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Barwell (1782 ship)

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History
Flag of the British East India Company (1707).svgGreat Britain
NameBarwell
NamesakeWilliam Barwell
Owner
BuilderJohn & William Wells, Deptford[1]
Launched23 September 1782
FateLast listed 1807
General characteristics [2]
Tons burthen796, or 796 9194[1] (bm)
Length
  • 145 ft 7 in (44.4 m) (overall
  • 118 ft 4 in (36.1 m) (keel)
Beam35 ft 7 in (10.8 m)
Depth of hold14 ft 9 in (4.5 m)
Complement
Armament
  • 1793:26 x 12 & 6-pounder guns[3]
  • 1800:26 x 9 & 12 & 18-pounder guns[3]

Barwell was a merchantman launched in 1782. She made six voyages for the British East India Company (EIC). She then left the EIC's service but continued to sail. She made one voyage transporting convicts in 1797 from England to Australia. She was last listed in 1807.

Discover more about Barwell (1782 ship) related topics

East India Company

East India Company

The East India Company (EIC) was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600 and dissolved in 1874. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies, and later with East Asia. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong. At its peak, the company was the largest corporation in the world. The EIC had its own armed forces in the form of the company's three Presidency armies, totalling about 260,000 soldiers, twice the size of the British army at the time. The operations of the company had a profound effect on the global balance of trade, almost single-handedly reversing the trend of eastward drain of Western bullion, seen since Roman times.

Convict

Convict

A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison". Convicts are often also known as "prisoners" or "inmates" or by the slang term "con", while a common label for former convicts, especially those recently released from prison, is "ex-con" ("ex-convict"). Persons convicted and sentenced to non-custodial sentences tend not to be described as "convicts".

England

England

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. It is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

East India Company service

Voyage 1 (1783-84)

Captain Robert Carr left Portsmouth on 11 March 1783, sailing for Madras and Bengal. On 19 June Barwell reached Johanna, on 22 July Madras, and 14 September she arrived at Kedgeree. For her return to England she reached Saugor on 31 December, St Helena on 28 April 1784, and Deptford on 2 August.[2]

Voyage 2 (1785-86)

Captain Robert Carr sailed Barwell for China, leaving the Downs on 12 March 1785. She reached Whampoa on 21 September. For her return leg she crossed the Second Bar on 14 January 1786. She reached St Helena on 6 May and Deptford on 10 August.[2] Carr died in his lodgings on St James Street in London on 14 December.[4]

Voyage 3 (1787-89)

Captain Thomas Welladvice took command of Barwell. He would be her captain for this and her subsequent three voyages for the EIC. She left Portsmouth on 21 December 1787 and reached Madras on 5 May 1788. From there she sailed to Benkulen, which she reached on 15 July, and 15 September Whampoa, which she reached on 15 September. For her return to England she crossed the Second Bar on 29 November. She reached the Cape on 5 February 1789, and St Helena on 14 February. Barwell arrived at Long Reach on 4 April.[2]

It was during this homeward voyage that Welladvice narrowly avoided the disaster of wrecking on the Isles of Scilly as Admiral Cloudesley Shovell had in the Scilly naval disaster of 1707. Welladvice had with him a naval chronometer made by John Arnold. One night, when Welladvice calculated Barwell's position, he determined that she had to be near the Isles and moored her at midnight. Daybreak revealed the rocks in front of her.[5]

Voyage 4 (1790-91)

Welladvice left the Downs on 18 January 1790. Barwell reached Bombay on 15 May, and Whampoa on 6 August. She crossed the Second Bar on 15 November, arrived at the Cape on 10 April 1791, St Helena on 28 April, and Long Reach on 29 June.[2]

Voyage 5 (1793-94)

War with France having broken out, Welladvice acquired a letter of marque on 21 March 1793. This gave him the right to act offensively vis-a-vis the French, not just defensively, should the opportunity arise. He sailed from Portsmouth on 22 May 1793, bound for Bombay. Barwell was part of a convoy that also included the East Indiamen Prince William, Lord Thurlow, William Pitt, Glatton, Pigot, Earl of Oxford, Osterley, Fort William, London, Houghton, Marquis of Landsdown, Hillsborough, Ceres, and Earl of Abergavenny, amongst numerous other vessels, merchant and military, most of the non-Indiamen travelling to the Mediterranean.[6]

Barwell reached Johanna on 26 August and Bombay 17 September. She then visited a number of ports in area, arriving on 26 October at Tellicherry, on 12 November at Anjengo, three days later at Quilon, on 27 November at Cochin, and on 1 December at Calicut. She returned to Tellicherry on 4 December and Bombay on 14 December. On 27 February 1794 Barwell reached the Cape. She arrived at St Helena on 18 March, Galway on 20 July, and Long Reach on 31 August.[2]

Voyage 6 (1795-96)

For her last voyage for the EIC, Welladvice left Portsmouth on 24 May 1795. Barwell reached Bombay on 3 September, Calicut on 6 November, Anjengo on 16 November, Quilon on 22 November, Calicut on 7 December, Tellicherry on 12 December, and Bombay on 28 December. On her return voyage Barwell arrived at St Helena on 22 March 1796, and Long Reach on 8 August.[2]

Barwell then left the EIC's service.[7] However, she made one more trip for the company, but this time on contract.

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Anjouan

Anjouan

Anjouan is an autonomous high island in the Indian Ocean that forms part of the Union of the Comoros. Its chief town is Mutsamudu and, as of 2006, its population is around 277,500. The total area of the island is 424 square kilometers.

Chennai

Chennai

Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The state's largest city in area and population as well, Chennai is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, and is the most prominent cultural, economic and educational centre of South India.

Huangpu District, Guangzhou

Huangpu District, Guangzhou

Huangpu (help·info), alternately romanized as Whampoa, is one of 11 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong Province, China. Despite its name, it does not include Huangpu Island or its famous anchorage. Huangpu absorbed Guangzhou's former Luogang District in 2014. The district has been awarded the status of "Happiest District of China" in 2020.

Bengkulu

Bengkulu

Bengkulu is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the southwest coast of Sumatra. It was formed on 18 November 1968 by separating out the former Bencoolen Residency area from the province of South Sumatra under Law No. 9 of 1967 and was finalized by Government Regulation No. 20 of 1968. Spread over 19,813 km2, it is bordered by the provinces of West Sumatra to the north, Jambi to the northeast, Lampung to the southeast, and South Sumatra to the east, and by the Indian Ocean to the northwest, south, southwest, and west.

Cape of Good Hope

Cape of Good Hope

The Cape of Good Hope is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa.

Isles of Scilly

Isles of Scilly

The Isles of Scilly is an archipelago off the southwestern tip of Cornwall, England. One of the islands, St Agnes, is the most southerly point in Britain, being over four miles further south than the most southerly point of the British mainland at Lizard Point.

Cloudesley Shovell

Cloudesley Shovell

Admiral of the Fleet Sir Cloudesley Shovell was an English naval officer. As a junior officer he saw action at the Battle of Solebay and then at the Battle of Texel during the Third Anglo-Dutch War. As a captain he fought at the Battle of Bantry Bay during the Williamite War in Ireland.

John Arnold (watchmaker)

John Arnold (watchmaker)

John Arnold was an English watchmaker and inventor.

Mumbai

Mumbai

Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra and the de facto financial centre of India. According to the United Nations, as of 2018, Mumbai is the second-most populous city in India after Delhi and the eighth-most populous city in the world with a population of roughly 20 million ). As per the Indian government population census of 2011, Mumbai was the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.5 million (1.25 crore) living under the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation. Mumbai is the centre of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region, the sixth most populous metropolitan area in the world with a population of over 23 million. Mumbai lies on the Konkan coast on the west coast of India and has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city. It has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India.

French Revolutionary Wars

French Revolutionary Wars

The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia, and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered territories in the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and the Rhineland in Europe and abandoned Louisiana in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.

Letter of marque

Letter of marque

A letter of marque and reprisal was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a private person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture vessels of a nation at war with the issuer. After capturing, the privateers could bring the case of that prize before their own admiralty court for condemnation and transfer of ownership to the privateer. A letter of marque and reprisal would include permission to cross an international border to conduct a reprisal and was authorized by an issuing jurisdiction to conduct reprisal operations outside its borders.

HMS Glatton (1795)

HMS Glatton (1795)

HMS Glatton was a 56-gun fourth rate of the Royal Navy. Wells & Co. of Blackwell launched her on 29 November 1792 for the British East India Company (EIC) as the East Indiaman Glatton. The Royal Navy bought her in 1795 and converted her into a warship. Glatton was unusual in that for a time she was the only ship-of-the-line that the Royal Navy had armed exclusively with carronades. She served in the North Sea and the Baltic, and as a transport for convicts to Australia. She then returned to naval service in the Mediterranean. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars the Admiralty converted her to a water depot at Sheerness. In 1830 the Admiralty converted Glatton to a breakwater and sank her at Harwich.

Convict transport

Under the command of John Cameron, Barwell sailed from Portsmouth on 7 November 1797,[8] She arrived at the Cape on 21 February 1798.[8] While sailing to Australia, Cameron suppressed a mutiny on board the Barwell.[9] She arrived at Port Jackson on 18 May 1798.[10] She embarked 296 male convicts; nine convicts died on the voyage.[11]

When Barwell reached Port Jackson Cameron charged Ensign George Bond, of the New South Wales Corps, with mutiny. Bond counter-sued, charging Cameron with false imprisonment, assault, defamation, deprivation of rations, false testimony, and loss of employment. Bond sought £10,000 in damages. Unfortunately, there is no record of the outcome of either case.[12]

Barwell left Port Jackson on 17 August bound for China.[10] Between 17 September and 2 December she was at Whampoa.[8]

For her return to England she crossed the Second Bar on 20 January 1799. She reached Malacca on 22 February, the Cape on 3 May, and St Helena on 18 June.[8] She left St Helena on 6 July in the company of the Indiamen Tellicherry , Triton, and Armenian, and under escort by the 18-gun Cornwallis.[a] Barwell left the convoy on 24 July off the Western Islands. She arrived at Plymouth on 11 September. There she discharged her passengers, one of whom was carrying dispatches for the British government from Governor Hunter in Australia. She left Plymouth on 13 September with the 18-gun ship-sloop HMS Voltiguer as escort.[8] Barwell reached Long Reach on 17 September.[8]

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Portsmouth

Portsmouth

Portsmouth is a port and city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire in southern England. The city of Portsmouth has been a unitary authority since 1 April 1997 and is administered by Portsmouth City Council.

Mutiny

Mutiny

Mutiny is a revolt among a group of people to oppose, change, or overthrow an organization to which they were previously loyal. The term is commonly used for a rebellion among members of the military against an internal force, but it can also sometimes mean any type of rebellion against any force. Mutiny does not necessarily need to refer to a military force and can describe a political, economic, or power structure in which there is a change of power.

Port Jackson

Port Jackson

Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea. It is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement and colony on the Australian mainland, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney.

Ensign (rank)

Ensign (rank)

Ensign is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank acquired the name. This rank has generally been replaced in army ranks by second lieutenant. Ensigns were generally the lowest-ranking commissioned officer, except where the rank of subaltern existed. In contrast, the Arab rank of ensign, لواء, liwa', derives from the command of units with an ensign, not the carrier of such a unit's ensign, and is today the equivalent of a major general.

New South Wales Corps

New South Wales Corps

The New South Wales Corps was formed in England in 1789 as a permanent regiment of the British Army to relieve the New South Wales Marine Corps, who had accompanied the First Fleet to Australia, in fortifying the Colony of New South Wales. It gained notoriety for its trade in rum and disobedient behaviour during its service and was disbanded in 1818.

Malacca

Malacca

Malacca is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Tellicherry (1796 ship)

Tellicherry (1796 ship)

Tellicherry was a two-decker ship built on the Thames in 1796 in England for John St Barbe, a wealthy merchant and ship owner. She made four voyages as an "extra ship" for the East India Company. Later, she made one trip to Australia transporting convicts. She was wrecked in 1806 in the Philippines.

Outer Hebrides

Outer Hebrides

The Outer Hebrides or Western Isles, sometimes known as Na h-Innse Gall or the Long Isle/Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically coextensive with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. They form part of the archipelago of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch, and the Sea of the Hebrides. Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority.

John Hunter (Royal Navy officer)

John Hunter (Royal Navy officer)

Vice Admiral John Hunter was an officer of the Royal Navy, who succeeded Arthur Phillip as the second Governor of New South Wales, serving from 1795 to 1800.

Later career

Lloyd's Register for 1799 has Scott & Co. as her owner, E. Redman as her master, and her trade as London and Botany Bay. In 1800 her ownership transferred to Fletcher & Co., and her master was listed as John Toole.[15] Her trade was given as Lisbon. On 3 February 1800, Toole received a letter of marque for Barwell.[3] In 1805 Barwell, J. Toole, master, was still listed as trading between London and Lisbon.[16]

She was reportedly stolen by her master, Captain John Poole, in 1811.[b]

Source: "Barwell (1782 ship)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barwell_(1782_ship).

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Notes
  1. ^ Armenian is probably the EIC country ship Armenia . She was built in 1796; the French 18-gun privateer Clarisse captured her in 1800 after a fight that resulted in Armenia losing one man killed and several wounded before she surrendered.[13] HMS Cornwallis was an 18-gun brig that did not enter into Admiralty records.[14] A few passing mentions in other contexts are the sole indicators of her existence. She appears to have been purchased at the Cape of Good Hope. Lieutenant Richard Byron was appointed to command her in March 1798 and to Commander on 22 June. He sailed her "with dispatches" to Britain, where she was paid off and seemingly never returned to service.
  2. ^ It is not clear what the original source of this account is. The report shows up in Hackman, but Hackman does not link the report to a source. Barwell last appears in Lloyd's Register in 1807, still with Fletcher & Co. as owners and J. Toole as master. Lloyd's List does not mention the event either.
Citations
  1. ^ a b Hackman (2001), p. 65.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g British Library: Barwell (1).
  3. ^ a b c d e Letter of Marque, 1793–1815, p.52; Archived 9 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ The New Lady's Magazine, Or, Polite and Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex, Vol. 2, (January 1787), p. 56.
  5. ^ Deutsches Uhrenmuseum: "The Development of the Marine Chronometer",[1] - accessed 10 November 2014.
  6. ^ Gentleman's magazine (May 1793), Vol 63, part. 1, p. 474.
  7. ^ Hardy (1811).
  8. ^ a b c d e f British Library:Barwell (2).
  9. ^ Bateson (1959), pp. 147–8.
  10. ^ a b "Arrival of Vessels at Port Jackson, and their Departure". Australian Town and Country Journal, Saturday 3 January 1891, p.16. Retrieved 4 February 2012.
  11. ^ Bateson (1959), p. 153.
  12. ^ Kercher (1996), p. 104.
  13. ^ Selections from the Calcutta Gazettes of the Years 1874 'to 1932, Inclusive' Showing the Political and Social Condition of the English in India Eighty Years Ago. Volume 3 (1868), p.269.
  14. ^ Naval Chronicle, Vol. 2, p.353.
  15. ^ Lloyd's Register, 1800.
  16. ^ Register of Shipping (1805), Seq. №61.
References

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