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Bathurst, New South Wales

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Bathurst
New South Wales
2010-09-19 Bathurst, New South Wales - 02.jpg
William Street
Bathurst is located in New South Wales
Bathurst
Bathurst
Coordinates33°25′12″S 149°34′40″E / 33.42000°S 149.57778°E / -33.42000; 149.57778Coordinates: 33°25′12″S 149°34′40″E / 33.42000°S 149.57778°E / -33.42000; 149.57778
Population37,191 (2019)[1]
Established1814
Postcode(s)2795
Elevation650 m (2,133 ft)
Location
LGA(s)Bathurst Regional Council
State electorate(s)Bathurst
Federal division(s)Calare
Bathurst, NSW-coat of arms.jpg
Mean max temp Mean min temp Annual rainfall
20.8 °C
69 °F
6.7 °C
44 °F
647.8 mm
25.5 in

Bathurst (/ˈbæθɜːrst/) is a city in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. Bathurst is about 200 kilometres (120 mi) west-northwest of Sydney and is the seat of the Bathurst Regional Council. Bathurst is the oldest inland settlement in Australia[2] and had a population of 37,191[1] in June 2019.

Bathurst is often referred to as the Gold Country as it was the site of the first gold discovery and where the first gold rush occurred in Australia. Today education, tourism and manufacturing drive the economy. The internationally known racetrack Mount Panorama is a landmark of the city. Bathurst has a historic city centre with many ornate buildings remaining from the New South Wales gold rush in the mid to late 19th century.

The median age of the city's population is 35 years; which is particularly young for a regional centre (the state median is 38), and is related to the large education sector in the community.[3][4] The city has had a moderate population growth of 1.29% year-on-year averaged over the five years until 2019, making Bathurst the tenth fastest-growing urban area in New South Wales outside Sydney.[1] This growth over recent years has resulted in increased urban development, including retail precincts, sporting facilities, housing estates and expanding industrial areas.

Discover more about Bathurst, New South Wales related topics

Central Tablelands

Central Tablelands

The Central Tablelands in New South Wales is a geographic area that lies between the Sydney Metropolitan Area and the Central Western Slopes and Plains. The Great Dividing Range passes in a north–south direction through the Central Tablelands and includes the Blue Mountains. The region shares borders with the Hunter, Central West Slopes and Plains, South West Slopes, Southern Tablelands, North Western Slopes and Plains, the Sydney Metropolitan Area and the Illawarra.

New South Wales

New South Wales

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east. The Australian Capital Territory and Jervis Bay Territory are enclaves within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In December 2021, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.3 million, live in the Greater Sydney area.

Sydney

Sydney

Sydney is the capital city of the state of New South Wales, and the most populous city in both Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Sydney Harbour and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, spread across 33 local government areas. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". The 2021 census recorded the population of Greater Sydney as 5,231,150, meaning the city is home to approximately 66% of the state's population. Nicknames of the city include the 'Emerald City' and the 'Harbour City'.

New South Wales gold rush

New South Wales gold rush

New South Wales experienced the first gold rush in Australia, a period generally accepted to lie between 1851 and 1880. This period in the history of New South Wales resulted in a rapid growth in the population and significant boost to the economy of the colony of New South Wales. The California Gold Rush three years prior signaled the impacts on society that gold fever would produce, both positive and negative. The New South Wales colonial government concealed the early discoveries, but various factors changed the policy.

Geography

Bathurst and its surrounds from Mount Panorama
Bathurst and its surrounds from Mount Panorama

Bathurst is located on the western edge of the Great Dividing Range in the Macquarie River plain; also known as the Bathurst plains.[5]

The Macquarie River, which is part of the Murray-Darling basin, the largest river system in Australia, runs through the centre of the city. A number of levee banks have been erected in Bathurst to protect the region from occasional flood events.[6]

Mount Panorama is located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) from the CBD and effectively within the city limits; it is 877 metres (2,877 ft) AMSL and rises 215 metres (705 ft) above the Bathurst CBD.

The Great Western Highway, which begins in the centre of the city of Sydney, ends at Bathurst. Two main state highways start at Bathurst: the Mitchell Highway to Bourke and the Mid-Western Highway to Hay. Bathurst is about mid-way along a regional road route from Canberra and Goulburn to Mudgee and the Hunter Region. Bathurst is also on the Main Western railway line that starts at Sydney Central and proceeds for 242 kilometres (150 mi) by rail to Bathurst.

The Macquarie River divides Bathurst with the CBD located on the western side of the river. Four road bridges and two rail bridges span the river within the city area. From the upstream side they are: Macquarie River Railway Bridge (built in 1876[7]) closed in 2011 (replaced with a new concrete single track rail bridge structure alongside and brought into use in 2011); the four lane Evans Bridge which opened in 1995; the Denison Bridge opened in 1870 (closed to road traffic and now a pedestrian bridge); the Gordon Edgell Bridge, a low−level bridge located on George Street; and Rankens Bridge at Eglinton.

Landform

Two physical components comprise the Bathurst region; the Bathurst Basin and the Tablelands areas. They are drained by the Macquarie, Turon, Fish and Campbells Rivers to the north and Abercrombie and Isabella Rivers to the south. The central basin area of the Bathurst area is mainly granite soils while in the north area sandstone, conglomerates, greywacke, siltstones, limestones and minor volcanos predominate. The south is more complex geology with siltstones, sandstones, greywacke, shales and chert, basalt and granite intrusions and embedded volcanic and limestones. Underlying Bathurst is the dominant feature of Bathurst granite (intruded in the Devonian period) and at Mount Panorama and Mount Stewart basalt occurs.[4]

Topography of the region ranges from slightly undulating to rough and very steep country, about 30 km to the east of Bathurst is the folded and faulted sedimentary and metamorphosed formations of the Great Dividing Range which runs roughly north–south.[8]

Central Business District and suburbs

William Street; one of the main streets of Bathurst
William Street; one of the main streets of Bathurst

Bathurst's central business district (CBD) is located on William, George, Howick, Russell, and Durham Streets. The CBD is about 25 hectares (62 acres) in area and covers two city blocks. Banking, government services, shopping centres, retail shops, a park (shown) and monuments are in this area.

Bathurst has retained a mix of main street shopping along with enclosed shopping centres within the CBD, unlike other towns where the CBD focus has split between main street and new shopping centre developments located in the suburbs. Within the CBD lies Kings Parade; this is a park setting with several memorials of people and events in history. It is a popular location for locals to meet. Keppel Street is Bathurst's second commercial shopping area, removed from the CBD by two blocks to the south. This area developed once the railway arrived in 1876.

The main suburbs of Bathurst are: Kelso, Eglinton, West Bathurst, Llanarth, South Bathurst, Gormans Hill, Windradyne, Windradyne Heights and Abercrombie Estate. One of the newer suburbs is Marsden Estate, in Kelso.[9]

Climate

Autumn foliage in central Bathurst during May
Autumn foliage in central Bathurst during May

Due to its elevation, Bathurst has an oceanic climate (Cfb), according to Köppen climate classification. Bathurst is in Australia's cool temperate climate zone which is defined as having mild to warm summers and cool to cold winters.[10][11] Regular summer thunderstorms are common, resulting from the flat plains country to the west, leading into the mountainous nature of the country around Bathurst and assisting the development of storm cells. These storms rarely strike the city and instead often move either in a south east or north east direction away from Bathurst[12] Bathurst gets 106.9 clear days annually.[13]

In winter, light to moderate snowfalls occur each year on the higher peaks around Bathurst, whilst snow is relatively rare in the city itself due to its sheltered location. On 5 July 1900, Bathurst received a freak snowfall measuring at 68 centimetres (27 in) in the main street.[14] Bathurst is relatively dry year round, as it lay in a rain shadow on account of its sheltered valley location flanked by hills and ranges on all sides.[15]

On 11 February 2017, Bathurst Ag recorded a new record high temperature of 41.5 °C (106.7 °F),[16] although temperatures of 40 °C (104 °F) are exceedingly rare for Bathurst. There is a reading of 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) on 12 January 1878 at the gaol, however such a reading may have been subject to overexposure. The highest minimum temperature by far was 28.1 °C (82.6 °F), on 14 January 1939.

Climate data for Bathurst Agricultural Station (1991–2020, extremes 1966–2020); 713 m AMSL; 33.43° S, 149.56° E
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 41.0
(105.8)
41.5
(106.7)
35.3
(95.5)
32.0
(89.6)
24.2
(75.6)
20.5
(68.9)
20.5
(68.9)
23.5
(74.3)
29.0
(84.2)
34.1
(93.4)
39.7
(103.5)
40.3
(104.5)
41.5
(106.7)
Average high °C (°F) 29.5
(85.1)
28.0
(82.4)
25.1
(77.2)
21.3
(70.3)
16.7
(62.1)
13.2
(55.8)
12.3
(54.1)
13.9
(57.0)
17.3
(63.1)
21.0
(69.8)
24.2
(75.6)
27.1
(80.8)
20.8
(69.4)
Average low °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
13.5
(56.3)
10.5
(50.9)
6.3
(43.3)
2.9
(37.2)
1.7
(35.1)
0.6
(33.1)
0.8
(33.4)
3.1
(37.6)
5.9
(42.6)
9.2
(48.6)
11.6
(52.9)
6.7
(44.0)
Record low °C (°F) 1.8
(35.2)
2.8
(37.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−5.0
(23.0)
−6.2
(20.8)
−8.2
(17.2)
−8.9
(16.0)
−7.5
(18.5)
−5.5
(22.1)
−3.0
(26.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
0.0
(32.0)
−8.9
(16.0)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 66.7
(2.63)
63.9
(2.52)
56.8
(2.24)
32.9
(1.30)
35.6
(1.40)
43.4
(1.71)
47.2
(1.86)
46.3
(1.82)
51.5
(2.03)
57.2
(2.25)
70.7
(2.78)
75.5
(2.97)
647.8
(25.50)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2mm) 8.1 7.5 7.0 5.3 7.7 10.8 11.4 10.2 9.3 9.1 9.8 8.8 105.0
Average afternoon relative humidity (%) 41 46 45 47 55 64 61 53 50 46 48 40 50
Source: Bureau of Meteorology[13]
Climate data for Bathurst Gaol (1858–1983); 704 m AMSL; 33.42° S, 149.55° E
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 44.7
(112.5)
41.1
(106.0)
37.7
(99.9)
33.3
(91.9)
26.7
(80.1)
21.7
(71.1)
21.1
(70.0)
25.0
(77.0)
30.0
(86.0)
35.6
(96.1)
39.7
(103.5)
41.8
(107.2)
44.7
(112.5)
Average high °C (°F) 29.3
(84.7)
28.5
(83.3)
26.0
(78.8)
21.3
(70.3)
16.6
(61.9)
12.9
(55.2)
12.0
(53.6)
14.0
(57.2)
17.5
(63.5)
21.5
(70.7)
25.0
(77.0)
27.9
(82.2)
21.0
(69.9)
Average low °C (°F) 13.2
(55.8)
12.9
(55.2)
10.5
(50.9)
6.1
(43.0)
2.7
(36.9)
1.2
(34.2)
0.1
(32.2)
0.8
(33.4)
3.0
(37.4)
5.8
(42.4)
8.7
(47.7)
11.2
(52.2)
6.4
(43.4)
Record low °C (°F) −2.2
(28.0)
1.7
(35.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
−5.6
(21.9)
−7.2
(19.0)
−9.2
(15.4)
−10.6
(12.9)
−7.5
(18.5)
−6.1
(21.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
−6.4
(20.5)
−1.7
(28.9)
−10.6
(12.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.1
(2.60)
58.1
(2.29)
51.5
(2.03)
42.6
(1.68)
44.2
(1.74)
46.8
(1.84)
44.8
(1.76)
45.7
(1.80)
46.1
(1.81)
59.2
(2.33)
56.8
(2.24)
60.1
(2.37)
622.0
(24.49)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2mm) 6.5 5.9 5.9 5.8 7.1 8.7 8.8 8.7 8.2 8.2 7.0 6.7 87.5
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Bathurst Gaol

Discover more about Geography related topics

Great Dividing Range

Great Dividing Range

The Great Dividing Range, also known as the East Australian Cordillera or the Eastern Highlands, is a cordillera system in eastern Australia consisting of an expansive collection of mountain ranges, plateaus and rolling hills, that runs roughly parallel to the east coast of Australia and forms the fifth-longest land-based mountain chain in the world, and the longest entirely within a single country. It is mainland Australia's most substantial topographic feature and serves as the definitive watershed for the river systems in eastern Australia, hence the name.

Macquarie River

Macquarie River

The Macquarie River - Wambuul is part of the Macquarie–Barwon catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is one of the main inland rivers in New South Wales, Australia.

Great Western Highway

Great Western Highway

Great Western Highway is a 202-kilometre-long (126 mi) state highway in New South Wales, Australia. From east to west, the highway links Sydney with Bathurst, on the state's Central Tablelands.

Bourke, New South Wales

Bourke, New South Wales

Bourke is a town in the north-west of New South Wales, Australia. The administrative centre and largest town in Bourke Shire, Bourke is approximately 800 kilometres (500 mi) north-west of the state capital, Sydney, on the south bank of the Darling River. it is also situated:137 kilometres south of Barringun and the Queensland - New South Wales Border 256 kilometres south of Cunnamulla 454 kilometres south of Charleville

Hay, New South Wales

Hay, New South Wales

Hay is a town in the western Riverina region of south western New South Wales, Australia. It is the administrative centre of Hay Shire local government area and the centre of a prosperous and productive agricultural district on the wide Hay Plains.

Canberra

Canberra

Canberra is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest Australian city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory at the northern tip of the Australian Alps, the country's highest mountain range. As of June 2021, Canberra's estimated population was 453,558.

Goulburn

Goulburn

Goulburn is a regional city in the Southern Tablelands of the Australian state of New South Wales, approximately 195 kilometres (121 mi) south-west of Sydney, and 90 kilometres (56 mi) north-east of Canberra. It was proclaimed as Australia's first inland city through letters patent by Queen Victoria in 1863. Goulburn had a population of 23,835 at June 2018. Goulburn is the seat of Goulburn Mulwaree Council.

Hunter Region

Hunter Region

The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, Australia, extending from approximately 120 km (75 mi) to 310 km (193 mi) north of Sydney. It contains the Hunter River and its tributaries with highland areas to the north and south. Situated at the northern end of the Sydney Basin bioregion, the Hunter Valley is one of the largest river valleys on the NSW coast, and is most commonly known for its wineries and coal industry.

Bathurst railway station, New South Wales

Bathurst railway station, New South Wales

Bathurst railway station is a heritage-listed railway station at Havannah Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on the Main Western line and serves the city of Bathurst. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Central railway station, Sydney

Central railway station, Sydney

Central is a heritage-listed railway station located in the centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The station is the largest and busiest railway station in Australia and serves as a major transport interchange for NSW TrainLink inter-city rail services, Sydney Trains commuter rail services, Sydney light rail services, bus services, and private coach transport services. The station is also known as Sydney Terminal. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. It recorded 85.4 million passenger movements in 2018.

Macquarie River railway bridge, Bathurst

Macquarie River railway bridge, Bathurst

The Macquarie River railway bridge is a heritage-listed disused railway bridge across the Macquarie River that was previously located on the Main Western line in Bathurst in the Bathurst Region local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was built in 1876. It is also known as Bathurst Rail Bridge over Macquarie River and Bathurst - Kelso Railway Bridge. The property is owned by RailCorp, an agency of the Government of New South Wales. The bridge was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999 and was added to the Register of the National Estate on 18 April 1989.

Denison Bridge

Denison Bridge

The Denison Bridge is a heritage-listed footbridge over the Macquarie River in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is the fourth oldest metal truss bridge existing in Australia.

History

Wiradjuri

The area around what is now called Bathurst was originally occupied by the Muurrai clan of the Wiradjuri people. It was known as dalman or place of plenty. Yam fields were cultivated on the fertile floodplain and fire-stick farming was utilised to maintain grassy pasture for wild game. The Wiradjuri were noted by early colonists for their neat mandiyaba or possum-skin cloaks which were decorated with artistic etchings known as burwurr.[17] British colonial settlement into this area began in 1815 and was expanded in 1818 when Governor Lachlan Macquarie removed restrictions that limited colonial settlements. Once these restrictions were removed the Wiradjuri people suffered major dislocation, death and disruption to their way of life.[18]

Early British colonisation (1815–1850)

George Evans monument
George Evans monument

The government surveyor, George Evans, was the first European to sight the Bathurst Plains in 1813, following the first successful British crossing of the Blue Mountains in the same year. In 1814, Governor Lachlan Macquarie approved an offer by William Cox to build a road crossing the Blue Mountains, from Emu Plains to the Bathurst Plains. This road was 3.7 metres (12 ft) wide and 163.3 kilometres (101+12 mi) long, built between 18 July 1814 and 14 January 1815 using 5 freemen, 30 convict labourers and 8 soldiers as guards. Twenty convicts and soldiers remained stationed at terminus of the road at the Bathurst Plains. These were the first non-Indigenous residents of what was to become Bathurst but was simply referred to until May 7 of that year as the Grand Depot. Governor Macquarie surveyed the finished road in April 1815, travelling along it to the Grand Depot with his wife and an entourage of 50 officials, soldiers and servants.[19][17]

John Lewin, The Plains, Bathurst, watercolour drawing, ca. 1815, State Library of New South Wales
John Lewin, The Plains, Bathurst, watercolour drawing, ca. 1815, State Library of New South Wales

On 7 May 1815, Governor Macquarie raised the British flag at the Grand Depot, ordered a ceremonial volley to be fired and named the military outpost as Bathurst after the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst.[20] Bathurst thereby became the oldest inland British settlement in Australia. William Cox, who was appointed the first Commandant of Bathurst, and William Lawson were promised large grants of land in the area and soon sent herds of their livestock to the region.

The Bathurst region was opened up to wider British settlement in 1818 when Macquarie granted ten men 20 hectares (50 acres) of land each. These men were William Lee, Richard Mills, Thomas Kite, Thomas Swanbrooke, George Cheshire, John Abbott, John and James Blackman, John Neville and John Godden. These grants were located at what is now White Rock and Kelso. In 1818, Governor Macquarie stated in his diary:

This morning I inspected 10 new settlers for Bathurst. I have agreed to grant each 50 acres of land, a servant, a cow, four bushels [141 litres] of wheat, an allotment in the new town, and to receive into the King's Store at Bathurst all the Wheat they can grow for the first 12 months.[21]

Bathurst, painted by Joseph Backler c.1847–1857
Bathurst, painted by Joseph Backler c.1847–1857

In the early years of settlement, Bathurst was a base for many of the early explorers of the NSW inland, including George Evans in 1815, John Oxley in 1817–1818, Allan Cunningham in 1823, and Thomas Mitchell during the 1830s.[22][23]

In 1819, frontier conflicts between local Wiradjuri groups and encroaching settlers began when Aboriginal people were shot and others mauled by the colonists' dogs. When Governor Brisbane opened the Bathurst area to wider colonisation from 1822, the subsequent large influx of graziers led to a more intense conflict over land and resources known as the Bathurst War.[17] The Wiradjuri, led by leaders such as Windradyne, continued to resist settler encroachment until martial law was declared in August 1824, after which settlers conducted several raids against Wiradjuri settlements; colonists such as Theophilus Chamberlain, the superintendent for William Cox, perpetrated several massacres. In response, Major James Thomas Morisset was appointed commandant of Bathurst to restore order, conducting several sweeps across the landscape. Martial law ended in December 1824 as the remaining Wiradjuri were forced to make peace with the colonial authorities.[24][17][25][26]

Gold rush era (1851–1860s)

Painting of Edward Hammond Hargraves, who is credited with the first discovery of payable gold near Bathurst in 1851
Painting of Edward Hammond Hargraves, who is credited with the first discovery of payable gold near Bathurst in 1851

Flecks of gold were first discovered in the Fish River in February 1823, but it was 12 February 1851 in a Bathurst Hotel when Edward Hargraves announced the discovery of payable gold. Soon, gold was found at Ophir (later Sofala) and Hill End in the 1850s.

Hill End, called 'Bald Hills' in 1850, 'Forbes' in 1860 and finally Hill End in 1862 was part of the Tambaroora district. At its peak had a population of 7 000 people. Hill End's fame is the finding of the 'Holtermann Specimen (Correctly the Beyers Holtermann Specimen)' on 20 October 1871 being the largest single mass of gold ever discovered in the world, a record that still stands today. Found in 1872 this single mass of quartz and gold weighed 630 lbs and when crushed produced and est. of 3000 troy oz (205 lbs or 93 kg) of gold, thus processed held more gold then the processed gold from largest nugget ever found, that being the Welcome Stranger from the Victorian Goldfields. Holtermann recognizing the significance of the find attempted to preserve it by buying it from the Company of which he was one of a number of directors. His efforts were in vain. It is reported that a larger mass was discovered a few days later in the same mine but was broken up underground. Absolutely reliant on Gold, the towns decline was dramatic once the Gold ran out before the 1900s. Photo: Hotlermann with the Beyers-Holterman Specimen[27]

In the 1860s, the town of Bathurst began to boom. Bathurst was to become the first gold centre of Australia. The nearby gold localities would transport their gold to Bathurst[22] then to Sydney. The mail and gold transport coaches became an obvious target for bushrangers, which became a major problem for the authorities. The Ribbon Gang and the Bathurst Rebellion occurred in 1830, when a large group of over 80 convicts roamed the Bathurst district. They were eventually captured and charged with murder, bushranging and horse-thieving. On 2 November 1830, ten members of the Ribbon Boys were hanged in Bathurst for their crimes. The site of the first and largest public hanging in Bathurst is still marked by the laneway sign Ribbon Gang Lane in the CBD.[28] Ben Hall, who became a notorious bushranger, was married in St Michael's Church at Bathurst in 1856. In October 1863, a gang of five (including Hall) raided Bathurst, robbing a jeweller's shop, bailed up the Sportsmans Arms Hotel and tried to steal a racehorse. They returned three days later and held up more businesses. John Peisley, another bushranger, was tried and hanged for murder at Bathurst Gaol in 1862.[29]

Abercrombie House; grand estates and residences were built by early settlers in Bathurst, especially during the height of the Gold Rushes
Abercrombie House; grand estates and residences were built by early settlers in Bathurst, especially during the height of the Gold Rushes

Bathurst's economy was transformed by the discovery of gold in 1851. One illustration of the prosperity gold brought to Bathurst is the growth and status of hotels and inns. The first licensed inn within the township was opened in 1835, the Highland Laddie. At the peak of hotel activity in 1875, coinciding with the gold rush period, there were 61 operating concurrently. A total of 89 hotel locations have been identified in the town of Bathurst, with 112 operating in the immediate district during the course of the history in Bathurst. Initially many pubs were simply a cottage with stables. As prosperity increased during the gold rush, the Hotels became typical of architecture of pubs known today.[30]

Development to Federation (1860s–1910)

William Street in 1870
William Street in 1870

The Cobb & Co business was a horse drawn coaching transport business originally established in Victoria but relocated to Bathurst in 1862 to follow the gold rush. The business provided gold escorts, mail services and passenger services to the towns and rural settlements.[31] Cobb & Co. coaches were constructed in the coaching workshops located in Bathurst and the Bathurst Information Centre contains a restored Cobb & Co. coach.[32][33]

Bathurst District Hospital
Bathurst District Hospital

Bathurst later became the centre of an important coal-mining and manufacturing region. The Main Western railway line from Sydney reached Bathurst in 1876. From that time, the town became an important railway centre with workshops, crew base with locomotive depot and track and signal engineering offices. It remains today as the railway regional engineering headquarters with a large rail component manufacturing facility.

The heritage listed Bathurst Courthouse, a predominant landmark of the city centre, was constructed in 1880 based on designs by the New South Wales Colonial and Government architects, James Barnet and Walter Liberty Vernon.[34][35]

In 1885, Bathurst had a population of about 8,000 and an additional 20,000 people in the district. The town in 1885 was a hub for stores such as E.G. Webb & Co. with supplies and distribution occurring throughout large parts of western NSW and into Queensland and South Australia.[22]

Early 20th century

Rotunda at Machattie Park
Rotunda at Machattie Park

This period is characterised by periods of slow to moderate population growth, with industrial and education industries developing and technology and services delivered to the town. Several major infrastructure developments arrive such as distributed town gas, electricity, town water supplies, and a sewage treatment system. Town gas had arrived in Bathurst courtesy of a private venture in 1872, with the Council providing a competing network from 1888. On 30 June 1914, the Council purchased the Wark Bros gas system and combined the gas networks. The old gasworks plant on Russell Street (now out of use) was built in 1960. In 1987 natural gas arrived via a new 240 km spur pipeline off the Moomba to Sydney pipeline.[36] The early part of the century saw electricity arrive initially for street lighting; the city converted from gas street lighting to electric lighting on 22 December 1924, when 370 electric lights at a cost of £40,000 were switched on.[37] Lighting spread along streets through to 1935, over time to businesses and finally private houses. Sewage treatment was an early infrastructure project funded by the state government and built in 1915.[38]: 59  Water supply started with private wells in backyards. Eventually a waterworks was built to the south of the town on the river with the water pumped through piping laid progressively to the businesses and private dwellings. In 1931, work started on the 1,700 ML Winburndale Dam project to gravity feed water through a wood stave pipe laid to the town. The scheme was opened by the Premier of New South Wales on 7 October 1933. Later, a new larger water supply dam was built on the Campbells River. Originally known as the Campbell River Dam scheme and later renamed the Ben Chifley Dam after the late Prime Minister Ben Chifley of Bathurst. It was opened in November 1956. The Ben Chifley Dam received a major storage upgrade designed to meet the cities needs to 2050; the work was completed in 2001 increasing the capacity by 30% to 30,800 megalitres (6.8×109 imp gal; 8.1×109 US gal).[39]

Bathurst district ambulance station
Bathurst district ambulance station

An ambulance service commenced on 6 June 1925 with a new Hudson ambulance. A new ambulance station was opened 2 March 1929 and is still used by the NSW Ambulance Service. Motor cars were becoming common in the early 20th century and the need for road service patrols commenced in 1927, provided by the NRMA using a motorcycle/sidecar response vehicle. The early electronic media age arrived with the opening of commercial radio station 2BS on 1 January 1937. Bathurst Aerodrome was opened in 1942, initially to benefit the war effort providing parking for aircraft overflowing from Richmond air force base.[40] The first commercial airline service departed for Sydney on 16 December 1946.[41]

A famous Australian brand name of frozen foods began in Bathurst. Robert Gordon Edgell arrived in Bathurst in 1902. By 1906, he was growing pears, apples and asparagus and experimenting with canning and preserving fruit and vegetables, eventually opening a small cannery in 1926. In 1930, he formed the company Gordon Edgell & Sons which became, and still is, a famous Australian food brand, now owned by Simplot.

Many attempts were made to start a university college, the earliest attempts were 1912 through to 1947 when real progress was made with plans for a state teachers college. The first intake of teacher students came at the beginning of 1951 with the official opening on 9 November 1951. The college has transformed over time into the Mitchell College of Advanced Education on 1 January 1970. The college grew and ultimately became the Charles Sturt University on 19 July 1989.[42]

Bathurst was one of the locations to campaign to be the site of the new federal capital. In an essay prepared by a journalist with the Bathurst Times, Price Warung,[43] in 1901 to promote Bathurst's candidacy, he responds to the federal committees key requirements for the capital to have: "centrality and accessibility of situation, salubrity, and capacity for impregnable defence".[44] The proposed site for the capital city would have been slightly north-west of Bathurst, straddling the Macquarie River, at the locality known as Elrington.[45]

An Australian Army camp was established at Bathurst in early 1940, intended for the Second Australian Imperial Force's 1st Armoured Division; however, it was later converted to an infantry training centre due to the unsuitability of the closely settled area to armoured training. Following World War II, the camp was converted to a migrant reception and training centre, with the first group of migrants arriving in 1948. At times the centre had up to 10,000 residents at one time,[22] taking in a total of around 100,000 migrants before its closure in 1952, when Villawood Migrant Centre was opened. Officially Bathurst Migrant Reception and Training Centre, it was usually referred to as Bathurst Migrant Camp.[46]

Population growth

Post-war migrants at the Bathurst Migrant Centre, 1949
Post-war migrants at the Bathurst Migrant Centre, 1949

Bathurst's population has had rapid growth periods throughout its history; during the mid to late 19th century gold rush period, then post World War 2 when migrants from the war ravaged countries were settled in the area and returning soldiers were offered farming land, and at the start of this century has been another fast growth period corresponding in part to Sydney's congestion. Other periods have seen a slightly declining population, including the decade around the 1900s and during the 1960s. The following chart illustrates the growth from 1856 to recent times.[47]

Bathurst population growth 1856 to 2005

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Fire-stick farming

Fire-stick farming

Fire-stick farming, also known as cultural burning and cool burning, is the practice of Aboriginal Australians regularly using fire to burn vegetation, which has been practised for thousands of years. There are a number of purposes for doing this special type of controlled burning, including to facilitate hunting, to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area, weed control, hazard reduction, and increase of biodiversity.

Possum-skin cloak

Possum-skin cloak

Possum-skin cloaks were a form of clothing worn by Aboriginal people in the south-east of Australia – present-day Victoria and New South Wales.

Lachlan Macquarie

Lachlan Macquarie

Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland. Macquarie served as the fifth Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821, and had a leading role in the social, economic, and architectural development of the colony. He is considered by historians to have had a crucial influence on the transition of New South Wales from a penal colony to a free settlement and therefore to have played a major role in the shaping of Australian society in the early nineteenth century.

1813 crossing of the Blue Mountains

1813 crossing of the Blue Mountains

The 1813 crossing of the Blue Mountains was the expedition led by Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Charles Wentworth, which became the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains in New South Wales by European settlers. The crossing enabled the settlers to access and use the land west of the mountains for farming, and made possible the establishment of Australia's first inland colonial settlement at Bathurst.

William Cox (pioneer)

William Cox (pioneer)

William Cox was an English soldier, known as an explorer, road builder and pioneer in the early period of British settlement of Australia.

Emu Plains, New South Wales

Emu Plains, New South Wales

Emu Plains is a suburb of Sydney in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is 58 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Penrith and is part of the Greater Western Sydney region.

John Lewin

John Lewin

John William Lewin was an English-born artist active in Australia from 1800. The first professional artist of the colony of New South Wales, he illustrated the earliest volumes of Australian natural history. Many of his illustrations were of native Australian birds on native Australian plants.

State Library of New South Wales

State Library of New South Wales

The State Library of New South Wales, part of which is known as the Mitchell Library, is a large heritage-listed special collections, reference and research library open to the public and is one of the oldest libraries in Australia. Established in 1869 its collections date back to the Australian Subscription Library established in the colony of New South Wales in 1826. The library is located on the corner of Macquarie Street and Shakespeare Place, in the Sydney central business district adjacent to the Domain and the Royal Botanic Gardens, in the City of Sydney. The library is a member of the National and State Libraries Australia (NSLA) consortium.

Ceremony

Ceremony

A ceremony is a unified ritualistic event with a purpose, usually consisting of a number of artistic components, performed on a special occasion.

Secretary of State for War and the Colonies

Secretary of State for War and the Colonies

The Secretary of State for War and the Colonies was a British cabinet-level position responsible for the army and the British colonies. The Secretary was supported by an Under-Secretary of State for War and the Colonies.

Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst

Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst

Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, was a High Tory, High Church Pittite. He was an MP for thirty years before ennoblement. A personal friend of William Pitt the Younger, he became a broker of deals across cabinet factions during the Napoleonic era. After the Napoleonic Wars, Bathurst was on the conservative wing of the Tory party.

William Lawson (explorer)

William Lawson (explorer)

William Lawson, MLC was a British soldier, explorer, land owner, grazier and politician who migrated to Sydney, New South Wales in 1800. Along with Gregory Blaxland and William Wentworth, he pioneered the first successful crossing of the Blue Mountains by British colonists.

Heritage listings

Woolstone House
Woolstone House
The former Masonic Hall
The former Masonic Hall

Bathurst has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

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All Saints Cathedral Bells

All Saints Cathedral Bells

The All Saints Cathedral Bells are heritage-listed church bells at All Saints Anglican Cathedral, Church Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. They were built from 1853 to 1855 by John Warner and Sons, Crescent Foundry of London, England. They were added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 10 September 2004.

Bathurst Old School of Arts Library Collection

Bathurst Old School of Arts Library Collection

Bathurst Old School of Arts Library Collection is a heritage-listed former lending library and reference library and now rare books collection at Bathurst City Library, 70-78 Keppel Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1855 to 1950 by Various authors and publishers. It is also known as School of Arts book collection. It is now owned by the Bathurst City Library. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 22 October 2004.

Bathurst Street Lamps

Bathurst Street Lamps

The Bathurst Street Lamps are heritage-listed street lights located in the Bathurst central business district in the Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. They were built from 1872 to 1924. They were added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 1 August 2003. There are 105 lights in total that are located on Howick, William, George, Keppel, Russell, and Church Streets, in King's Parade, and in Machattie Park.

Bentinck Street Elm Trees

Bentinck Street Elm Trees

The Bentinck Street Elm Trees is a heritage-listed row of street trees at Bentinck Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. The property is owned by Bathurst Regional Council. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Bentinck Street houses, Bathurst

Bentinck Street houses, Bathurst

The Bentinck Street houses are two separately heritage-listed semi-detached houses at 67 and 71 Bentinck Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. The houses are privately-owned. Both houses were added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Ben Chifley's House

Ben Chifley's House

Ben Chifley's House is a heritage-listed former residence and now house museum in Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It was built from 1887 to 1891. It is also known as Carnwath, Chifley Residence, Chifley House Museum and Chifley Home. The property is owned by Bathurst Regional Council. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 23 December 2002.

Bathurst railway station, New South Wales

Bathurst railway station, New South Wales

Bathurst railway station is a heritage-listed railway station at Havannah Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on the Main Western line and serves the city of Bathurst. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Howick Street houses, Bathurst

Howick Street houses, Bathurst

The Howick Street houses are five heritage-listed neighbouring semi-detached houses at 194, 196, 198, 200 and 202 Howick Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. 194, 196 and 198 are separately heritage-listed, while 200 and 202 are listed together. The houses are privately-owned. It is also known as Terrace Cottages. The five houses were all added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Bathurst Showground

Bathurst Showground

The Bathurst Showground is a heritage-listed showground at Kendall Avenue, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by James Hines, J. J. Copemen and Edward Gell and built from 1879. The property is owned by Bathurst Showground Trust and the New South Wales Department of Trade & Investment, Regional Infrastructure & Services. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 4 September 2015.

Denison Bridge

Denison Bridge

The Denison Bridge is a heritage-listed footbridge over the Macquarie River in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is the fourth oldest metal truss bridge existing in Australia.

Bathurst Courthouse

Bathurst Courthouse

Bathurst Courthouse is a heritage-listed courthouse at Russell Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. Constructed in the Federation Free Classical style based on original designs by Colonial Architect, James Barnet, the building structure was completed in 1880 under the supervision of Barnet's successor, Government Architect, Walter Liberty Vernon. The property is owned by Attorney General's Department. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Cathedral of St Michael and St John

Cathedral of St Michael and St John

Cathedral of St Michael and St John is a heritage-listed Roman Catholic cathedral at 107 William Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Charles Hansom and built from 1857 to 1861 by Edward Gell. It is also known as Cathedral of Saints Michael and John. The cathedral is the episcopal see of the Roman Catholic Bishop of Bathurst. The property is owned by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bathurst. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 5 June 2012.

Landmarks

Bathurst's place in Australia's history is evidenced by the large number of landmark monuments, buildings, and parks.

Kings Parade, Carillon Memorial and Evans Memorial
Kings Parade, Carillon Memorial and Evans Memorial

In the centre of the city is a square known as Kings Parade. Originally a market area from 1849 to 1906, it was redesignated as a public recreation ground and site for a soldiers memorial. Kings Parade now contains three memorials, an open space park and gardens.

The Bathurst War Memorial Carillon is a 30.5 metres (100 ft) tall tower structure located in the centre of Kings Parade. The Parade is located in the centre of Bathurst's CBD. The Carillon is a memorial to the soldiers who died in the two World Wars. The bell tower contains 49 bronze bells cast by John Taylor & Co in 1928 that are rung daily at lunchtime, and an eternal flame on the platform level of the structure. The Carillon was officially completed on Armistice Day, 11 November 1933[72] at a cost of £8,000.[73] It was upgraded in 2020 to World Carillon Federation [nl] standards, making it only the third such carillon in Australia. The Evans memorial stands at the northern end of Kings Parade. Completed in 1920, the memorial commemorates the discovery of the Bathurst Plains in 1813 by George Evans, Assistant Surveyor of Lands. The Boer War memorial stands at the southern end of Kings Parade. This memorial was unveiled in 1910 by Lord Kitchener.

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Carillon

Carillon

A carillon ( KERR-ə-lon, kə-RIL-yən) is a pitched percussion instrument that is played with a keyboard and consists of at least 23 bells. The bells are cast in bronze, hung in fixed suspension, and tuned in chromatic order so that they can be sounded harmoniously together. They are struck with clappers connected to a keyboard of wooden batons played with the hands and pedals played with the feet. Often housed in bell towers, carillons are usually owned by churches, universities, or municipalities. They can include an automatic system through which the time is announced and simple tunes are played throughout the day.

Bell tower

Bell tower

A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or that is designed to hold bells even if it has none. Such a tower commonly serves as part of a Christian church, and will contain church bells, but there are also many secular bell towers, often part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built specifically to house a carillon. Church bell towers often incorporate clocks, and secular towers usually do, as a public service.

John Taylor & Co

John Taylor & Co

John Taylor Bell Foundry (Loughborough) Limited, trading as John Taylor & Co and commonly known as Taylor's Bell Foundry, Taylor's of Loughborough, or simply Taylor's, is the world's largest working bell foundry. It is located in Loughborough, in the Charnwood borough of Leicestershire, England. The business originated in the 14th century, and the Taylor family took over in 1784.

Eternal flame

Eternal flame

An eternal flame is a flame, lamp or torch that burns for an indefinite time. Most eternal flames are ignited and tended intentionally, but some are natural phenomena caused by natural gas leaks, peat fires and coal seam fires, all of which can be initially ignited by lightning, piezoelectricity or human activity, some of which have burned for hundreds or thousands of years.

Armistice Day

Armistice Day

Armistice Day, later known as Remembrance Day in the Commonwealth and Veterans Day in the United States, is commemorated every year on 11 November to mark the armistice signed between the Allies of World War I and Germany at Compiègne, France, at 5:45 am for the cessation of hostilities on the Western Front of World War I, which took effect at eleven in the morning—the "eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month" of 1918. But, according to Thomas R. Gowenlock, an intelligence officer with the U.S. First Division, shelling from both sides continued for the rest of the day, ending only at nightfall. The armistice initially expired after a period of 36 days and had to be extended several times. A formal peace agreement was reached only when the Treaty of Versailles was signed the following year.

George Evans (explorer)

George Evans (explorer)

George William Evans was a surveyor and early explorer in the Colony of New South Wales. Evans was born in Warwick, England, migrating to Australia in October 1802.

Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener

Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, was a senior British Army officer and colonial administrator. Kitchener came to prominence for his imperial campaigns, his involvement in the Second Boer War, and his central role in the early part of the First World War.

Demographics

St Barnabas Anglican Church
St Barnabas Anglican Church

At June 2019 there were 37,191 people in Bathurst.[1]

  • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 5.8% of the population.
  • Males make up 50.1% of the Bathurst population.[74]
  • 84.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were England 1.8%, New Zealand 1.1%, India 0.5%, Philippines 0.4% and Scotland 0.4%.
  • 87.3% of people only spoke English at home.
  • 8.6% of the population have been divorced.[75]
  • The most common responses for religion were Catholic 31.6%, No Religion 22.7% and Anglican 18.8%.[3]

Governance

Local

Local government was trialled in the new Colony with a 'Bathurst and Carcoar District Council' established on 12 August 1843,[38]: 66  Bathurst was proclaimed a town in 1852 and incorporated as a borough in 1862, next a municipality in 1883,[4] then gazetted a city in on 20 March 1885.[22] the same day as Sydney was declared a city.[4] Bathurst Regional Council was formed on 26 May 2004 following the amalgamation of the Bathurst City Council, most of Evans Shire and a small amount of land formerly included in Oberon Shire.[76]

State

The Electoral district of Bathurst is the state seat in the NSW Parliament. This seat covers the major centres of Bathurst and Lithgow, and all or part of Bathurst, Blayney, Cabonne, Lithgow, Mid-Western and Oberon local government areas.

Since 1859, Bathurst has existed as an electoral district in the NSW Parliament. Prior to 1856, Bathurst was a part of the Electoral district of Western Boroughs. Before the 1920s, Bathurst was a single member constituency, in the 1920s it became a multimember district with proportional representation. During the middle part of the 20th century the seat was marginal between Labor and Country Parties, from 1981 when the strong Labor town of Lithgow moved from Blue Mountains to Bathurst, the seat was dominated by Labor, except for 1988 when it was won by the Liberal Party for one 3-year term,[77] and the 2011 election when Paul Toole of the National Party won the seat.[78]

Federal

Bathurst is currently within the federal electoral district of Calare which includes a large part of western NSW from Lithgow in the east to Tullamore in the west. Prior to the 2010 election, Bathurst was within the Macquarie federal electoral district which was more easterly based including the Blue Mountains area with Bathurst as the western boundary of the district.[79]

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Bathurst Courthouse

Bathurst Courthouse

Bathurst Courthouse is a heritage-listed courthouse at Russell Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. Constructed in the Federation Free Classical style based on original designs by Colonial Architect, James Barnet, the building structure was completed in 1880 under the supervision of Barnet's successor, Government Architect, Walter Liberty Vernon. The property is owned by Attorney General's Department. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Bathurst Regional Council

Bathurst Regional Council

Bathurst Regional Council is a local government area in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is located adjacent to the Great Western Highway, Mid-Western Highway, Mitchell Highway and the Main Western railway line. At the 2016 census, the Bathurst Region had a population of 41,300.

Borough

Borough

A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the term varies widely.

Evans Shire

Evans Shire

Evans Shire was a local government area which encircled the City of Bathurst in New South Wales, Australia. It was established on 1 October 1977 after the City of Bathurst, Abercrombie Shire and Turon Shire were divided between Bathurst City and Evans Shire. It was dissolved on 26 May 2004.

Electoral district of Bathurst

Electoral district of Bathurst

Bathurst is an electoral district of the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales. It is represented by Paul Toole of The Nationals.

Lithgow, New South Wales

Lithgow, New South Wales

Lithgow is a town in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia and is the administrative center of the City of Lithgow local government area. It is located in a mountain valley named Lithgow's Valley by John Oxley in honour of William Lithgow, the first Auditor-General of New South Wales.

Mid-Western Regional Council

Mid-Western Regional Council

The Mid-Western Regional Council is a local government area in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is located adjacent to the Castlereagh Highway that passes through the middle of the area in an approximate southeast–northwest direction.

Electoral districts of New South Wales

Electoral districts of New South Wales

The New South Wales Legislative Assembly is elected from single-member electorates called districts, returning 93 members since the 1999 election. Prior to 1927 some districts returned multiple members, including 1920-1927 when all districts returned 3,4 or 5 members. Parramatta is the only district to have continuously existed since the establishment of the Assembly in 1856.

Electoral district of Western Boroughs

Electoral district of Western Boroughs

Western Boroughs was an electoral district for the Legislative Assembly in the Australian state of New South Wales from 1856 to 1859. It included the towns of Bathurst, Carcoar and Kelso, while the surrounding rural areas were in Bathurst (County) and Cook and Westmoreland. It was replaced by Bathurst and Carcoar.

Proportional representation

Proportional representation

Proportional representation (PR) refers to a type of electoral system under which subgroups of an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to political divisions among voters. The essence of such systems is that all votes cast - or almost all votes cast - contribute to the result and are effectively used to help elect someone—not just a bare plurality, or (exclusively) the majority—and that the system produces mixed, balanced representation reflecting how votes are cast.

Australian Labor Party

Australian Labor Party

The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor, is the major centre-left political party in Australia, one of two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-right Liberal Party of Australia. The party forms the federal government since being elected in the 2022 election. The ALP is a federal party, with political branches in each state and territory. They are currently in government in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory, and the Northern Territory. They are currently in opposition in New South Wales and Tasmania. It is the oldest political party in Australia, being established on 8 May 1901 at Parliament House, Melbourne, the meeting place of the first federal Parliament.

Economy

Retail lining Howick Street
Retail lining Howick Street

Bathurst's economy is broad based with a manufacturing industry, large education sector (including agricultural) and government service sectors. In 2015, the Gross Regional Product was $1.96 billion representing 0.4% of the Gross State Product of New South Wales.[80]

To capitalise on Bathurst's growth, education facilities and youthful population, in 2011 the Regional Council announced it was progressing plans for a new Australian Centre for Science, Technology and Emerging Industries (ACSTEI), also known as the Technology Park, to be established adjacent to the Charles Sturt University Campus with the centre featuring next generation emerging industries.[81]

Manufacturing and food

Private sector employers with large workforces in Bathurst (according to statistics published in 2009) include Devro, an international company that produces food casing products and Mars Petcare manufacturing plant are the single largest private employers of labour. Companies such as Telstra's call centre, Simplot Australia's (more recognisable as brands such as Edgells, BirdsEye, Chiko Roll, and I&J Seafood products) food processing and canning plant and Burkes Transport a local trucking and distribution company.[4] In 1982, Clyde Engineering opened a railway component facility in Kelso, initially producing electrical equipment under licence from Hitachi.[82][83] In 1982 it began manufacturing locomotives.[84] It closed in 2013.[85]

Public sector

Government sector employers with large local workforces include Country Energy with their District Field Office and Corporate Office, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst Regional Council, the NSW Land Registry Services that provide mapping and survey data across NSW, the Greater Western Area Health Service – Regional Office, Bathurst Correctional Centre, Department of Education and Training – Regional Office, Police Service – Chifley Local Area Command, and NSW State Forests – Regional Office.[4] In April 1982, the State Rail Authority opened a locomotive and wagon overhaul facility in Bathurst.[86][87]

Agriculture

The Bathurst region's climate of cool winter weather lends itself to stone fruit production and cool variety grapes suitable for wine production.

Bathurst is the location for the Bathurst Primary Industries Centre, a government facility that has been operating since 1895 and originally known as The Experimental Farm. Originally established to study most facets of agriculture in the early growth years of the western inland, work included dairy, pigs, vegetable, cereal plantings, and fruit trees. The site is still one of the most important stone fruit research units in Australia.[88]

Sheep and wool production are the main primary sector industries in the surrounding area with beef cattle a secondary production. Wool has been a significant part of the Bathurst rural scene since the 1850s when the industry was growing rapidly. Lambs for meat production are a common product of the region's farms. Beef cattle breeds are predominantly British, British cross and European cross; the Bos indicus types are present but not common.[89]

Forestry

Bathurst is the site of a major timber processing facility, which uses timber harvested from the surrounding forests. There are large plantations of softwood timber (pinus radiata) that are harvested for timber products; the main product being sawlogs, and some pulp. Bathurst is the headquarters for the Macquarie Region of Forestry Corporation of NSW (a NSW State Owned Corporation).[90]

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Devro

Devro

Devro plc is a multinational company with registered office in Moodiesburn, Chryston, United Kingdom which manufactures and distributes goods derived from collagen, principally sausage casings, a product in which it is the world leader. The firm also produces films, casings and other specialised collagen products for use in the health care and cosmetics industries. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange.

Chiko Roll

Chiko Roll

The Chiko Roll is an Australian savoury snack invented by Frank McEncroe, inspired by the Chinese spring roll and first sold in 1951 as the "Chicken Roll" despite not actually containing chicken. The snack was designed to be easily eaten on the move without a plate or cutlery. Since 1995, Chiko Rolls have been made by Simplot Australia.

Clyde Engineering

Clyde Engineering

Clyde Engineering was an Australian manufacturer of locomotives, rolling stock, and other industrial products.

Kelso, New South Wales

Kelso, New South Wales

Kelso is a suburb of Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, in the Bathurst Regional Council area.

Hitachi

Hitachi

Hitachi, Ltd. is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. It is the parent company of the Hitachi Group and had formed part of the Nissan zaibatsu and later DKB Group and Fuyo Group of companies before DKB and Fuji Bank merged into the Mizuho Financial Group. As of 2020, Hitachi conducts business ranging from IT, including AI, the Internet of Things, and big data, to infrastructure.

Country Energy

Country Energy

Country Energy, an Australian energy retail subsidiary of Origin Energy, provides natural gas and electricity to retail customers in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory.. Since its establishment in 2001 and until 28 February 2011, Country Energy was owned by the Government of New South Wales.

Bathurst Regional Council

Bathurst Regional Council

Bathurst Regional Council is a local government area in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The area is located adjacent to the Great Western Highway, Mid-Western Highway, Mitchell Highway and the Main Western railway line. At the 2016 census, the Bathurst Region had a population of 41,300.

Bathurst Correctional Centre

Bathurst Correctional Centre

Bathurst Correctional Centre, originally built as Bathurst Gaol in 1888, is a prison for men and women located in the city of Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia, and operated by the Department of Communities and Justice. Bathurst holds inmates sentenced under State or Australian criminal law, along with a small number of remand prisoners.

New South Wales Police Force

New South Wales Police Force

The New South Wales Police Force is the primary law enforcement agency of the state of New South Wales, Australia. Divided into Police Area Commands (PACs), for metropolitan areas and Police Districts (PDs), for regional and country areas, the NSW Police Force consists of more than 400 Police stations and over 18,000 officers, who are responsible for covering an area of 801,600 square kilometres and a population of more than 8.2 million people.

Lamb and mutton

Lamb and mutton

Lamb, hogget, and mutton, generically sheep meat, are the meat of domestic sheep, Ovis aries. A sheep in its first year is a lamb and its meat is also lamb. The meat from sheep in their second year is hogget. Older sheep meat is mutton. Generally, "hogget" and "sheep meat" are not used by consumers outside Norway, New Zealand, South Africa, Scotland, and Australia. Hogget has become more common in England, particularly in the North often in association with rare breed and organic farming.

Industry (economics)

Industry (economics)

In macroeconomics, an industry is a branch of an economy that produces a closely-related set of raw materials, goods, or services. For example, one might refer to the wood industry or to the insurance industry.

Beef cattle

Beef cattle

Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production. The meat of mature or almost mature cattle is mostly known as beef. In beef production there are three main stages: cow-calf operations, backgrounding, and feedlot operations. The production cycle of the animals starts at cow-calf operations; this operation is designed specifically to breed cows for their offspring. From here the calves are backgrounded for a feedlot. Animals grown specifically for the feedlot are known as feeder cattle, the goal of these animals is fattening. Animals not grown for a feedlot are typically female and are commonly known as replacement heifers. While the principal use of beef cattle is meat production, other uses include leather, and beef by-products used in candy, shampoo, cosmetics, and insulin.

Motorsport

In the 21st century, Bathurst is known for motorsport, being the site of the Mount Panorama motor racing circuit. It hosts the Bathurst 12 Hour motor race each February, the Bathurst Motor Festival every Easter, and the Bathurst 1000 motor race each October. During these times, the population swells with tourists. The circuit is a public road when not being used for racing and is a popular tourist attraction for visitors to the city. Bathurst has a long history of racing, beginning with motorcycle racing from 1911.[91] From 1931 to 1938, motorcycle racing was conducted at the Old Vale Circuit[92] before moving to the newly created Mount Panorama Circuit in 1938. On 16 April 1938, Mount Panorama attracted 20,000 spectators to its first race, The Australian Tourist Trophy and in 2006 the crowd figure reached 194,000 for the 3-day Bathurst 1000 event.[93]

A group known as 'Mount Panorama Second Circuit Action Group' is promoting and lobbying to incorporate additional track and facilities into the existing circuit to capture additional events and increase the use of the facility.[94]

Beside the circuit is the National Motor Racing Museum. This museum was built to encourage visitors to the circuit all year round and includes motor cycles and cars, representing the racing history of Bathurst. Peter Brock, the race car driver, was synonymous with Mount Panorama racing and a memorial sculpture dedicated to him, is located in the museum grounds.

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Bathurst 1000

Bathurst 1000

The Bathurst 1000 is a 1,000-kilometre (621.4 mi) touring car race held annually on the Mount Panorama Circuit in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is currently run as part of the Supercars Championship, the most recent incarnation of the Australian Touring Car Championship. In 1987 it was a round of the World Touring Car Championship. The Bathurst 1000 is colloquially known as The Great Race among motorsport fans and media. The race concept originated with the 1960 Armstrong 500 at the Phillip Island Grand Prix Circuit, before being relocated to Bathurst in 1963 and continuing there in every year since. The race was traditionally run on the Labour Day long weekend in New South Wales, in early October. Since 2001, the race is run on the weekend after the long weekend, normally the second weekend in October.

Mount Panorama Circuit

Mount Panorama Circuit

Mount Panorama Circuit is a motor racing track located in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on Mount Panorama (Wahluu) and is best known as the home of the Bathurst 1000 motor race held each October, and the Bathurst 12 Hour event held each February. The track is a 6.213 km (3.861 mi) long street circuit, which is used as a public road when no racing events are being run, with many residences which can only be accessed from the circuit.

Bathurst 12 Hour

Bathurst 12 Hour

The Bathurst 12 Hour, currently known as the Liqui Moly Bathurst 12 Hour for sponsorship reasons, is an annual endurance race for GT and production cars held at the Mount Panorama Circuit, in Bathurst, Australia. The race was first held in 1991 for Series Production cars and moved to Sydney's Eastern Creek Raceway in 1995 before being discontinued. The race was revived in 2007, again for production cars, before adding a new class for GT3 and other GT cars in 2011. This has led to unprecedented domestic and international exposure for the event. In all, twenty one races have taken place; twenty at Mount Panorama and one at Eastern Creek Raceway.

National Motor Racing Museum

National Motor Racing Museum

The National Motor Racing Museum (NMRM) is located in the regional New South Wales city of Bathurst, approximately 200 km west of Sydney. The museum is situated adjacent to the Mount Panorama motor racing circuit at the end of Conrod Straight, close to the city.

Peter Brock

Peter Brock

Peter Geoffrey Brock, known as "Peter Perfect", "The King of the Mountain", or simply "Brocky", was an Australian motor racing driver. Brock was most often associated with Holden for almost 40 years, although he raced vehicles of other manufacturers including BMW, Ford, Volvo, Porsche and Peugeot. He won the Bathurst 1000 endurance race nine times, the Sandown 500 touring car race nine times, the Australian Touring Car Championship three times, the Bathurst 24 Hour once and was inducted into the V8 Supercars Hall of Fame in 2001. Brock's business activities included the Holden Dealer Team (HDT) that produced Brock's racing machines as well as a number of modified high-performance road versions of his racing cars.

Sport

Sports in general are well supported by the Bathurst community. The Bathurst Regional Council and NSW State Government have contributed significant funds over the past decade to build new facilities, such as a new heated Aquatic Centre, an Indoor Sports Stadium, Hockey Complex and major upgrade of the track, new pit complex and spectator facilities at the Mount Panorama circuit. The Hockey Complex is an advanced facility which includes water and sand based fields as well as numerous grass fields.

The city provides dedicated sports facilities for motor racing, Rugby League (part of Group 10), Rugby Union, Australian Rules, Athletics, Cricket, Netball, Tennis, Football and Touch Football. There are over 70 different sporting groups and organisations in the region from the Academy of Dance, croquet, aero, pony clubs, through to the football, rugby, cricket and cycling. Cycling is increasingly considered a speciality sport of the Bathurst Region with ideal road and community facilities around the city. The Bathurst Cycling Club is one of the oldest sports clubs in Australia founded in 1884.[95]

Sports grounds around Bathurst:[96]

  • Alan Morse Park – cricket and athletics
  • Anne Ashwood Park – rugby union (Bathurst Bulldogs Rugby Union Club)
  • Bathurst Sportsground – turf cricket pitch, rugby league / rugby union field, velodrome, and turf 'track and field' facilities – home of Bathurst Panthers Rugby League Club & others
  • Bathurst Indoor Sports Stadium – basketball, volleyball, netball, soccer and badminton courts
  • Brooke Moore Oval – 3 synthetic cricket nets, and 1 turf cricket pitch
  • Carrington Park – rugby league, and rugby union
  • Cooke Hockey Complex – 9 grass hockey fields, 3 synthetic hockey fields
  • Cubis Park Facilities – 2 synthetic cricket pitches, and 2 full size rugby league / soccer fields
  • Eglinton Oval
  • George Park – Australian Rules, and cricket
  • John Matthews Complex – 14 all weather netball courts, and tennis
  • Kennerson Park, Upfold Street - Bathurst greyhound racing, opened 30 November 1935.[97][98]
  • Learmonth Park – 4 synthetic cricket pitches, and 9 touch football fields (turf)
  • Marsden Estate – table tennis tournament[99]
  • Proctor Park – 12 turf soccer fields
  • Police Paddock – 2 synthetic cricket pitches, and 4 full sized turf soccer fields
  • Ralph Cameron Oval, Raglan – 2 tennis courts, 3 cricket nets, 2 synthetic cricket wickets
  • Walmer Park
  • Paddy's Hotel Sports Fields – turf cricket pitch, turf cricket nets and synthetic cricket nets

Gliding is a popular activity and there is a large gliding community in Bathurst. Gliding takes place at Pipers Airfield which is about 5 kilometres to the north of the city.[100] Gliding also occurs most school holidays at the Bathurst Regional Airport where Australian Air Force Cadets (AAFC) from No.301 Air Training Flight learn to fly.[101]

Bathurst, with its young demographic, has established modern sporting competitions such as the Newtons Nation event. At this event, held at Mount Panorama, young people can participate in modern sports such as BMX Dirt Bikes, Mountain Bikes, Wakeboarding, Parkour, Flatland BMX, Krumping, Skateboarding, and Luge.[102]

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Group 10 Rugby League

Group 10 Rugby League

Group 10 is a rugby league competition in the Central West area of New South Wales, under the auspices of the New South Wales Rugby League. It had been under the control of Country Rugby League but that changed after the NSWRL agreed to a new constitution and the CRL voted to wind up its affairs immediately. The decisions was made on 19 October 2019 and the merger means that the aim of a unified administration of the sport in NSW was achieved over a year ahead of time.

Greyhound racing in Australia

Greyhound racing in Australia

Greyhound racing in Australia is a sport and gambling activity. Australia is one of several countries with a greyhound racing industry. The industry laws are governed by the State Government but the keeping of greyhounds are governed by the Local Authority.

Gliding

Gliding

Gliding is a recreational activity and competitive air sport in which pilots fly unpowered aircraft known as gliders or sailplanes using naturally occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. The word soaring is also used for the sport.

Australian Air Force Cadets

Australian Air Force Cadets

The Australian Air Force Cadets (AAFC), known as the Air Training Corps (AIRTC) until 2001, is a Federal Government funded youth organisation. The parent force of the AAFC is the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). Along with the Australian Army Cadets (AAC) and the Australian Navy Cadets (ANC), it is part of the Australian Defence Force Cadets.

BMX

BMX

BMX, an abbreviation for bicycle motocross or bike motocross, is a cycle sport performed on BMX bikes, either in competitive BMX racing or freestyle BMX, or else in general street or off-road recreation.

Wakeboarding

Wakeboarding

Wakeboarding is a water sport in which the rider, standing on a wakeboard, is towed behind a motorboat across its wake and especially up off the crest in order to perform aerial maneuvers. A hallmark of wakeboarding is the attempted performance of midair tricks. Wakeboarding was developed from a combination of water skiing, snowboarding and surfing techniques.

Parkour

Parkour

Parkour is an athletic training discipline or sport in which practitioners attempt to get from point A to point B in the fastest and most efficient way possible, without assisting equipment and often while performing artistic-gymnastic maneuvers. With roots in military obstacle course training and martial arts, parkour includes running, climbing, swinging, vaulting, jumping, plyometrics, rolling, gymnastics, and quadrupedal movement—whatever is suitable for a given situation. Parkour is an activity that can be practiced alone or with others, and is usually carried out in urban spaces, though it can be done anywhere. It involves seeing one's environment in a new way, and envisioning the potential for navigating it by movement around, across, through, over and under its features.

Flatland BMX

Flatland BMX

Flatland is a freestyle BMX riding style performed on smooth flat surfaces that do not include any ramps, jumps, or grindrails. It is sometimes described as a form of artistic cycling with a blend of breakdancing.

Krumping

Krumping

Krumping is a style of street dance popularized in the United States, characterized by free, expressive, exaggerated, and highly energetic movement. Dancers who started krumping saw the dance as a means for them to escape gang life and "to express raw emotions in a powerful but non-violent way."

Skateboarding

Skateboarding

Skateboarding is an action sport originating in the United States that involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, an entertainment industry job, and a method of transportation. Skateboarding has been shaped and influenced by many skateboarders throughout the years. A 2009 report found that the skateboarding market is worth an estimated $4.8 billion in annual revenue, with 11.08 million active skateboarders in the world. In 2016, it was announced that skateboarding would be represented at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, for both male and female teams.

Luge

Luge

A luge is a small one- or two-person sled on which one sleds supine (face-up) and feet-first. A luger begins seated, propelling themselves initially from handles on either side of the start ramp, then steers by using the calf muscles to flex the sled's runners or by exerting opposite shoulder pressure to the pod. Racing sleds weigh 21–25 kg (46–55 lb) for singles and 25–30 kg (55–66 lb) for doubles. Luge is also the name of an Olympic sport that employs that sled and technique.

Culture

Cathedral of St Michael and St John, built in 1861
Cathedral of St Michael and St John, built in 1861

Bathurst is a cathedral city, being the seat for the Anglican and Roman Catholic bishops of Bathurst. The city is dotted with many churches and other religious buildings such as schools and halls. The cathedrals are All Saints' (Anglican), and St Michael and St John's (Catholic); then there are many churches and places of worship, including St Stephens Presbyterian Church & Hall, Assumption Church (Catholic), St Barnabas' South Bathurst (Anglican) that was partially fire-destroyed in 2014[103] and others.

Bathurst was also the home of wartime Labor Prime Minister Ben Chifley, who represented the area in the Federal Parliament and is buried in Bathurst. Each year, the Labor party celebrates his legacy with a function known as the Light on the Hill speech by a senior Labor figure.[104] Bathurst has a collection of house museums representing different periods of its history from first settlement to the 1970s. The house museums include Old Government Cottage built 1837–1860,[105] Abercrombie House a 40-room historic mansion built c. 1870s, Miss Traill's House built in 1845, and Chifley Home which retains the simple furnishings that demonstrated the lifestyle and image of Chifley as a 'plain man'.

Bathurst is home to several museums including the Bathurst Historical Society Museum located in the left wing of the historic courthouse. This museum includes in its collection a range of Aboriginal artefacts and large collections of documents relating to Bathurst's early history and collection of local items from Australia's early settlement.[106] Central Bathurst is host to the Australian Fossil and Mineral Museum, which houses the Somerville Collection of fossils and minerals, and features Australia's only complete Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton. The Somerville Collection also consists of one of the largest collections of tourmaline in the Southern Hemisphere. The Fossil and Mineral Museum is located in the historic school building in the CBD.

Organisations that support the various arts are well catered for in Bathurst they include the Mitchell Conservatorium which was the NSW's first regional, community-based, pre-tertiary and non-profit music centre, it was established in May 1978. The Conservatorium provides musical education and performance opportunities to children and adults.[107] The Bathurst Regional Art Gallery focuses on Australian art from 1955 and has a strong representation of local landscapes and particularly local villages and towns. The collection includes several Lloyd Rees paintings. The design of the gallery allows regular exhibitions with an average of 25 exhibitions per year.[108] The gallery is owned by the Bathurst Regional Council and is located in a modern purpose built building incorporating the Regional Library.[109] Another Arts group is the Macquarie Philharmonia, this professional and amateur orchestra annually brings together professional musicians living in western areas of NSW. Known as Australia's Inland Symphony Orchestra, throughout the year the Macquarie Philharmonia invites selected music students from the region's Conservatoriums to perform alongside professionals to audiences throughout the Region.[110] Carillon Theatrical Society is an amateur theatrical society that has been performing musicals for the people of Bathurst since 1959. Recent shows include The Producers and Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat.[111] The NSW Government and Charles Sturt University supports the Arts in the area through Arts OutWest which is the peak arts and cultural body for the Central West area of NSW, operating since 1974. This group promotes and educates arts and cultural development for Bathurst and the region.[112]

The Bathurst Memorial Entertainment Centre (BMEC) is a new purpose built building completed in 1999 that provides a venue for local and visiting performances. BMEC has an annual season of entertainment encompassing all forms of the performing arts from Australia and around the world.[113]

The pavilion at the Bathurst Showground
The pavilion at the Bathurst Showground

The historic Royal Bathurst Show is an Agricultural Show conducted by the Bathurst Agricultural, Horticultural & Pastoral Association since 1860 and promotes excellence in agriculture, industry and rural competition, encourages learning and provides entertainment. It is one of the largest regional shows in NSW. The show has been operating continuously from the present site since 1878 and attendances now typically reach 25,000 people over a three-day period. In 1994 approval was received from the Queen to use the title Royal Bathurst Show.[114]

The Central Tablelands region is a location with a growing reputation as a producer of gourmet food and drink. A non-profit volunteer based organisation known as Bre&d was established in 2001 to encourage visitors and residents to experience the regions produce. The organisation operates the monthly Bathurst Farmers Markets held at the Bathurst Showground as well as the Bre&d Under the Stars and Bre&d on the Bridge annual events that showcase the regions chefs and local produce. The events are held on the historic Denison Bridge with the Macquarie River passing below.[115]

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City status in the United Kingdom

City status in the United Kingdom

City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities. As of 22 November 2022, there are 76 cities in the United Kingdom—55 in England, seven in Wales, eight in Scotland, and six in Northern Ireland. Although it carries no special rights, the status of city can be a marker of prestige and confer local pride.

Cathedra

Cathedra

A cathedra is the raised throne of a bishop in the early Christian basilica. When used with this meaning, it may also be called the bishop's throne. With time, the related term cathedral became synonymous with the "seat", or principal church, of a bishopric.

Anglican Diocese of Bathurst

Anglican Diocese of Bathurst

The Anglican Diocese of Bathurst is located in the Province of New South Wales. It includes the cities of Orange, Bathurst and Dubbo. The Bishop is the Right Reverend Mark Calder, installed on 23 November 2019.

Australian Labor Party

Australian Labor Party

The Australian Labor Party (ALP), also simply known as Labor, is the major centre-left political party in Australia, one of two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-right Liberal Party of Australia. The party forms the federal government since being elected in the 2022 election. The ALP is a federal party, with political branches in each state and territory. They are currently in government in Victoria, Queensland, Western Australia, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory, and the Northern Territory. They are currently in opposition in New South Wales and Tasmania. It is the oldest political party in Australia, being established on 8 May 1901 at Parliament House, Melbourne, the meeting place of the first federal Parliament.

Ben Chifley

Ben Chifley

Joseph Benedict Chifley was an Australian politician who was the 16th prime minister of Australia, from 1945 to 1949. He held office as the leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) from 1945, following the death of John Curtin on 5 July, until his own death in 1951.

Abercrombie House

Abercrombie House

Abercrombie House was built in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia in the 1870s by the Stewart family who were Bathurst pioneers. William Stewart came to Australia from England in 1825 as part of the colonisation of the penal colony (Australia). William was the Lieutenant Governor General of New South Wales; which meant he was hypothetically 2nd in command to running Australia. William was given land in Bathurst as a reward for doing his job well. William Stewart's eldest son James built Abercrombie House. The house is considered to be of extreme historical significance. It is listed on the National Trust Register. It is also on the New South Wales Heritage Register and the Australian Heritage Database which describes it as "an outstanding example of Victorian Tudor style architecture. It is built of granite with sandstone dressing to the quoins and window surrounds, and there are two storeys together with an attic floor. The building's most striking feature is its array of curvilinear parapeted gables topped by iron finials." The 50-acre (200,000 m2) land and house is currently owned by the Rex Henry Morgan Family. Since 1969 the Morgan family has made major restorations to the house. The House is currently occupied by Christopher Morgan and his family.

Miss Traill's House

Miss Traill's House

Miss Traill's House is a heritage-listed former residence, clergy house and school and now museum at 321 Russell Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Henry Kitchen and built from 1845 by Reverend Thomas Sharpe. It is also known as All Saints Rectory, Entelly and Wyoming Lodge. The property is owned by the National Trust of Australia (NSW). It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 1 March, 2002.

Australian Fossil and Mineral Museum

Australian Fossil and Mineral Museum

The Australian Fossil and Mineral Museum - Home of the Somerville Collection is located in the city of Bathurst in regional New South Wales Australia and was opened in July 2004. The collection is housed in a group of heritage buildings, the old 1874 public school buildings, in the centre of the city. Nearly 2000 specimens are on display from the internationally renowned Somerville Collection.

Lloyd Rees

Lloyd Rees

Lloyd Frederic Rees was an Australian landscape painter who twice won the Wynne Prize for his landscape paintings.

The Producers (musical)

The Producers (musical)

The Producers is a musical comedy with music and lyrics by Mel Brooks, and a book by Brooks and Thomas Meehan. It is adapted from Brooks's 1967 film of the same name.

Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat

Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat

Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat is a sung-through musical with lyrics by Tim Rice and music by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the character of Joseph from the Bible's Book of Genesis. This was the first Lloyd Webber and Rice musical to be performed publicly; their first collaboration, The Likes of Us, written in 1965, was not performed until 2005. Its family-friendly retelling of Joseph, familiar themes, and catchy music have resulted in numerous stagings. According to the owner of the copyright, the Really Useful Group, by 2008 more than 20,000 schools and amateur theatre groups had staged productions.

Bathurst Showground

Bathurst Showground

The Bathurst Showground is a heritage-listed showground at Kendall Avenue, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by James Hines, J. J. Copemen and Edward Gell and built from 1879. The property is owned by Bathurst Showground Trust and the New South Wales Department of Trade & Investment, Regional Infrastructure & Services. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 4 September 2015.

Attractions

  • Yerranderie Regional Park
  • Evans Crown Nature Reserve
  • Abercrombie House
  • National Motor Racing Museum
  • Trunkey Creek
  • Abercrombie Caves
  • Bathurst Regional Art Gallery[116]
  • Gold Panner
  • Bathurst Panthers
  • Annie's Old Fashioned Ice Cream

Education

Education is Bathurst's largest industry with 60 education facilities[117] that represent 7.6% of Bathurst's Gross Regional Product. The education range covers all levels including university, TAFE, secondary, primary both public and private. 12.1% of the local population are employed in the education sector; the NSW state average is 7.0%.[118]

Bathurst is the headquarters for Charles Sturt University which has a major campus in Bathurst, complementing campuses in Wagga Wagga, Albury, Dubbo, Orange, Canberra, and Goulburn. It is a major provider of regional tertiary education. The university is renowned for its reputation in journalism.[119]

The Western Institute of TAFE has two campuses in Bathurst. The college has 12 Industry Training Divisions including arts and media, building and construction, business services, computing and information services, engineering services, rural and mining services and tourism and hospitality.[120] Western Sydney University has a clinical education facility, housed within Bathurst Hospital, open since June 2010 for its fourth year medical students.[121]

Bathurst has numerous primary schools and high schools, both public and private.[122] These include the Scots All Saint's College, Denison College, MacKillop College, St. Stanislaus College

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St Stanislaus' College (Bathurst)

St Stanislaus' College (Bathurst)

St Stanislaus' College is an independent Roman Catholic secondary day and boarding school for boys, located in Bathurst, in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia, 200 kilometres (120 mi) west of Sydney. Founded in 1867 and conducted since 1889 by the Congregation of the Mission's priests and brothers. The college is the oldest Catholic boys' boarding school in Australia, and caters for approximately 600 students from Year 7 to Year 12, including approximately 120 boarders. The early history of the college is intertwined with that of the short-lived St Charles' Seminary; both institutions shared the original towered section of building facing Brilliant Street until the latter closed in the late 1800s.

Charles Sturt University

Charles Sturt University

Charles Sturt University is an Australian multi-campus public university located in New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory and Victoria. Established in 1989, it was named in honour of Captain Charles Napier Sturt, a British explorer who made expeditions into regional New South Wales and South Australia.

Wagga Wagga

Wagga Wagga

Wagga Wagga is a major regional city in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. Straddling the Murrumbidgee River, with an urban population of more than 56,000 as of June 2018, Wagga Wagga is the state's largest inland city, and is an important agricultural, military, and transport hub of Australia. The ninth largest inland city in Australia, Wagga Wagga is located midway between the two largest cities in Australia—Sydney and Melbourne—and is the major regional centre for the Riverina and South West Slopes regions.

Albury

Albury

Albury is a major regional city in New South Wales, Australia. It is located on the Hume Highway and the northern side of the Murray River. Albury is the seat of local government for the council area which also bears the city's name – the City of Albury. It is on the Victoria-New South Wales border.

Dubbo

Dubbo

Dubbo is a city in the Orana Region of New South Wales, Australia. It is the largest population centre in the Orana region, with a population of 43,516 at June 2021.

Orange, New South Wales

Orange, New South Wales

Orange is a city in the Central Tablelands region of New South Wales, Australia. It is 254 km (158 mi) west of the state capital, Sydney [206 km (128 mi) on a great circle], at an altitude of 862 metres (2,828 ft). Orange had an estimated urban population of 40,493 as of June 2018 making the city a significant regional centre. A significant nearby landmark is Mount Canobolas with a peak elevation of 1,395 m (4,577 ft) AHD  and commanding views of the district. Orange is situated within the traditional lands of the Wiradjuri Nation.

Canberra

Canberra

Canberra is the capital city of Australia. Founded following the federation of the colonies of Australia as the seat of government for the new nation, it is Australia's largest inland city and the eighth-largest Australian city overall. The city is located at the northern end of the Australian Capital Territory at the northern tip of the Australian Alps, the country's highest mountain range. As of June 2021, Canberra's estimated population was 453,558.

Goulburn

Goulburn

Goulburn is a regional city in the Southern Tablelands of the Australian state of New South Wales, approximately 195 kilometres (121 mi) south-west of Sydney, and 90 kilometres (56 mi) north-east of Canberra. It was proclaimed as Australia's first inland city through letters patent by Queen Victoria in 1863. Goulburn had a population of 23,835 at June 2018. Goulburn is the seat of Goulburn Mulwaree Council.

Western Sydney University

Western Sydney University

Western Sydney University, formerly the University of Western Sydney, is an Australian multi-campus university in the Greater Western region of Sydney, Australia. The university in its current form was founded in 1989 as a federated network university with an amalgamation between the Nepean College of Advanced Education and the Hawkesbury Agricultural College. The Macarthur Institute of Higher Education was incorporated in the university in 1989. In 2001, the University of Western Sydney was restructured as a single multi-campus university rather than as a federation. In 2015, the university underwent a rebranding which resulted in a change in name from the University of Western Sydney to Western Sydney University. It is a provider of undergraduate, postgraduate, and higher research degrees with campuses in Bankstown, Blacktown, Campbelltown, Hawkesbury, Liverpool, Parramatta, and Penrith.

Scots All Saints' College

Scots All Saints' College

Scots All Saints College is a multi-campus independent Presbyterian Church co-educational early learning, primary, and secondary day and boarding school, with two campuses in Bathurst New South Wales, Australia. Formed in 2019 through a merger of The Scots School, Bathurst with a history dating back to 1946, and the former All Saints' College in Bathurst with a history dating back to 1874, the College provides a religious and general education to approximately 800 children covering early learning through Year K to Year 12.

MacKillop College, Bathurst

MacKillop College, Bathurst

MacKillop College is an independent Roman Catholic secondary day and boarding school for girls located in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia.

Transport

Evans Bridge, crossing the Macquarie River, connecting Kelso and Bathurst.
Evans Bridge, crossing the Macquarie River, connecting Kelso and Bathurst.

Roads

Bathurst is a regional highway hub. Several roads including the Great Western Highway, Mid-Western Highway, Mitchell Highway, O'Connell Road to Oberon and Bathurst-Ilford Road all start in Bathurst. Other major roads in Bathurst include Durham Street, Eleven Mile Drive, and Bradwardine Road.

Rail

Bathurst railway station is located ten minutes' walk from the city centre. It is serviced by daily NSW TrainLink trains and buses east to Lithgow then on to Sydney, north west to Dubbo, west to Parkes and south to Cootamundra.[123] [124]

Bus

Local bus services provided by Bathurst Buslines operate in the surrounding suburbs of Bathurst,[125] with a bus interchange in Howick Street, opposite Armada Bathurst.

Interurban bus services are provided between Bathurst and Lithgow, Bathurst and Orange, and Bathurst and Oberon. Long-distance coaches are operate between Bathurst and Sydney by Australia Wide Coaches.

Air

FlyPelican is the only airline providing passenger services at Bathurst Airport; the airline operates 6 return flights from Sydney Airport per week from Sunday to Friday.

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Great Western Highway

Great Western Highway

Great Western Highway is a 202-kilometre-long (126 mi) state highway in New South Wales, Australia. From east to west, the highway links Sydney with Bathurst, on the state's Central Tablelands.

Mid-Western Highway

Mid-Western Highway

Mid-Western Highway, sometimes Mid Western Highway, is a 518-kilometre (322 mi) state highway located in the central western and northern Riverina regions of New South Wales, Australia. The highway services rural communities and links the Great Western, Mitchell, Olympic, Newell, Cobb and Sturt highways. Mid-Western Highway forms part of the most direct route road link between Sydney and Adelaide, with its eastern terminus in Bathurst and western terminus in Hay. It is designated part of route A41 between Bathurst and Cowra, and route B64 between Cowra and Hay.

Mitchell Highway

Mitchell Highway

Mitchell Highway is an outback state highway located in the central and south western regions of Queensland and the northern and central western regions of New South Wales in Australia. The southern part of Mitchell Highway forms part of the National Highway A32 corridor, which stretches from Sydney to Adelaide via Dubbo and Broken Hill. Mitchell Highway also forms part of the shortest route between Sydney and Darwin, via Bourke and Mount Isa, making it an important road link for the transport of passengers and freight for regional New South Wales and Queensland. The highway is a part of route Alternative A2 between Augathella and Charleville, route A71 and B71 between Charleville and Nyngan, and part of route A32 between Nyngan and Bathurst.

Bathurst-Ilford Road

Bathurst-Ilford Road

Bathurst-Ilford Road is a 72.0-kilometre (44.7 mi) New South Wales country road linking Ilford to the regional hub of Bathurst.

Bathurst railway station, New South Wales

Bathurst railway station, New South Wales

Bathurst railway station is a heritage-listed railway station at Havannah Street, Bathurst, Bathurst Region, New South Wales, Australia. It is situated on the Main Western line and serves the city of Bathurst. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

NSW TrainLink

NSW TrainLink

NSW TrainLink is a train and coach operator in Australia, providing services throughout New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, along with limited interstate services into Victoria, Queensland and South Australia. Its primary intercity and regional services are spread throughout five major rail lines, operating out of Sydney's Central railway station.

Lithgow railway station

Lithgow railway station

Lithgow railway station is a heritage-listed former station master's residence and railway station and now guest accommodation and railway station located on the Main Western line at Railway Parade, Lithgow, City of Lithgow, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed and built by New South Wales Government Railways and built from 1924 to 1925. It is also known as Lithgow Railway Station Group and Residence and Eskbank East. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 30 August 2013. The station has frequent NSW TrainLink services running to and from Sydney Central.

Dubbo railway station

Dubbo railway station

Dubbo railway station is a heritage-listed railway station and bus interchange located on the Main Western line in Dubbo in the Dubbo Regional Council local government area of New South Wales, Australia. The station serves the city of Dubbo and was opened on 1 February 1881. The station is also known as Dubbo Railway Station and yard group. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. The station and associated yards were designed by the office of the Engineer-in-Chief of the NSW Government Railways, under the direction of John Whitton.

Cootamundra railway station

Cootamundra railway station

Cootamundra railway station is located on the Main South line in New South Wales, Australia. It serves the town of Cootamundra. The property was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Lithgow, New South Wales

Lithgow, New South Wales

Lithgow is a town in the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, Australia and is the administrative center of the City of Lithgow local government area. It is located in a mountain valley named Lithgow's Valley by John Oxley in honour of William Lithgow, the first Auditor-General of New South Wales.

Australia Wide Coaches

Australia Wide Coaches

Australia Wide Coaches is an Australian coach company operating charter services, an express service between Orange and Sydney and services in Central West New South Wales under contract to NSW TrainLink.

FlyPelican

FlyPelican

Pelican Airlines Pty Ltd, operating as FlyPelican, is an Australian regional airline. It initially operated air charter services and subsequently commenced scheduled flights on 1 June 2015. The airline is based in Newcastle in New South Wales. Its main base is Newcastle Airport. The airline was formed by former Aeropelican staff using former Aeropelican aircraft. The company slogan is Fly Local, Fly Pelican.

Bathurst region development

Bathurst's location close to Sydney and on major highways placed it in a desirable position for decentralisation plans by various governments over the years. Several decentralisation plans relating to Bathurst can be identified:

  1. in the late 1940s the Curtin Federal Government encouraged the NSW government to establish regions for regional development purposes. Bathurst and Orange were grouped as the Mitchell Region and established as such in 1945. Later the new Menzies federal government dropped support for the regionalisation scheme however the NSW Government continued, albeit modestly, promoting the regionalisation plan.[126]
  2. on 3 October 1972 the Federal Government and New South Wales Governments agreed on a plan to introduce a decentralisation policy to various regions in NSW. This plan included a pilot growth centre in the Bathurst-Orange area and was known as the Bathurst Orange Development Corporation (BODC). Initially 13 areas were proposed, however only four were established with Bathurst-Orange and Albury-Wodonga the only in rural regional NSW.[126] The project would comprise domestic, commercial and industrial developments and would develop the area economically, raise new capital investment, bring population to the region and create new employment opportunities. A statutory body was established by Act of Parliament to manage the BODC. The Act was effective from 1 July 1974.[127] A key focus for the BODC was the purchase of land and to that end it purchased 209 properties around Bathurst valued at $22 million.[126] A decline in regional trade as a result of changing global trends and the international depression and the oil shock during the mid-70s resulted in a declining interest by developers in new facilities. The BODC progressively received less and less government support and suffered liquidity problems.[128] Several large new employers moved to Bathurst as part of the BODC initiative, including Devro , Uncle Bens (now Mars ), and Omya Minerals.
  3. In 1989, the Greiner government promoted the regional hub strategy that encouraged regional centres that had natural growth potential. Bathurst was one of 12 regional hub locations in NSW that received support funding for development of university expansions, administration, health and general education sectors.[126]
  4. In 2010, a new plan to attract residents and therefore business to regional centres was launched. The marketing name is EVO Cities, a name coming from Energy, Vision and Opportunity (EVO). Seven NSW regional cities including Bathurst have developed the EVO City strategy at a local government level with funding provided by the NSW and Federal governments.[129] The strategy largely relies on advertising in capital city markets to promote residents to relocate to the EVO Cities.

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Decentralization

Decentralization

Decentralization or decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group and given to smaller factions within it.

John Curtin

John Curtin

John Curtin was an Australian politician who was the 14th prime minister of Australia, from 1941 until his death in 1945. He led the country for the majority of World War II, including all but the last few weeks of the war in the Pacific. He was the leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) from 1935 to 1945, and its longest serving leader until Gough Whitlam. Curtin's leadership skills and personal character were acclaimed by his political contemporaries. He is frequently ranked as one of Australia's greatest prime ministers.

John Menzies

John Menzies

John Menzies Limited is the holding company of Menzies Aviation plc, an aviation services business providing ground handling, cargo handling, cargo forwarding and into-plane (ITP) fuelling, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

Regionalism (politics)

Regionalism (politics)

Regionalism is a political ideology that seeks to increase the political power, influence and self-determination of the people of one or more subnational regions. It focuses on the "development of a political or social system based on one or more" regions and/or the national, normative or economic interests of a specific region, group of regions or another subnational entity, gaining strength from or aiming to strengthen the "consciousness of and loyalty to a distinct region with a homogeneous population", similarly to nationalism. More specifically, "regionalism refers to three distinct elements: movements demanding territorial autonomy within unitary states; the organization of the central state on a regional basis for the delivery of its policies including regional development policies; political decentralization and regional autonomy".

Devro

Devro

Devro plc is a multinational company with registered office in Moodiesburn, Chryston, United Kingdom which manufactures and distributes goods derived from collagen, principally sausage casings, a product in which it is the world leader. The firm also produces films, casings and other specialised collagen products for use in the health care and cosmetics industries. The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange.

Notable people

Home of Ben Chifley, now a museum, in Busby Street Bathurst
Home of Ben Chifley, now a museum, in Busby Street Bathurst

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Charles Bean

Charles Bean

Charles Edwin Woodrow Bean, usually identified as C. E. W. Bean, was Australia's official war correspondent, subsequently its official war historian, who wrote six volumes and edited the remaining six of the twelve-volume Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. He was the foundational force and primary advocate in establishing the Australian War Memorial (AWM). According to the Online International Encyclopedia of the First World War, no other Australian has been more influential in shaping the way the First World War is remembered and commemorated in Australia.

George Bonnor

George Bonnor

George John Bonnor was an Australian cricketer, known for his big hitting, who played Test cricket between 1880 and 1888.

Brian Booth

Brian Booth

Brian Charles Booth is a former Australian cricketer who played in 29 Test matches between 1961 and 1966, and 93 first-class matches for New South Wales. He captained Australia for two Tests during the 1965–66 Ashes series while regular captain Bob Simpson was absent due to illness and injury. Booth was a graceful right-handed middle order batsman at No. 4 or 5, and occasionally bowled right arm medium pace or off spin. He had an inclination to use his feet to charge spin bowlers. Booth was known for his sportsmanship on the field and often invoked Christianity while discussing ethics and sport.

Keith Bremner

Keith Bremner

Keith Bremner was an Australian Paralympic Shooter, who participated in other sports at International Paralympic Games. He competed at four successive Summer Paralympics from 1984, FESPIC Games, International Stoke Mandeville Games, World Shooting Championships, Oceania and Korean Shooting Championships for the Disabled. He was Chairman and long-term member of the Paraplegic and Quadriplegic Association of New South Wales, and long-term member of Wheelchair Sports New South Wales.

Ben Chifley

Ben Chifley

Joseph Benedict Chifley was an Australian politician who was the 16th prime minister of Australia, from 1945 to 1949. He held office as the leader of the Australian Labor Party (ALP) from 1945, following the death of John Curtin on 5 July, until his own death in 1951.

Brendan Cowell

Brendan Cowell

Brendan Cowell is an Australian actor, playwright, and director.

Andrew Denton

Andrew Denton

Andrew Christopher Denton is an Australian television producer, comedian, Gold Logie-nominated television presenter and former radio host, and was the host of the ABC's weekly television interview program Enough Rope and the ABC game show Randling. He is known for his comedy and interviewing technique. He is also responsible for introducing the troupe of The Chaser to Australian audiences.

Enough Rope

Enough Rope

Enough Rope with Andrew Denton is a television interview show originally broadcast on ABC1 in Australia. The title of the show came from the phrase "give someone enough rope and they'll hang themselves".

George Evans (explorer)

George Evans (explorer)

George William Evans was a surveyor and early explorer in the Colony of New South Wales. Evans was born in Warwick, England, migrating to Australia in October 1802.

Beatrice Grimshaw

Beatrice Grimshaw

Beatrice Ethel Grimshaw was an Irish writer and traveller. Beginning in 1903, she worked as a travel writer for the Daily Graphic and The Times, leading her to move to the Territory of Papua, where she served as the informal publicist of Lieutenant Governor Hubert Murray. Prior to her travels, she was the editor of the Social Review, publishing many of her own works under a pen name, and she had worked as a sports journalist for the Irish Cyclist. Over the course of her life, she wrote several novels, travel books, and short stories.

Gus Kelly (politician)

Gus Kelly (politician)

Christopher Augustus "Gus" Kelly was an Australian politician. He was a Labor Party member of the New South Wales Legislative Assembly from 1925 to 1932 and again from 1935 until his death in 1967, representing the electorate of Bathurst. He held numerous ministerial positions between 1941 and 1965 in McKell Labor Government.

Janelle Lindsay

Janelle Lindsay

Janelle Mary Lindsay, OAM is an Australian Paralympic tandem cycling pilot. She was born in the New South Wales city of Bathurst. She piloted Lindy Hou for sprints and kilo events at the 2004 Athens Games. At the games, she won a gold medal in the Women's Sprint Tandem B1–3 event and a bronze medal in the Women's 1 km Time Trial Tandem B1–3 event.

Media

Print

The local daily newspaper is the Western Advocate, published in Bathurst for 150 years. The publication has a circulation of 5,800 copies.[138]

Radio stations

Bathurst-licensed stations include:

  • 2BS FM 95.1 (commercial) – transmitted from the broadcaster's own tower in the northern suburb of Eglinton
  • B-Rock FM 99.3 (commercial) – transmitted from the broadcaster's own tower in the Ovens Ranges near Yetholme
  • 2MCE-FM 92.3 (community)
  • Life FM 100.1(Christian community) – transmitted from the Bathurst broadcast site Yetholme

National and other stations

  • ABC Central West 549 AM
  • NewsRadio 98.3
  • Radio National 104.3/96.7
  • Triple J 101.9/95.9
  • Classic FM 102.7/97.5
  • SBS Radio 88.9 MHz -Special Broadcasting Service, (Multicultural)
  • Vision Radio (UCB relay) 1629 AM
  • Racing Radio 2KY 100.9

Television stations

Television in the town area is transmitted from a tower on Mount Panorama 33°27′01″S 149°32′50″E / 33.45028°S 149.54722°E / -33.45028; 149.54722

Of the three main commercial networks:

  • Seven News produces a half-hour local news bulletin for the Central West, airing each weeknight at 6pm. It is produced from local newsrooms in Orange and Dubbo and broadcast from studios in Canberra.
  • WIN Television produces a half-hour local news bulletin for the Central West, airing each weeknight at 5:30pm. It is produced from its local newsroom in Orange and broadcast from studios in Wollongong.
  • Southern Cross 10 produces short news updates of 10 News First throughout the day from its Hobart studios.

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B-Rock 99.3FM

B-Rock 99.3FM

B-Rock 99.3FM is a local radio station in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It broadcasts on 99.3 megahertz on the FM band, from a transmitter in Bathurst, with a power output of 10 kilowatts and callsign 2BXS.

2MCE

2MCE

2MCE FM Bathurst is a local community radio station, located on the campus of Charles Sturt University in Bathurst, New South Wales, Australia. It broadcasts to the communities of Bathurst and Orange and their surrounds.

Prime7

Prime7

Prime7, formerly Prime Television and other names, was an Australian television network. Prime Television launched on 17 March 1962 as CBN-8 in Orange, and later expanded to cover regional New South Wales, Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory. It was initially an independent affiliate owned by Prime Media Group before the network, and its sister GWN7, were acquired by Seven West Media on 31 December 2021.

7two

7two

7two is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 1 November 2009.

7mate

7mate

7mate is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 25 September 2010. The channel contains sport and regular programs aimed primarily to a male audience, with programming drawn from a combination of new shows, American network shows and other shows previously aired on its sister channels Seven, 7two and 7flix.

7Bravo

7Bravo

7Bravo is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 15 January 2023. The channel contains programming from NBCUniversal's American networks, including Bravo, E! and Oxygen along with entertainment and talk show programming from NBC and its American broadcast syndication division.

7flix

7flix

7flix is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel, which was launched by the Seven Network on 28 February 2016.

Ishop TV

Ishop TV

ishop TV is an Australian free-to-air television channel and a digital advertorial datacasting service that was launched on 30 April 2013. The channel is owned by Seven West Media and Brand Developers, broadcasting infomercials and home shopping.

9Gem

9Gem

9Gem is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel, launched by the Nine Network in September 2010. The channel provides general entertainment and movie programming, from which the original name "GEM" is derived.

9Go!

9Go!

9Go! is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel, which was launched by the Nine Network on 9 August 2009, replacing Nine Guide. It is a youthful channel that offers a mix of comedy, reality, general entertainment, movies, animation and drama aimed at people between the ages of 2 to 18.

9Life

9Life

9Life is an Australian free-to-air digital television multichannel owned by Nine Entertainment. The channel airs mostly foreign lifestyle and reality programs, with the channel having a licensing agreement with Discovery Inc. for the distribution of many formats.

Gold (Australian TV channel)

Gold (Australian TV channel)

Gold is an Australian advertorial datacasting channel that launched on 1 May 2012 by the WIN Corporation. It is available to homes in most regional WIN Television viewing areas on LCN 85. The channel broadcasts mostly infomercials, as well as education, lifestyle, community programming as well as television classics from the Crawfords library.

Twin city

Source: "Bathurst, New South Wales", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 22nd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bathurst,_New_South_Wales.

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See also
References
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Books
  • Bathurst Progress Committee, ed. (1893), Bathurst guide: embracing particulars descriptive of the rise and progress of the city and its public institutions including illustrations of the principal buildings, parks and scenery of the district, John Sands
  • Salisbury, T; Gresser, P J (1971), Windradyne of the Wiradjuri; martial law at Bathurst in 1824, Wentworth Books, ISBN 0-85587-017-6
  • Greaves, Bernard, ed. (1976), The story of Bathurst (3rd ed.), Angus & Robertson, ISBN 0-207-13363-8
  • Barker, Theo (1992), A history of Bathurst: The early settlement to 1862, Crawford House Press, ISBN 1-86333-056-9
  • Raxworthy, Dorothy Sampson (1993), The making of a settlement: Bathurst Kelso NSW, 1813–1833, D.S. Raxworthy, ISBN 0-646-13920-7
  • Barker, Theo (1998), A history of Bathurst: From settlement to city 1862–1914, Crawford House Press in association with Bathurst City Council, ISBN 1-86333-058-5
  • Scaysbrook, Jim (2003), Bikes & Bathurst: a history of racing at Bathurst since 1931, Independent Observations, ISBN 0-9581758-0-2
External links
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