1905–1917, Rochelle Goldberg Ruthchild". The Slavic and East European Journal. 56 (4): 659–661. JSTOR 24392638.
  182. ^ Edmondson, Linda (1993). "Reviewed work: The Women's Liberation Movement in Russia. Feminism, Nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1860-1930, Richard Stites". The Slavonic and East European Review. 71 (2): 346–347. JSTOR 4211256.
  183. ^ Ransel, David L. (1978). "The Women's Liberation Movement in Russia: Feminism, Nihilism, and Bolshevism, 1860-1930. By Richard Stites. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978". Slavic Review. 37 (3): 498–500. doi:10.2307/2497695. JSTOR 2497695.
  184. ^ Johnson, Val Marie (1998). "Reviewed work: The Baba and the Comrade: Gender and Politics in Revolutionary Russia, Elizabeth A. Wood". International Labor and Working-Class History (54): 212–215. doi:10.1017/S0147547900006530. JSTOR 27672533.
  185. ^ Penner, D'Ann R. (2000). "The Baba and the Comrade: Gender and Politics in Revolutionary Russia. By Elizabeth A. Wood. Indiana‐Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies. Edited by, Alexander Rabinowitch and William G. Rosenberg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997". The Journal of Modern History. 72 (4): 1081–1083. doi:10.1086/318596.
  186. ^ Yekelchyk, Serhy (2000). "Reviewed work: A Prayer for the Government: Ukrainians and Jews in Revolutionary Times, 1917-1920, Henry Abramson". The Russian Review. 59 (4): 650–651. JSTOR 2679295.
  187. ^ Löwe, Heinz‐Dietrich (2002). "A Prayer for the Government: Ukrainians and Jews in Revolutionary Times, 1917–1920. By Henry Abramson. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1999". The Journal of Modern History. 74 (2): 457–459. doi:10.1086/343447.
  188. ^ White, James M. (2018). "Reviewed work: Framing Mary: The Mother of God in Modern, Revolutionary, and Post-Soviet Russian Culture, Amy Singleton Adams, Vera Shevzov". The Slavic and East European Journal. 62 (4): 750–751. JSTOR 45408780.
  189. ^ Lohr, Eric (2013). "Russian Jews between the Reds and the Whites, 1917–1920. By Oleg Budnitskii. Translated by Timothy J. Portice. Jewish Culture and Contexts. Edited by David B. Ruderman.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012". The Journal of Modern History. 85 (4): 989–991. doi:10.1086/672571.
  190. ^ Young, G. (2002). "Reviewed Work: "Godless Communists": Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia, 1917–1932 by William Husband". The Journal of Modern History. 74 (3): 689–691. doi:10.1086/345147. JSTOR 10.1086/345147.
  191. ^ Luukkanen, A. (2002). "Reviewed Work: "Godless Communists". Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia 1917-1932 by William B. Husband". International Review of Social History. 47 (1): 122–123. JSTOR 44582682.
  192. ^ Sutton, J. F. (2002). "Reviewed Work: 'Godless Communists': Atheism and Society in Soviet Russia, 1917-1932 by William B. Husband". The Slavonic and East European Review. 80 (4): 757–759. JSTOR 4213597.
  193. ^ McLellan, D. T. (1996). "Reviewed work: The Party of Unbelief: The Religious Policy of the Bolshevik Party, 1917-1929, Arto Luukkanen". The Slavonic and East European Review. 74 (2): 337. JSTOR 4212099.
  194. ^ Rees, E. A. (1996). "Reviewed work: The Party of Unbelief: The Religious Policy of the Bolshevik Party 1917-1929, Arto Luukkanen". Europe-Asia Studies. 48 (4): 691–692. JSTOR 153160.
  195. ^ Petersen, Esben (2018). "Reviewed work: Russian Orthodoxy and the Russo-Japanese War, Betsy C. Perabo". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 45 (1): 204–206. doi:10.18874/jjrs.45.1.2018.204-206. JSTOR 26854477.
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  197. ^ Kochan, Lionel (1992). "Reviewed work: The Jews of the Soviet Union. The History of a National Minority, Benjamin Pinkus". The English Historical Review. 107 (422): 277–278. JSTOR 575842.
  198. ^ Miller, Jack (1989). "Reviewed work: The Jews in the Soviet Union since 1917: Paradox of Survival, Nora Levin; the Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority, Benjamin Pinkus". Soviet Studies. 41 (4): 670–671. JSTOR 152559.
  199. ^ Seltzer, Robert M. (1993). "Reviewed work: The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority, Benjamin Pinkus". The American Historical Review. 98 (3): 911. doi:10.2307/2167659. JSTOR 2167659.
  200. ^ Fletcher, William C. (1986). "The Russian Church Under the Soviet Regime, 1917-1982". Slavic Review. 45 (2): 366–367. doi:10.2307/2499239. JSTOR 2499239.
  201. ^ Sysyn, Frank; Pospielovsky, Dimitry (1986). "The Russian Church under the Soviet Regime, 1917-1982". Russian Review. 45: 87. doi:10.2307/129433. JSTOR 129433.
  202. ^ Kivelson, Valerie A. (1998). "Reviewed work: The Occult in Russian and Soviet Culture, Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal". The Russian Review. 57 (4): 621–622. JSTOR 131388.
  203. ^ Monas, Sidney (1999). "Book Reviews The Occult in Russian and Soviet Culture.Edited by Bernice Glatzer Rosenthal. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1997". The Journal of Modern History. 71 (2): 517–518. doi:10.1086/235287. S2CID 151549209.
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  206. ^ Walters, Philip M. (2004). "Reviewed work: Red Priests: Renovationism, Russian Orthodoxy, and Revolution, 1905-1946, Edward E. Roslof". The Slavonic and East European Review. 82 (3): 765–767. JSTOR 4213981.
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  208. ^ Anna Arustamova (2016). "Yankees in Petrograd, Bolsheviks in New York: America and Americans in Russian Literary Perception". The Modern Language Review. 111: 305. doi:10.5699/modelangrevi.111.1.0305.
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  212. ^ Mosse, W. E. (1974). "Reviewed work: The Liberation Movement in Russia 1900-1905, S. Galai". The Slavonic and East European Review. 52 (126): 144–145. JSTOR 4206849.
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  215. ^ Ward, C. (1991). "Reviewed Work: Russia's Last Capitalists: The Nepmen, 1921-1929 by Alan M. Ball". The Slavonic and East European Review. 69 (4): 762–763. JSTOR 4210832.
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  219. ^ Whisenhunt, William B. (2002). "Reviewed work: Modernising Lenin's Russia: Economic Reconstruction, Foreign Trade and the Railways, Anthony Heywood". The Slavonic and East European Review. 80 (4): 754–756. JSTOR 4213595.
  220. ^ Rosenberg, William G. (2001). "Modernising Lenin's Russia: Economic Reconstruction, Foreign Trade, and the Railways. By Anthony Heywood. Cambridge Russian, Soviet, and Post‐Soviet Studies, volume 105. Edited by, Stephen White et al. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999". The Journal of Modern History. 73 (3): 719–720. doi:10.1086/339096.
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  222. ^ Nafziger, Steven. "Review: Bankers & Bolsheviks: International Finance and the Russian Revolution. By Hassan Malik". The Journal of Economic History. 79 (4): 1200–1203. doi:10.1017/S0022050719000676. S2CID 211313790.
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  224. ^ Remington, Thomas F. (1987). "Reviewed work: The Economic Organization of War Communism, 1918-1921, Silvana Malle". Soviet Studies. 39 (1): 138–139. doi:10.1080/09668138708411681. JSTOR 151443.
  225. ^ Nove, Alec; Malle, Silvana (1987). "The Economic Organization of War Communism, 1918-21". The Economic History Review. 40 (3): 483. doi:10.2307/2596279. JSTOR 2596279.
  226. ^ Seregny, Scott J.; Ascher, Abraham (1989). "The Revolution of 1905: Russia in Disarray". Russian Review. 48 (2): 192. doi:10.2307/130334. JSTOR 130334.
  227. ^ Engelstein, Laura (1989). "The Revolution of 1905: Russia in Disarray. By Abraham Ascher. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 1988. Xiii, 412 pp". Slavic Review. 48 (4): 659–660. doi:10.2307/2499797. JSTOR 2499797.
  228. ^ Seregny, Scott J.; Ascher, Abraham (1994). "The Revolution of 1905: Authority Restored". Slavic Review. 53 (4): 1167. doi:10.2307/2500891. JSTOR 2500891.
  229. ^ Neuberger, Joan (1995). "Reviewed work: The Revolution of 1905: Authority Restored, Abraham Ascher". The Journal of Modern History. 67 (2): 516–518. doi:10.1086/245168. JSTOR 2125136.
  230. ^ Waldron, Peter (2005). "Reviewed work: The Revolution of 1905. A Short History, Abraham Ascher". Canadian Slavonic Papers. 47 (3/4): 456. JSTOR 40871046.
  231. ^ Ury, Scott (2015). "The Russian Revolution of 1905 in Transcultural Perspective: Identities, Peripheries, and the Flow of Ideas. Ed. Felicitas Fischer von Weikersthal, Frank Grüner, Susanne Hohler, Franziska Schedewie, and Raphael Utz. With Gregory L. Freeze. Allan K. Wildman Group for the Study of Russian Politics, Society and Culture in the Revolutionary Era. Bloomington: Slavica Publishers, 2013". Slavic Review. 74 (3): 648–650. doi:10.5612/slavicreview.74.3.648.
  232. ^ Fröhlich, Klaus (1971). "Reviewed work: First Blood. The Russian Revolution of 1905, Sidney Harcave". Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas. 19 (4): 584–586. JSTOR 41044424.
  233. ^ Gill, Graeme J. (1978). "Reviewed work: The Agrarian Policy of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party from Its Origins through the Revolution of 1905-1907, Maureen Perrie". The Slavonic and East European Review. 56 (3): 466–468. JSTOR 4207703.
  234. ^ Blakely, Allison (1977). "Reviewed work: The Agrarian Policy of the Russian Socialist-Revolutionary Party from its Origins through the Revolution of 1905-1907, Maureen Perrie". The American Historical Review. 82 (5): 1294–1295. doi:10.2307/1856471. JSTOR 1856471.
  235. ^ Morrissey, Susan K. (1997). "Reviewed work: Russian Rightists and the Revolution of 1905, Don C. Rawson". Russian History. 24 (3): 350–351. JSTOR 24658441.
  236. ^ Shukman, Harold (1969). "Reviewed work: The Making of a Workers' Revolution: Russian Social Democracy 1891-1903, Vol. I, Alan K. Wildman". Soviet Studies. 20 (4): 559–560. JSTOR 149818.
  237. ^ Lane, D. S. (1968). "Reviewed work: The Russian Revolution of 1905. The Workers' Movement and the Formation of Bolshevism and Menshevism, Solomon M. Schwarz, Gertrude Vakar". The Slavonic and East European Review. 46 (107): 532–534. JSTOR 4206020.
  238. ^ Lincoln, W. Bruce (1992). "Reviewed work: The Crisis of Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution, Andrew M. Verner". The Journal of Modern History. 64 (4): 859–860. doi:10.1086/244604. JSTOR 2124960.
  239. ^ McDonald, David; Verner, Andrew M. (1992). "The Crisis of Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution". Russian Review. 51: 122. doi:10.2307/131263. JSTOR 131263.
  240. ^ Pearl, Deborah (1994). "Reviewed work: The Revolution of 1905 in Odessa: Blood on the Steps, Robert Weinberg". Russian History. 21 (2): 202–204. JSTOR 24657434.
  241. ^ Viola, Lynne (1995). "Reviewed work: The Revolution of 1905 in Odessa: Blood on the Steps. (Studies of the Harriman Institute), Robert Weinberg". Urban History Review. 23 (2): 54. doi:10.7202/1016636ar. JSTOR 43559801.
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  245. ^ Anellis, Irving H. (1986). "Reviewed work: The February Revolution: Petrograd, 1917, Tsuyoshi Hasegawi". Studies in Soviet Thought. 31 (2): 180–183. JSTOR 20100098.
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  247. ^ Treadgold, Donald W.; Katkov, George (1967). "Russia 1917: The February Revolution". Russian Review. 26 (4): 404. doi:10.2307/126899. JSTOR 126899.
  248. ^ Mosse, W. E. (1968). "Russia 1917: The February Revolution". Soviet Studies. 19 (3): 430–439. doi:10.1080/09668136808410606. JSTOR 149956.
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  253. ^ Keep, John (1970). "Reviewed work: Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising, Alexander Rabinowitch". The Slavonic and East European Review. 48 (112): 464–466. JSTOR 4206263.
  254. ^ Katkov, George (1972). "Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising. By Alexander Rabinowitch. Indiana University International Studies. Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1968". Slavic Review. 31 (4): 896–897. doi:10.2307/2493788. JSTOR 2493788.
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  259. ^ Venturi, Antonello (1984). "Reviewed work: The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police, George Leggett". The Journal of Modern History. 56 (4): 767–768. doi:10.1086/242774. JSTOR 1880364.
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  261. ^ Katz, Mark N. (1994). "Black Earth, Red Star: A History of Soviet Security Policy, 1917-1991. By R. Craig Nation. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1991". Slavic Review. 53 (2): 610. doi:10.2307/2501355. JSTOR 2501355.
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  268. ^ Nakai, Kazuo (1981). "Reviewed work: The Sovietization of Ukraine, 1917-1923: The Communist Doctrine and Practice of National Self-Determination. Revised edition, Jurij Borys". Harvard Ukrainian Studies. 5 (2): 278–279. JSTOR 41035914.
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  273. ^ Venturi, A. (1984). "Reviewed Work: The Cheka: Lenin's Political Police by George Leggett". The Journal of Modern History. 56 (4): 767–768. doi:10.1086/242774. JSTOR 1880364.
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