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Attilid dynasty

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Bird of prey (Turul) on Attila's banner in the Chronica Hungarorum.Hunnic saddle fitting from the tomb of a Gepid prince.The Turul is a bird of prey often associated with Attila and more generally the Huns.[1] Hungarian chronicles consider this bird the ancestor of the Hungarian rulers. Several objects with representations of a bird of prey have been found in 4th and 5th-century Hunnic tombs.[2]
Bird of prey (Turul) on Attila's banner in the Chronica Hungarorum.
Bird of prey (Turul) on Attila's banner in the Chronica Hungarorum.Hunnic saddle fitting from the tomb of a Gepid prince.The Turul is a bird of prey often associated with Attila and more generally the Huns.[1] Hungarian chronicles consider this bird the ancestor of the Hungarian rulers. Several objects with representations of a bird of prey have been found in 4th and 5th-century Hunnic tombs.[2]
Hunnic saddle fitting from the tomb of a Gepid prince.
The Turul is a bird of prey often associated with Attila and more generally the Huns.[1] Hungarian chronicles consider this bird the ancestor of the Hungarian rulers. Several objects with representations of a bird of prey have been found in 4th and 5th-century Hunnic tombs.[2]

The Attilids were a leading dynasty of the Huns, a nomadic pastoralist people who confronted the Roman Empire during the decline of the Western Roman Empire, as well as the Eastern Roman Empire. They also often fought in alliance with both of these empires against the invading Germanic people.[3][4]

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Dynasty

Dynasty

A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in republics. A dynasty may also be referred to as a "house", "family" or "clan", among others. The longest surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC and historically attested from AD 781.

Huns

Huns

The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe between the 4th and 6th century AD. According to European tradition, they were first reported living east of the Volga River, in an area that was part of Scythia at the time; the Huns' arrival is associated with the migration westward of an Iranian people, the Alans. By 370 AD, the Huns had arrived on the Volga, and by 430, they had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe, conquering the Goths and many other Germanic peoples living outside of Roman borders and causing many others to flee into Roman territory. The Huns, especially under their King Attila, made frequent and devastating raids into the Eastern Roman Empire. In 451, they invaded the Western Roman province of Gaul, where they fought a combined army of Romans and Visigoths at the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields, and in 452, they invaded Italy. After the death of Attila in 453, the Huns ceased to be a major threat to Rome and lost much of their empire, following the Battle of Nedao. Descendants of the Huns, or successors with similar names, are recorded by neighboring populations to the south, east, and west as having occupied parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia from about the 4th to 6th centuries. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century.

Roman Empire

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of ancient Rome. As a polity, it included large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, North Africa, and Western Asia, and was ruled by emperors. From the accession of Caesar Augustus as the first Roman emperor to the military anarchy of the 3rd century, it was a principate with Italia as the metropole of its provinces and the city of Rome as its sole capital. The Empire was later ruled by multiple emperors who shared control over the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire. The city of Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until AD 476 when the imperial insignia were sent to Constantinople following the capture of the Western capital of Ravenna by the Germanic barbarians. The adoption of Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire in AD 380 and the fall of the Western Roman Empire to Germanic kings conventionally marks the end of classical antiquity and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Because of these events, along with the gradual Hellenization of the Eastern Roman Empire, historians distinguish the medieval Roman Empire that remained in the Eastern provinces as the Byzantine Empire.

Origin

The Attilids descended from Attila, the last sole ruler of the Hunnic Empire. Attila was of noble origin, the son of Mundzuk.[5][6] His father was a brother of co-rulers of the Hunnic Empire Rugila and Octar, but never became king himself. He begat two sons by an unknown consort. His sons were Bleda and Attila, who succeeded their uncle Rugila as regents of the Empire. Rugila had become sole ruler after the death of his brother Octar in 430.[7]

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History

Attila and Bleda made a series of successful campaigns in the Balkans and Greece, capturing the major Roman cities up to arriving to Constantinople, where they destroyed the Roman forces around the city before forcing the Romans to pay an increased tribute of gold, along with other priviliges. Thereafter, Bleda died, allegedly killed by his brother Attila, possibly after provocation, Bleda having himself tried to kill Attila.

As sole ruler, Attila named his son Ellac King of the Nations of Pontic Scythia and bestowed on him the title of King of the Akatziri. Attila also showed a particular fondness for his younger son, Ernak, about whom his shamans/prophets had predicted an important role in the continuation of his line. Attila died before naming a heir, and his sons fought among themselves for the empire, tearing it apart. It is not known whetehr Ellac, the eldest son, became himself the sole ruler after the death of his father. He nevertheless died just a year later, at the Battle of Nedao. Dengizich, another prominent son of Attila, died 15 years later, in 469, after a failed invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire. Attila's young son, Ernak, is thought to have survived and to have been given land in the region of Dobruja.[8][9]

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Constantinople

Constantinople

Constantinople was the capital of the Roman Empire, and later, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). Following the Turkish War of Independence, the Turkish capital then moved to Ankara. Officially renamed Istanbul in 1930, the city is today the largest city and financial centre of the Republic of Turkey (1923–present). It is also the largest city in Europe.

Ellac

Ellac

Ellac was the oldest son of Attila (434–453) and Kreka. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He ruled shortly, and died at the Battle of Nedao in 454 AD. Ellac was succeeded by brothers Dengizich and Ernak.

Scythia

Scythia

Scythia or Scythica, also known as Pontic Scythia, was a kingdom created by the Scythians during the 6th to 3rd centuries BC in the Pontic–Caspian steppe.

Akatziri

Akatziri

The Akatziri or Akatzirs were a tribe that lived north of the Black Sea, though the Crimean city of Cherson seemed to be under their control in the sixth century. Jordanes called them a mighty people, not agriculturalists but cattle-breeders and hunters. Their ethnicity is undetermined: the 5th-century historian Priscus describes them as ethnic (ethnos) Scythians, but they are also referred to as Huns. Their name has also been connected to the Agathyrsi. However, according to E. A. Thompson, any conjectured connection between the Agathyrsi and the Akatziri should be rejected outright.

Ernak

Ernak

Ernak was the last known ruler of the Huns, and the third son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over Huns in dual kingship with his brother Dengizich, but in separate divisions in separate lands.

Battle of Nedao

Battle of Nedao

The Battle of Nedao was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454 between the Huns and their former Germanic vassals. Nedao is believed to be a tributary of the Sava River.

Dengizich

Dengizich

Dengizich, was a Hunnic ruler and son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over the Huns in dual kingship with his brother Ernak, but separate divisions in separate lands.

Dobruja

Dobruja

Dobruja or Dobrudja is a historical region in the Balkans that has been divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania. It is situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea, and includes the Danube Delta, Romanian coast, and the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast. The territory of Dobruja is made up of Northern Dobruja, which is part of Romania, and Southern Dobruja, which is part of Bulgaria.

Legacy

Attila had many wives, and numerous children, allegedly "amounting to a people".[10]

The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans claimed the second ruler of the Dulo was Irnik (Ирникъ), who is often identified with Ernak, a son of Attila.[11][12] According to Bulgarian historian Vasil Zlatarski, if Irnik was indeed Ernak, then both Ernak and his father Attila belonged to the Dulo clan.[13][a][b][c]

Medieval Hungarian chroniclers, Anonymus (notary of Béla III), Simon of Kéza, and Mark of Kalt, claimed Attilid ancestry for the Árpád dynasty and the Aba clan. Specifically:

  • Two Árpád dynasty's patriarchs, Árpád and his father Álmos, supposedly descended from a certain Ügyek:[17][18][19]
    • Anonymus claimed that Álmos was the son of Ügyek, a descendant of Attila; however, Anonymus did not specify which of Attila's sons Ügyek descended from.[17]
    • Simon of Kéza claimed that Álmos was the son of Előd, who in turn was the son of Ügyek, from the clan Turul, a mythological bird of prey (likely a falcon) that also allegedly had appeared on Attila (Ethele)'s coat of arms.[18][d]
    • Mark of Kalt claimed that Álmos was the son of Előd, son of Ügyek, son of Ed, son of the legendary Prince Csaba, son of Attila, etc.[19]

According to historian Hyun Jin Kim, the Kutrigurs, Utigurs, Onogurs and Akatziris were all ruled by branches of the Attilid dynasty.[29]

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Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans

Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans

The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans is a short text which is presumed to contain the names of some early Bulgar rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne according to the cyclic Bulgar calendar and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. It is written in Church Slavonic, but contains a large number of Bulgar names and date terms. The manuscript also does not contain any reference that this is a list of rulers of Bulgaria.

Dulo

Dulo

The Dulo clan was a ruling dynasty of the Bulgars. The origins of the Bulgars and Dulo clan are not known precisely, and there are many theories about their origin. It is generally considered that they – or at least the elite caste – were intimately related to the origin and activity of the Huns and Western Turkic Khaganate. Particularly, it is said that the Dulo descended from the rulers of Great Bulgaria, which was founded by Khan Asparuh's (681–701) father on the steppes of Ukraine. This state was a centralized monarchy from its inception, unlike previous Hunno-Turkic political entities, which were tribal confederations.

Ernak

Ernak

Ernak was the last known ruler of the Huns, and the third son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over Huns in dual kingship with his brother Dengizich, but in separate divisions in separate lands.

Anonymus (notary of Béla III)

Anonymus (notary of Béla III)

Anonymus Bele regis notarius or Master P. was the notary and chronicler of a Hungarian king, probably Béla III. Little is known about him, but his latinized name began with P, as he referred to himself as "P. dictus magister".

Simon of Kéza

Simon of Kéza

Simon of Kéza was the most famous Hungarian chronicler of the 13th century. He was a priest in the royal court of king Ladislaus IV of Hungary.

Mark of Kalt

Mark of Kalt

Mark of Kalt was the canon of the Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and chronicler of King Louis I of Hungary, known for his work Chronicon Pictum, written around 1370. He likely died while working, because contemporary sources stopped mentioning him.

Aba (genus)

Aba (genus)

Aba is a noble kindred (genus) of the Kingdom of Hungary which according to the Gesta Hungarorum derives from Pata who was a nephew to Ed and Edemen and the ancestor of Samuel Aba. Some modern scholars have proposed that the family's ancestors may have been among the tribal leaders of the Kabars. The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum connects the family to Attila the Hun.Csaba was Attila's legitimate son by the daughter of the Greek emperor Honorius. Csaba in turn had two sons, Edemen and Ed. Edemen entered Pannonia with his father's and mother's great entourage when the Hungarians came back for the second time, whereas Ed remained in Scythia with his father. Csaba is the ancestor of the clan of Aba.

Turul

Turul

The Turul is a mythological bird of prey, mostly depicted as a Falcon, in Hungarian tradition and Turkic tradition, and a national symbol of Hungarians.

Prince Csaba

Prince Csaba

In Hungarian mythology, Prince Csaba was the youngest son of Attila, King of the Huns. A fierce and skilled warrior, he led the Huns to victory in all the battles they encountered over the ages. He is the legendary leader of the Székelys.

Hyun Jin Kim

Hyun Jin Kim

Hyun Jin Kim is an Australian academic, scholar and author.

Kutrigurs

Kutrigurs

Kutrigurs were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished on the Pontic–Caspian steppe in the 6th century AD. To their east were the similar Utigurs and both possibly were closely related to the Bulgars. They warred with the Byzantine Empire and the Utigurs. Towards the end of the 6th century they were absorbed by the Pannonian Avars under pressure from the Turks.

Onogurs

Onogurs

The Onoğurs or Oğurs, were Turkic nomadic equestrians who flourished in the Pontic–Caspian steppe and the Volga region between 5th and 7th century, and spoke the Oghuric language.

In popular culture

Attilid Rulers

  • Attila, king of the Huns, 434–453
  • Ellac, king of Pontic Scythia, king of the Akatziri, 448–454
  • Dengizich, king of the Huns, until 469
  • Ernak, king of the Huns, until 469 and beyond
  • Kubrat, ruler of the Onogur–Bulgars, c. 632–c. 650
  • Batbayan, ruler of Khazarian Bulgars, c. 665–c. 668
  • Asparuh, ruler of the Bulgars, 681–701
  • Tervel, Khan of Bulgaria, 700–721
  • Sevar, Khan of Bulgaria, 738–753
  • Álmos, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, c. 850–c. 895
  • Árpád, Grand Prince of the Hungarians, c. 895–c. 907

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Attila

Attila

Attila, frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, Alans, and Bulgars, among others, in Central and Eastern Europe.

Ellac

Ellac

Ellac was the oldest son of Attila (434–453) and Kreka. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He ruled shortly, and died at the Battle of Nedao in 454 AD. Ellac was succeeded by brothers Dengizich and Ernak.

Dengizich

Dengizich

Dengizich, was a Hunnic ruler and son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over the Huns in dual kingship with his brother Ernak, but separate divisions in separate lands.

Ernak

Ernak

Ernak was the last known ruler of the Huns, and the third son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over Huns in dual kingship with his brother Dengizich, but in separate divisions in separate lands.

Kubrat

Kubrat

Kubrat was the ruler of the Onogur–Bulgars, credited with establishing the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria in ca. 632. His name derived from the Turkic words qobrat — "to gather", or qurt, i.e. "wolf".

Batbayan

Batbayan

Batbayan ruled the Khazarian Bulgars mentioned by Theophanes and Nicephorus after the Khazars defeated the Bulgars and Old Great Bulgaria disintegrated.

Asparuh of Bulgaria

Asparuh of Bulgaria

Asparuh was а ruler of Bulgars in the second half of the 7th century and is credited with the establishment of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681.

Tervel of Bulgaria

Tervel of Bulgaria

Khan Tervel also called Tarvel, or Terval, or Terbelis in some Byzantine sources, was the khan of Bulgaria during the First Bulgarian Empire at the beginning of the 8th century. In 705 Emperor Justinian II named him caesar, the first foreigner to receive this title. He was raised a pagan like his grandfather Khan Kubrat, but was later possibly baptised by the Byzantine clergy. Tervel played an important role in defeating the Arabs during the siege of Constantinople in 717–718.

Sevar of Bulgaria

Sevar of Bulgaria

Sevar was a ruler of Bulgaria in the 8th century.

Álmos

Álmos

Álmos, also Almos or Almus, was—according to the uniform account of Hungarian chronicles—the first head of the "loose federation" of the Hungarian tribes from around 850. Whether he was the sacred ruler (kende) of the Hungarians, or their military leader (gyula) is subject to scholarly debate. According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus, he accepted the Khazar khagan's suzerainty in the first decade of his reign, but the Hungarians acted independently of the Khazars from around 860. The 14th-century Illuminated Chronicle narrates that he was murdered in Transylvania at the beginning of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 895.

Árpád

Árpád

Árpád was the head of the confederation of the Magyar tribes at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. He might have been either the sacred ruler or kende of the Hungarians, or their military leader or gyula, although most details of his life are debated by historians, because different sources contain contradictory information. Despite this, many Hungarians refer to him as the "founder of our country", and Árpád's preeminent role in the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin has been emphasized by some later chronicles. The dynasty descending from Árpád ruled the Kingdom of Hungary until 1301.

Others

Other members of the dynasty include:

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Kreka

Kreka

Kreka or Hereka was the wife of Attila. She was described by Eastern Roman diplomat Priscus in his account of his stay at Attila's court in 448 or 449 AD. She and Attila had three sons: Ellac, Dengizich, and Ernak, who split among themselves what remained of Attila's empire after his death in 453.

Ildico

Ildico

Ildico was the last wife of the Hunnic ruler Attila. Her name is probably Germanic, a diminutive form of the noun *hildaz ("battle"), a common element in Germanic female names, and Hildr ("battle") was the name of a Valkyrie. Her name is thus reconstructed as *Hildiko, and it is probably preserved in *Grímhild or *Krēmhild, the name of Ildico's later legendary version. According to Priscus, Attila died after the feast celebrating their marriage in 453 AD, in which he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor.

Aruth

Aruth

Aruth was a Byzantine official of Herul origin, active under Emperor Justinian. It is known that he was married to the unnamed daughter of Mauricius, son of magister militum Mundus. A renowned soldier, he led his fellow Heruli during the expedition to the Ostrogothic Kingdom led by Narses in 552. Upon the death of Fulcarius, he received great support to become the new leader of the Heruli. However, Narses eventually appointed fellow Herul Sindual in preference to him.

Heruli

Heruli

The Heruli were an early Germanic people. Possibly originating in Scandinavia, the Heruli are first mentioned by Roman authors as one of several "Scythian" groups raiding Roman provinces in the Balkans and the Aegean Sea, attacking by land, and notably also by sea. During this time they reportedly lived near the Sea of Azov.

Atakam

Atakam

Atakam was a young Hun prince who was impaled by Attila.

Emnetzur

Emnetzur

Emnetzur was a Hun nobleman and a blood relative of Attila.

Gordas

Gordas

Gordas was a prince of the Crimean Huns.

Mamas (Hun prince)

Mamas (Hun prince)

Mamas was a Hun royal family member who was impaled by Attila in Thrace.

Mauricius (Gepid general)

Mauricius (Gepid general)

Mauricius was a Gepid general fighting for the Byzantine Empire. He was the son of Magister militium Mundus. He was presumably an MVM vacans.

Mundus (magister militum)

Mundus (magister militum)

Mundo, commonly referred to in the Latinized form Mundus, was a Gepid general of the Roman Empire during the reign of Justinian I.

Theudimundus

Theudimundus

Theodimundus or Theudimund was a Byzantine official of Gepid and Hunnish descent.

Ultzindur

Ultzindur

Ultzindur was a Hun nobleman and a blood relative of Attila.

Genealogy

Octar
king of the Huns
Rugila
king of the Huns
Mundzuk
nobleman of the Huns
Oebarsius
nobleman of the Huns
Bleda
king of the Huns
Attila
king of the Huns
Ellac
king of the Huns, Akatziri, Pontic Scythia
Dengizich
king of the Huns
Ernak
king of the Huns
Csaba
prince of the Huns
MundusDulo clanÁrpád dynastyAba clan
Mauricius
TheudimundusAnonyma

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Octar

Octar

Octar or Ouptaros was a Hunnic ruler. He ruled in dual kingship with his brother Rugila, possibly with a geographical division, ruling the Western Huns while his brother ruled the Eastern Huns.

Mundzuk

Mundzuk

Mundzuk was a Hunnic chieftain, brother of the Hunnic rulers Octar and Rugila, and father of Bleda and Attila by an unknown consort. Jordanes in Getica recounts "For this Attila was the son of Mundzucus, whose brothers were Octar and Ruas, who were supposed to have been kings before Attila, although not altogether of the same [territories] as he".

Oebarsius

Oebarsius

Oebarsius or Aybars was a Hun nobleman, brother of Mundzuk and uncle of Bleda and Attila.

Bleda

Bleda

Bleda was a Hunnic ruler, the brother of Attila the Hun.

Attila

Attila

Attila, frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. He was also the leader of a tribal empire consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths, Alans, and Bulgars, among others, in Central and Eastern Europe.

Ellac

Ellac

Ellac was the oldest son of Attila (434–453) and Kreka. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He ruled shortly, and died at the Battle of Nedao in 454 AD. Ellac was succeeded by brothers Dengizich and Ernak.

Dengizich

Dengizich

Dengizich, was a Hunnic ruler and son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over the Huns in dual kingship with his brother Ernak, but separate divisions in separate lands.

Ernak

Ernak

Ernak was the last known ruler of the Huns, and the third son of Attila. After Attila's death in 453 AD, his Empire crumbled and its remains were ruled by his three sons, Ellac, Dengizich and Ernak. He succeeded his older brother Ellac in 454 AD, and probably ruled simultaneously over Huns in dual kingship with his brother Dengizich, but in separate divisions in separate lands.

Prince Csaba

Prince Csaba

In Hungarian mythology, Prince Csaba was the youngest son of Attila, King of the Huns. A fierce and skilled warrior, he led the Huns to victory in all the battles they encountered over the ages. He is the legendary leader of the Székelys.

Mundus (magister militum)

Mundus (magister militum)

Mundo, commonly referred to in the Latinized form Mundus, was a Gepid general of the Roman Empire during the reign of Justinian I.

Aba (genus)

Aba (genus)

Aba is a noble kindred (genus) of the Kingdom of Hungary which according to the Gesta Hungarorum derives from Pata who was a nephew to Ed and Edemen and the ancestor of Samuel Aba. Some modern scholars have proposed that the family's ancestors may have been among the tribal leaders of the Kabars. The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum connects the family to Attila the Hun.Csaba was Attila's legitimate son by the daughter of the Greek emperor Honorius. Csaba in turn had two sons, Edemen and Ed. Edemen entered Pannonia with his father's and mother's great entourage when the Hungarians came back for the second time, whereas Ed remained in Scythia with his father. Csaba is the ancestor of the clan of Aba.

Mauricius (Gepid general)

Mauricius (Gepid general)

Mauricius was a Gepid general fighting for the Byzantine Empire. He was the son of Magister militium Mundus. He was presumably an MVM vacans.

Source: "Attilid dynasty", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 28th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attilid_dynasty.

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Notes
  1. ^ However, according to Zlatarski, the identification between Irnik and Ernak is pointless, and they were two different persons; and that Irnik's rule from 437 (according to the Nominalia), i.e. years before Attila's death in 453, is impossible.[13]
  2. ^ Sedlar (2011) considers the Attila connection justly doubtful, yet she also thinks that the same steppe dynasty which produced Attila could also produce rulers for the Bulgars.[12]
  3. ^ Golden, Németh and Sophoulis conclude that claiming of Attilid descent shows the intermingling of European Huns elements with newly arrived Oğuric Turkic groups, as the number of evidence of linguistic, ethnographic and socio-political nature show that Bulgars belonged to the group of Turkic peoples.[14][15][16]
  4. ^ Hungarian historian Gyula Kristó proposes that both names may have been the chroniclers' inventions, since Ügyek's name derives from the Hungarian word ügy ("saint, holy"), and Előd's name simply refers to an ancestor.[20]
  5. ^ However, Anonymus did not link Ed(u), his brother Edumen, their nephew Pota, and their Aba descendants to Attila; instead he ascribed them Cuman ancestry.[24] Even so, historians Carlile Aylmer Macartney and György Györffy contend that Anonymus mistakenly thought that the word Kun (derived from Hun & later applied to other nomadic Turkic peoples like Pechenegs and Oghuzes) in his sources denoted his Cuman contemporaries (also called Kun, from Qun).[25][26] Györffy, along with Szegfű, Tóth, etc., propose that the Aba clan belonged instead to the Kabars, Khazar confederation's members who revolted, escaped and then joined the Hungarians in the middle of the 9th century, before the Hungarians' arrival in the Carpathian Basin around 895.[26][27][28]
References
  1. ^ Arnold, Dana (2018). Arnold, Dana; Facos, Michelle (eds.). A Companion to Nineteenth-Century Art. Wiley. p. 382. ISBN 9781118856338. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  2. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. (2022). Knight, Max (ed.). The World of the Huns Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press. p. 461. ISBN 9780520357204. Retrieved 22 October 2022.
  3. ^ Archer, Christon I.; Ferris, John R.; Herwig, Holger H.; Travers, Timothy H. E. (2002). World History of Warfare. University of Nebraska Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780803244238. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  4. ^ Hurley, Vic (2011). Arrows Against Steel The History of the Bow and how it Forever Changed Warfare. Cerberus Books. p. 121. ISBN 9780983475613. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  5. ^ Hodgkin, Thomas (1892). Italy and Her Invaders Volume 2. Clarendon Press. pp. 94–94.
  6. ^ Herbert, William (1838). Attila King of the Huns. H.G. Bohn. p. 415. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  7. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. (1973). The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press. p. 83. ISBN 9780520015968.
  8. ^ Given, John P. (2015). The Fragmentary History of Priscus: Attila, the Huns and the Roman Empire, AD 430–476. Arx Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 9781935228141.
  9. ^ Heather, Peter (2007). The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford University Press. p. 469. ISBN 9780195325416.
  10. ^ Hughes, Ian (2019). Attila the Hun Arch-Enemy of Rome. Pen & Sword Books. ISBN 9781473890329. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  11. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto J. (1973). The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture. University of California Press. p. 415
  12. ^ a b Sedlar, Jean W. (2011). East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. University of Washington Press. p. 28
  13. ^ a b Zlatarski, V. N. (1918). Medieval History of the Bulgarian State, Vol I: History of the First Bulgarian Empire, Part I: Age of Hun-Bulgar Domination (679-852) (in Bulgarian). Sofia: Science and Arts Publishers, 2nd Edition (Petar Petrov, Ed.), Zahari Stoyanov Publishers, 4th Edition, 2006. p. 79-80
  14. ^ Golden, Peter B. (2003). Nomads and Their Neighbours in the Russian Steppe: Turks, Khazars and Qipchaqs. Ashgate/Variorum. p. 71.
  15. ^ Sophoulis, Panos (2011). Byzantium and Bulgaria, 775-831. Brill. pp. 92, 147–148, 71, 111.
  16. ^ Németh, Gyula A honfoglaló magyarság kialakulása (The Shaping of the Hungarians of the Conquest Era), pp. 38, 95–98. cited in Sanping Chen (2012). Multicultural China in the Early Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 96
  17. ^ a b Anonymus (author), Martyn Rady (translator) (2009) Gesta Hungarorum. pdf, p. 7-12
  18. ^ a b Simon of Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum Károly Szabó's Hungarian translation. quote: "Ethele király czimerén is, mellyet tulajdon pajzsán szokott volt hordani, koronás fejü madár vala ábrázolva, mellyet magyarúl turulnak hívnak. [...] Azon kapitányok közt tehát Árpád, Álmos fia, ki Előd fia, ki Ögyek fia volt, a Turul nemzetségből vagyonban gazdagabb s hadban hatalmasabb vala."
  19. ^ a b Mark of Kalt, Chronicon Pictum László Geréb's Hungarian translation, quote: "Ögyek fia Előd Szittyaországban Eunodubilia leánytól fiat nemzett, kinek neve lőn Álmos, annak okáért, mert anyjának álmában keselyűforma madár jelent meg, amikor terhes állapotban volt; méhéből rohanó víz fakadt, meggyarapodott, de nem a maga földjén; ebből azt jósolták, hogy ágyékából dicső királyok származnak. Miután a somnium a mi nyelvünkön álom, s ama fiú származását álom jövendölte meg, ezért nevezték Álmosnak, aki Előd, ez Ögyek, ez Ed, ez Csaba, ez Etele, [...]"
  20. ^ Kristó, Gyula; Makk, Ferenc (1996). Az Árpád-ház uralkodói [Rulers of the House of Árpád] (in Hungarian). I.P.C. Könyvek. p. 9
  21. ^ Moose, Christina J. (1998). Aves, Alison; Northen Magill, Frank (eds.). Dictionary of World Biography The Middle Ages. Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. p. 86. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  22. ^ of Kéza, Simon (1999). Veszprémy, László; Schaer, Frank (eds.). The Deeds of the Hungarians. Central European University Press. p. 73. ISBN 963-9116-31-9..
  23. ^ Mark of Kalt, Chronicon Pictum László Geréb's Hungarian translation, quote: "Csaba Attila törvényes fia volt, Honorius görög császár leányától; az ő fiait Edöménnek és Ednek hívták. Mikor a magyarok másodízben tértek vissza Pannóniába, Edömén atyjának és anyjának nagyszámú atyafiságával jött el, mert anyja khvarezmi származású volt. Ed pedig Szittyaországban maradt atyjánál. Csabától ered az Aba nemzetség."
  24. ^ Anonymus (author), Martyn Rady (translator) (2009) Gesta Hungarorum. pdf, p. 12-16, 23, 33-34.
  25. ^ Macartney, C. A. (1953). The Medieval Hungarian Historians: A Critical & Analytical Guide. Cambridge University Press. pp. 65, 73.
  26. ^ a b Györffy, György (1988). Anonymus: Rejtély vagy történeti forrás [Anonymous: An Enigma or a Source for History] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. p. 110-111
  27. ^ Szegfű, László (1994). "Sámuel". In Kristó, Gyula; Engel, Pál; Makk, Ferenc (eds.). Korai magyar történeti lexikon (9-14. század) [Encyclopedia of Early Hungarian History (9th-14th centuries)] (in Hungarian). Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 592–593.
  28. ^ Tóth, S. L. "The Qavars (Qabars) and their Role in the Hungarian Tribal Federation", Chronica, 12, quote: "It was assumed as well, that the Qavars had their own-prince, and the Aba-clan hold this dignity." p. 16-17 of pp. 3-22.
  29. ^ Kim, Hyun Jin (2013). The Huns, Rome and the Birth of Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 256. ISBN 9781107009066. Retrieved 18 November 2022.
  30. ^ Bram Stoker, Dracula, "Chapter III".
  31. ^ The Cambridge Companion to 'Dracula'. Cambridge University Press. 2018. p. 101. ISBN 9781107153172.

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