Get Our Extension

Battle of Saint-Denis (1678)

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Battle of Saint-Denis
Part of the Franco-Dutch War
1678 Slag bij St. Denis - Romeyn de Hooghe.jpg
Battle of Saint-Denis by Romeyn de Hooghe
Date14 August 1678
Location50°29′00″N 4°01′00″E / 50.4833°N 4.0167°E / 50.4833; 4.0167
Result Disputed
Belligerents
 France  Dutch Republic
 Spain
Commanders and leaders
Kingdom of France Luxembourg
Kingdom of France de Villeroy
Kingdom of France Comte de Montal
Dutch Republic William of Orange
Dutch Republic Count Waldeck
Dutch Republic Earl of Ossory
Spain Duke of Villahermosa
Strength
40,000-50,000[1] 35,000[2][3]-45,000[1]
Casualties and losses
2,500[1]
4,000[4]
3,000[1]
4,000[5]
5,000[4]

The Battle of Saint-Denis was the last major action of the 1672 to 1678 Franco-Dutch War. It took place on 14 August 1678, four days after Louis XIV of France had agreed the Treaty of Nijmegen with the Dutch Republic, but before he finalised terms with Spain. The battle was initiated by the Allies to prevent the French capturing the Spanish-held town of Mons, then on the border between France and the Spanish Netherlands. Both sides claimed victory and the result is disputed.

Leaving a small force to maintain the siege of Mons, French commander Luxembourg concentrated 40,000 to 50,000 men around the nearby villages of Saint-Dénis and Casteau, where they were attacked by a combined Dutch-Spanish army of 35,000 to 45,000 men led by William of Orange.

In the early stages, the Allies over-ran the French flanks and forced Luxembourg out of his headquarters in the abbey of Saint-Dénis, but were then pushed back by a series of counter attacks, with many positions changing hands several times. Fighting continued late into the evening, when William pulled his troops back to regroup, leaving the French occupying most of their original lines.

The exception was Saint-Denis, whose loss left the French position untenable. When the Allies resumed their attack early next morning, they found Luxembourg had withdrawn overnight and abandoned the siege of Mons.[6] As a result, the town remained Spanish under the treaty agreed with Louis XIV on 17 September.

Discover more about Battle of Saint-Denis (1678) related topics

Franco-Dutch War

Franco-Dutch War

The Franco-Dutch War, also known as the Dutch War, was fought between France and the Dutch Republic, supported by its allies the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Denmark-Norway. In its early stages, France was allied with Münster and Cologne, as well as England. The 1672 to 1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War and 1675 to 1679 Scanian War are considered related conflicts.

Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic

The United Provinces of the Netherlands, officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, and commonly referred to in historiography as the Dutch Republic, was a confederation that existed from 1579 until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was a predecessor state of the present-day Netherlands. The republic was established after seven Dutch provinces in the Spanish Netherlands revolted against Spanish rule, forming a mutual alliance against Spain in 1579 and declaring their independence in 1581. It comprised Groningen, Frisia, Overijssel, Guelders, Utrecht, Holland and Zeeland.

Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain is a contemporary historiographical term referring to the huge extent of territories ruled between the 16th and 18th centuries (1516–1713) by kings from the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg. Habsburg Spain was a composite monarchy and a personal union. The Habsburg Hispanic Monarchs reached the zenith of their influence and power ruling the Spanish Empire. They controlled territories over the five continents, including the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries, Belgium, Luxembourg, and territories now in Italy, France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, and various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion".

Mons

Mons

Mons is a city and municipality of Wallonia, and the capital of the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

Kingdom of France

Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France is the historiographical name or umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the medieval and early modern period. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe since the High Middle Ages. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Spanish Netherlands

Spanish Netherlands

Spanish Netherlands was the Habsburg Netherlands ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs from 1556 to 1714. They were a collection of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries held in personal union by the Spanish Crown. This region comprised most of the modern states of Belgium and Luxembourg, as well as parts of northern France, the southern Netherlands, and western Germany with the capital being Brussels. The Army of Flanders was given the task of defending the territory.

Casteau

Casteau

Casteau is a village of Wallonia and a district of the municipality of Soignies, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

William III of England

William III of England

William III, also widely known as William of Orange, was the sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Guelders, and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from the 1670s, and King of England, Ireland, and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II. He is sometimes informally known as "King Billy" in Ireland and Scotland. His victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is commemorated by Unionists, who display orange colours in his honour. He ruled Britain alongside his wife and cousin, Queen Mary II, and popular histories usually refer to their reign as that of "William and Mary".

Treaties of Nijmegen

Treaties of Nijmegen

The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen were a series of treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and October 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch Republic, Spain, Brandenburg, Sweden, Denmark-Norway, the Prince-Bishopric of Münster, and the Holy Roman Empire. The most significant of the treaties was the first, which established peace between France and the Dutch Republic and placed the northern border of France very near its modern position.

Background

MonsMaastrichtYpresCateau-CambrésisGhentBrusselsCharleroiValenciennesCasselMaubeugeclass=notpageimage| The Spanish Netherlands and Northern France in 1678; key locations
Mons
Mons
Maastricht
Maastricht
Ypres
Ypres
Cateau-Cambrésis
Cateau-Cambrésis
Ghent
Ghent
Brussels
Brussels
Charleroi
Charleroi
Valenciennes
Valenciennes
Cassel
Cassel
Maubeuge
Maubeuge
The Spanish Netherlands and Northern France in 1678; key locations

France viewed possession of the Spanish Netherlands as essential for its security and trade and occupied much of it in the 1667 to 1668 War of Devolution. Having won their independence in 1648, the Dutch Republic preferred a weakened Spain as a neighbour, rather than an aggressive and expansionist France. As a result, the Dutch-led Triple Alliance forced Louis XIV of France to return most of his gains in the 1668 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.[7] Thereafter, Louis decided the best way to force concessions from the Dutch was by first defeating them.[8]

Initially supported by England, the Franco-Dutch War began in May 1672; French troops quickly overran much of the Netherlands, but by July the Dutch position had stabilised. Success encouraged Louis to make excessive demands, while concern at French advances brought the Dutch support from Brandenburg-Prussia, Emperor Leopold, and Charles II of Spain. In August 1673, an Imperial army entered the Rhineland; facing war on multiple fronts, the French abandoned most of their Dutch gains to focus elsewhere, retaining only Grave and Maastricht.[9] In January 1674, Denmark joined the anti-French coalition, while in February England left the war via the Treaty of Westminster.[10]

In the first part of 1674, Louis focused on recapturing Franche-Comté, a process completed by the end of June, after which French troops were transferred to Condé's army in the Spanish Netherlands. Both sides suffered heavy losses in the Battle of Seneffe on 11 August, which confirmed Louis' preference for positional warfare, with siege and manoeuvre dominating in this theatre thereafter.[11] The peace talks that began at Nijmegen in 1676 were given a greater sense of urgency in November 1677 when William of Orange married his cousin Mary, Charles II of England's niece. An Anglo-Dutch defensive alliance followed in March 1678,[a] although English troops did not arrive in significant numbers until late May.[12] The delay allowed Louis to improve his negotiating position by capturing Ypres and Ghent in early March, before signing a peace treaty with the Dutch on 10 August.[13]

Discover more about Background related topics

Kingdom of France

Kingdom of France

The Kingdom of France is the historiographical name or umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the medieval and early modern period. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe since the High Middle Ages. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Peace of Westphalia

Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. They ended the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) and brought peace to the Holy Roman Empire, closing a calamitous period of European history that killed approximately eight million people. Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, the kingdoms of France and Sweden, and their respective allies among the princes of the Holy Roman Empire, participated in the treaties.

Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic

The United Provinces of the Netherlands, officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands, and commonly referred to in historiography as the Dutch Republic, was a confederation that existed from 1579 until the Batavian Revolution in 1795. It was a predecessor state of the present-day Netherlands. The republic was established after seven Dutch provinces in the Spanish Netherlands revolted against Spanish rule, forming a mutual alliance against Spain in 1579 and declaring their independence in 1581. It comprised Groningen, Frisia, Overijssel, Guelders, Utrecht, Holland and Zeeland.

Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain

Habsburg Spain is a contemporary historiographical term referring to the huge extent of territories ruled between the 16th and 18th centuries (1516–1713) by kings from the Spanish branch of the House of Habsburg. Habsburg Spain was a composite monarchy and a personal union. The Habsburg Hispanic Monarchs reached the zenith of their influence and power ruling the Spanish Empire. They controlled territories over the five continents, including the Americas, the East Indies, the Low Countries, Belgium, Luxembourg, and territories now in Italy, France and Germany in Europe, the Portuguese Empire from 1580 to 1640, and various other territories such as small enclaves like Ceuta and Oran in North Africa. This period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion".

Kingdom of England

Kingdom of England

The Kingdom of England existed on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it unified from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, until 1 May 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Franco-Dutch War

Franco-Dutch War

The Franco-Dutch War, also known as the Dutch War, was fought between France and the Dutch Republic, supported by its allies the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Brandenburg-Prussia and Denmark-Norway. In its early stages, France was allied with Münster and Cologne, as well as England. The 1672 to 1674 Third Anglo-Dutch War and 1675 to 1679 Scanian War are considered related conflicts.

Brandenburg-Prussia

Brandenburg-Prussia

Brandenburg-Prussia is the historiographic denomination for the early modern realm of the Brandenburgian Hohenzollerns between 1618 and 1701. Based in the Electorate of Brandenburg, the main branch of the Hohenzollern intermarried with the branch ruling the Duchy of Prussia, and secured succession upon the latter's extinction in the male line in 1618. Another consequence of the intermarriage was the incorporation of the lower Rhenish principalities of Cleves, Mark and Ravensberg after the Treaty of Xanten in 1614.

Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold I was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the second longest-ruling Habsburg emperor. He was both a composer and considerable patron of music.

Charles II of Spain

Charles II of Spain

Charles II of Spain, known as the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire. Best remembered for his physical disabilities and the War of the Spanish Succession that followed his death, Charles's reign has traditionally been viewed as one of managed decline. However, many of the issues Spain faced in this period were inherited from his predecessors and some recent historians have suggested a more balanced perspective.

Grave, Netherlands

Grave, Netherlands

Grave is a city and former municipality in the Dutch province of North Brabant. The former municipality had a population of 12,483 in 2019. Grave is a member of the Dutch Association of Fortified Cities.

Maastricht

Maastricht

Maastricht is a city and a municipality in the southeastern Netherlands. It is the capital and largest city of the province of Limburg. Maastricht is located on both sides of the Meuse, at the point where the Jeker joins it. Mount Saint Peter (Sint-Pietersberg) is largely situated within the city's municipal borders. Maastricht is adjacent to the border with Belgium and is part of the Meuse-Rhine Euroregion, an international metropolis with a population of about 3.9 million, which includes the nearby German and Belgian cities of Aachen, Liège and Hasselt.

Denmark–Norway

Denmark–Norway

Denmark–Norway was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real union consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway, the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein. The state also claimed sovereignty over three historical peoples: Frisians, Gutes and Wends. Denmark–Norway had several colonies, namely the Danish Gold Coast, the Nicobar Islands, Serampore, Tharangambadi, and the Danish West Indies. The union was also known as the Dano-Norwegian Realm, Twin Realms (Tvillingerigerne) or the Oldenburg Monarchy (Oldenburg-monarkiet)

Battle

Vauban's pré carré line of fortresses; green = first line, blue = second line
Vauban's pré carré line of fortresses; green = first line, blue = second line

French strategy was driven by Vauban's pré carré plan, a double-line of fortresses to protect their northern borders (See Map). Mons was the most significant position still held by the Spanish; although the Dutch had agreed terms with France, Spain had not yet done so, and the delay provided an opportunity to capture it.[13]

During the March offensive that secured Ypres and Ghent, a French force under de Montal was based at Saint-Ghislain and Marville to blockade Mons. In late June, Louis instructed Luxembourg to continue the blockade, but remain on the defensive, while pulling most of his troops back to the French border. However, when the Allies persisted in trying to relieve Mons, he finally authorised Luxembourg to accept battle, hoping to inflict enough casualties to force the Dutch to make peace.[14]

On 12 August, Luxembourg and his army of 40,000 [b] was camped in the nearby villages of Saint-Denis and Casteau, with a combined Dutch and Spanish force of 45,000 based at Soignies, about three hours march away.[16] Although William and Villahermosa knew the Dutch were close to agreeing terms, they decided to attack, since the war with Spain continued and preventing the loss of Mons benefitted both of them. Luxembourg, who was based in the Abbey de St Denis, an important exposed position in front of the French right wing, reportedly learned the Treaty had been signed that same morning.[17] However, this is disputed and other historians suggest neither he or William knew peace had been formally agreed when they fought the battle.[18][19]

His strong position meant Luxembourg did not anticipate an attack by William, a belief reinforced by his scouts. Believing the main Allied objective was to attack the French siege works on the other bank of the River Haine, he assumed any assault on his lines must be a diversion. As a result, when Dutch dragoons under Sir Alexander Colyear occupied the wooded heights around Saint Denis and drove back the French outposts, Luxembourg did nothing to assist them.[20]

By 14:00, the Allied troops were in position, and William ordered a simultaneous assault on Luxembourg's left and right flanks.[21] When Villeroy, who was in charge of Saint Denis, reported the Allies were advancing on the Abbey, Luxembourg ordered his artillery and baggage train to withdraw towards de Montal's positions at Saint-Ghislain. About 15:00, Dutch troops under Count Waldeck captured the Abbey despite heavy losses, William's secretary later noting some 300 to 400 corpses littering the ground in front.[1] They then drove the French back to the creek, which ran through the battlefield, but Allied attempts to cross it and break Villeroy's front line ultimately failed.[22] At the same time, Spanish and Dutch infantry, which included the Scots Brigade, attacked Casteau and captured most of the village.[23]

A map of the battle with Saint-Denis on the left and Casteau on the right.
A map of the battle with Saint-Denis on the left and Casteau on the right.

Once Luxembourg realised this was not a feint, he committed his reserves to the battle for Casteau, which lasted over five hours, during which the church, mill and chateau changed hands several times.[24] Both sides suffered heavy casualties in fierce hand-to-hand fighting; Luxembourg was wounded, while William was reportedly saved by future Marshal Hendrik Overkirk, who killed a French dragoon with his pistol against the Prince's chest.[25] Around 19:00, William ordered his infantry in Casteau to withdraw, covered by the Spanish cavalry and a rearguard in Casteau which then did the same, apart from a regiment of French Huguenots exiles holding the chateau. Commanded by a former French regular officer, M de La Roque-Servière, they continued fighting until over-run just after 21:00, when the fight around Casteau ended.[26] By then it had become completely dark and even at Saint-Dénis, where neither side had gained further ground, the fire died down around 22:00.[27]

Hendrik Overkirk saves William of Orange from a French dragoon, by Jacob de Vos
Hendrik Overkirk saves William of Orange from a French dragoon, by Jacob de Vos

French casualties were around 4,000 killed or wounded, including 689 in the elite Gardes Francaises, those of the Allies roughly equal [28] or slightly higher at 5,000 in total.[4] Other sources put French losses at about 2,500 in total, those of the Allies being in the region of 3,000.[1] The only British troops involved were the six regiments of the Dutch Scots Brigade commanded by the Earl of Ossory, with some 25% of their officers killed or wounded.[29] Although the commander of the British expeditionary force, James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth, was present with his staff and took part in a number of cavalry charges, his brigade was still en route from Ostend.[21]

Most of the French casualties were incurred by the thirteen infantry regiments who took part in the fighting around Casteau and St Denis and their effectiveness was much diminished.[30] More importantly, however, the French had been unable to retake Saint-Denis. This meant that the French positions were no longer tenable. The link with his besieging force was now seriously threatened and Luxembourg therefore decided not to await a second attack.[31] Around 23:00, Luxembourg ordered his troops back over the River Hain to his rear and having destroyed the bridges behind them, rejoined the besieging force outside Mons.[30] The Allies did not discover this until the next morning, but the hasty retreat meant Luxembourg left behind his wounded and part of the baggage train.[32]

Discover more about Battle related topics

Mons

Mons

Mons is a city and municipality of Wallonia, and the capital of the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

Charles de Montsaulnin, Comte de Montal

Charles de Montsaulnin, Comte de Montal

Charles de Montsaulnin, Comte de Montal (1619–1696) was a 17th-century French military officer and noble who was a close friend of Le Grand Condé, and fought in many of the wars of Louis XIV of France.

Saint-Ghislain

Saint-Ghislain

Saint-Ghislain is a city and municipality of Wallonia located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

Marville, Meuse

Marville, Meuse

Marville is a commune in the Meuse department in Grand Est in north-eastern France.

Saint-Denis, Mons

Saint-Denis, Mons

Saint-Denis is a town of Wallonia and a district of the municipality of Mons, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

Casteau

Casteau

Casteau is a village of Wallonia and a district of the municipality of Soignies, located in the province of Hainaut, Belgium.

Carlos de Aragón de Gurrea, 9th Duke of Villahermosa

Carlos de Aragón de Gurrea, 9th Duke of Villahermosa

Carlos de Aragón de Gurrea y de Borja, 9th Duke of Villahermosa was a Spanish nobleman, viceroy and governor.

Haine

Haine

The Haine is a river in southern Belgium (Hainaut) and northern France (Nord), right tributary of the river Scheldt. The Haine gave its name to the County of Hainaut, and the present province of Hainaut. Its source is in Anderlues, Belgium. As the western end of the sillon industriel, Wallonia's industrial backbone, it flows through the heavily industrialized Borinage region, notably the towns La Louvière, Mons and Saint-Ghislain. A few kilometres after crossing the border to France, the Haine flows into the Scheldt in Condé-sur-l'Escaut. Its length within Belgium is 72 km (45 mi) and the Belgian part of its drainage basin is 802 km2 (310 sq mi).

François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy

François de Neufville, duc de Villeroy

François de Neufville, Duke of Villeroy was a French nobleman and military officer.

Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck

Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck

Prince Georg Friedrich of Waldeck was a German and Dutch Field Marshal and, for the last three years of his life, Grand Master of the Order of Saint John.

Constantijn Huygens Jr.

Constantijn Huygens Jr.

Constantijn Huygens Jr., Lord of Zuilichem, was a Dutch statesman and poet, mostly known for his work on scientific instruments. But, he was also a chronicler of his times, revealing the importance of gossip. Additionally, he was an amateur draughtsman of landscapes.

Scots Brigade

Scots Brigade

The Scots Brigade, also referred to as the Anglo-Dutch Brigade or the Anglo-Scots Brigade, was an infantry brigade of the Dutch States Army. First formed in 1586, by the late 17th century it usually comprised six infantry regiments, three recruited primarily from Scotland and three from England. It was finally dissolved in 1782 following the outbreak of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War.

Aftermath

Ruins of the Abbey St Denis, Luxembourg's headquarters, taken by the Dutch in the first assault
Ruins of the Abbey St Denis, Luxembourg's headquarters, taken by the Dutch in the first assault

As with many other battles of the period, both sides claimed victory, Luxembourg doing so on the grounds he had successfully repulsed the Allied assaults, suffered fewer casualties and retained most of his original positions. In contrast, William argued he had pulled his troops back only to reorganise for another attempt, and when they resumed the attack early on the morning of 15 August, they found the French had abandoned the battlefield. Under the conventions then prevailing, both sides had a case but the immediate effect was that William resumed his march on Mons once the bridges had been repaired.[18] On arrival, he found Luxembourg had already lifted the siege and retreated behind the French border, which meant the Allies achieved their strategic objective of ensuring the town remained in Spanish hands.[33] As a consequence, the result is disputed; it has been described as a French victory,[34][35] a narrow Allied defeat,[36] inconclusive[2] or an Allied victory.[37][18]

Spain and France agreed an armistice on 19 August, with a formal peace treaty signed on 17 September. France returned Charleroi, Ghent and other towns in the Spanish Netherlands, but Spain ceded Ypres, Maubeuge, Câteau-Cambrésis, Valenciennes, Saint-Omer and Cassel; with the exception of Ypres, all of these remain part of modern France.[38]

Discover more about Aftermath related topics

Source: "Battle of Saint-Denis (1678)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 13th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Saint-Denis_(1678).

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
  1. ^ England agreed to provide an expeditionary force of 11,000 men, and the two sides undertook to impose a peace under which France would restore Charleroi, Oudenarde, Tournai and Valenciennes [12]
  2. ^ 22 battalions of infantry plus 30 squadrons of cavalry [15]
References
  1. ^ a b c d e f Nimwegen 2020, p. 166.
  2. ^ a b Israel 1995, p. 825.
  3. ^ Muller 1882, p. 54.
  4. ^ a b c Périni 1896, pp. 234–235.
  5. ^ Field, Jacob. "Battle of Saint-Denis". Britannica.com. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  6. ^ Field, Jacob. "Battle of Saint-Denis". Britannica.com. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  7. ^ Macintosh 1973, p. 165.
  8. ^ Lynn 1999, pp. 109–110.
  9. ^ Lynn 1999, pp. 123–124.
  10. ^ Hutton 1989, p. 317.
  11. ^ Lynn 1999, p. 125.
  12. ^ a b Childs 1974, p. 3.
  13. ^ a b Lesaffer.
  14. ^ Lynn 1999, pp. 153–154.
  15. ^ Périni 1896, p. 224.
  16. ^ Périni 1896, pp. 224–225.
  17. ^ Périni 1896, p. 227.
  18. ^ a b c Childs 1974, p. 10.
  19. ^ Lynn 1999, p. 154.
  20. ^ Muller 1882, p. -59-60.
  21. ^ a b Childs 1974, p. 8.
  22. ^ Muller 1882, p. 61.
  23. ^ Périni 1896, pp. 228–229.
  24. ^ Childs 1974, p. 9.
  25. ^ Frey & Frey 1995, p. 306.
  26. ^ Périni 1896, pp. 230–232.
  27. ^ Muller 1882, p. 63.
  28. ^ Field, Jacob. "Battle of Saint-Denis". Britannica.com. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  29. ^ Ede-Borrett 2003, p. 278.
  30. ^ a b Périni 1896, p. 234.
  31. ^ Muller 1882, p. 64.
  32. ^ Nimwegen 2020, pp. 165–166.
  33. ^ Field, Jacob. "Battle of Saint-Denis". Britannica.com. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  34. ^ Périni 1896, p. 235.
  35. ^ Dupuy & Dupuy 1993, p. 566.
  36. ^ Kossmann 1975, p. 296.
  37. ^ Nimwegen 2010, p. 510.
  38. ^ Nolan 2008, p. 128.
Sources
  • Childs, John (1974). "Monmouth and the Army of Flanders". Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 52 (209): 3–12. JSTOR 44223058.
  • Davenport, Frances (1917). European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies. Washington, D.C. Carnegie Institution of Washington.
  • Dupuy, Richard Ernest; Dupuy, Trevor (1993). The Harper's Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B.C. to the Present. HarperCollins Publishers.
  • Ede-Borrett, Stephen (2003). "Casualties in the Anglo-Dutch Brigade at the battle of St Denis August 1678". Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research. 81 (327). JSTOR 44230964.
  • Frey, Linda; Frey, Marsha (1995). The Treaties of the War of the Spanish Succession: An Historical and Critical Dictionary. Greenwood. ISBN 978-0313278846.
  • Hutton, Ronald (1989). Charles II King of England, Scotland and Ireland. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0198229117.
  • Kossmann, E.H. (1975). "The Dutch Republic". In Carsten, F.L. (ed.). The New Cambridge Modern History. Vol. V: The Ascendancy of France: 1648-88. Cambridge University Press.
  • Lesaffer, Randall. "The Wars of Louis XIV in Treaties (Part V): The Peace of Nijmegen (1678–1679)". Oxford Public International Law. Retrieved 30 December 2018.
  • Lynn, John (1999). The Wars of Louis XIV, 1667-1714 (Modern Wars In Perspective). Longman. ISBN 978-0582056299.
  • Macintosh, Claude Truman (1973). French Diplomacy during the War of Devolution, the Triple Alliance and the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (PhD). Ohio State University.
  • Nimwegen, Olaf van (2010). The Dutch Army and the Military Revolutions, 1588-1688. Boydell & Brewer. ISBN 978-1843835752.
  • Nimwegen, Olaf van (2020). De Veertigjarige Oorlog 1672-1712: de strijd van de Nederlanders tegen de Zonnekoning (in Dutch). Prometheus. ISBN 978-9044638714.
  • Nolan, Cathal J (2008). Wars of the age of Louis XIV, 1650–1715. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-33046-9.
  • Périni, Hardÿ de (1896). Batailles françaises, Volume V (in French). Ernest Flammarion, Paris.
  • Muller, Pieter Nicolaas (1882). "Willem III en de slag van Saint Dénis (1678)". De Gids. 46.
  • Israel, Jonathan (1995). The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness, and Fall 1477–1806. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-873072-1.

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.