Get Our Extension

Art Tatum

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Art Tatum
Tatum in 1946–1948 by William P. Gottlieb
Tatum in 1946–1948 by William P. Gottlieb
Background information
Birth nameArthur Tatum Jr.
Born(1909-10-13)October 13, 1909
Toledo, Ohio, U.S.
DiedNovember 5, 1956(1956-11-05) (aged 47)
Los Angeles, California
GenresJazz, stride
Occupation(s)Musician
Instrument(s)Piano
Years activeMid-1920s–1956
LabelsBrunswick, Decca, Capitol, Clef, Verve

Arthur Tatum Jr. (/ˈttəm/, October 13, 1909 – November 5, 1956) was an American jazz pianist who is widely regarded as one of the greatest in his field.[1][2] From early in his career, Tatum's technical ability was acclaimed by fellow musicians as extraordinary. Tatum also extended the vocabulary and boundaries of jazz piano far beyond his initial stride influences, and established new ground in jazz through innovative use of reharmonization, voicing, and bitonality.

Tatum grew up in Toledo, Ohio, where he began playing piano professionally and had his own radio program, rebroadcast nationwide, while still in his teens. He left Toledo in 1932 and had residencies as a solo pianist at clubs in major urban centers including New York, Chicago, and Los Angeles. In that decade, he settled into a pattern that he followed for most of his career – paid performances followed by long after-hours playing, all accompanied by prodigious consumption of alcohol. He was said to be more spontaneous and creative in such venues, and although the drinking did not negatively affect his playing, it did damage his health.

In the 1940s, Tatum led a commercially successful trio for a short time and began playing in more formal jazz concert settings, including at Norman Granz-produced Jazz at the Philharmonic events. His popularity diminished towards the end of the decade, as he continued to play in his own style, ignoring the rise of bebop. Granz recorded Tatum extensively in solo and small group formats in the mid-1950s, with the last session occurring only two months before the pianist's death from uremia at the age of 47.

Discover more about Art Tatum related topics

Jazz

Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognized as a major form of musical expression in traditional and popular music. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, complex chords, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in European harmony and African rhythmic rituals.

Stride (music)

Stride (music)

Stride jazz piano, often shortened to stride, is a jazz piano style that arose from ragtime players. Prominent stride pianists include James P. Johnson, Willie "the Lion" Smith, Fats Waller, Luckey Roberts, Mrs Mills and Mary Lou Williams.

Voicing (music)

Voicing (music)

In music theory, voicing refers to two closely related concepts:How a musician or group distributes, or spaces, notes and chords on one or more instruments The simultaneous vertical placement of notes in relation to each other; this relates to the concepts of spacing and doubling

Polytonality

Polytonality

Polytonality is the musical use of more than one key simultaneously. Bitonality is the use of only two different keys at the same time. Polyvalence or polyvalency is the use of more than one harmonic function, from the same key, at the same time.

Toledo, Ohio

Toledo, Ohio

Toledo is a city in and the county seat of Lucas County, Ohio, United States. A major Midwestern United States port city, Toledo is the fourth-most populous city in the state of Ohio, after Columbus, Cleveland, and Cincinnati, and according to the 2020 census, the 79th-largest city in the United States. With a population of 270,871, it is the principal city of the Toledo metropolitan area. It also serves as a major trade center for the Midwest; its port is the fifth-busiest in the Great Lakes and 54th-biggest in the United States. The city was founded in 1833 on the west bank of the Maumee River, and originally incorporated as part of Monroe County, Michigan Territory. It was refounded in 1837, after the conclusion of the Toledo War, when it was incorporated in Ohio.

Norman Granz

Norman Granz

Norman Granz was an American jazz record producer and concert promoter. He founded the record labels Clef, Norgran, Down Home, Verve, and Pablo. Granz was acknowledged as "the most successful impresario in the history of jazz". He was also a champion of racial equality, insisting, for example, on integrating audiences at concerts he promoted.

Jazz at the Philharmonic

Jazz at the Philharmonic

Jazz at the Philharmonic, or JATP (1944–1983), was the title of a series of jazz concerts, tours and recordings produced by Norman Granz.

Bebop

Bebop

Bebop or bop is a style of jazz developed in the early-to-mid-1940s in the United States. The style features compositions characterized by a fast tempo, complex chord progressions with rapid chord changes and numerous changes of key, instrumental virtuosity, and improvisation based on a combination of harmonic structure, the use of scales and occasional references to the melody.

Uremia

Uremia

Uremia is the term for high levels of urea in the blood. Urea is one of the primary components of urine. It can be defined as an excess of amino acid and protein metabolism end products, such as urea and creatinine, in the blood that would be normally excreted in the urine. Uremic syndrome can be defined as the terminal clinical manifestation of kidney failure. It is the signs, symptoms and results from laboratory tests which result from inadequate excretory, regulatory, and endocrine function of the kidneys. Both uremia and uremic syndrome have been used interchangeably to denote a very high plasma urea concentration that is the result of renal failure. The former denotation will be used for the rest of the article.

Early life

Tatum's mother, Mildred Hoskins, was born in Martinsville, Virginia,[3] around 1890, and was a domestic worker.[4] His father, Arthur Tatum Sr., was born in Statesville, North Carolina,[3][note 1] and had steady employment as a mechanic.[6] In 1909, they made their way from North Carolina to begin a new life in Toledo, Ohio.[7] The couple had four children; Art was the oldest to survive, and was born in Toledo on October 13, 1909.[8] He was followed by Arline nine years later and by Karl after another two years.[9] Karl went to college and became a social worker.[4] The Tatum family was regarded as conventional and church-going.[10]

Fats Waller was a major influence on Tatum.
Fats Waller was a major influence on Tatum.

From infancy, Tatum had impaired vision.[11] Several explanations for this have been posited, most involving cataracts.[11][note 2] As a result of eye operations, by the age of 11 Tatum could see objects close to him and perhaps distinguish colors.[12] Any benefits from these procedures were reversed, however, when he was assaulted, probably in his early twenties.[13] The attack left him completely blind in his left eye and with very limited vision in his right.[14] Despite this, there are multiple accounts of him enjoying playing cards and pool.[15][note 3]

Accounts vary on whether Tatum's parents played any musical instruments, but it is likely that he was exposed at an early age to church music, including through the Grace Presbyterian Church that his parents attended.[17] He also began playing the piano from a young age, playing by ear and aided by an excellent memory and sense of pitch.[18] Other musicians reported that he had perfect pitch.[19][20] As a child he was sensitive to the piano's intonation and insisted it be tuned often.[21] He learned tunes from the radio, records, and by copying piano roll recordings.[22] In an interview as an adult, Tatum denied the story that his playing ability developed because he had attempted to reproduce piano roll recordings that, without his knowing, had been made by two performers.[23] His interest in sports was lifelong, and he displayed an encyclopedic memory for baseball statistics.[24]

Tatum first attended Jefferson School in Toledo, then moved to the School for the Blind in Columbus, Ohio, late in 1924.[25] After probably less than a year there, he transferred to the Toledo School of Music.[26] Overton G. Rainey, who gave him formal piano lessons in the classical tradition at either the Jefferson School or the Toledo School of Music, was also visually impaired, did not improvise, and discouraged his students from playing jazz.[27] Based on this history, it is reasonable to assume that Tatum was largely self-taught as a pianist.[28] By the time he was a teenager, Tatum was asked to play at various social events, and he was probably being paid to play in Toledo clubs from around 1924–25.[29]

Growing up, Tatum drew inspiration principally from Fats Waller and James P. Johnson, who exemplified the stride piano style, and to some extent from the more modern Earl Hines,[28][30] six years Tatum's senior. Tatum identified Waller as his biggest influence, while pianist Teddy Wilson and saxophonist Eddie Barefield suggested that Hines was one of his favorite jazz pianists.[31] Another influence was pianist Lee Sims, who did not play jazz, but did use chord voicings and an orchestral approach (i.e. encompassing a full sound instead of highlighting one or more timbres[32]) that appeared in Tatum's playing.[33]

Discover more about Early life related topics

Martinsville, Virginia

Martinsville, Virginia

Martinsville is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2020 census, the population was 13,485. A community of both Southside and Southwest Virginia, it is the county seat of Henry County, although the two are separate jurisdictions. The Bureau of Economic Analysis combines the city of Martinsville with Henry County for statistical purposes.

Fats Waller

Fats Waller

Thomas Wright "Fats" Waller was an American jazz pianist, organist, composer, violinist, singer, and comedic entertainer. His innovations in the Harlem stride style laid much of the basis for modern jazz piano. His best-known compositions, "Ain't Misbehavin'" and "Honeysuckle Rose", were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1984 and 1999. Waller copyrighted over 400 songs, many of them co-written with his closest collaborator, Andy Razaf. Razaf described his partner as "the soul of melody... a man who made the piano sing... both big in body and in mind... known for his generosity... a bubbling bundle of joy". It is likely that he composed many more popular songs than he has been credited with: when in financial difficulties he had a habit of selling songs to other writers and performers who claimed them as their own.

Cataract

Cataract

A cataract is a cloudy area in the lens of the eye that leads to a decrease in vision. Cataracts often develop slowly and can affect one or both eyes. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry or double vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Poor vision caused by cataracts may also result in an increased risk of falling and depression. Cataracts cause 51% of all cases of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide.

Intonation (music)

Intonation (music)

In music, intonation is the pitch accuracy of a musician or musical instrument. Intonation may be flat, sharp, or both, successively or simultaneously.

Piano roll

Piano roll

A piano roll is a music storage medium used to operate a player piano, piano player or reproducing piano. Piano rolls, like other music rolls, are continuous rolls of paper with holes punched into them. These perforations represent note control data. The roll moves over a reading system known as a tracker bar; the playing cycle for each musical note is triggered when a perforation crosses the bar.

Columbus, Ohio

Columbus, Ohio

Columbus is the state capital and the most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio. With a 2020 census population of 905,748, it is the 14th-most populous city in the U.S., the second-most populous city in the Midwest, after Chicago, and the third-most populous state capital. Columbus is the county seat of Franklin County; it also extends into Delaware and Fairfield counties. It is the core city of the Columbus metropolitan area, which encompasses 10 counties in central Ohio. It had a population of 2,138,926 in 2020, making it the largest metropolitan entirely in Ohio and 32nd-largest city in the U.S.

Classical music

Classical music

Classical music generally refers to the art music of the Western world, considered to be distinct from Western folk music or popular music traditions. It is sometimes distinguished as Western classical music, as the term "classical music" also applies to non-Western art music. Classical music is often characterized by formality and complexity in its musical form and harmonic organization, particularly with the use of polyphony. Since at least the ninth century it has been primarily a written tradition, spawning a sophisticated notational system, as well as accompanying literature in analytical, critical, historiographical, musicological and philosophical practices. A foundational component of Western Culture, classical music is frequently seen from the perspective of individual or groups of composers, whose compositions, personalities and beliefs have fundamentally shaped its history.

Musical improvisation

Musical improvisation

Musical improvisation is the creative activity of immediate musical composition, which combines performance with communication of emotions and instrumental technique as well as spontaneous response to other musicians. Sometimes musical ideas in improvisation are spontaneous, but may be based on chord changes in classical music and many other kinds of music. One definition is a "performance given extempore without planning or preparation". Another definition is to "play or sing (music) extemporaneously, by inventing variations on a melody or creating new melodies, rhythms and harmonies". Encyclopædia Britannica defines it as "the extemporaneous composition or free performance of a musical passage, usually in a manner conforming to certain stylistic norms but unfettered by the prescriptive features of a specific musical text." Improvisation is often done within a pre-existing harmonic framework or chord progression. Improvisation is a major part of some types of 20th-century music, such as blues, rock music, jazz, and jazz fusion, in which instrumental performers improvise solos, melody lines and accompaniment parts.

Jazz

Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, Louisiana, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with its roots in blues and ragtime. Since the 1920s Jazz Age, it has been recognized as a major form of musical expression in traditional and popular music. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, complex chords, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in European harmony and African rhythmic rituals.

James P. Johnson

James P. Johnson

James Price Johnson was an American pianist and composer. A pioneer of stride piano, he was one of the most important pianists in the early era of recording, and like Jelly Roll Morton, one of the key figures in the evolution of ragtime into what was eventually called jazz. Johnson was a major influence on Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Art Tatum, and Fats Waller, who was his student.

Earl Hines

Earl Hines

Earl Kenneth Hines, also known as Earl "Fatha" Hines, was an American jazz pianist and bandleader. He was one of the most influential figures in the development of jazz piano and, according to one source, "one of a small number of pianists whose playing shaped the history of jazz".

Eddie Barefield

Eddie Barefield

Edward Emanuel Barefield was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist and arranger most noteworthy for his work with Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Ella Fitzgerald, and Duke Ellington. Barefield's musical career included work as an arranger of the ABC Orchestra and for the "Endorsed by Dorsey: program on WOR. He also appeared in several films. He married performer Connie Harris.

Later life and career

1927–1937

In 1927, after winning an amateur competition, Tatum began playing on Toledo radio station WSPD during interludes in a morning shopping program and soon had his own daily program.[34] After regular club dates, Tatum often visited after-hours clubs to be with other musicians; he enjoyed listening to other pianists and preferred to play after all the others had finished.[35] He frequently played for hours on end into the dawn; his radio show was scheduled for noon, allowing him time to rest before evening performances.[36] During 1928–29, the radio program was re-broadcast nationwide by the Blue Network.[34] Tatum also began to play in larger Midwestern cities outside his home town, including Cleveland, Columbus, and Detroit.[37]

As word of Tatum spread, national performers passing through Toledo, including Duke Ellington and Fletcher Henderson, visited clubs where he was playing.[38] They were impressed by what they heard: from near the start of the pianist's career, "his accomplishment [...] was of a different order from what most people, from what even musicians, had ever heard. It made musicians reconsider their definitions of excellence, of what was possible", his biographer reported.[39] Although Tatum was encouraged by comments from these and other established musicians, he felt that he was not yet, in the late 1920s, musically ready to relocate to New York City, which was the center of the jazz world and was home to many of the pianists he had listened to while growing up.[40]

This had changed by the time that vocalist Adelaide Hall, touring the United States with two pianists, heard Tatum play in Toledo in 1932 and recruited him:[41] he took the opportunity to go to New York as part of her band.[42] On August 5 that year, Hall and her band recorded two sides ("I'll Never Be the Same" and "Strange as It Seems") that were Tatum's first studio recordings.[43] Two more sides with Hall followed five days later, as did a solo piano test-pressing of "Tea for Two" that was not released for several decades.[44]

After his arrival in New York, Tatum participated in a cutting contest at Morgan's bar in Harlem, with the established stride piano masters – Johnson, Waller, and Willie "The Lion" Smith.[45] Standard contest pieces included Johnson's "Harlem Strut" and "Carolina Shout" and Waller's "Handful of Keys".[46] Tatum played his arrangements of "Tea for Two" and "Tiger Rag".[47] Reminiscing about Tatum's debut, Johnson said, "When Tatum played 'Tea for Two' that night I guess that was the first time I ever heard it really played."[48] Tatum thus became the pre-eminent piano player in jazz.[49] He and Waller became good friends, with similar lifestyles – both drank excessively and lived as lavishly as their incomes permitted.[50]

Clubs on 52nd Street in New York, where Tatum often played (May 1948)
Clubs on 52nd Street in New York, where Tatum often played (May 1948)

Tatum's first solo piano job in New York was at the Onyx Club,[51] which was later reported to have paid him "$45 a week and free whiskey".[52] The Onyx was one of the first jazz clubs to open on 52nd Street,[51] which became the city's focal point for public jazz performance for more than a decade.[53] He recorded his first four released solo sides, for Brunswick Records, in March 1933: "St. Louis Blues", "Sophisticated Lady", "Tea for Two", and "Tiger Rag".[54] The last of these was a minor hit, impressing the public with its startling tempo of approximately 376 (quarter note) beats per minute, and with right-hand eighth notes adding to the technical feat.[55]

Tatum's only known child, Orlando, was born in 1933, when Tatum was twenty-four.[56] The mother was Marnette Jackson, a waitress in Toledo; the pair were not married.[57] It is likely that neither parent had a major role in raising their son, who pursued a military career and died in the 1980s.[58]

During the hard economic times of 1934 and 1935, Tatum mostly played in clubs in Cleveland, but also recorded in New York four times in 1934 and once in the following year.[59] He also performed on national radio, including for the Fleischman Hour broadcast hosted by Rudy Vallee in 1935.[59] In August of the same year, he married Ruby Arnold, who was from Cleveland.[60] The following month, he began a residence of about a year at the Three Deuces in Chicago, initially as a soloist and then in a quartet of alto saxophone, guitar, and drums.[61]

At the end of his first Three Deuces stint, Tatum moved to California, travelling by train because of his fear of flying.[62] There, he followed the same pattern that he had adopted early in his career: paid performances followed by long after-hours sessions, all accompanied by prodigious drinking.[63] A friend from his early days in California observed that Tatum drank Pabst Blue Ribbon beer by the case.[64] This lifestyle contributed to the effects of the diabetes that Tatum probably developed as an adult, but, as highlighted by his biographer, James Lester, the pianist would have faced a conflict if he wanted to address the diabetes problem: "concessions – drastically less beer, a controlled diet, more rest – would have taken away exactly the things that mattered most to him, and would have removed him from the night-life that he seemed to love more than almost anything (afternoon baseball or football games would probably come next)".[65]

In California, Tatum also played for Hollywood parties and appeared on Bing Crosby's radio program late in 1936.[66] He recorded in Los Angeles for the first time early the following year – four tracks as the sextet named Art Tatum and His Swingsters,[67] for Decca Records.[68] Continuing to travel by long-distance train, Tatum settled into a pattern of performances at major jazz clubs in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York, interspersed with appearances at minor clubs where musicians of his standing did not normally play.[69] Thus, in 1937 he left Los Angeles for another residence at the Three Deuces in Chicago, and then went on to the Famous Door club in New York,[69] where he opened for Louis Prima.[70] Tatum recorded for Brunswick again near the end of that year.[71]

1938–1949

In March 1938, Tatum and his wife embarked on the Queen Mary for England.[72] He performed there for three months, and enjoyed the quiet listeners who, unlike some American audiences, did not talk over his playing.[72] While in England, he appeared twice on the BBC Television program Starlight.[73][74][75] Four of his very limited number of compositions were also published in Britain.[76] He then returned to the Three Deuces.[76] The overseas trip appeared to have boosted his reputation, particularly with the white public, and he was able to have club residencies of at least several weeks at a time in New York over the following few years, sometimes with stipulations that no food or drink would be served while he was playing.[77]

Tatum (right) at Downbeat Club, New York, c. 1947
Tatum (right) at Downbeat Club, New York, c. 1947

Tatum recorded 16 sides in August 1938, but they were not released for at least a decade.[78] A similar thing happened the following year: of the 18 sides he recorded, only two were issued as 78s.[79] A possible explanation is that the increasing popularity of big band music and vocalists limited the demand for solo recordings.[80] One of the releases, a version of "Tea for Two", was added to the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1986.[81] One recording from early in 1941, however, was commercially successful, with sales of perhaps 500,000.[80] This was "Wee Baby Blues", performed by a sextet and with the addition of Big Joe Turner on vocals.[80] Informal performances of Tatum's playing in 1940 and 1941 were released decades later on the album God Is in the House,[82] for which he was posthumously awarded the 1973 Grammy for Best Jazz Performance by a Soloist.[83] The album title came from Waller's reaction when he saw Tatum enter the club where Waller was performing: "I only play the piano, but tonight God is in the house."[84]

Tatum was able to earn a more than adequate living from his club performances.[80] Billboard magazine suggested that he could make at least $300 a week as a soloist in 1943;[85] when he formed a trio later that year, it was advertised by booking agents at $750 a week.[86] The other musicians in the trio were guitarist Tiny Grimes and bassist Slam Stewart.[87] They were a commercial success on 52nd Street, attracting more customers than any other musician, with the possible exception of vocalist Billie Holiday, and they also appeared briefly on film, in an episode of The March of Time.[88] As a solo pianist up to that point, Tatum was praised by critics, but the paying public had given him relatively little attention; with the trio, he enjoyed more popular success, although some critics expressed disappointment.[89] Nevertheless, Tatum was awarded Esquire magazine's prize for pianists in its 1944 critics' poll, which led to his playing alongside other winners at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York.[90]

All of Tatum's studio recordings in 1944 were with the trio, and radio appearances continued.[91] He abandoned the trio in 1944,[92] possibly at an agent's behest, and did not record with one again for eight years.[93] Early in 1945, Billboard reported that Tatum was being paid $1,150 a week as a soloist by the Downbeat Club on 52nd Street to play four sets of twenty minutes each per night.[94][95] This was described much later as an "unheard-of figure" for the time.[96] The Billboard reviewer commented that "Tatum is given a broken-down instrument, some bad lights and nothing else", and observed that he was almost inaudible beyond the front seating because of the audience noise.[95]

Tatum in 1946
Tatum in 1946

Aided by name recognition from his record sales and reduced entertainer availability because of the World War II draft, Tatum began to play in more formal jazz concert settings from 1944[97] – appearing at concert halls in towns and universities all around the United States.[98] The venues were much larger than jazz clubs – some had capacities in excess of 3,000 people[99] – allowing Tatum to earn more money for much less work.[98] Despite the more formal concert settings, Tatum preferred not to adhere to a set program of pieces for these performances.[100] He recorded with the Barney Bigard Sextet and cut nine solo tracks in 1945.[93]

A fellow pianist from the years after World War II estimated that Tatum routinely drank two quarts (1.9 L) of whiskey and a case of beer over the course of 24 hours.[101][note 4] Almost all reports are that such drinking did not negatively affect his playing.[102] Rather than being deliberately or uncontrollably self-destructive, this habit was probably a product of his being careless about his health, which was a common characteristic of jazz musicians, and his enthusiasm for life.[103]

Performances at concert settings continued in the second half of the 1940s, including participation in Norman Granz-produced Jazz at the Philharmonic events.[104] In 1947, Tatum again appeared on film, this time in The Fabulous Dorseys.[105] A 1949 concert at the Shrine Auditorium in Los Angeles was recorded and released by Columbia Records as Gene Norman Presents an Art Tatum Concert.[106] In the same year, he signed to Capitol Records and recorded 26 pieces for them.[107] He also played for the first time at Club Alamo in Detroit, but stopped when a black friend was not served.[108] The owner subsequently advertised that black customers were welcome, and Tatum went on to play there frequently in the following few years.[108]

Although Tatum remained an admired figure, his popularity waned in the mid-to-late 1940s, likely due in large part to the advent of bebop[109] – a musical style that Tatum did not embrace.[110]

1950–1956

Tatum began working with a trio again in 1951.[111] The trio – this time with bassist Stewart and guitarist Everett Barksdale – recorded in 1952.[112] In the same year, Tatum toured the United States with fellow pianists Erroll Garner, Pete Johnson, and Meade Lux Lewis, for concerts billed as "Piano Parade".[113]

Jazz impresario Norman Granz, who recorded Tatum extensively in 1953–1956
Jazz impresario Norman Granz, who recorded Tatum extensively in 1953–1956

Tatum's four-year absence from the recording studios as a soloist ended when Granz, who owned Clef Records, decided to record his solo playing in a way that was "unprecedented in the recording industry: invite him into the studio, start the tape, and let him play whatever he felt like playing. [...] At the time this was an astonishing enterprise, the most extensive recording that had been done of any jazz figure."[114] Over several sessions starting late in 1953, Tatum recorded 124 solo tracks, all but three of which were released, spread over a total of 14 LPs.[115] Granz reported that the recording tape ran out during one piece, but Tatum, instead of starting again from the beginning, asked to listen to a playback of just the final eight bars, then continued the performance from there on the new tape, keeping to the same tempo as on the first attempt.[116] The solo pieces were released by Clef as The Genius of Art Tatum,[116] and were added to the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1978.[81]

Granz also recorded Tatum with a selection of other stars in seven more recording sessions, which led to 59 tracks being released.[115] The critical reception was mixed and partly contradictory.[117] Tatum was, variously, criticized for not playing real jazz, the choice of material, and being past his best, and praised for the enthralling intricacy and detail of his playing, and his technical perfection.[118] Nevertheless, the releases renewed attention on the pianist, including for a newer generation; he won DownBeat magazine's critics' poll for pianists three years in a row from 1954 (he never won a DownBeat readers' poll).[119]

Following a deterioration in his health, Tatum stopped drinking in 1954 and tried to control his weight.[120] That year, his trio was part of bandleader Stan Kenton's 10-week tour named "Festival of Modern American Jazz".[121][122] The trio did not play with Kenton's orchestra on the tour,[122] but they had the same performance schedule, meaning Tatum sometimes travelled long distances by overnight train while the others stayed in a hotel and then took a morning flight.[123] He also appeared on television in The Spike Jones Show on April 17, to promote the then imminent release of The Genius of Art Tatum.[124][125] Black American musicians were not often filmed at this time, so very few visual recordings of Tatum exist,[126] but his solo performance of "Yesterdays" on the show has survived as a video recording.[124]

Tatum and Ruby divorced early in 1955.[127] They probably did not travel much together and she had become an alcoholic; the divorce was acrimonious.[128] He married again later that year – Geraldine Williamson, with whom he had probably already been living.[127] She had little interest in music, and did not normally attend his performances.[129]

By 1956, Tatum's health had deteriorated due to advanced uremia.[130] Nevertheless, in August of that year he played to the largest audience of his career: 19,000 gathered at the Hollywood Bowl for another Granz-led event.[130] The following month, he had the last of the Granz group recording sessions, with saxophonist Ben Webster, and then played at least two concerts in October.[131] He was too unwell to continue touring, so returned to his home in Los Angeles.[132] Musicians visited him on November 4, and other pianists played for him as he lay in bed.[133]

Tatum died the following day, at Queen of Angels Medical Center in Los Angeles, from uremia.[134] He was buried at Rosedale Cemetery in Los Angeles,[135] but was moved to the Forest Lawn cemetery in Glendale, California, in 1992[136] by his second wife, so she could be buried next to him.[137] Tatum was inducted into the DownBeat Jazz Hall of Fame in 1964[138] and was given a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1989.[139]

Discover more about Later life and career related topics

Blue Network

Blue Network

The Blue Network was the on-air name of a now defunct American radio network, which broadcast from 1927 through 1945.

Duke Ellington

Duke Ellington

Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington was an American jazz pianist, composer, and leader of his eponymous jazz orchestra from 1923 through the rest of his life. Born and raised in Washington, D.C., Ellington was based in New York City from the mid-1920s and gained a national profile through his orchestra's appearances at the Cotton Club in Harlem. A master at writing miniatures for the three-minute 78 rpm recording format, Ellington wrote or collaborated on more than one thousand compositions; his extensive body of work is the largest recorded personal jazz legacy, and many of his pieces have become standards. He also recorded songs written by his bandsmen, such as Juan Tizol's "Caravan", which brought a Spanish tinge to big band jazz. At the end of the 1930s, Ellington began a nearly thirty-year collaboration with composer-arranger-pianist Billy Strayhorn, whom he called his writing and arranging companion. With Strayhorn, he composed multiple extended compositions, or suites, as well as many short pieces. For a few years at the beginning of Strayhorn's involvement, Ellington's orchestra featured bassist Jimmy Blanton and tenor saxophonist Ben Webster and reached a creative peak. Some years later following a low-profile period, an appearance by Ellington and his orchestra at the Newport Jazz Festival in July 1956 led to a major revival and regular world tours. Ellington recorded for most American record companies of his era, performed in and scored several films, and composed a handful of stage musicals.

Fletcher Henderson

Fletcher Henderson

James Fletcher Hamilton Henderson was an American pianist, bandleader, arranger and composer, important in the development of big band jazz and swing music. He was one of the most prolific black musical arrangers and, along with Duke Ellington, is considered one of the most influential arrangers and bandleaders in jazz history. Henderson's influence was vast. He helped bridge the gap between the Dixieland and the swing eras. He was often known as "Smack" Henderson.

Adelaide Hall

Adelaide Hall

Adelaide Louise Hall was an American-born UK-based jazz singer and entertainer. Her long career spanned more than 70 years from 1921 until her death and she was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Hall entered the Guinness Book of World Records in 2003 as the world's most enduring recording artist, having released material over eight consecutive decades. She performed with major artists such as Art Tatum, Ethel Waters, Josephine Baker, Louis Armstrong, Lena Horne, Cab Calloway, Fela Sowande, Rudy Vallee, and Jools Holland, and recorded as a jazz singer with Duke Ellington and with Fats Waller.

Phonograph record

Phonograph record

A phonograph record, a vinyl record, or simply a record, is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove usually starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were commonly made from shellac, with earlier records having a fine abrasive filler mixed in. Starting in the 1940s polyvinyl chloride became common, hence the name vinyl.

I'll Never Be the Same

I'll Never Be the Same

"I'll Never Be The Same" is a popular song based on an instrumental called "Little Buttercup" written by Matty Malneck and Frank Signorelli. After several musicians had recorded the instrumental version, lyrics were written by Gus Kahn. The completed song was introduced in 1932 by Mildred Bailey and Paul Whiteman; their version rose to number fourteen on the charts. The same year, Guy Lombardo recorded the song; his version rose to number eight. It is ranked 210 in JazzStandards.com's listing of the 1000 most-frequently recorded jazz standard compositions.

Record press

Record press

A record press is a machine for manufacturing vinyl records. It is essentially a hydraulic press fitted with thin nickel stampers which are negative impressions of a master disc. Labels and a pre-heated vinyl patty are placed in a heated mold cavity. Two stampers are used, one for each of side of the disc. The record press closes under a pressure of about 150 tons. The process of compression molding forces the hot vinyl to fill the grooves in the stampers, and take the form of the finished record.

Cutting contest

Cutting contest

A cutting contest was a musical battle between various stride piano players from the 1920s to the 1940s, and to a lesser extent in improvisation contests on other jazz instruments during the swing era.

52nd Street (Manhattan)

52nd Street (Manhattan)

52nd Street is a 1.9-mile (3.1 km)-long one-way street traveling west to east across Midtown Manhattan, New York City. A short section of it was known as the city's center of jazz performance from the 1930s to the 1950s.

Onyx Club

Onyx Club

The Onyx Club was a jazz club located on West 52nd Street in New York City.

Brunswick Records

Brunswick Records

Brunswick Records is an American record label founded in 1916.

Quarter note

Quarter note

A quarter note (American) or crotchet "Collins Dictionary". (British) is a musical note played for one quarter of the duration of a whole note. Quarter notes are notated with a filled-in oval note head and a straight, flagless stem. The stem usually points upwards if it is below the middle line of the staff, and downwards if it is on or above the middle line. An upward stem is placed on the right side of the notehead, a downward stem is placed on the left. The Unicode symbol is U+2669.

Personality and habits

Tatum was independent-minded and generous with his time and money.[140] Not wanting to be restricted by Musicians' Union rules, he avoided joining for as long as he could.[141] He also disliked anything that drew attention to his blindness: he did not want to be physically led and so planned his independent walk to the piano in clubs if possible.[142]

People who met Tatum consistently "describe him as totally lacking in arrogance or ostentation" and as being gentlemanly in behavior.[143] He avoided discussing his personal life and history in interviews[144] and in conversation with acquaintances.[145] Although marijuana use was common among musicians during his lifetime, Tatum was not linked to the use of illegal drugs.[146]

After hours and repertoire

Tatum was said to be more spontaneous and creative in free-form nocturnal sessions than in his scheduled performances.[147][148] Whereas in a professional setting he would often give audiences what they wanted – performances of songs that were similar to his recorded versions – but decline to play encores, in after-hours sessions with friends he would play the blues, improvise for long periods on the same sequence of chords, and move even more away from the melody of a composition.[149] Tatum also sometimes sang the blues in such settings, accompanying himself on piano.[150] Composer and historian Gunther Schuller describes "a night-weary, sleepy, slurry voice, of lost love and sexual innuendos which would have shocked (and repelled) those 'fans' who admired Tatum for his musical discipline and 'classical' [piano] propriety".[150]

In after-hours performances, Tatum's repertoire was much wider than for professional appearances,[151] for which his staples were American popular songs.[115] During his career, he also played his own arrangements of a few classical piano pieces, including Dvořák's Humoresque and Massenet's "Élégie",[152] and recorded around a dozen blues pieces.[153] Over time, he added to his repertoire – by the late 1940s, most of the new pieces were medium-tempo ballads but also included compositions that presented him with harmonic challenges, such as the simplicity of "Caravan" and complexity of "Have You Met Miss Jones?"[154] He did not add to the classical pieces he had used earlier.[154]

Discover more about After hours and repertoire related topics

Gunther Schuller

Gunther Schuller

Gunther Alexander Schuller was an American composer, conductor, horn player, author, historian, educator, publisher, and jazz musician.

Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Dvořák

Antonín Leopold Dvořák was a Czech composer. Dvořák frequently employed rhythms and other aspects of the folk music of Moravia and his native Bohemia, following the Romantic-era nationalist example of his predecessor Bedřich Smetana. Dvořák's style has been described as "the fullest recreation of a national idiom with that of the symphonic tradition, absorbing folk influences and finding effective ways of using them".

Humoresques (Dvořák)

Humoresques (Dvořák)

Humoresques, Op. 101, is a piano cycle by the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák, written during the summer of 1894. Music critic David Hurwitz says "the seventh Humoresque is probably the most famous small piano work ever written after Beethoven's Für Elise."

Jules Massenet

Jules Massenet

Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet was a French composer of the Romantic era best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty. The two most frequently staged are Manon (1884) and Werther (1892). He also composed oratorios, ballets, orchestral works, incidental music, piano pieces, songs and other music.

Caravan (Juan Tizol and Duke Ellington song)

Caravan (Juan Tizol and Duke Ellington song)

"Caravan" is an American jazz standard that was composed by Juan Tizol and Duke Ellington and first performed by Ellington in 1936. Irving Mills wrote lyrics, but they are rarely sung.

Have You Met Miss Jones?

Have You Met Miss Jones?

"Have You Met Miss Jones?" is a popular song that was written for the musical comedy I'd Rather Be Right. The music was written by Richard Rodgers and the lyrics by Lorenz Hart. The song was published in 1937.

Style and technique

Saxophonist Benny Green wrote that Tatum was the only jazz musician to "attempt to conceive a style based upon all styles, to master the mannerisms of all schools, and then synthesize those into something personal".[155] Tatum was able to transform the styles of preceding jazz piano through virtuosity: where other pianists had employed repetitive rhythmic patterns and relatively simple decoration, he created "harmonic sweeps of colour [...and] unpredictable and ever-changing shifts of rhythm".[156]

Tatum's bitonal playing with Oscar Moore on "Lonesome Graveyard Blues" (1941)

Musicologist Lewis Porter identified three aspects of Tatum's playing that a casual listener might miss: the dissonance in his chords; his advanced use of substitute chord progressions; and his occasional use of bitonality (playing in two keys at the same time).[157] There are examples on record of the last of these going back to 1934, making Tatum the furthest harmonically out of jazz musicians until Lennie Tristano.[157] On occasion, the bitonality was against what another musician was playing, as in "Lonesome Graveyard Blues" with guitarist Oscar Moore.[157][158] Prior to Tatum, jazz harmony was mainly triadic, with flattened sevenths and infrequent ninths; he went beyond this, influenced by the harmonies of Debussy and Ravel.[159] He incorporated upper intervals such as elevenths and thirteenths,[160] and added tenths (and greater intervals) to the left-hand vocabulary of the earlier stride piano style.[161]

Reworked harmony, rhythmic flexibility and multiple styles on "Too Marvelous for Words" (1953)[162]

Tatum had a different way of improvising from what is typical in modern jazz.[110] He did not try to create new melodic lines over a harmonic progression; instead, he implied or played the original melody or fragments of it, while superimposing countermelodies and new phrases to create new structures based around variation.[110][154] "The harmonic lines may be altered, reworked or rhythmically rephrased for moments at a time, but they are still the base underneath Tatum's superstructures. The melodic lines may be transformed into fresh shapes with only a note or a beat or a phrase particle retained to associate the new with the original, yet the melody remains, if only in the listener's imagination."[163] This flexibility extended to his use of rhythm: regardless of the tempo, he could frequently alter the number of notes per beat and use other techniques at the same time to alter the rhythmic intensity and shape of his phrasing.[149] His rhythmic sense also allowed him to move away from the established tempo of a piece for extended periods without losing the beat.[164]

For critic Martin Williams, there was also the matter of the pianist's sly humor when playing: "when we fear he is reaching the limits of romantic bombast, a quirky phrase, an exaggerated ornament will remind us that Tatum may be having us on. He is also inviting us to share the joke and heartily kidding himself as well as the concert hall traditions to which he alludes."[154]

Prior to the 1940s, Tatum's style was based on popular song form, which often meant two bars of melodic development followed by two more melodically static bars, which he filled with rapid runs or arpeggios.[150] From the 1940s, he progressively lengthened the runs to eight or more bars, sometimes continuing them across the natural eight-bar boundaries within a composition's structure, and began to use a harder, more aggressive attack.[150] He also increased the frequency of harmonic substitutions and the variety of musical devices played by his left hand, and developed a greater harmonic and contrapuntal balance across the piano's upper and lower registers.[165] Schuller argues that Tatum was still developing towards the end of his life – he had greater rhythmic flexibility when playing at a given tempo, more behind the beat swing, more diverse forms of expression, and he employed far fewer musical quotations than earlier in his career.[166]

Critic Whitney Balliett commented on the overall form of Tatum's style: "his strange, multiplied chords, still largely unmatched by his followers, his laying on of two and three and four melodic levels at once [...] was orchestral and even symphonic."[164] This style was not one that could be adapted to the form of bebop: "the orchestral approach to the keyboard [...] was too thick, too textured to work in the context of a bebop rhythm section."[167]

Tatum's approach has also been criticized on other grounds.[84] Pianist Keith Jarrett objected to Tatum playing too many notes,[168] and a criticism of him in a band setting was that he often did not modify his playing, overwhelming the other musicians and appearing to compete with any soloist that he was ostensibly supporting.[32][169] Clarinetist Buddy DeFranco said that playing with Tatum was "like chasing a train",[170] and the pianist himself said that a band got in his way.[171]

A screen capture from the 1947 film The Fabulous Dorseys, showing Tatum's straight-fingered technique
A screen capture from the 1947 film The Fabulous Dorseys, showing Tatum's straight-fingered technique

Tatum had a calm physical demeanor at the keyboard, not attempting crowd-pleasing theatrical gestures.[109][172] This accentuated the impact of his playing on observers,[172] as did his seemingly effortless technique, as pianist Hank Jones observed[24] – the apparently horizontal gliding of his hands across the keys stunned his contemporaries.[149] Tatum's relatively straight-fingered technique, compared to the curvature taught in classical training, contributed to this visual impression: a critic wrote in 1935 that, when playing, "Tatum's hand is almost perfectly horizontal, and his fingers seem to actuate around a horizontal line drawn from wrist to finger tip."[16]

Tatum was able to use his thumbs and little fingers to add melody lines while playing something else with his other fingers;[173] drummer Bill Douglass, who played with Tatum, commented that the pianist would "do runs with these two fingers up here and then the other two fingers of the same hand playing something else down there. Two fingers on the black keys, and then the other two fingers would be playing something else on the white keys. He could do that in either hand".[174] His large hands allowed him to play a left-hand trill with thumb and forefinger while also using his little finger to play a note an octave lower.[153] He was also capable of reaching twelfth intervals in either hand, and could play a succession of chords such as the illustrated examples at high speed.[153][note 5] He was able to play all of his chosen material in any key.[176]

Examples of chords played by Tatum that "were easy for him to reach"[153]
Examples of chords played by Tatum that "were easy for him to reach"[153]

Tatum's touch has also attracted attention: for Balliett, "No pianist has ever hit notes more beautifully. Each one [...] was light and complete and resonant, like the letters on a finely printed page. Vast lower-register chords were unblurred, and his highest notes were polished silver."[164] Tatum could maintain these qualities of touch and tone even at the quickest tempos, when almost all other pianists would be incapable of playing the notes at all.[32] Pianist Chick Corea commented that "Tatum is the only pianist I know of before Bill [Evans] that also had that feather-light touch – even though he probably spent his early years playing on really bad instruments."[177]

Among the musicians who said that Tatum could make a bad piano sound good were Billy Taylor[84] and Gerald Wiggins.[178] The latter revealed that Tatum was able to identify and avoid using any keys on a bad piano that were not working,[178] while guitarist Les Paul recounted that Tatum sometimes resorted to pulling up stuck keys with one hand, mid-performance, so that he could play them again.[179]

Discover more about Style and technique related topics

Benny Green (saxophonist)

Benny Green (saxophonist)

Bernard "Benny" Green was a British jazz saxophonist who was also known for his radio shows and books.

Oscar Moore

Oscar Moore

Oscar Frederic Moore was an American jazz guitarist with the Nat King Cole Trio.

Lewis Porter

Lewis Porter

Lewis Robert Porter is an American jazz pianist, composer, author, and educator.

Consonance and dissonance

Consonance and dissonance

In music, consonance and dissonance are categorizations of simultaneous or successive sounds. Within the Western tradition, some listeners associate consonance with sweetness, pleasantness, and acceptability, and dissonance with harshness, unpleasantness, or unacceptability, although there is broad acknowledgement that this depends also on familiarity and musical expertise. The terms form a structural dichotomy in which they define each other by mutual exclusion: a consonance is what is not dissonant, and a dissonance is what is not consonant. However, a finer consideration shows that the distinction forms a gradation, from the most consonant to the most dissonant. In casual discourse, as German composer and music theorist Paul Hindemith stressed, "The two concepts have never been completely explained, and for a thousand years the definitions have varied". The term sonance has been proposed to encompass or refer indistinctly to the terms consonance and dissonance.

Chord substitution

Chord substitution

In music theory, chord substitution is the technique of using a chord in place of another in a progression of chords, or a chord progression. Much of the European classical repertoire and the vast majority of blues, jazz and rock music songs are based on chord progressions. "A chord substitution occurs when a chord is replaced by another that is made to function like the original. Usually substituted chords possess two pitches in common with the triad that they are replacing."

Key (music)

Key (music)

In music theory, the key of a piece is the group of pitches, or scale, that forms the basis of a musical composition in classical, Western art, and Western pop music.Tonality or key: Music which uses the notes of a particular scale is said to be "in the key of" that scale or in the tonality of that scale.

Lennie Tristano

Lennie Tristano

Leonard Joseph Tristano was an American jazz pianist, composer, arranger, and teacher of jazz improvisation.

Jazz harmony

Jazz harmony

Jazz harmony is the theory and practice of how chords are used in jazz music. Jazz bears certain similarities to other practices in the tradition of Western harmony, such as many chord progressions, and the incorporation of the major and minor scales as a basis for chordal construction. In jazz, chords are often arranged vertically in major or minor thirds, although stacked fourths are also quite common. Also, jazz music tends to favor certain harmonic progressions and includes the addition of tensions, intervals such as 9ths, 11ths, and 13ths to chords. Additionally, scales unique to style are used as the basis of many harmonic elements found in jazz. Jazz harmony is notable for the use of seventh chords as the basic harmonic unit more often than triads, as in classical music. In the words of Robert Rawlins and Nor Eddine Bahha, "7th chords provide the building blocks of jazz harmony."

Interval (music)

Interval (music)

In music theory, an interval is a difference in pitch between two sounds. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord.

Chord progression

Chord progression

In a musical composition, a chord progression or harmonic progression is a succession of chords. Chord progressions are the foundation of harmony in Western musical tradition from the common practice era of Classical music to the 21st century. Chord progressions are the foundation of popular music styles, traditional music, as well as genres such as blues and jazz. In these genres, chord progressions are the defining feature on which melody and rhythm are built.

Martin Williams (writer)

Martin Williams (writer)

Martin Tudor Hansford Williams was an American jazz critic and writer.

Bar (music)

Bar (music)

In musical notation, a bar is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines. Dividing music into bars provides regular reference points to pinpoint locations within a musical composition. It also makes written music easier to follow, since each bar of staff symbols can be read and played as a batch.

Influence

Tatum's improvisational style extended what was possible on jazz piano.[180] The virtuoso solo aspects of Tatum's style were taken on by pianists such as Adam Makowicz, Simon Nabatov, Oscar Peterson, and Martial Solal.[181] Even musicians who played in very different styles, such as Bud Powell, Lennie Tristano, and Herbie Hancock, memorized and recreated some of his recordings to learn from them.[156] Although Powell was of the bebop movement, his prolific and exciting style showed Tatum's influence.[182] Mary Lou Williams said, "Tatum taught me how to hit my notes, how to control them without using pedals. And he showed me how to keep my fingers flat on the keys to get that clean tone."[183]

Tatum's influence went beyond the piano, however: his innovations in harmony and rhythm established new ground in jazz more broadly.[180] He made jazz musicians more aware of harmonic possibilities by changing the chords that he used with great frequency; this helped lay the foundations for the emergence of bebop in the 1940s.[159] His modern chord voicing and chord substitutions were also pioneering in jazz.[157]

Other musicians sought to transfer elements of Tatum's pianistic virtuosity to their own instruments.[156] When newly arrived in New York, saxophonist Charlie Parker worked for three months as a dishwasher in a restaurant where Tatum was performing and often listened to the pianist.[184] "Perhaps the most important idea Parker learned from Tatum was that any note could be made to fit in a chord if suitably resolved."[185] Trumpeter Dizzy Gillespie was also affected by Tatum's speed, harmony, and daring solos.[186] Vocalist Tony Bennett incorporated aspects of Tatum into his singing: "I'd listen to his records almost daily and try to phrase like him. [...] I just take his phrasing and sing it that way."[187] Saxophonist Coleman Hawkins changed his playing style after hearing Tatum play in Toledo in the 1920s:[188] Hawkins's "arpeggio-based style and his growing vocabulary of chords, of passing chords and the relationships of chords, were confirmed and encouraged by his response to Art Tatum."[154] This style was hugely influential on the development of saxophone playing in jazz, and put it on course to becoming the dominant instrument in the music.[188]

Some musicians were negatively affected by exposure to Tatum's abilities.[189] Many pianists tried to copy him and attain the same level of ability, hindering their progress towards finding their own style.[190] Others, including trumpeter Rex Stewart and pianists Oscar Peterson and Bobby Short, were overwhelmed and began to question their own abilities.[191] Some musicians, including Les Paul and Everett Barksdale, stopped playing the piano and switched to another instrument after hearing Tatum.[189]

Discover more about Influence related topics

Adam Makowicz

Adam Makowicz

Adam Makowicz is a Polish pianist and composer living in Toronto. He performs jazz and classical piano pieces, as well as his own compositions.

Simon Nabatov

Simon Nabatov

Simon Nabatov is a Russian-American jazz pianist.

Oscar Peterson

Oscar Peterson

Oscar Emmanuel Peterson was a Canadian virtuoso jazz pianist and composer. Considered one of the greatest jazz pianists of all time, Peterson released more than 200 recordings, won seven Grammy Awards, as well as a lifetime achievement award from the Recording Academy, and received numerous other awards and honours. He played thousands of concerts worldwide in a career lasting more than 60 years. He was called the "Maharaja of the keyboard" by Duke Ellington, simply "O.P." by his friends, and informally in the jazz community as "the King of inside swing".

Martial Solal

Martial Solal

Martial Solal is a French jazz pianist and composer.

Bud Powell

Bud Powell

Earl Rudolph "Bud" Powell was an American jazz pianist and composer. Along with Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Kenny Clarke and Dizzy Gillespie, Powell was a leading figure in the development of modern jazz. His virtuosity led many to call him the Charlie Parker of the piano. Powell was also a composer, and many jazz critics credit his works and his playing as having "greatly extended the range of jazz harmony".

Herbie Hancock

Herbie Hancock

Herbert Jeffrey Hancock is an American jazz pianist, keyboardist, bandleader, and composer. Hancock started his career with trumpeter Donald Byrd's group. He shortly thereafter joined the Miles Davis Quintet, where he helped to redefine the role of a jazz rhythm section and was one of the primary architects of the post-bop sound. In the 1970s, Hancock experimented with jazz fusion, funk, and electro styles, utilizing a wide array of synthesizers and electronics. It was during this period that he released perhaps his best-known and most influential album, Head Hunters.

Mary Lou Williams

Mary Lou Williams

Mary Lou Williams was an American jazz pianist, arranger, and composer. She wrote hundreds of compositions and arrangements and recorded more than one hundred records. Williams wrote and arranged for Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman, and she was friend, mentor, and teacher to Thelonious Monk, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis, Tadd Dameron, Bud Powell, and Dizzy Gillespie.

Charlie Parker

Charlie Parker

Charles Parker Jr., nicknamed "Bird" or "Yardbird", was an American jazz saxophonist, band leader and composer. Parker was a highly influential soloist and leading figure in the development of bebop, a form of jazz characterized by fast tempos, virtuosic technique, and advanced harmonies. Parker was an extremely brilliant virtuoso and introduced revolutionary rhythmic and harmonic ideas into jazz, including rapid passing chords, new variants of altered chords, and chord substitutions. Primarily a player of the alto saxophone, Parker's tone ranged from clean and penetrating to sweet and somber.

Dizzy Gillespie

Dizzy Gillespie

John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader, composer, educator and singer. He was a trumpet virtuoso and improviser, building on the virtuosic style of Roy Eldridge but adding layers of harmonic and rhythmic complexity previously unheard in jazz. His combination of musicianship, showmanship, and wit made him a leading popularizer of the new music called bebop. His beret and horn-rimmed spectacles, scat singing, bent horn, pouched cheeks, and light-hearted personality provided one of bebop's most prominent symbols.

Coleman Hawkins

Coleman Hawkins

Coleman Randolph Hawkins, nicknamed "Hawk" and sometimes "Bean", was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. One of the first prominent jazz musicians on his instrument, as Joachim E. Berendt explained: "there were some tenor players before him, but the instrument was not an acknowledged jazz horn". Hawkins biographer John Chilton described the prevalent styles of tenor saxophone solos prior to Hawkins as "mooing" and "rubbery belches." Hawkins cited as influences Happy Caldwell, Stump Evans, and Prince Robinson, although he was the first to tailor his method of improvisation to the saxophone rather than imitate the techniques of the clarinet. Hawkins' virtuosic, arpeggiated approach to improvisation, with his characteristic rich, emotional, and vibrato-laden tonal style, was the main influence on a generation of tenor players that included Chu Berry, Charlie Barnet, Tex Beneke, Ben Webster, Vido Musso, Herschel Evans, Buddy Tate, and Don Byas, and through them the later tenormen, Arnett Cobb, Illinois Jacquet, Flip Phillips, Ike Quebec, Al Sears, Paul Gonsalves, and Lucky Thompson. While Hawkins became known with swing music during the big band era, he had a role in the development of bebop in the 1940s.

Rex Stewart

Rex Stewart

Rex William Stewart Jr. was an American jazz cornetist who was a member of the Duke Ellington orchestra.

Bobby Short

Bobby Short

Robert Waltrip Short was an American cabaret singer and pianist, who interpreted songs by popular composers from the first half of the 20th century such as Rodgers and Hart, Cole Porter, Jerome Kern, Harold Arlen, Richard A. Whiting, Vernon Duke, Noël Coward and George and Ira Gershwin.

Critical standing

There is little published information available about Tatum's life. One full-length biography has been published – Too Marvelous for Words (1994), written by James Lester.[192][note 6] This lack of detailed coverage may be attributable to Tatum's life and music not fitting any of the established critical narratives or frameworks for jazz: many historians of the music have marginalised him for this, so "not only is Tatum underrepresented in jazz criticism but his presence in jazz historiography seems largely to prompt no particular effort in historians beyond descriptive writing designed to summarize his pianistic approach".[28]

Critics have expressed strong opinions about Tatum's artistry: "Some applaud Tatum as supremely inventive, while others say that he was boringly repetitive, and that he barely improvised."[157] Gary Giddins suggested that Tatum's standing has not been elevated to the very highest level of jazz stars among the public because he did not employ the expected linear style of improvisation, and instead played in a way that listeners have to listen to with concentration, so he "becalms many listeners into hapless indifference".[196]

Other forms of recognition

In 1989, Tatum's hometown of Toledo established the Art Tatum African American Resource Center in its Kent Branch Library.[197] It contains print and audio materials and microfiche, and organizes cultural programs, including festivals, concerts, and a gallery for local artists.[197]

In 1993, Jeff Bilmes, an MIT student in the field of computational musicology coined the term "tatum", which was named in recognition of the pianist's speed.[198][199] It has been defined as "the smallest time interval between successive notes in a rhythmic phrase",[198] and "the fastest pulse present in a piece of music".[200]

In 2003, a historical marker was placed outside Tatum's childhood home at 1123 City Park Avenue in Toledo, but by 2017 the unoccupied property was in a state of disrepair.[201] In 2021, Art Tatum Zone, a non-profit organization, was awarded grants to restore the house and improve the neighborhood.[202] Also in Toledo, the Lucas County Arena unveiled a 27-feet-high sculpture, the "Art Tatum Celebration Column", in 2009.[203]

Discography

Source: "Art Tatum", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Tatum.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

Notes
  1. ^ Tatum Sr.'s age at the time of Art's birth is given as either 24 or 28, meaning he was born around 1885 or around 1881.[5]
  2. ^ Tatum's eyesight is discussed in detail by Spencer 2002, pp. 42–54.
  3. ^ In 1935, Tatum was reported as describing his eyesight as "not too good, but I can see enough to read and write and get around".[16]
  4. ^ A "case" of beer often refers to 24 beers, but there is not an official standard.
  5. ^ In an informal recording from 1952, he can be heard playing A and D, "demonstrates it, fills it out, and responds that it's 'Not too bad when you fill it out'."[175]
  6. ^ There is a 2009 self-published biography in German (Art Tatum, by Mark Lehmstedt),[193][194] and a self-published account of Tatum's life in Toledo up to 1932 (The History of Art Tatum, 1909–1932, by Imelda Hunt).[195]
References
  1. ^ Doerschuk, Robert. 88 – The Giants of Jazz Piano. p. 58. '[...] by consensus, the greatest jazz pianist who ever lived.' When Leonard Feather was compiling his Encyclopedia of Jazz in the mid-1950s, he polled a number of musicians about the players they themselves most admired on their respective instruments. More than two-thirds of the pianists surveyed put Tatum at the top of the list. Gene Lees conducted a similar poll thirty years later, and again Tatum dominated the results.
  2. ^ Gioia, Ted. "The Dozens: Art Tatum at 100". Jazz.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2016. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  3. ^ a b Balliett 2005, p. 226.
  4. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 18.
  5. ^ Lester 1994, p. 229.
  6. ^ Lester 1994, p. 17.
  7. ^ Hunt, Imelda (1995). An Oral History of Art Tatum During His Years in Toledo, Ohio, 1909–1932 (PhD). Bowling Green State University. p. 24. OCLC 39748924.
  8. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 15–16.
  9. ^ Lester 1994, p. 16.
  10. ^ Lester 1994, p. 19.
  11. ^ a b Lester 1994, pp. 20–21.
  12. ^ Lester 1994, p. 22.
  13. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 22–24.
  14. ^ Balliett 2005, p. 225.
  15. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 25, 58, 85.
  16. ^ a b Duning, George (October 1935). "Impressions of Art Tatum at the Grand Piano". DownBeat. Archived from the original on November 5, 2011.
  17. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 19–20.
  18. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 34–37.
  19. ^ Lester 1994, p. 148.
  20. ^ Taylor, Billy (2013). The Jazz Life of Dr. Billy Taylor. Indiana University Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-253-00917-3.
  21. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 36–37.
  22. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 44–46.
  23. ^ Lester 1994, p. 44.
  24. ^ a b Primack, Bret (January 1, 1998). "Art Tatum: No Greater Art". JazzTimes. Retrieved September 12, 2018.
  25. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 26–28.
  26. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 29–30.
  27. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 37–39.
  28. ^ a b c Horn, David (2000). "The Sound World of Art Tatum". Black Music Research Journal. 20 (2): 237–257. doi:10.2307/779469. JSTOR 779469.
  29. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 42–45, 47.
  30. ^ Schuller 1989, pp. 478–479.
  31. ^ Lester 1994, p. 57.
  32. ^ a b c Schuller 1989, p. 482.
  33. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 123–125.
  34. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 52.
  35. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 31, 94–95.
  36. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 31, 94–97.
  37. ^ Lester 1994, p. 59.
  38. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 48–51.
  39. ^ Lester 1994, p. 49.
  40. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 50–51, 67–68.
  41. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 51, 68–71.
  42. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 67–68.
  43. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 72–73.
  44. ^ Lester 1994, p. 73.
  45. ^ Lester 1994, p. 75.
  46. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 75–76.
  47. ^ Lester 1994, p. 76.
  48. ^ Kirkeby, Ed; Schiedt, Duncan P.; Traill, Sinclair (1975). Ain't Misbehavin': The Story of Fats Waller. Da Capo Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-306-70683-7. Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  49. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 76–77.
  50. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 77–78.
  51. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 77.
  52. ^ Burke, Patrick (2006). "Oasis of Swing: The Onyx Club, Jazz, and White Masculinity in the Early 1930s". American Music. 24 (3): 333. doi:10.2307/25046035. JSTOR 25046035.
  53. ^ "52nd Street", Oxford Music Online, Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press, 2016, doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.J149700, ISBN 9781561592630
  54. ^ Lester 1994, p. 80.
  55. ^ Schuller 1989, pp. 482–483.
  56. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 30, 81.
  57. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 30, 81–83.
  58. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 81–83.
  59. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 83.
  60. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 85, 99.
  61. ^ Lester 1994, p. 84.
  62. ^ Lester 1994, p. 89.
  63. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 91–94.
  64. ^ Lester 1994, p. 92.
  65. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 93–94.
  66. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 91–92.
  67. ^ Lester 1994, p. 97.
  68. ^ Howlett 1982, p. xi.
  69. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 101.
  70. ^ Salamone, Frank A. (2013). Music and Magic: Charlie Parker, Trickster Lives!. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-4438-5172-5.
  71. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 101–102.
  72. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 102.
  73. ^ "Television: Sunday, April 17, to Saturday, April 23" (PDF). Radio Times. April 15, 1938. p. 21.
  74. ^ "Broadcasting". The Times. April 19, 1938. p. 8.
  75. ^ "Broadcasting". The Times. April 21, 1938. p. 10.
  76. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 103.
  77. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 103–105.
  78. ^ Lester 1994, p. 107.
  79. ^ Lester 1994, p. 142.
  80. ^ a b c d Lester 1994, p. 143.
  81. ^ a b "Grammy Hall of Fame". grammy.com. October 19, 2010. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  82. ^ Yanow, Scott. "Art Tatum – God Is in the House". AllMusic. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  83. ^ "Winners – 16th Annual Grammy Awards (1973)". grammy.com. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  84. ^ a b c Burnett, John. "Art Tatum: A Talent Never to Be Duplicated". NPR Music. NPR. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
  85. ^ "Negro Units Riding High". The Billboard. Vol. 55, no. 25. June 19, 1943. p. 18.
  86. ^ "Art Tatum Forms Trio for Lounges; Asks $750". The Billboard. Vol. 55, no. 30. July 24, 1943. p. 26.
  87. ^ Howlett 1982, p. x.
  88. ^ Lester 1994, p. 151.
  89. ^ Lester 1994, p. 152.
  90. ^ Lester 1994, p. 157.
  91. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 158–159.
  92. ^ Howlett 1982, pp. x–xi.
  93. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 163.
  94. ^ "Name-itis Hits 52d Street – May End in Big Dough Era". The Billboard. Vol. 27, no. 7. February 17, 1945. p. 24.
  95. ^ a b Marvin, Wanda (February 17, 1945). "Art Tatum". The Billboard. Vol. 27, no. 7. pp. 23, 33.
  96. ^ DeVeaux, Scott (1997). The Birth of Bebop. University of California Press. pp. 384–385. ISBN 978-0-520-21665-5.
  97. ^ Smith, Bill (October 28, 1944). "Vaude Opening to Combos". The Billboard. Vol. 56, no. 44. p. 24.
  98. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 182.
  99. ^ "Tatum Longhair Dates Look OK for Plenty $$$". The Billboard. Vol. 57, no. 42. October 20, 1945. p. 32.
  100. ^ "Art Tatum, Jazz Pianist, in First Local Concert". Star Tribune. November 11, 1945. p. 15.
  101. ^ Lester 1994, p. 178.
  102. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 62, 72, 77.
  103. ^ Lester 1994, p. 32.
  104. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 182–183.
  105. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 175–176.
  106. ^ "Tatum and Goodman". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. May 29, 1952. p. 36.
  107. ^ Lester 1994, p. 184.
  108. ^ a b Bjorn, Lars; Gallert, Jim (2001). Before Motown: A History of Jazz in Detroit, 1920-60. University of Michigan Press. p. 117. ISBN 0-472-06765-6. Retrieved September 11, 2018.
  109. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 164.
  110. ^ a b c Edey, Mait (August 1960). "Tatum, the Last Years". The Jazz Review. Vol. 3, no. 7. p. 4.
  111. ^ Webman, Hal (May 26, 1951). "Rhythm and Blues Notes". The Billboard. Vol. 63, no. 21. p. 32.
  112. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 203–204.
  113. ^ Komara, Edward, ed. (2006). Encyclopedia of the Blues. Routledge. p. 600. ISBN 978-0-415-92699-7.
  114. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 203–205.
  115. ^ a b c Lester 1994, p. 205.
  116. ^ a b Hershorn, Tad (2011). Norman Granz. University of California Press. chapter 10. ISBN 978-0-520-26782-4.
  117. ^ Lester 1994, p. 207.
  118. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 207–209.
  119. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 157, 213.
  120. ^ Lester 1994, p. 215.
  121. ^ "Kenton Jazz Festival Set for 10 Weeks". The Billboard. Vol. 66, no. 37. September 11, 1954. pp. 19, 24.
  122. ^ a b Sparke, Michael (2010). Stan Kenton: This Is an Orchestra!. University of North Texas Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-1-57441-284-0.
  123. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 213–214.
  124. ^ a b Doerschuk, Robert (January 2009). "Marathon Gifts". DownBeat. Vol. 76, no. 1. p. 94.
  125. ^ Hollywood Reporter staff (April 16, 1954). "TV-Radio Briefs". The Hollywood Reporter.
  126. ^ Priestley, Brian (2005). Chasin' the Bird. Equinox Publishing. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-84553-036-5.
  127. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 202.
  128. ^ Lester 1994, p. 99.
  129. ^ Lester 1994, p. 203.
  130. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 216.
  131. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 216–217.
  132. ^ Lester 1994, p. 217.
  133. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 217–218.
  134. ^ Spencer 2002, p. 43.
  135. ^ Lester 1994, p. 219.
  136. ^ Wilson, Scott (2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons (3rd ed.). McFarland & Company. p. 733. ISBN 978-0-7864-5098-5.
  137. ^ Burk, Margaret; Hudson, Gary (1996). Final Curtain: Eternal Resting Places of Hundreds of Stars, Celebrities, Moguls, Misers & Misfits. Seven Locks Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-929765-53-2.
  138. ^ "DownBeat Hall of Fame". Downbeat.com. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  139. ^ "Lifetime Achievement Award". grammy.com. October 19, 2010. Archived from the original on November 3, 2020. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  140. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 58, 64–65.
  141. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 65, 181.
  142. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 31, 65.
  143. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 50, 72.
  144. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 5–6.
  145. ^ Lester 1994, p. 31.
  146. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 60–61.
  147. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 13, 93.
  148. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 481.
  149. ^ a b c Howlett, Felicity (2002). "Tatum, Art(hur, Jr.) (jazz)". Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.J441700. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  150. ^ a b c d Schuller 1989, p. 488.
  151. ^ Howlett 1982, p. xii.
  152. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 485.
  153. ^ a b c d Schuller 1989, p. 478.
  154. ^ a b c d e Williams, Martin (1983). "Art Tatum: Not for the Left Hand Alone". American Music. 1 (1): 36–40. doi:10.2307/3051572. JSTOR 3051572.
  155. ^ Cohassey, John. "Art Tatum". Contemporary Black Biography. 28: 187–190.
  156. ^ a b c Howlett, Felicity; Robinson, J. Bradford (2001). "Tatum, Art(hur)". Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.27553. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  157. ^ a b c d e Porter, Lewis (September 5, 2017). "Deep Dive with Lewis Porter: In Praise of Art Tatum, Stealth Radical in the Jazz Piano Pantheon". wbgo.org. Retrieved May 29, 2019.
  158. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 486.
  159. ^ a b Joyner, David (1998). "Jazz from 1930 to 1960". In Nicholls, David (ed.). The Cambridge History of American Music. Cambridge University Press. p. 421. ISBN 978-0-521-45429-2.
  160. ^ Carr, Ian; Fairweather, Digby; Priestley, Brian (1995). Jazz: The Rough Guide (1st ed.). Rough Guides. p. 627. ISBN 978-1-85828-137-7.
  161. ^ Ulanov, Barry (1952). A History of Jazz in America. Viking Press. p. 224.
  162. ^ Bailey, C. Michael (September 24, 2013). "Art Tatum: Art Tatum: Solo Masterpieces, Volume One". All About Jazz. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  163. ^ Howlett 1982, p. viii.
  164. ^ a b c Balliett, Whitney (1971). Ecstasy at the Onion: Thirty-one Pieces on Jazz. Bobbs-Merrill. p. 113.
  165. ^ Howlett 1982, p. xiii.
  166. ^ Schuller 1989, p. 500.
  167. ^ Gioia 2011, p. 216.
  168. ^ Iverson, Ethan. "Interview with Keith Jarrett". dothemath.com. Archived from the original on December 8, 2010. Retrieved December 26, 2010.
  169. ^ Owens, Thomas (1996). Bebop. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-505287-9.
  170. ^ Gitler, Ira (1985). Swing to Bop. Oxford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-19-503664-0.
  171. ^ "Solo Man". Time. December 5, 1949. p. 56.
  172. ^ a b "Art Tatum, 'The Musician's Musician'". NPR. June 20, 2007.
  173. ^ Himes, Geoffrey (December 2011). "1 Pianist, 2 Hands". DownBeat. Vol. 78, no. 12. p. 45.
  174. ^ Douglass, William (1998). "William Douglass". In Bryant, Clora; Collette, Buddy; Green, William; Isoardi, Steven; Kelson, Jack; Tapscott, Horace; Wilson, Gerald; Young, Marl (eds.). Central Avenue Sounds. University of California Press. pp. 233–254. ISBN 978-0-520-21189-6.
  175. ^ Laubich, Arnold (2005). Art Tatum Live 1944–1952: Volume 9 (CD liner notes). Storyville Records. 101 8382.
  176. ^ Howlett, Felicity (1983). An Introduction to Art Tatum's Performance Approaches: Composition, Improvisation, and Melodic Variation (PhD). Cornell University. pp. 22–23.
  177. ^ Nordal, Marius (June 2010). "Chick Corea: Further Explorations of Bill Evans". DownBeat. Vol. 77, no. 6. p. 28.
  178. ^ a b Wiggins, Gerald (1998). "Gerald Wiggins". In Bryant, Clora; Collette, Buddy; Green, William; Isoardi, Steven; Kelson, Jack; Tapscott, Horace; Wilson, Gerald; Young, Marl (eds.). Central Avenue Sounds. University of California Press. pp. 318–319. ISBN 978-0-520-21189-6.
  179. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 79–80.
  180. ^ a b Lester 1994, p. 11.
  181. ^ Berendt, Joachim-Ernst; Huesmann, Günther (2009). The Jazz Book (7th ed.). Lawrence Hill Books. pp. 370–372. ISBN 978-1-55652-820-0.
  182. ^ Lester 1994, p. 172.
  183. ^ Torff, Brian Q. (1999). "Mary Lou Williams: A Woman's Life in Jazz". In Heintze, James R. (ed.). Perspectives on American Music Since 1950. Garland. p. 163. ISBN 978-0-8153-2144-6. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  184. ^ Giddins 2013, pp. 56–57.
  185. ^ Giddins 2013, p. 59.
  186. ^ Shipton, Alyn (2001). Groovin' High. Oxford University Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-19-509132-8.
  187. ^ Kart, Larry (2004). Jazz in Search of Itself. Yale University Press. p. 309. ISBN 978-0-300-10420-2.
  188. ^ a b Lester 1994, pp. 48–49.
  189. ^ a b Lester 1994, pp. 11–13.
  190. ^ Lester 1994, p. 13.
  191. ^ Lester 1994, pp. 12–13.
  192. ^ Lester 1994.
  193. ^ Brown, John Robert (March 2010). "Book Reviews". Jazz Journal. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  194. ^ Art Tatum: Eine Biographie in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
  195. ^ Sloan, Steven E. (February 12, 2019). "Portraits of Tatum: Remembering the Toledo-born Jazz Legend". Toledo City Paper. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
  196. ^ Giddins, Gary (2004). Weather Bird. Oxford University Press. pp. 383–384. ISBN 978-0-19-515607-2.
  197. ^ a b "Local Legacies". The Library of Congress. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  198. ^ a b Bilmes, Jeff (1993). Techniques to Foster Drum Machine Expressivity. International Computer Music Conference. Tokyo. pp. 276–283. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.76.1189.
  199. ^ Bilmes, Jeff (1993). Timing Is of the Essence: Perceptual and Computational Techniques for Representing, Learning, and Reproducing Expressive Timing in Percussive Rhythm (PDF) (MSc). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
  200. ^ McLeod, Andrew; Steedman, Mark (2018). Meter Detection and Alignment of MIDI Performance. International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference. Paris. pp. 113–119. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.26.9273.
  201. ^ McGinnis, Jeff; Cocoves, Athena (February 21, 2017). "Remembering Art Tatum". Toledo City Paper. Archived from the original on October 14, 2018. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  202. ^ Snyder, Kate (February 22, 2021). "Art Tatum Zone Receives Two Grant Awards". The Blade. Archived from the original on October 15, 2021. Retrieved October 14, 2021.
  203. ^ "Art Tatum Memorial". The Art Commission of Toledo. September 11, 2009. Archived from the original on April 10, 2013. Retrieved April 23, 2013.

Bibliography

Further reading
  • Howard, Joseph (1978). The Improvisational Techniques of Art Tatum (PhD). Case Western Reserve University.
  • Scivales, Ricardo (1998). The Right Hand According to Tatum. Ekay Music. ISBN 0-943748-85-2.
  • Williams, Iain Cameron. Underneath a Harlem Moon: The Harlem to Paris Years of Adelaide Hall. Bloomsbury Publishers, ISBN 0-8264-5893-9
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.