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Baggy was a name given to a British alternative dance genre popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s,[1][2][3] with many of the artists referred to as "baggy" being bands from the Madchester scene.[4]

History

The genesis of indie-dance was the Balearic beat scene (where there were DJs playing an eclectic mix of records including such rock/dance crossovers like "Jesus on the Payroll" by Thrashing Doves[5] and producers like Paul Oakenfold[6]) and the indie music scene in the north west of England, which featured Tony Wilson's Factory Records and former post-punk band the Stone Roses[7] in Manchester.

Even though they were not signed to Factory Records, instead signing to Paul Birch's Revolver Records in Wolverhampton[8][9][10] (before taking a deal with Jive Records' Silvertone), the band did have links to Tony Wilson, Martin Hannett[11] and Peter Hook, with the New Order bassist scheduled to produce their debut album, before John Leckie took over.

It was Leckie who produced the Stone Roses single "Fools Gold" (an indie-dance record which had a prominent 'shufflebeat'[12][13][14] which came from a four-bar loop based upon Clyde Stubblefield's "Funky Drummer" drum pattern) and it was mainly fans of the Stone Roses who started to wear the fashions that gave the genre/scene its alternative name.

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Balearic beat

Balearic beat

Balearic beat, also known as Balearic house, Balearic, Ibiza house or Ibizan chillout, is an eclectic blend of DJ-led dance music that emerged in the mid-1980s. It later became the name of a more specific style of electronic dance music that was popular into the mid-1990s. Balearic beat was named for its popularity among European nightclub and beach rave patrons on the Balearic island of Ibiza, a popular tourist destination. Some dance music compilations referred to it as "the sound of Ibiza", even though many other, more aggressive and upbeat forms of dance music could be heard on the island, such as Balearic trance.

Madchester Rave On

Madchester Rave On

Madchester Rave On is the second EP by Happy Mondays. It was released in November 1989 on Factory Records. The track "Hallelujah" became the band's breakthrough release, reaching the top twenty in the UK and leading to the band's first Top of the Pops appearance.

Factory Records

Factory Records

Factory Records was a Manchester-based British independent record label founded in 1978 by Tony Wilson and Alan Erasmus.

Post-punk

Post-punk

Post-punk is a broad genre of punk music that emerged in the late 1970s as musicians departed from punk's traditional elements and raw simplicity, instead adopting a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and non-rock influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with styles like funk, electronic music, jazz, and dance music; the production techniques of dub and disco; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory, modernist art, cinema and literature. These communities produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines.

The Stone Roses

The Stone Roses

The Stone Roses were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1983. One of the pioneering groups of the Madchester movement in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the band's classic and most prominent lineup consisted of vocalist Ian Brown, guitarist John Squire, bassist Mani and drummer Reni.

Silvertone Records (1980)

Silvertone Records (1980)

Silvertone Records is a current British record label, owned by Sony Music UK. Originally an independent record label, owned by Clive Calder's Jive Records, which was acquired in time by Bertelsmann Music Group, the original BMG company which would go on to merge with Sony Music, bring the Jive catalogue to Sony as the Zomba Music Group. In 2017, Sony Music UK relaunched the brand as a label for left-field acts, with indie, alt-folk, blues and jazz acts represented in its signings.

Peter Hook

Peter Hook

Peter Hook is an English musician, best known as the bassist and co-founder of the rock bands Joy Division and New Order. Hook often used the bass as a lead instrument, playing melodies on the high strings with a signature heavy chorus effect. In New Order, he would do this, leaving the actual basslines to keyboards or sequencers.

New Order (band)

New Order (band)

New Order are an English rock band formed in 1980 by vocalist and guitarist Bernard Sumner, bassist Peter Hook and drummer Stephen Morris. The members regrouped after the demise of their previous band Joy Division due to the suicide of lead singer Ian Curtis. They were joined by Gillian Gilbert on keyboards later that year. New Order's integration of post-punk with electronic and dance music made them one of the most acclaimed and influential bands of the 1980s. They were the flagship band for Manchester-based independent record label Factory Records and its nightclub The Haçienda, and they worked in long-term collaboration with graphic designer Peter Saville.

John Leckie

John Leckie

John William Leckie is an English record producer and recording engineer. His production credits include Magazine's Real Life (1978), XTC's White Music (1978) and Dukes of Stratosphear's 25 O'Clock (1985), the Stone Roses' The Stone Roses (1989), the Verve's A Storm in Heaven (1993), Radiohead's The Bends (1995), Cast's All Change (1995), Muse's Origin of Symmetry (2001) and the Levellers' We the Collective (2018).

Fools Gold/What the World Is Waiting For

Fools Gold/What the World Is Waiting For

"Fools Gold" and "What the World Is Waiting For" are two songs by British rock band the Stone Roses. They were released together as a double A-side single on 13 November 1989 through Silvertone Records. "Fools Gold" would go on to appear on certain non-UK versions of their self-titled debut studio album (1989). "Fools Gold" became the band's biggest commercial hit at the time. It was their first single to reach the top ten of the UK Singles Chart and stayed in the top-75 for fourteen weeks, peaking at number eight.

Clyde Stubblefield

Clyde Stubblefield

Clyde Austin Stubblefield was an American drummer best known for his work with James Brown. A self-taught musician, he was influenced by the sound of natural rhythms around him. His drum patterns on Brown's recordings are considered funk standards. He recorded and toured with Brown for six years and settled in Madison, Wisconsin, where he was a staple of the local music scene. Often uncredited, samples of his drum patterns were heavily used in hip hop music. He was the recipient of an honorary doctorate in fine arts.

Funky Drummer

Funky Drummer

"Funky Drummer" is a single released by James Brown in 1970. Its drum break, improvised by Clyde Stubblefield, is one of the most frequently sampled music recordings.

Madchester and scally

Although it was not geographically confined to the city of Manchester,[15] many Madchester bands like Happy Mondays, Northside and the Stone Roses were described as being baggy, and vice versa. As baggy was characterised by psychedelia and acid house-influenced guitar music, often with that "funky drummer" beat, new indie-dance bands in other British cities emerged following the breakthrough of the Madchester acts, though some acts in Liverpool argued they were already part of their own scene which had emerged independently of those in Manchester (sometimes referred to as 'scally').[16][17][18]

Some acts, such as Candy Flip,[19][20] Blur[21][22][23][24][25] and the Soup Dragons reinvented their sound and image to fit in with the new scene. This led some critics to accuse baggy bands of bandwagon-jumping and derivative songwriting.[26]

Bands in the indie-dance era of pop music can be divided into two camps; the acts who could be described as baggy (usually the Madchester acts and a few others such as Flowered Up from London), and those who can be described as alternative dance (i.e. Jesus Jones and the Shamen, who were more techno inspired). The Shamen would begin as a psychedelic indie rock band, sharing some of the characteristics of early shoegaze bands, but their style would morph between psychedelic indie rock and acid house, before absorbing more elements of techno to become a dance music act, in a way similar to the Beloved, whose career took them from an indie band to a dance duo after the Second Summer of Love.[27]

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Manchester

Manchester

Manchester is a city in Greater Manchester, England. It had a population of 552,000 in 2021. It is bordered by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and the neighbouring city of Salford to the west. The two cities and the surrounding towns form one of the United Kingdom's most populous conurbations, the Greater Manchester Built-up Area, which has a population of 2.87 million.

Happy Mondays

Happy Mondays

Happy Mondays are an English rock band formed in Salford in 1980. The original line-up was Shaun Ryder (vocals), his brother Paul Ryder (bass), Gary Whelan (drums), Paul Davis (keyboard), and Mark Day (guitar). Mark "Bez" Berry later joined the band onstage as a dancer/percussionist. Rowetta joined as a second vocalist in 1990. They were initially signed to Tony Wilson's Factory Records label.

Northside (band)

Northside (band)

Northside are an English alternative rock band from the suburb of Blackley and district of Moston in north Manchester, England. Formed in 1989, they released their only album Chicken Rhythms on Factory Records in 1991. The band became part of the 1990s Madchester/baggy/indie-rave scene.

Acid house

Acid house

Acid house is a subgenre of house music developed around the mid-1980s by DJs from Chicago. The style is defined primarily by the squelching sounds and basslines of the Roland TB-303 electronic bass synthesizer-sequencer, an innovation attributed to Chicago producers DJ Pierre of Phuture and Sleezy D.

Funky Drummer

Funky Drummer

"Funky Drummer" is a single released by James Brown in 1970. Its drum break, improvised by Clyde Stubblefield, is one of the most frequently sampled music recordings.

Candy Flip

Candy Flip

Candy Flip were a British electronic music duo from Stoke on Trent, who were associated with the indie dance music scene in the early 1990s. They are best remembered for their cover version of the Beatles song "Strawberry Fields Forever", which was a No. 3 hit on the UK Singles Chart in 1990.

Blur (band)

Blur (band)

Blur are an English rock band formed in London in 1988. The band consists of singer Damon Albarn, guitarist Graham Coxon, bassist Alex James and drummer Dave Rowntree. Their debut album, Leisure (1991), incorporated the sounds of Madchester and shoegazing. Following a stylistic change influenced by English guitar pop groups such as the Kinks, the Beatles and XTC, Blur released Modern Life Is Rubbish (1993), Parklife (1994) and The Great Escape (1995). As a result, the band helped to popularise the Britpop genre and achieved mass popularity in the UK, aided by a chart battle with rival band Oasis in 1995 dubbed "The Battle of Britpop".

Madchester

Madchester

Madchester was a musical and cultural scene that developed in the English city of Manchester in the late 1980s, closely associated with the indie dance scene. Indie-dance saw artists merging indie music with elements of acid house, psychedelia and 1960s pop. The term Madchester was coined by Factory Records' Tony Wilson, with the label popularised by the British music press in the early 1990s, and its most famous groups include the Stone Roses, Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, the Charlatans, James and 808 State. It is widely seen as being heavily influenced by drugs, especially MDMA. At that time, the Haçienda nightclub, co-owned by members of New Order, was a major catalyst for the distinctive musical ethos in the city that was called the Second Summer of Love.

Flowered Up

Flowered Up

Flowered Up were an English indie pop-alternative dance band, formed in Camden Town, London in 1989, active during the Baggy movement. Their 13-minute single "Weekender" reached the UK top 20. The band split up in 1994 amid drug problems. Following a failed reformation attempt in 2007 and a solo record deal that fell through, frontman Liam Maher died from a heroin overdose in 2009, followed by his brother Joe also of a heroin overdose in 2012.

Alternative dance

Alternative dance

Alternative dance is a musical genre that mixes alternative rock with electronic dance music. Although largely confined to the British Isles, it has gained American and worldwide exposure through acts such as New Order in the 1980s and the Prodigy in the 1990s.

Jesus Jones

Jesus Jones

Jesus Jones are a British alternative rock band from Bradford-on-Avon in Wiltshire, formed in late 1988, who continue to record and perform, as of 2021. Their track "Right Here, Right Now" was an international hit, and was subsequently globally licensed for promotional and advertising campaigns. The single was also nominated for a Grammy award at the 34th Annual Grammy Awards in 1991, as was its album, Doubt. They also achieved chart success with the songs "Real Real Real", "International Bright Young Thing" and "Info Freako".

Indie rock

Indie rock

Indie rock is a subgenre of rock music that originated in the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand from the 1970s to the 1980s. Originally used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock or "guitar pop rock".

Clothing

Alongside the music, a way of dressing emerged that gave baggy its name. Baggy jeans (often flared) alongside brightly coloured or tie-dye casual tops and general '60s style became fashionable first in Manchester and then across the country – frequently topped off with a fishing hat in the style sported by the Stone Roses' drummer Reni. The overall look was part rave, part retro or part hippie, part football casual. Many Madchester bands had football casual fans and a number of bands even wore football shirts. Eaitisham 'Shami' Ahmed's Manchester-based Joe Bloggs fashion label[28][29][30][31] specialised in catering for the scene, making him a multi-millionaire.[32]

It is also generally accepted that French stylists Marithé et François Girbaud were one of the first designers to integrate baggy in the fashion industry,[33] though the style can be seen originating in the Northern soul scene. This scene included Twisted Wheel attendee Phil Saxe, who went on to sell flares and baggy clothing on his Gangway market stall in Manchester and Joe Moss who ran Crazyface.[34]

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Hippie

Hippie

A hippie, also spelled hippy, especially in British English, is someone associated with the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to different countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and was used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village, in San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district, and Chicago's Old Town community. The term hippie was used in print by San Francisco writer Michael Fallon, helping popularize use of the term in the media, although the tag was seen elsewhere earlier.

Joe Bloggs

Joe Bloggs

"Joe Bloggs" and "Fred Bloggs" are placeholder names used primarily in the United Kingdom to represent the average man on the street. It is used by students, on standardized test preparation courses, to represent the average test-taker. Many countries, such as the United States, Germany or South Africa, use their own unique placeholder names, some even used tongue in cheek. Sometimes the name will be useful as a quick alternative, or stalling mechanism especially when used in conjunction with "What's'isname?" and "'Im down the street", when a forgotten name sits on the tip of the tongue.

Marithé et François Girbaud

Marithé et François Girbaud

Marithé + François Girbaud is an international clothing company based in France and founded by stylists François Girbaud and Marithé Bachellerie in 1972. They created several brands : Compagnie des montagnes et des forêts, Ça, Closed, Matricule 11342, etc. They are world-known especially for industrialization of the stonewash, baggy trousers and skin-tight jeans.

Northern soul

Northern soul

Northern soul is a music and dance movement that emerged in Northern England and the English Midlands in the late 1960s from the British mod scene, based on a particular style of Black American soul music, especially from the mid-1960s, with a heavy beat and fast tempo or American soul music from northern cities such as Detroit, Chicago and others.

Legacy

Some baggy bands evolved into indie rock or Britpop bands who remained popular throughout the 1990s. The Charlatans retained their popularity, although little trace of the baggy sound and look remained.

The baggy style was eclipsed by the grunge and Britpop genres. Apart from tribute acts, the style has been absent from the indie arena, with acts like the 2001 Manchester band Waterfall failing to interest record companies with their revival sound.

Another wave of bands in the style of the past baggy Madchester sound is currently in process. Bands such as Kasabian, Reverend and the Makers, The Ruling Class, Sulk, The Bavarian Druglords, and Working for a Nuclear Free City have brought back aspects of the style in various forms and have garnered comparisons to the Stone Roses and the Madchester sound.

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Indie rock

Indie rock

Indie rock is a subgenre of rock music that originated in the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand from the 1970s to the 1980s. Originally used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock or "guitar pop rock".

Britpop

Britpop

Britpop short for British popular music is a mid-1990s British-based music culture movement that emphasised Britishness. It produced brighter, catchier alternative rock, partly in reaction to the popularity of the darker lyrical themes of the US-led grunge music and to the UK's own shoegaze music scene. The movement brought British alternative rock into the mainstream and formed the backbone of a larger British popular cultural movement, Cool Britannia, which evoked the Swinging Sixties and the British guitar pop of that decade.

The Charlatans (English band)

The Charlatans (English band)

The Charlatans are an English rock band formed in West Midlands, England in 1988. The current line-up comprises lead vocalist Tim Burgess, guitarist Mark Collins, bassist Martin Blunt and keyboardist Tony Rogers.

Grunge

Grunge

Grunge is an alternative rock genre and subculture that emerged during the mid-1980s in the American Pacific Northwest state of Washington, particularly in Seattle and nearby towns. Grunge fuses elements of punk rock and heavy metal, but without punk's structure and speed. The genre featured the distorted electric guitar sound used in both genres, although some bands performed with more emphasis on one or the other. Like these genres, grunge typically uses electric guitar, bass guitar, drums and vocals. Grunge also incorporates influences from indie rock bands such as Sonic Youth. Lyrics are typically angst-filled and introspective, often addressing themes such as social alienation, self-doubt, abuse, neglect, betrayal, social and emotional isolation, addiction, psychological trauma and a desire for freedom.

Kasabian

Kasabian

Kasabian are an English rock band formed in Leicester in 1997 by lead vocalist Tom Meighan, guitarist and occasional vocalist Sergio Pizzorno, guitarist Chris Karloff, and bassist Chris Edwards. Drummer Ian Matthews joined in 2004. Karloff left the band in 2006 and founded a new band called Black Onassis. Jay Mehler joined as touring lead guitarist in 2006, leaving for Liam Gallagher's Beady Eye in 2013, to be replaced by Tim Carter, who later became a full-time band member in 2021. Meighan left the band in July 2020, with Pizzorno stepping up as full-time lead vocalist.

Reverend and the Makers

Reverend and the Makers

Reverend and the Makers are an English rock band from Sheffield, South Yorkshire. The band is fronted by Jon McClure, nicknamed "The Reverend". Their debut album, The State of Things (2007), helped them gain success in Britain and spawned the UK top 10 single "Heavyweight Champion of the World". The band released their second album, A French Kiss in the Chaos (2009), which led to them being invited to support Oasis on their final tour, playing venues such as Wembley Stadium. The band's third studio album, @Reverend_Makers, was released in 2012, and their fourth studio album, ThirtyTwo, was released in 2014.

Working for a Nuclear Free City

Working for a Nuclear Free City

Working for a Nuclear Free City was an indie nu gaze band from Manchester, England.

The Stone Roses

The Stone Roses

The Stone Roses were an English rock band formed in Manchester in 1983. One of the pioneering groups of the Madchester movement in the late 1980s and early 1990s, the band's classic and most prominent lineup consisted of vocalist Ian Brown, guitarist John Squire, bassist Mani and drummer Reni.

Source: "Baggy", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baggy.

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References
  1. ^ "Madchester remembered: 'There was amazing creative energy in Manchester at the time'". The Guardian. 21 April 2012.
  2. ^ "Twisting my melon, man! The baggy, brilliant indie-rave summer of 1990". The Guardian. 7 July 2020.
  3. ^ "The influential musical legacy of Madchester 30 years on". I Love Manchester. 4 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Madchester". AllMusic. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  5. ^ "Bedrock Vice". Record Collector. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  6. ^ ""Trailblazers Of" Acid House (TV Episode 2016)". IMDb.
  7. ^ "Madchester 1989 – How one year changed a city and the way we looked". Fluxmagazine.com. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  8. ^ Sweeney, Joe (2 June 2020). "Record label attacked by the Stone Roses bids to expand HQ". BirminghamLive.
  9. ^ Sweeney, Joe (12 June 2020). "Day The Stone Roses attacked Wolverhampton record label with paint". BirminghamLive.
  10. ^ "History - Revolver/ FM-Revolver/ Heavy Metal Records". Revolver Records.
  11. ^ "10 things you didn't know about The Stone Roses' classic debut album". Radio X.
  12. ^ "Soho|music|hippychick|story". Clockworkthrob.com. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  13. ^ "Stone Roses: fool's gold". The Economist. 17 May 2016.
  14. ^ "The Stone Roses – Fools Gold". Soundgym.co.
  15. ^ "Perfect Sound Forever: Manchester's baggy music scene". Furious.com.
  16. ^ "Liverpool acts and casual fashions". National Museums Liverpool.
  17. ^ "The List: 22 Nov 1991". The List Archive. 22 November 1991.
  18. ^ Roberts, Gareth (10 August 2011). "Liverpool bands: Scouse, scally and stuck in the past? | | The Anfield Wrap".
  19. ^ "Baggy spawned this genuinely terrible cover version". Radio X.
  20. ^ "BBC One - Top of the Pops, 29/03/1990". BBC. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  21. ^ "Album By Album: Blur". 8 November 2019.
  22. ^ "Blur - "There's No Other Way"". PopMatters. 22 April 2010.
  23. ^ "ALBUM BY ALBUM: BLUR". pocketmags.com.
  24. ^ "Maybe 1991 actually was the best year for music.... and here's the evidence". Radio X.
  25. ^ "How did they do that? - There's No Other Way (Select, Jul 1995)". Vblurpage.com.
  26. ^ "Indie Moans And The Raiders Of The Pop Charts. Or, 'Don't Pop': How The Stone Roses Killed Indie And The Problem With Populism". Middlerabbiting.com. 4 September 2018.
  27. ^ "BBC Radio 6 Music - Zoe Ball's Second Summer of Love, Episode 2 (6 Music's All Day Rave)". BBC. Retrieved 7 January 2021.
  28. ^ "Shami Ahmed and family". The Times.
  29. ^ "Joe Bloggs owner and fashion firm East go into administration". BBC. 29 January 2018.
  30. ^ Britton, Paul (29 January 2018). "Fashion house behind iconic 'Madchester' clothing label Joe Bloggs goes into administration". Manchester Evening News.
  31. ^ "King of Madchester clothing is bankrupt". The Independent. 22 October 2011.
  32. ^ Malik, Kenan (19 June 1994). "All mouth and trousers - the rise of Joe Bloggs". The Independent. London. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
  33. ^ Figaro, Madame (13 April 2017). "Le baggy des années 1990 revient au goût du jour". Madame Figaro.
  34. ^ "Madchester". Museumofyouthculture.com. Retrieved 7 January 2021.

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