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Atractocarpus chartaceus

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Narrow-leaved gardenia
Atractocarpus chartaceus 159805488.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Rubiaceae
Genus: Atractocarpus
Species:
A. chartaceus
Binomial name
Atractocarpus chartaceus
Atractocarpus-chartaceus-distribution-map-improved.png
Synonyms[3]
  • Gardenia chartacea F.Muell.
  • Randia chartacea (F.Muell.) F.Muell.

Atractocarpus chartaceus, commonly known as the narrow-leaved gardenia, is a species of evergreen flowering plant in the madder and coffee family Rubiaceae. It is mostly found in subtropical rainforest of eastern Australia, and it is cultivated for its fragrant flowers and colourful fruit.

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Species

Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.

Evergreen

Evergreen

In botany, an evergreen is a plant which has foliage that remains green and functional through more than one growing season. This also pertains to plants that retain their foliage only in warm climates, and contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.

Flowering plant

Flowering plant

Flowering plants are plants that bear flowers and fruits, and form the clade Angiospermae, commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek words angeion and sperma ('seed'), and refers to those plants that produce their seeds enclosed within a fruit. They are by far the most diverse group of land plants with 64 orders, 416 families, approximately 13,000 known genera and 300,000 known species. Angiosperms were formerly called Magnoliophyta.

Rubia

Rubia

Rubia is the type genus of the Rubiaceae family of flowering plants, which also contains coffee. It contains around 80 species of perennial scrambling or climbing herbs and subshrubs native to the Old World. The genus and its best-known species are commonly known as madder, e.g. Rubia tinctorum, Rubia peregrina, and Rubia cordifolia.

Coffea

Coffea

Coffea is a genus of flowering plants in the family Rubiaceae. Coffea species are shrubs or small trees native to tropical and southern Africa and tropical Asia. The seeds of some species, called coffee beans, are used to flavor various beverages and products. The fruits, like the seeds, contain a large amount of caffeine, and have a distinct sweet taste and are often juiced. The plant ranks as one of the world's most valuable and widely traded commodity crops and is an important export product of several countries, including those in Central and South America, the Caribbean and Africa.

Rubiaceae

Rubiaceae

The Rubiaceae are a family of flowering plants, commonly known as the coffee, madder, or bedstraw family. It consists of terrestrial trees, shrubs, lianas, or herbs that are recognizable by simple, opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipules and sympetalous actinomorphic flowers. The family contains about 13,500 species in about 620 genera, which makes it the fourth-largest angiosperm family. Rubiaceae has a cosmopolitan distribution; however, the largest species diversity is concentrated in the tropics and subtropics. Economically important genera include Coffea, the source of coffee, Cinchona, the source of the antimalarial alkaloid quinine, ornamental cultivars, and historically some dye plants.

Rainforest

Rainforest

Rainforests are characterized by a closed and continuous tree canopy, moisture-dependent vegetation, the presence of epiphytes and lianas and the absence of wildfire. Rainforest can be classified as tropical rainforest or temperate rainforest, but other types have been described.

Australia

Australia

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. With an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), Australia is the largest country by area in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east.

Description

Atractocarpus chartaceus is an understory shrub or small tree growing up to 6 m (20 ft) in height under ideal conditions, with a stem diameter up to 7.5 cm (3.0 in).[4][5] The trunk is crooked and asymmetrical at the base. The bark is brownish grey, and relatively smooth with some wrinkles or horizontal cracks. The tips of the branchlets have fawn hairs.

The leaves are dark green and glabrous on the upper surface, and dull grey-green below.[4][5] They may be opposite and decussate, or arranged in whorls or 3 or 4.[4][5][6] The juvenile leaves are very long and narrow, measuring up to 25 by 1 cm (9.8 by 0.4 in), while the mature leaves are broadly oblanceolate, measuring up to 15.5 by 5 cm (6.1 by 2.0 in).[4][5] They have 8-11 pairs of secondary veins (i.e. the veins that branch off from the midrib) which are quite prominent on both surfaces.[4][5] The leaves are often marked by the trail of a leaf miner.

This species is dioecious, meaning that functionally female and functionally male flowers are borne on separate plants.[4][5] The inflorescences are either terminal or axillary and include one, two or three flowers.[4][5][6] The individual flowers are actinomorphic and either 5 or 6 merous (i.e. with 5 or 6 petals and sepals),[4][5] and quite fragrant.[5][7][8] Flowering occurs from August to October.[6][9][10]

The fruits are a berry in botanical terms, measuring 15 to 30 mm (0.59 to 1.18 in) long and 7 to 18 mm (0.28 to 0.71 in) in diameter.[5][6][7] They are orange or red, finely hairy and the remains of the calyx tube is attached at the distal end.[4][5][6] Fruits contain a sweet edible pulp with several 4 to 5 mm (0.16 to 0.20 in) seeds embedded in it.[5][8] They ripen from April to August.[8][9][10]

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Understory

Understory

In forestry and ecology, understory, or understorey, also known as underbrush or undergrowth, includes plant life growing beneath the forest canopy without penetrating it to any great extent, but above the forest floor. Only a small percentage of light penetrates the canopy so understory vegetation is generally shade-tolerant. The understory typically consists of trees stunted through lack of light, other small trees with low light requirements, saplings, shrubs, vines and undergrowth. Small trees such as holly and dogwood are understory specialists.

Shrub

Shrub

A shrub is a small-to-medium-sized perennial woody plant. Unlike herbaceous plants, shrubs have persistent woody stems above the ground. Shrubs can be either deciduous or evergreen. They are distinguished from trees by their multiple stems and shorter height, less than 6–10 m (20–33 ft) tall. Small shrubs, less than 2 m (6.6 ft) tall are sometimes termed as subshrubs. Many botanical groups have species that are shrubs, and others that are trees and herbaceous plants instead.

Tree

Tree

In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated stem, or trunk, usually supporting branches and leaves. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including only woody plants with secondary growth, plants that are usable as lumber or plants above a specified height. In wider definitions, the taller palms, tree ferns, bananas, and bamboos are also trees. Trees are not a taxonomic group but include a variety of plant species that have independently evolved a trunk and branches as a way to tower above other plants to compete for sunlight. The majority of tree species are angiosperms or hardwoods; of the rest, many are gymnosperms or softwoods. Trees tend to be long-lived, some reaching several thousand years old. Trees have been in existence for 370 million years. It is estimated that there are some three trillion mature trees in the world.

Diameter at breast height

Diameter at breast height

Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk or bole of a standing tree. DBH is one of the most common dendrometric measurements.

Whorl (botany)

Whorl (botany)

In botany, a whorl or verticil is an arrangement of leaves, sepals, petals, stamens, or carpels that radiate from a single point and surround or wrap around the stem or stalk. A leaf whorl consists of at least three elements; a pair of opposite leaves is not called a whorl.

Leaf miner

Leaf miner

A leaf miner is any one of numerous species of insects in which the larval stage lives in, and eats, the leaf tissue of plants. The vast majority of leaf-mining insects are moths (Lepidoptera), sawflies, and flies (Diptera). Some beetles also exhibit this behavior.

Petal

Petal

Petals are modified leaves that surround the reproductive parts of flowers. They are often brightly colored or unusually shaped to attract pollinators. All of the petals of a flower are collectively known as the corolla. Petals are usually accompanied by another set of modified leaves called sepals, that collectively form the calyx and lie just beneath the corolla. The calyx and the corolla together make up the perianth, the non-reproductive portion of a flower. When the petals and sepals of a flower are difficult to distinguish, they are collectively called tepals. Examples of plants in which the term tepal is appropriate include genera such as Aloe and Tulipa. Conversely, genera such as Rosa and Phaseolus have well-distinguished sepals and petals. When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly colored tepals. Since they include Liliales, an alternative name is lilioid monocots.

Taxonomy

The German naturalist and Government Botanist for Victoria, Ferdinand von Mueller, originally described this species in 1860 as Gardenia chartacea, publishing it in his work Essay on the plants collected by Mr Eugene Fitzalan during Lieut. Smith's Expedition to the Estuary of the Burdekin.[11] In 1875 he revised the name in his monumental work Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae, transferring it to a new genus with the combination Randia chartacea.[12] More than one hundred years later, in 1999, it was revised by botanists Christopher Francis Puttock and Christopher John Quinn who placed the species in its current genus Atractocarpus.[13]

Etymology

The genus name Atractocarpus is created from the Ancient Greek atractos (spindle) and karpos (fruit). It refers to the shape of the fruit of the type species, Atractocarpus bracteatus. The species epithet chartaceus is derived from the Latin word charta (paper), which is a reference to the thin papery leaves.[9][14]

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Victoria (Australia)

Victoria (Australia)

Victoria is a state in southeastern Australia. It is the second-smallest state with a land area of 227,444 km2 (87,817 sq mi), the second most populated state with a population of over 6.5 million, and the most densely populated state in Australia. Victoria is bordered with New South Wales to the north and South Australia to the west, and is bounded by the Bass Strait to the south, the Great Australian Bight portion of the Southern Ocean to the southwest, and the Tasman Sea to the southeast. The state encompasses a range of climates and geographical features from its temperate coastal and central regions to the Victorian Alps in the northeast and the semi-arid north-west.

Ferdinand von Mueller

Ferdinand von Mueller

Baron Sir Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller, was a German-Australian physician, geographer, and most notably, a botanist. He was appointed government botanist for the then colony of Victoria (Australia) by Governor Charles La Trobe in 1853, and later director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne. He also founded the National Herbarium of Victoria. He named many Australian plants.

Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae

Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae

Fragmenta phytographiae Australiae is a series of papers written by the Victorian Government botanist Ferdinand von Mueller in which he published many of his approximately 2000 descriptions of new taxa of Australian plants. Including the plant genera of; Reedia, and Acomis . The papers were issued in 94 parts between 1858 and 1882 and published in 11 volumes. Though a 12th volume was apparently planned, it was not published. It is the only scientific journal in Australia that has been completely written in Latin.

Christopher Francis Puttock

Christopher Francis Puttock

Christopher Francis Puttock, often cited as C.F.Puttock, is an Australian botanist and taxonomist who has interests in the Rubiaceae and Asteraceae flowering plant families as well as Pteridophyta (ferns) and Rhodophyta.

Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek

Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycenaean Greek, Dark Ages, the Archaic period, and the Classical period.

Type species

Type species

In zoological nomenclature, a type species is the species name with which the name of a genus or subgenus is considered to be permanently taxonomically associated, i.e., the species that contains the biological type specimen(s). A similar concept is used for suprageneric groups and called a type genus.

Latin

Latin

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally a dialect spoken in the lower Tiber area around present-day Rome, but through the power of the Roman Republic it became the dominant language in the Italian region and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Even after the fall of Western Rome, Latin remained the common language of international communication, science, scholarship and academia in Europe until well into the 18th century, when other regional vernaculars supplanted it in common academic and political usage, and it eventually became a dead language in the modern linguistic definition.

Distribution and habitat

The natural range of the narrow-leaved gardenia is coastal subtropical forests of eastern Australia, from the Richmond River, New South Wales (about 29°S) to Gladstone, Queensland (about 23°S). There is also a small, very disjunct population in Eungella National Park west of Mackay, Queensland (about 21°S), some 370 km (230 mi) to the north.[4][5][6][7] Puttock surmises that the disjunction is a result of a lack of observations/collections, rather than the plant being absent from the area.[4]

It is usually found on basaltic and alluvial soils where the annual rainfall is between 1,300 and 1,600 mm (51 and 63 in).[4]

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Gladstone, Queensland

Gladstone, Queensland

Gladstone is a coastal city in the Gladstone Region, Queensland, Australia. Gladstone has an urban population of 34,703, and together with Boyne Island and Tannum Sands, had an estimated population of 50,317 at August 2021. This urban area covers 246.1 km2 (95.0 sq mi).

Disjunct distribution

Disjunct distribution

In biology, a taxon with a disjunct distribution is one that has two or more groups that are related but considerably separated from each other geographically. The causes are varied and might demonstrate either the expansion or contraction of a species' range.

Eungella National Park

Eungella National Park

Eungella National Park is a protected area in Queensland, Australia. It is on the Clarke Range at the end of the Pioneer Valley 80 km west of Mackay, and 858 km northwest of Brisbane. Eungella is noted for the national park which surrounds it. It is considered to be the longest continual stretch of sub-tropical rainforest in Australia. The original inhabitants are the Wirri people. The park is covered by dense rainforest and is known for its platypuses.

Mackay, Queensland

Mackay, Queensland

Mackay is a city in the Mackay Region on the eastern or Coral Sea coast of Queensland, Australia. It is located about 970 kilometres (603 mi) north of Brisbane, on the Pioneer River. Mackay is described as being in either Central Queensland or North Queensland, as these regions are not precisely defined. More generally, the area is known as the Mackay–Whitsunday Region. Mackay is nicknamed the sugar capital of Australia because its region produces more than a third of Australia's sugar.

Ecology

Atractocarpus chartaceus has been identified as a host plant for the leaf mining larvae of the genus Gracillariidae.[15]

Conservation

This species is listed by both the IUCN and the Queensland Department of Environment and Science as least concern.[1][2]

Cultivation

Atractocarpus chartaceus has been in cultivation in Australia for some years.[9] It is an attractive garden ornamental with its glossy foliage, scented flowers and colourful fruit, and the flowers attract a numerous birds and insects to the garden.[7][8] It prefers a shady position and good drainage.[7][8][9]. It can be propagated from fresh seed, which may take a few months but is usually successful, or from cuttings of the current season's growth.[7][9]

Gallery

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Source: "Atractocarpus chartaceus", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atractocarpus_chartaceus.

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References
  1. ^ a b IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group & Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI). (2021). "Atractocarpus chartaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2021: e.T192230373A192230375. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2021-1.RLTS.T192230373A192230375.en. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  2. ^ a b "Species profile—Atractocarpus chartaceus". Queensland Department of Environment and Science. Queensland Government. 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  3. ^ a b "Atractocarpus chartaceus". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Puttock, C.F. (1999). "Revision of Atractocarpus (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae) in Australia and New Combinations for Some Extra-Australian Taxa". Australian Systematic Botany. 12 (2): 271–309. doi:10.1071/SB97030. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Harden, G.J.; Nicholson, H.R.W.; McDonald, W.J.F.; Nicholson, N.J.; Tame, T. (2014). Rainforest Plants of Australia - Rockhampton to Victoria. Terania Rainforest Publishing. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "PlantNET - FloraOnline". PlantNET (The NSW Plant Information Network System). Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney. Retrieved 29 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Atractocarpus chartaceus (RUBIACEAE); Narrow-leaved gardenia". Brisbane Rainforest Action and Information Network (BRAIN). Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d e "Atractocarpus chartaceus (Narrow-leaved Gardenia)" (PDF). Gympie & District Landcare. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d e f "Atractocarpus chartaceus". Australian Native Plants Society (Australia). Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  10. ^ a b "Atractocarpus chartaceus (Narrow-leaved Gardenia)". iNaturalist. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  11. ^ Essay on the plants collected by Mr Eugene Fitzalan during Lieut. Smith's Expedition to the Estuary of the Burdekin. Biodiversity Heritage Library. 1860. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  12. ^ Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae. Biodiversity Heritage Library. Vol. 9. 1875. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  13. ^ Puttock CF, Quinn CJ (1999). "Generic concepts in Australian Gardenieae (Rubiaceae): a cladistic approach". Australian Systematic Botany. CSIRO Publishing. 12 (2): 181–199. doi:10.1071/SB98001.
  14. ^ Cooper, Wendy; Cooper, William T. (June 2004). Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest. Clifton Hill, Victoria, Australia: Nokomis Editions. p. 434. ISBN 9780958174213.
  15. ^ Maunsell, S.C.; Burwell, C.J.; Morris, R.J. (2017). "Host-plants of leaf-miners in Australian subtropical rainforest". Austral Entomology. 56 (4): 403–411. doi:10.1111/aen.12252. S2CID 89550732. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
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