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Barefoot Gen

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Barefoot Gen
Barefoot Gen volume one.jpg
Original Japanese first volume of Barefoot Gen.
はだしのゲン
(Hadashi no Gen)
GenreHistorical[1]
Manga
Written byKeiji Nakazawa
Published by
English publisher
Magazine
DemographicShōnen, seinen
Original runMay 22, 19731987
Volumes10
Novel
Hadashi no Gen wa Pikadon wo wasurenai
(Barefoot Gen will never forget about the Bomb)
Written byKeiji Nakazawa
Published byIwanami Shoten
PublishedJuly 1982
Novel
Hadashi no Gen heno Tegami
(A letter to Barefoot Gen)
Written byKeiji Nakazawa
Published byKyouikuShiryo Publishing
PublishedJuly 1991
Novel
Jiden Hadashi no Gen
(Autobiography of Barefoot Gen)
Written byKeiji Nakazawa
Published byKyouikuShiryo Publishing
PublishedJuly 1994
Novel
Hadashi no Gen in Hiroshima
(Barefoot Gen in Hiroshima)
Written by
  • Keiji Nakazawa
  • Kyo Kijima
Published byKodansha
PublishedJuly 1999
Novel
Hadashi no Gen ga ita Fukei
(Seen where Barefoot Gen was)
Written by
  • Kazuma Yoshimura
  • Yoshiaki Fukuma
Published byAzusa Syuppansya
PublishedJuly 2006
Television drama
Barefoot Gen
Directed by
  • Nishiura Masaki
  • Murakami Masanori
Original networkFuji TV
Original run August 10, 2007 August 11, 2007
Episodes2
Novel
Hadashi no Gen wa Hiroshima wo Wasurenai
(Barefoot Gen will never forget about Hiroshima)
Written byKeiji Nakazawa
Published byIwanami Shoten
PublishedAugust 2008
Live-action films
Anime films

Barefoot Gen (はだしのゲン, Hadashi no Gen) is a Japanese historical manga series by Keiji Nakazawa. Loosely based on Nakazawa's own experiences as a Hiroshima survivor, the series begins in 1945 in and around Hiroshima, Japan, where the six-year-old boy Gen Nakaoka lives with his family. After Hiroshima is destroyed by atomic bombing, Gen and other survivors are left to deal with the aftermath. It ran in several magazines, including Weekly Shōnen Jump, from 1973 to 1987. It was subsequently adapted into three live action film adaptations directed by Tengo Yamada, which were released between 1976 and 1980. Madhouse released two anime films, one in 1983 and one in 1986. In 2007, a live action television drama series adaptation aired in Japan on Fuji TV over two nights, August 10 and 11.

Discover more about Barefoot Gen related topics

Historical fiction

Historical fiction

Historical fiction is a literary genre in which the plot takes place in a setting related to the past events, but is fictional. Although the term is commonly used as a synonym for historical fiction literature, it can also be applied to other types of narrative, including theatre, opera, cinema, and television, as well as video games and graphic novels.

Keiji Nakazawa

Keiji Nakazawa

Keiji Nakazawa was a Japanese manga artist and writer.

Hiroshima

Hiroshima

Hiroshima is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture in Japan. As of June 1, 2019, the city had an estimated population of 1,199,391. The gross domestic product (GDP) in Greater Hiroshima, Hiroshima Urban Employment Area, was US$61.3 billion as of 2010. Kazumi Matsui has been the city's mayor since April 2011.

Japan

Japan

Japan is an island country in East Asia. It is situated in the northwest Pacific Ocean, and is bordered on the west by the Sea of Japan, while extending from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north toward the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Taiwan in the south. Japan is a part of the Ring of Fire, and spans an archipelago of 6852 islands covering 377,975 square kilometers (145,937 sq mi); the five main islands are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa. Tokyo is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Kobe, and Kyoto.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

The United States detonated two atomic bombs over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1945, respectively. The two bombings killed between 129,000 and 226,000 people, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in armed conflict.

Live action

Live action

Live action is a form of cinematography or videography that uses photography instead of animation. Some works combine live-action with animation to create a live-action animated film. Live-action is used to define film, video games or similar visual media. According to the Cambridge English Dictionary, live action "[involves] real people or animals, not models, or images that are drawn, or produced by computer."

Madhouse (company)

Madhouse (company)

Madhouse Inc. is a Japanese animation studio founded in 1972 by ex–Mushi Pro animators, including Masao Maruyama, Osamu Dezaki, Rintaro and Yoshiaki Kawajiri.

Anime

Anime

Anime is hand-drawn and computer-generated animation originating from Japan. Outside of Japan and in English, anime refers specifically to animation produced in Japan. However, in Japan and in Japanese, anime describes all animated works, regardless of style or origin. Animation produced outside of Japan with similar style to Japanese animation is commonly referred to as anime-influenced animation.

Barefoot Gen (1983 film)

Barefoot Gen (1983 film)

Barefoot Gen is a 1983 Japanese anime war drama film loosely based on the Japanese manga series of the same name by Keiji Nakazawa. Directed by Mori Masaki and starring Issei Miyazaki, Masaki Kōda and Tatsuya Jo, it depicts World War II in Japan from a child's point of view revolving around the events surrounding the bombing of Hiroshima and the main character's first hand experience of the bomb.

Barefoot Gen 2

Barefoot Gen 2

Barefoot Gen 2 is a 1986 Japanese animated action drama film and the sequel to the 1983 animated war film Barefoot Gen, loosely based on the Japanese manga series by Keiji Nakazawa. Directed by Toshio Hirata, the film stars Issei Miyazaki, Masaki Kōda, Yoshie Shimamura, and Taeko Nakanishi, who reprise their roles from the first film, while Kei Nakamura and Takami Aoyama join the cast. In the film, Gen and Ryuta Nakaoka join a gang of orphan scavengers and attempt to save their mother Kimie from radiation sickness, a consequence of her survival of the Hiroshima atomic bombing.

Japanese television drama

Japanese television drama

Japanese television drama , also called dorama (ドラマ), are television programs that are a staple of Japanese television and are broadcast daily. All major TV networks in Japan produce a variety of drama series including romance, comedy, detective stories, horror, jidaigeki, thriller, and many others. Single episode, or "tanpatsu" dramas that are usually two hours in length are also broadcast. For special occasions, there may be a one or two-episode drama with a specific theme, such as one produced in 2015 for the 70-year anniversary of the end of World War II.

Fuji TV

Fuji TV

JOCX-DTV, branded as Fuji TV and colloquially known as CX, is a Japanese television station based in Odaiba, Minato, Tokyo, Japan. Owned and operated by the Fuji Television Network, Inc. it is the key station of the Fuji News Network (FNN) and the Fuji Network System. It is also known for its long-time slogan, "If it's not fun, it's not TV!"

Publication history

Cartoonist Keiji Nakazawa created the feature Ore wa Mita (translated into English as I Saw It), an eyewitness account of the atomic-bomb devastation in Japan, in the monthly manga Monthly Shōnen Jump in 1972. In the United States it was published through Educomics in 1982.[2] Nakazawa went on to serialize the longer, autobiographical Hadashi No Gen (Barefoot Gen)[2] beginning in the June 4, 1973 edition of Weekly Shōnen Jump manga magazine,[3] It was cancelled after a year and a half, and moved to three other less widely distributed magazines: Shimin (Citizen), Bunka Hyōron (Cultural Criticism), and Kyōiku Hyōron (Educational Criticism). It was published in book collections in Japan beginning in 1975.

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Plot

In Volume 1 of Barefoot Gen: A Cartoon Story of Hiroshima, the story begins in Hiroshima in April, 1945, during the final months of World War II. Six-year-old Gen Nakaoka and his family live in poverty and struggle to make ends meet. Gen's father Daikichi urges them to "live like wheat," which always grows strong despite being trod on. Daikichi is critical of the war. When he shows up drunk to a mandatory combat drill and talks back to his instructor, the Nakaokas are branded as traitors and become subject to harassment and discrimination by their neighbors. To restore his family's honor, Gen's older brother Koji joins the Imperial Navy against Daikichi's wishes, where he is subjected to a brutal training regimen by his commanding officer, which causes one of Koji's friends to kill himself. On August 6, the atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima. Gen's father and siblings perish in the fires, but he and his mother escape. The shock causes her to give premature birth; Gen names his new sister Tomoko, so she will grow up to have lots of friends ('Tomo' means 'friend.').

In Volume 2: The Day After, in the days following the attack, Gen and his mother witness the horrors wrought by the bomb. Hiroshima lies in ruins, and the city is full of people dead and dying from severe burns and radiation sickness. Gen meets a girl named Natsue, whose face has been severely burned. She attempts to commit suicide, but Gen convinces her to continue living. Gen and his mother adopt an orphan named Ryuta, who by sheer coincidence looks identical to Gen's deceased younger brother Shinji. After Gen returns to their burnt-out home and retrieves the remains of his father and siblings, he and his family move in with Kimie's friend Kiyo. However, Kiyo's stingy mother-in-law conspires with her spoiled grandchildren to drive the Nakaokas out, falsely accusing first the children, and then Kimie, of stealing rice that the grandchildren had themselves stolen.

In Volume 3: Life After the Bomb, the family look for a vacancy in vain, since they cannot pay. In remorse, Kiyo invites them back, but her mother-in-law demands rent. Gen looks for work to pay it. A man hires him to look after his brother Seiji, who has been burnt from head to toe and lives in squalor. Though Seiji is reluctant at first, he warms up to Gen over time: The boy learns Seiji is an artist who has lost the will to live because his burns have left him unable to hold a brush. With Gen's help, Seiji learns to paint with his teeth but, eventually, he dies of his wounds. On August 14, Emperor Hirohito announces Japan's surrender over the radio, ending the war. When Kimie needs a doctor, Gen can find none who will help without payment in money or food.

In Volume 4: Out of the Ashes, following Japan's surrender, American occupation forces arrive to help the nation rebuild. Gen and Ryuta, fearing rumours they've heard about the Americans, arm themselves with a pistol they find in an abandoned weapons cache. They learn the Americans aren't as bad as they'd thought when they're given free candy, but they also witness a group of American soldiers harvesting organs from corpses for medical research. Kiyo's mother-in-law evicts the Nakaokas again after Gen gets into a fight with her grandchildren, and they move into an abandoned bomb shelter. Gen and Ryuta attempt to kill a dog to provide sufficient protein after they learn that they and the whole family are dying of malnutrition, but cannot bring themselves to do it. They try to steal American food, but the cans turn out to contain balloons. They try again to steal from the Americans with help from someone who turns out to be part of the local Yakuza (black market gangsters). After the Yakuza betray them, Ryuta kills two of them with the pistol they found. The head of a rival gang takes him in, and he leaves money outside Gen's front door before going off with the gangsters to avoid arrest. Returning to school, Gen and a girl, Michiko, are both mocked for being bald. Coming to her defence, he is challenged by a bully to a duel/dare. Both must climb a tall tower, and the first to return with a pigeon's egg will win. The tower crumbles beneath them as they climb. Gen saves the bully, who now owes him. He discovers that the girl's sister was raped by an American soldier and became a whore [sic] to provide food for Michiko. Gen learns that Tomoko has been kidnapped. He learns a Buddhist prayer because he's been told that praying to the Buddha will help him find Tomoko, and tries it though he thinks it superstition. He follows the bully, whom he suspects knows something, and finds that a large number of victims of Hiroshima have been using her as their Princess to trick dying women into believing their missing babies have been found, and as an inspiration to the kidnappers to stop drinking. This is a little more than six months after the Bomb was dropped, when many who had survived are suddenly dying. He is able to pray over a newly dead woman, which makes them sorry, but still unwilling to return Tomoko, until she starts vomiting blood. The doctor says she's dying. In a blink, from being just over six months after, it's suddenly the 2nd anniversary of the dropping of the bomb on Hiroshima, in the midst of the doctor's visit. He says Tomoko's only chance is with expensive American medicine costing 100,000 yen. The kidnappers can't raise enough. The bully makes a list of the dying, and Gen tries to earn money chanting Buddhist prayers, but it's not enough. Mr. Pak, the Korean neighbor from Volume 1 makes a surprise visit, and hands Gen 100,000 yen and American milk. He's been doing well on the black market. Gen returns to his family with the money, but finds Tomoko is dead. He refuses to believe it, then refuses to speak, until he discovers that his hair is growing back, and remembers what his father told him, that he must keep growing, like wheat that grows straight and tall after being trampled.

In Volume 5: The Never-Ending War, in December 1947, Gen is in school when Ryuta appears, who has become a juvenile delinquent, doing odd jobs for the Yakuza. Gen meets orphans with Ryuta, including Katsuko, a girl scarred by burns from the bomb. As an orphan and a hibakusha, she is subject to discrimination and cannot go to school; Gen lends her his books and promises to teach her himself. On December 7, the Emperor visits Hiroshima, and the streets are lined with children waving homemade flags. Ryuta and other orphans learn to shoot a pistol since the head gangster, Masa, wants them to kill his rival, 'Mitey'. Donguri shoots Mitey and is killed. Gen encourages the others flee, but Masa follows them. Ryuta shoots Masa in the shoulder and his henchman in the leg to get them to let them go. They have built their own house, along with Gen, who doesn't wish to be a burden on his mother, where they live with an old man cast away by his relatives for being too ill from radiation to work. For New Year's Day, 1947, rice cakes are distributed free, but the true cost is to cheer for the Emperor who got Japan into the war, a cost too high for Gen to pay. He defies his teacher, speaking out his father's beliefs. The same local official who had called Gen's father a traitor for being for peace, who Gen then rescued the day the Bomb was dropped, who then refused to help free Gen's father, brother, and sister, is now running for office claiming he was always for peace. Gen exposes him, and is thrown out of the meeting. Gen's mother is ill, and the doctor says the only way to help her is to take her to the American-run Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), but Gen and his mother are against accepting American help. His older brother insists that she fight to live so she can raise the younger children to upright adulthood. The orphans decide to try to earn money shining shoes to help Gen's mother, and he sings to drum up business, but they are chased by orphan-catchers trying to take them to an orphanage. They assume Gen is an orphan, too. They escape, and ask the old man to become their father, "Papa," so they won't be orphans anymore, vulnerable to being hauled off. The old man is a novelist, but no one will publish his newest novel, because it is critical of the Americans for dropping the Bomb. Gen's mother goes to the ABCC, which gives her no help, only treating her as a specimen to be studied. Gen wonders why the doctor sent her there. He rescues a girl from bullies who call her a vulture. He learns that this is because her father collects dead victims of Hiroshima to take to the ABCC in order to make a living. Corrupt doctors get a kickback when they send people to the ABCC in the form of free medicine that they can sell at high prices. Gen sees boys fishing out skulls from the river and polishing them up to sell to the ABCC. At first he finds it sacreligious, but then decides the Americans deserve to be haunted, and any way to make money and survive at their expense is justified. He tries to make amends to the skulls by chanting prayers so they can go to heaven. He teaches the other children how to catch shrimp, as his mother lies seemingly at the point of death.

In Volume 6: Writing the Truth, the Hiroshima orphans put on a show of their misery to American soldiers to sell skulls of victims. They sell out, and look forward to buying lots of food, but a pickpocket robs them on the train. To their surprise, huge bags of food are thrown off the train they got off of once they discovered the theft. It's blackmarket food that wouldn't get through a checkpoint. They try to sneak some for themselves by stuffing smaller amounts to simulate a baby and pregnancy, but get caught. It turns out, however, that the police eat black-market rice too, since it's impossible to survive otherwise, and the orphans are able to escape them. No word comes from oldest brother Koji, who went off to work in the dangerous mines to earn money. He is drinking and gambling destructively. When Gen gets back home with rice, he finds that his mother is spitting up blood and has collapsed. They again need money they don't have for a doctor. Ryuta sticks up a casino to pay for Kimie's treatment, and the mob is after him, so he must flee Hiroshima. But every exit is staked, so he gives himself up to the police, who are the only ones who can insure he is not killed, and put in a reformatory. In July, 1948, in Hiroshima City, Gen is tearing down a wall to collect bricks, as well as scrap iron to earn a living. A girl has hanged herself because of the radiation scars that made everyone treat her as a monster. Gen worries that Katsuko will try again. He writes Koji for money to help with their mother's hospital bills. He sees a girl put stones in her sleeves, preparing to throw herself into the river, and rescues her. It's Natsue! But she forgets her own woes when Gen hurts himself. She is angry at everyone who has treated her cruelly, and Gen decides to take her back to join the orphans, asking Katsuko to keep an eye on her. Gen is accused of being a thief when he sticks his head in a window to smell the beef he can't afford. Natsue tries again, so he takes her and Katsuko to see someone with arms wrapped in bandages, sewing with only her feet and mouth. They decide to learn to sew too, and open a clothing store. Gen isn't getting much for scrap, and sees other orphans getting paid well for copper, so he looks for where they got it. They steal it by boat from a shipyard, but the first time Gen and an orphan, Musubi, try, the shipyard owners are already watching and catch them, intending to beat them to death. They throw stones in the river, pretending to have jumped in and drowned. Then they fill their boat with too much copper, and it sinks. They go to a shooting range and dig up spent copper bullets, but dangerous men have already claimed the place. "Papa" declares he's ready to fight to the death for the orphans, who alone have treated him like a human being after Hiroshima, and scares the men off. He reveals that he's already about to die anyway from radiation. Gen and Musubi buy a sewing machine for Katsuko and Natsue only to find Papa slumped over in blood. His only regret is that he can't see his anti-American novel, THE END OF SUMMER, published. It is now four years since the Bomb was dropped, but people keep dying from the radioactivity. Ryuta and Noro, a slowpoke, escape from the Reformatory. They trick a man and woman into leaving their clothing by the river, then steal it so they don't look like two boys to those searching for them, but like a couple. Noro has sworn to kill his uncle who killed Noro's sister and sent him to the Reformatory. Ryuta is not recognised in his girlish disguise when he reaches home to discover Papa is in a coma. Gen is determined to publish the book somehow, although he's been turned down by every publisher.

In Volume 7: Bones into Dust, four years after the Bomb was dropped, Gen is determined to get the novel, THE END OF SUMMER, published so "Papa" can see it before he dies. Since no Japanese publisher dares print it, Ryuta suggests they have a prison do it. However, the prison needs paper, which costs money. They rescue Noro, nearly dead from his attempt to kill his uncle, and extract gold from his uncle. Gen asks Mr. Pak for help, who is delighted to have the truth about what happened come out. Koreans suffered twice, once from being enslaved by Japanese, and again by the Bomb. He doesn't want money for his help. Since Ryuta can't read, Gen reads the book to him. The graphic discriptions of the hellish effects of the Bomb and the plea for everyone to make sure that nothing like this should ever happen again is too much for Ryuta, who begs him to stop. They return home to find "Papa" unresponsive, his heart stopped. Ryuta does CPR so "Papa" can see his published book. "Papa" is able to grasp Gen's wrist, perhaps showing that he understands, then succumbs for good. The orphans are orphaned yet again. A few days later, after they've given away all their copies of the book, they are taken by American soldiers to a U.S. Ocupation base in Kure. A Japanese-American Lt. Mike Kurota interogates them about the book. It's illegal to write about the A-bomb in Occupied Japan. He thinks Japan deserved it after Pearl Harbor. He decides to subject them to thought modification. A fellow prisoner explains that the Cannon Agency, a special operations team that runs covert actions for American interests, named after its director, Col. Jack Cannon, will torture them to try to turn them into spies. Later, in 1953, in the basement of the Iwasaki Mansion, torture devices and a water dungeon were exposed by writer Wataru Kaji after he was kidnapped and detained secretly for more than a year. Many others were never seen again. Gen, Ryuta, and Noro can't escape while locked in a cell, so Gen wounds himself with a loose nail, smears the blood, and tells the others to act ill. A guard is about to take them to the infirmary, but Lt. Kurota has seen this old trick before. Gen then trains them to be able to take torture better, while faking greater pain. First they're laughing about it, then quarreling angrily as they attack each other. Lt. Kurota concludes they've gone oout of their minds, and are useless for his purposes, so he orders them to be dumped. Gen vows revenge. The kids laugh at a taxi driver having a tantrum. He explains that someone has put sugar in his tank, ruining his means of livelihood. Gen asks Mr. Pak for sugar cubes—it's safer if he doesn't know why—so they can put American jeeps and trucks out of commission, creating work for Japanese mechanics. Gen puts on an impromptu comedy show to distract the Americans as the others commit sabotage. Returning home, he finds his mother home from the hospital, seemingly cured, but Akira reveals that she has 4 months to live and doesn't know it. Her stomach cancer has metasthetized. It's hard for Gen and Akira to pretend all is well. As she talks about her arranged marriage to their father, who she grew to love, and how people who were against the war were tortured and killed even before it had started, Gen determines to earn money to send his mother to visit Kyoto, where she'd honeymooned, a last time. He finds out there's money to be made collecting poop for fertilizer. Koji arrives, having heard the news about their mother, full of shame for having drunk up the money he should have sent home, and Gen gives him the money he's earned so he can claim to be the one taking them all to Tokyo. When they arrive, she declares that she can now die happy, and rejoin their father. She knew all along that she wasn't cured, since her stomach pain hadn't gone away. When she dies, Gen refuses to have her cremated. He is determined to take her body to Kyoto so General MacArthur can see it, apologize for having used the Bomb, and promise never to do so again. He wants the Emperor, who declared war as a god, then admitted he was mortal when he lost, to apologize to her and take responsibility for starting the war. Koji has to knock him out to have their mother cremated. One person can't do this. All Japan must raise their voices together. Gen is desolate until he dreams of his parents encouraging him to be as the wheat and stand on his own feet.

In Volume 8: Merchants of Death, it's June 25th, 1950. Korea has split into two, and the North and South are warring. Japan, right at the border, is being dragged into it. Gen and his teacher Mr. Ohta want everyone to do all they can to prevent war, but the class president, Aihara, who looks much like Gen, but with an ugly smile, believes war is inevitable, an unchangeable part of human nature, and needed to reduce the population. He challenges Gen to a fight after school. When Gen shows up, Aihara says he doesn't go for playfighting, but only to the death, and tosses Gen a knife. Gen wins, and Aihara insists he should finish him off, but Gen refuses. Ryuta, selling a dress Katsuko and Natsue have made, loses ¥1000 giving it away to a Hiroshima Carp baseball fan. He's a Carp fanatic, but the team keeps losing. The Americans make laws against antiwar protests, enforced by the right-wing hoods of the Blood-and-Thunder party, who attack Mr. Ohta. Gen pitches in, but it's Aihara, who turns out to have been orphaned by the Bomb too, whose accuracy pitching rocks wins the day. Aihara does not want to be taken to the hospital. When they take him anyway, they find he has a fractured skull, and may not live the night. Looking for his home,to find someone to visit him, they discover that Katsuo was adopted by a woman who had lost a son that he kept following because she looked like his dead mother. She reveals that he's already dying of leukemia—which has no cure—and keeps trying to commit suicide because he can't face death. Ryuta and Gen get him interested in life by practicing pitching outside his home. He can do it better—they've found him a purpose in life, to win games for the Carp. They've just seen charlie Chaplin in "Monsieur Verdoux" when the discover Mr. Ohta drunk. He buys saki for the minors even though they can't legally drink. He can't stand how Gen. MacArthur set up a National Police Reserve a year ago on Aug. 10th supposedly to train police, but actually to create a military to use in Korea after Japan was supposed to be without one. Tomorrow will be Aug. 6th, and the Hiroshima City Police have announced they'll arrest anyone trying to have a protest against war. Mr. Ohta tells them how Mussolini's corpse was hung upside down after the war. Gen quotes from the movie they'd just seen, "One murder makes a villian—millions, a hero." Gen gets drunk too, and comes up with a plan for tomorrow. They all ring bells and pray for peace—even Aihara. Soon afterwards, the National Police Reserve was renamed the japan Self-Defense Forces. Then Mr. Ohta resigns teaching—the only teacher who cared about his students, and didn't use corporal punishment. Gen is on his way to Mr. Ohta's home to try to talk him out of it, when he sees someone shooting up. Ryuta explains that this is a speed freak. In the war, soldiers were given Philopon—the original brand-name for methamphetamine hydrochloride—to make them feel brave. Now it's legal in Japan, and lots of people are addicted. Gen is drinking whiskey when Natsue is overcome with pain from appendicitis. She'll need to be in the hospital for two weeks. When Gen goes to see Mr. Ohta the next day, he finds him shooting up, and learns that he didn't actually quit—he was fired by Gen. MacArthur in the Red Purge. "Incidents" keep happening, to make people think that labor union activists are committing sabotage. After being up all night in the hospital with Natsue, Gen is barely able to stay awake as he pleads with Mr. Ohta not to give up. As he conks out, Mr. Ohta breaks his hypodermic needle. The next day, the new teacher finds no students have showed up. They all chipped in to pay Mr. Ohta to teach them at his home, even though he's no longer certified to teach. Even Ryuta, who hasn't been in school since the Bomb was dropped 5 years ago is there. When the principal and teacher shows up making all kinds of threats, that they won't be able to get jobs if they study with Mr. Ohta, because they'll all become evil Red Commies, Mr. Ohta takes a punch from Gen that was meant for the principal. Gen sends them off, they trip and fall down the stairs in their haste. Mr. Ohta promises to start a new school and reach out to the kids who had to quit school after the Bomb. Ryuta will be able to learn to read and to write love letters. The newspaper headlines read "U.N. forces launch Fierce Counterattack in Korea." Ryuta doesn't care about Korea's war, but Gen feels for the Koreans being attacked, and realizes that American planes are launched from Japan, which might be counterattacked. When they visit Natsue, they learn that her appendicitis scar has reopened, and she'll need another operation. They worry, wondering whether the A-bomb has anything to do with it. A car splashes them with mud as the driver and the woman with him laugh at them. Ryuta treats Gen to a fancy restaurant meal to cheer him up, but the couple arrive there too. The driver boasts about how rich he is from selling scrap metal for guns and bullets. War in Korea is good for business in Japan. Ryuta is willing to acccept his money to pay for laundering their clothes, much more than would be needed, but Gen is furious, and starts a brawl. When the restaurant owner calls for the cops, Ryuta reminds Gen he's wanted for murder, so they have to scram. Gen laments that humans are not improving at all as they rejoice in war.

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World War II

World War II

World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a world war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved the vast majority of the world's countries—including all of the great powers—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis powers. World War II was a total war that directly involved more than 100 million personnel from more than 30 countries.

Imperial Japanese Navy

Imperial Japanese Navy

The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed between 1952–1954 after the dissolution of the IJN.

Hirohito

Hirohito

Emperor Shōwa , commonly known in English-speaking countries by his personal name Hirohito (裕仁), was the 124th emperor of Japan, ruling from 25 December 1926 until his death in 1989. Hirohito and his wife, Empress Kōjun, had two sons and five daughters; he was succeeded by his fifth child and eldest son, Akihito. By 1979, Hirohito was the only monarch in the world with the title "emperor". He was the longest-reigning historical Japanese emperor and one of the longest-reigning monarchs in the world.

Surrender of Japan

Surrender of Japan

The surrender of the Empire of Japan in World War II was announced by Emperor Hirohito on 15 August and formally signed on 2 September 1945, bringing the war's hostilities to a close. By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had become incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with Great Britain and China, the United States called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration on 26 July 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders were privately making entreaties to the publicly neutral Soviet Union to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese. While maintaining a sufficient level of diplomatic engagement with the Japanese to give them the impression they might be willing to mediate, the Soviets were covertly preparing to attack Japanese forces in Manchuria and Korea in fulfillment of promises they had secretly made to the United States and the United Kingdom at the Tehran and Yalta Conferences.

Occupation of Japan

Occupation of Japan

Japan was occupied and administered by the victorious Allies of World War II from the 1945 surrender of the Empire of Japan at the end of the war until the Treaty of San Francisco took effect in 1952. The occupation, led by the United States with support from the British Commonwealth and under the supervision of the Far Eastern Commission, involved a total of nearly 1 million Allied soldiers. The occupation was overseen by American General Douglas MacArthur, who was appointed Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers by US President Harry Truman; MacArthur was succeeded as supreme commander by General Matthew Ridgway in 1951. Unlike in the occupation of Germany, the Soviet Union had little to no influence over the occupation of Japan, declining to participate because it did not want to place Soviet troops under MacArthur's direct command.

Yakuza

Yakuza

Yakuza , also known as gokudō , are members of transnational organized crime syndicates originating in Japan. The Japanese police and media, by request of the police, call them bōryokudan , while the yakuza call themselves ninkyō dantai . The English equivalent for the term yakuza is gangster, meaning an individual involved in a Mafia-like criminal organization. The yakuza are known for their strict codes of conduct, their organized fiefdom nature and several unconventional ritual practices such as yubitsume or amputation of the left little finger. Members are often portrayed as males, wearing "sharp suits" with heavily tattooed bodies and slicked hair. This group is still regarded as being among "the most sophisticated and wealthiest criminal organizations".

Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome (ARS), also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects that are caused by being exposed to high amounts of ionizing radiation in a short period of time. Symptoms can start within an hour of exposure, and can last for several months. Early symptoms are usually nausea, vomiting and loss of appetite. In the following hours or weeks, initial symptoms may appear to improve, before the development of additional symptoms, after which either recovery or death follow.

Hibakusha

Hibakusha

Hibakusha is a word of Japanese origin generally designating the people affected by the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II.

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was a commission established in 1946 in accordance with a presidential directive from Harry S. Truman to the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council to conduct investigations of the late effects of radiation among the atomic-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As it was erected purely for scientific research and study, not as a provider of medical care and also because it was heavily supported by the United States, the ABCC was generally mistrusted by most survivors and Japanese alike. It operated for nearly thirty years before its dissolution in 1975.

Themes

Major themes throughout the work are power, hegemony, resistance and loyalty.

Gen's family suffers as all families do in war. They must conduct themselves as proper members of society, as all Japanese are instructed in paying tribute to the Emperor. But because of a belief that their involvement in the war is due to the greed of the rich ruling class, Gen's father rejects the military propaganda and the family comes to be treated as traitors. Gen's family struggles with their bond of loyalty to each other and to a government that is willing to send teenagers on suicide missions in battle. This push and pull relationship is seen many times as Gen is ridiculed in school, mimicking his father's views on Japan's role in the war, and then is subsequently punished by his father for spouting things he learned through rote brainwashing in school.

Many of these themes are put into a much harsher perspective when portrayed alongside themes of the struggle between war and peace.

Takayuki Kawaguchi (川口 隆行, Kawaguchi Takayuki), author of "Barefoot Gen and ‘A bomb literature’ re-recollecting the nuclear experience," (「はだしのゲン」と「原爆文学」 ――原爆体験の再記憶化をめぐって, “Hadashi no Gen” to “Genbaku Bungaku”—Genbaku Taiken no Saikiokuka o Megutte) believes that the characters Katsuko and Natsue coopt but change the stereotypical "Hiroshima Maiden" story, as typified in Black Rain, as although courageous, Katsuko and Natsue are severely scarred both physically and mentally.[4]

Translations

A volunteer pacifist organization, Project Gen, formed in Tokyo in 1976 to produce English translations.[5] Leonard Rifas' EduComics (together with World Color Press) published it that same year as Gen of Hiroshima, the "first full-length translation of a manga from Japanese into English to be published in the West."[5][6] It was unpopular, and the series was cancelled after two volumes.[7]

The group Rondo Gen published an Esperanto translation as Nudpieda Gen (Barefoot Gen) in 1982. The chief translator was Izumi Yukio.

The German Rowohlt Verlag published only the first volume in 1982 under their mass-market label "rororo". Carlsen Comics tried it again in 2004 but cancelled the publication after four volumes. Both publishers took the name Barfuß durch Hiroshima (Barefoot through Hiroshima).

The first volume was published in Norwegian in 1986 by GEVION norsk forlag A/S.[8] The Norwegian title is Gen, Gutten fra Hiroshima (Gen, the Boy from Hiroshima). A similar edition in Swedish (Gen – Pojken från Hiroshima) was published in 1985 by Alvglans förlag, which may have been the earliest published manga in Swedish.[9]

The first volume was published in Finnish in 1985 by Jalava, becoming the first Japanese comic to be published in Finland, but publishing was likewise abandoned. The Finnish title is Hiroshiman poika (The Son of Hiroshima), and Finnish translation was done by Kaija-Leena Ogihara. In 2006 Jalava republished the first volume (with its original translation) and continued with publication of second volume.

All 10 volumes were published in Poland by Waneko in 2004–2011 under the title Hiroszima 1945: Bosonogi Gen.[10]

An Arabic translation was published in Egypt by Maher El-Sherbini, a professor in the department of Japanese Language and Japanese literature at Cairo University, he began the project in 1992 when he was an exchange student at the Hiroshima University Graduate School of Letters, where he had completed his master’s and doctorate’s degrees. The first volume was released in January 2015 and since then all 10 Volumes have been translated.[11]

New Society Publishers produced a second English-language run of the series in graphic novel format (as Barefoot Gen: The Cartoon Story of Hiroshima) starting in 1988.[5]

New English edition

A new English translation has been released by Last Gasp (starting in 2004) with an introduction by Art Spiegelman, who has compared the work to his own work, Maus (which is about the experiences of Spiegelman's father during the Holocaust in Europe).[12]

  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 1: A Cartoon Story of Hiroshima (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2004 [1972/1973]. ISBN 0-86719-602-5.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 2: The Day After (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2004 [1972/1973]. ISBN 0-86719-619-X.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 3: Life After The Bomb (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2005 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-594-1. OL 8330688M.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 4: Out Of The Ashes (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2005 [1972/1973]. ISBN 0-86719-595-9. OL 20389870M.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 5: The Never-Ending War (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2007 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-596-5. OL 23085379M.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 6: Writing the Truth (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2008 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-597-2.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 7: Bones Into Dust (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2008 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-598-9.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 8: Merchants of Death (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2009 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-599-6.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 9: Breaking Down Borders (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2010 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-600-9.
  • Barefoot Gen Vol. 10: Never Give Up (paperback ed.). Last Gasp. 2010 [1972/1973]. ISBN 978-0-86719-601-6.

Nakazawa planned to present a set of the series to US President Barack Obama to caution against nuclear proliferation.[13]

Discover more about Translations related topics

Manga

Manga

Manga are comics or graphic novels originating from Japan. Most manga conform to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century, and the form has a long prehistory in earlier Japanese art. The term manga is used in Japan to refer to both comics and cartooning. Outside of Japan, the word is typically used to refer to comics originally published in the country.

Esperanto

Esperanto

Esperanto is the world's most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. Created by Warsaw-based ophthalmologist L. L. Zamenhof in 1887, it was intended to be a universal second language for international communication, or "the international language". Zamenhof first described the language in Dr. Esperanto's International Language, which he published under the pseudonym Doktoro Esperanto. Early adopters of the language liked the name Esperanto and soon used it to describe his language. The word esperanto translates into English as "one who hopes".

Rowohlt Verlag

Rowohlt Verlag

Rowohlt Verlag is a German publishing house based in Hamburg, with offices in Reinbek and Berlin. It has been part of the Georg von Holtzbrinck Group since 1982. The company was created in 1908 in Leipzig by Ernst Rowohlt.

Waneko

Waneko

Waneko is a Polish manga publisher, located in Warsaw, Poland. The founders of Waneko are Aleksandra Watanuki, Martyna Taniguchi and Kenichiro Watanuki.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Cairo University

Cairo University

Cairo University, also known as the Egyptian University from 1908 to 1940, and King Fuad I University and Fu'ād al-Awwal University from 1940 to 1952, is Egypt's premier public university. Its main campus is in Giza, immediately across the Nile from Cairo. It was founded on 21 December 1908; however, after being housed in various parts of Cairo, its faculties, beginning with the Faculty of Arts, were established on its current main campus in Giza in October 1929. It is the second oldest institution of higher education in Egypt after Al Azhar University, notwithstanding the pre-existing higher professional schools that later became constituent colleges of the university. It was founded and funded as the Egyptian University by a committee of private citizens with royal patronage in 1908 and became a state institution under King Fuad I in 1925. In 1940, four years following his death, the university was renamed King Fuad I University in his honor. It was renamed a second time after the Egyptian revolution of 1952. The university currently enrolls approximately 155,000 students in 20 faculties and 3 institutions. It counts three Nobel Laureates among its graduates and is one of the 50 largest institutions of higher education in the world by enrollment.

Graphic novel

Graphic novel

A graphic novel is a book made up of comics with entertainment content in it. Although the word novel normally refers to long fictional works, the term graphic novel is applied broadly and includes fiction, non-fiction, and anthologized work. It is, at least in the United States, typically distinct from the term comic book, which is generally used for comics periodicals and trade paperbacks.

Last Gasp (publisher)

Last Gasp (publisher)

Last Gasp is a San Francisco-based book publisher with a lowbrow art and counterculture focus. Owned and operated by Ron Turner, for most of its existence Last Gasp was a publisher, distributor, and wholesaler of underground comix and books of all types.

Art Spiegelman

Art Spiegelman

Art Spiegelman is an American cartoonist, editor, and comics advocate best known for his graphic novel Maus. His work as co-editor on the comics magazines Arcade and Raw has been influential, and from 1992 he spent a decade as contributing artist for The New Yorker. He is married to designer and editor Françoise Mouly, and is the father of writer Nadja Spiegelman. In September 2022, the National Book Foundation announced that he would receive the Medal for Distinguished Contribution to American Letters.

Maus

Maus

Maus is a nonfiction book presented in the graphic novel style, written by American cartoonist Art Spiegelman. Serialized from 1980 to 1991, it depicts Spiegelman interviewing his father about his experiences as a Polish Jew and Holocaust survivor. The work employs postmodernist techniques and represents Jews as mice, Wehrmacht soldiers as cats, Poles as pigs, Americans as dogs, the British as fish, the French as frogs, the Swedes as reindeer, and the Romani as gypsy moths. Critics have classified Maus as memoir, biography, history, fiction, autobiography, or a mix of genres. In 1992, it became the first and so far only graphic novel to win a Pulitzer Prize.

The Holocaust

The Holocaust

The Holocaust, also known as the Shoah, was the genocide of European Jews during World War II. Between 1941 and 1945, Nazi Germany and its collaborators systematically murdered some six million Jews across German-occupied Europe; around two-thirds of Europe's Jewish population. The murders were carried out in pogroms and mass shootings; by a policy of extermination through labor in concentration camps; and in gas chambers and gas vans in German extermination camps, chiefly Auschwitz-Birkenau, Bełżec, Chełmno, Majdanek, Sobibór, and Treblinka in occupied Poland.

Europe

Europe

Europe is a large peninsula conventionally considered a continent in its own right because of its great physical size and the weight of its history and traditions. Europe is also considered a subcontinent of Eurasia and it is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. Comprising the westernmost peninsulas of Eurasia, it shares the continental landmass of Afro-Eurasia with both Africa and Asia. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean Sea to the south and Asia to the east. Europe is commonly considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed of the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian Sea, the Greater Caucasus, the Black Sea and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.

Media

Films

Live-action

In 1976, 1977 and 1980, Tengo Yamada directed three live-action film adaptations. In 2009, a Hollywood producer expressed interest in a studio version of the manga.[14]

Animated films

Two animated films were based on the manga, in 1983 and 1986, both directed by Mori Masaki for a production company that Nakazawa founded.

Barefoot Gen 2 is set three years after the bomb fell. It focuses on the continuing survival of Gen and orphans in Hiroshima.

Initially released individually on dub-only VHS tape by Streamline Pictures, and then dub-only DVD by Image Entertainment, Geneon eventually sold bilingual versions of the film on DVD as a set. On September 18, 2017, Discotek Media announced via Facebook that both films would be coming to blu ray with both the Japanese and English languages available in it.[15] The single disc set was released on December 26 of that year.

TV drama

A two episode TV drama was produced by Fuji Television in 2007 and was aired over two days.

Books

10 books have been published about Barefoot Gen.

Theatre productions

There have been a number of stage play adaptations of Barefoot Gen produced in Japan.

In July 1996 the first stage adaptation in English was premiered at the Crucible Theatre, Sheffield, UK. The production was a collaboration between the Crucible Theatre and Theatre Zenshinza, Tokyo, Japan. In 1994 British theatre director Bryn Jones travelled to Japan to request Mr. Nakazawa's permission to adapt the first volume as a play. Permission was granted and Jones returned to Sheffield to prepare the production; research, design and dramatisation with the Crucible company, Tatsuo Suzuki and Fusako Kurahara. Mr. Nakazawa subsequently travelled to the UK to attend final rehearsals and gave post show talks after the opening performances. The final manuscript was adapted and dramatised by Tatsuo Suzuki and Bryn Jones and translated by Fusako Kurahara. The production received a Japan Festival Award 1997 for outstanding achievements in furthering the understanding of Japanese culture in the United Kingdom.

Operas and musicals

Some operas and musicals of Barefoot Gen have been on show.

Discover more about Media related topics

Barefoot Gen (1976 film)

Barefoot Gen (1976 film)

Barefoot Gen is a 1976 Japanese war drama film, directed by Tengo Yamada based on the Japanese manga series of the same name. The film is set in 1945 and tells the story of the six-year-old boy Gen Nakaoka, living in Hiroshima around the time of the US atomic bombing of the city.

Barefoot Gen: Explosion of Tears

Barefoot Gen: Explosion of Tears

Barefoot Gen: Explosion of Tears is a 1977 Japanese war drama film, directed by Tengo Yamada based on the Japanese manga series by Keiji Nakazawa. It is a sequel to the 1976 film Barefoot Gen and is the second live action film based on the manga.

Barefoot Gen Part 3: Battle of Hiroshima

Barefoot Gen Part 3: Battle of Hiroshima

Barefoot Gen Part 3: Battle of Hiroshima is a 1980 Japanese war drama film, directed by Tengo Yamada. It is the third installment in the Barefoot Gen live action film series.

Barefoot Gen (1983 film)

Barefoot Gen (1983 film)

Barefoot Gen is a 1983 Japanese anime war drama film loosely based on the Japanese manga series of the same name by Keiji Nakazawa. Directed by Mori Masaki and starring Issei Miyazaki, Masaki Kōda and Tatsuya Jo, it depicts World War II in Japan from a child's point of view revolving around the events surrounding the bombing of Hiroshima and the main character's first hand experience of the bomb.

Barefoot Gen 2

Barefoot Gen 2

Barefoot Gen 2 is a 1986 Japanese animated action drama film and the sequel to the 1983 animated war film Barefoot Gen, loosely based on the Japanese manga series by Keiji Nakazawa. Directed by Toshio Hirata, the film stars Issei Miyazaki, Masaki Kōda, Yoshie Shimamura, and Taeko Nakanishi, who reprise their roles from the first film, while Kei Nakamura and Takami Aoyama join the cast. In the film, Gen and Ryuta Nakaoka join a gang of orphan scavengers and attempt to save their mother Kimie from radiation sickness, a consequence of her survival of the Hiroshima atomic bombing.

Streamline Pictures

Streamline Pictures

Streamline Pictures was an American media company that was best known for its distribution of English-dubbed Japanese animation.

Barefoot Gen (TV series)

Barefoot Gen (TV series)

Barefoot Gen is a two-part Japanese television special based on the popular manga of the same name by Keiji Nakazawa.

Crucible Theatre

Crucible Theatre

The Crucible Theatre is a theatre in Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England which opened in 1971. Although it hosts regular theatrical performances, it is best known for hosting professional snooker's most prestigious tournament, the World Snooker Championship, which has been held annually at the venue since 1977. Its name is a reference to the local steel industry. In May 2022 plans were unveiled to build a new 3,000-seater venue nearby with a bridge connecting the two buildings.

Reception

The manga has sold more than 10 million copies worldwide.[16]

Controversy

In December 2012, access to Barefoot Gen became restricted in elementary schools and junior high schools[17] of Matsue city in Japan,[18] after a claim was made that Barefoot Gen "describes atrocities by Japanese troops that did not take place".[19] This was reviewed after 44 of 49 school principals polled in the city wanted the restriction removed[20] – the curb was later lifted in August 2013.[21]

Nakazawa’s widow, Misayo, had expressed shock that children’s access to the work was being curbed, explaining that "War is brutal. It expresses that in pictures, and I want people to keep reading it."[22]

Source: "Barefoot Gen", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barefoot_Gen.

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See also
References
  1. ^ "Barefoot Gen Manga to Be Used as School Material". Anime News Network. Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Barefoot Gen a.k.a. Gen of Hiroshima". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on 2016-08-03. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
  3. ^ "はだしのゲン". Media Arts Database (in Japanese). Agency for Cultural Affairs. Archived from the original on August 16, 2016. Retrieved November 24, 2020.
  4. ^ Kawaguchi, Takayuki (September 2010). "Barefoot Gen and 'A-bomb literature' re-recollecting the nuclear experience (「はだしのゲン」と「原爆文学」――原爆体験の再記憶化をめぐって Hadashi no Gen" to "Genbaku Bungaku"-Genbaku Taiken no Sai Kioku ka Omegudde)". In Berndt, Jaqueline (ed.). Comics Worlds and the World of Comics: Towards Scholarship on a Global Scale (PDF). Kyoto, Japan: International Manga Research Center, Kyoto Seika University. pp. 233–243. ISBN 978-4-905187-01-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2010. - Article translated by Nele Noppe. - Original Japanese article,
  5. ^ a b c Adams, Jeff (2008). Documentary graphic novels and social realism. Oxford: Peter Lang. pp. 92–93. ISBN 9783039113620.
  6. ^ Rifas, Leonard (2004). "Globalizing Comic Books from Below: How Manga Came to America". Rifas Leonard International Journal of Comics Art. 6 (2).
  7. ^ Booker, M. Keith (28 October 2014). Comics through Time: A History of Icons, Idols, and Ideas. p. 470. ISBN 9780313397516.
  8. ^ "GEVION Norsk Forlag a/s". Archived from the original on 2008-12-11. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  9. ^ "Manga och Anime i Sverige : Del 4 | Daisuki". Archived from the original on 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-08-31.
  10. ^ Hiroszima 1945: Bosonogi Gen (in German). Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  11. ^ Niiyama, Kyoko (2020-07-14). "Cairo University professor translates Barefoot Gen into Arabic in hopes of conveying A-bombing catastrophe to Egypt". Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  12. ^ "Barefoot Gen". Last Gasp. Archived from the original on 2022-04-09. Retrieved 2022-04-12.
  13. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun 26 July 2009 Ver.13S p.38 and Close-up Gendai on 6 Aug. 2009
  14. ^ Loo, Egan (2009-08-18). "Berserk, Baki, Barefoot Gen Pitched to Hollywood". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
  15. ^ "Discotek Media". www.facebook.com. Archived from the original on 2022-02-26. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
  16. ^ Lighter, Kim Sumiko (2013). "はだしのゲン / Barefoot Gen". Kotobank.jp (Asahi Shimbun). 発行部数は、国内外で 1000 万部以上に上り.... / Hakkō busū wa, kokunaigai de 1000 man-bu ijō ni nobori.... / More than 10 million copies are issued at home and abroad...
  17. ^ Matsue-shi homepage: Elementary school, junior high school homepage Retrieved 2013 August 24.
  18. ^ Williams, Maren (August 20, 2013). "Barefoot Gen Pulled from Matsue School Libraries". Comic Book Legal Defense Fund. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
  19. ^ Faith Aquino (August 19, 2013). "Anti-war manga 'Barefoot Gen' removed from school libraries". The Japan Daily News. Ewdison Then. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
  20. ^ "Don't curb 'Barefoot Gen': Matsue principals". The Japan Times Online. 2013-08-22. ISSN 0447-5763. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  21. ^ "Barefoot Gen Ban Lifted | Comic Book Legal Defense Fund". Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  22. ^ "Japan school board bows to outcry, drops curbs on anti-war comic". Reuters. 2013-08-26. Retrieved 2020-02-15.
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