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Anwar Ibrahim

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Anwar Ibrahim
أنور إبراهيم
Anwar Ibrahim (cropped 1).jpg
Anwar in 2019
10th Prime Minister of Malaysia
Assumed office
24 November 2022
MonarchAbdullah
Preceded byIsmail Sabri Yaakob
12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition
In office
18 May 2020 – 24 November 2022
MonarchAbdullah
Prime MinisterMuhyiddin Yassin
Ismail Sabri Yaakob
Preceded byIsmail Sabri Yaakob
Succeeded byMuhyiddin Yassin
In office
28 August 2008 – 16 March 2015
MonarchsMizan Zainal Abidin
Abdul Halim
Prime MinisterAbdullah Ahmad Badawi
Najib Razak
Preceded byWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Succeeded byWan Azizah Wan Ismail
2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan
Assumed office
14 May 2020
PresidentWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Preceded byMahathir Mohamad
2nd President of the People's Justice Party
Assumed office
17 November 2018
DeputyAzmin Ali
Rafizi Ramli
Preceded byWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Spouse of the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
In role
21 May 2018 – 24 February 2020
MonarchsMuhammad V
Abdullah
Prime MinisterMahathir Mohamad
Deputy PMWan Azizah Wan Ismail
Preceded byHamidah Khamis
Succeeded byMuhaini Zainal Abidin
7th Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
(Acting: 19 May – 22 July 1997)
In office
1 December 1993 – 2 September 1998
MonarchsAzlan Shah
Ja'afar
Prime MinisterMahathir Mohamad
Preceded byGhafar Baba
Succeeded byAbdullah Ahmad Badawi
Minister of Finance
In office
15 March 1991 – 2 September 1998
MonarchsAzlan Shah
Ja'afar
Prime MinisterMahathir Mohamad
DeputyAbdul Ghani Othman (1991–1993)
Loke Yuen Yow (1991–1995)
Mustapa Mohamed (1993–1995)
Affifudin Omar (1995–1996)
Wong See Wah (1995–1998)
Mohamed Nazri Abdul Aziz (1996–1998)
Preceded byDaim Zainuddin
Succeeded byMahathir Mohamad
Minister of Education
In office
11 August 1986 – 15 March 1991
MonarchsIskandar
Azlan Shah
Prime MinisterMahathir Mohamad
DeputyWoon See Chin (1986–1990)
Bujang Ulis (1986–1987)
Leo Michael Toyad (1987–1991)
Fong Chan Onn (1990–1991)
Preceded byAbdullah Ahmad Badawi
Succeeded bySulaiman Daud
Minister of Agriculture
In office
17 July 1984 – 10 August 1986
MonarchIskandar
Prime MinisterMahathir Mohamad
DeputyGoh Cheng Teik
Luhat Wan
Preceded byAbdul Manan Othman
Succeeded bySanusi Junid
Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports
In office
2 June 1983 – 17 July 1984
MonarchAhmad Shah
Prime MinisterMahathir Mohamad
DeputyRosemary Chow Poh Kheng
Preceded byMokhtar Hashim
Succeeded bySulaiman Daud
Chairman of the Caucus on Reform and Governance
Assumed office
4 December 2018
DeputyLim Kit Siang
SpeakerMohamad Ariff Md Yusof
Azhar Azizan Harun
Preceded byPosition established
Chairman of the Development Committee of the
World Bank Group and the
International Monetary Fund
In office
March 1998 – September 1998
Preceded byDriss Jettou
Succeeded byTarrin Nimmanahaeminda
2nd President of the
International Islamic University Malaysia
In office
1988–1998
ChancellorAhmad Shah
Preceded byHussein Onn
Succeeded byNajib Razak
8th Youth Chief of
United Malays National Organisation
In office
1982–1987
PresidentMahathir Mohamad
Preceded bySuhaimi Kamaruddin
Succeeded byNajib Razak
President of the UNESCO General Conference
In office
1989–1991
Preceded byGuillermo Putzeys Alvarez
Succeeded byBethwell Allan Ogot
Member of the Malaysian Parliament
for Tambun
Assumed office
19 November 2022
Preceded byAhmad Faizal Azumu
(PNBERSATU)
Majority3,736 (2022)
Personal details
Born
Anwar bin Ibrahim

(1947-08-10) 10 August 1947 (age 75)
Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malayan Union
(now Malaysia)[1]
Political party United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
(1982–1998)
People's Justice Party (PKR)
(since 1999)
Other political
affiliations
Barisan Nasional (BN)
(1982–1998)
Barisan Alternatif (BA)
(1999–2004)
Pakatan Rakyat (PR)
(2008–2015)
Pakatan Harapan (PH)
(since 2015)
Spouse
(m. 1980)
Children6, including Nurul Izzah
Residence(s)Seri Perdana, Putrajaya (official)
SL3, Bandar Sungai Long, Selangor (private)
EducationMalay College Kuala Kangsar
Alma materUniversity of Malaya (BA)
National University of Malaysia (MA)
Signature
Websiteanwaribrahim.com

Anwar bin Ibrahim (Jawi: أنور بن إبراهيم [anwar ɪbrahɪm]; born 10 August 1947) is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia since November 2022.[3] He served as the 12th and 16th Leader of the Opposition from August 2008 to March 2015 and again from May 2020 to November 2022. He has also served as 2nd Chairman of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition since May 2020, 2nd President of the People's Justice Party (PKR) since November 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun since November 2022. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and in many other Cabinet positions in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from 1982 to 1998.

Anwar started his political career as one of the founders of youth organisation Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM).[4] After joining the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the major party in the long-time ruling BN coalition, Anwar held several cabinet positions in successive governments in the 1980s and 1990s. He was Deputy Prime Minister and Finance Minister during the 1990s and was prominent in Malaysia's response to the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[5] In 1998, he was removed from all posts by Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and went on to spearhead the Reformasi movement against the government. Anwar was jailed in April 1999 after a trial for sodomy and corruption that was criticised by human rights groups[6] and several foreign governments, until his release in 2004 after his conviction was overturned.

He made a comeback as Leader of the Opposition from 2008 to 2015 and coalesced opposition parties into the Pakatan Rakyat (PR) coalition, which unsuccessfully contested in the 2008 and 2013 general elections. He disputed the results of the 2013 elections and led a protest in response. In 2014, Anwar's attempt to become Selangor head of government in the 2014 Kajang Move led to a nine-month political crisis, which ended when he was sentenced to another five years imprisonment after a second sodomy conviction in 2015.[7]

While still in prison, Anwar re-joined Mahathir Mohamad under new coalition Pakatan Harapan (PH) in absentia, which went on to win the 2018 general election. Mahathir outlined a plan for Anwar to take over from himself as Prime Minister after an unspecified interim period.[8] Anwar received a royal pardon from Yang di-Pertuan Agong Muhammad V[9] and was released from prison.[10][11] He returned to parliament in the 2018 Port Dickson by-election while his wife Wan Azizah Wan Ismail served as the Deputy Prime Minister in the PH administration. The collapse of the coalition during 2020–22 Malaysian political crisis led to the new Perikatan Nasional (PN) coalition under Muhyiddin Yassin being sworn in and Anwar becoming Leader of the Opposition for the second time in May 2020. After leading Pakatan Harapan to win the highest number of seats at the 2022 Malaysian general election, Anwar was sworn-in as the tenth Prime Minister of Malaysia on 24 November 2022.[12]

Anwar has long been an advocate for Islamic democracy and for reforms to Malaysia's political system. Outside of politics, Anwar has held positions at various academic institutions.

Discover more about Anwar Ibrahim related topics

Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia

Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia

The deputy prime minister of Malaysia is the second highest political office in Malaysia. There have been 13 officeholders since the office was created in 1957. The first prime minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman, started the convention of appointing a deputy prime minister, but some cabinets have opted not to appoint a deputy prime minister.

Cabinet of Malaysia

Cabinet of Malaysia

The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of the Government of Malaysia. Led by the Prime Minister, the cabinet is a council of ministers who are accountable collectively to the Parliament. According to the Article 43 of the Federal Constitution, members of the Cabinet can only be selected from members of either houses of Parliament. Formally, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints all Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister. The constitution is amended by repealing the Clause (8) of Article 43, enabling a person who is a member of State Legislative Assembly to continue to serve even while serving as a minister or deputy minister in the cabinet. Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall hold office during the pleasure of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, unless the appointment of any Minister shall have been revoked by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong on the advice of the Prime Minister but any Minister may resign from office. In practice, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong is obliged to follow the advice of the Prime Minister on the appointment and dismissal of ministers.

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Nasional

The National Front is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing political parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 30 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after coalition Pakatan Harapan with 82 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 73 seats.

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia is an Islamic organisation founded on 6 August 1971 by Ustaz Wahab Sulaiman.

1997 Asian financial crisis

1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion. However, the recovery in 1998–1999 was rapid and worries of a meltdown subsided. The crisis started in Thailand on 2 July, with the financial collapse of the Thai baht after the Thai government was forced to float the baht due to lack of foreign currency to support its currency peg to the U.S. dollar. Capital flight ensued almost immediately, beginning an international chain reaction. At the time, Thailand had acquired a burden of foreign debt. As the crisis spread, most of Southeast Asia and later South Korea and Japan saw slumping currencies, devalued stock markets and other asset prices, and a precipitous rise in private debt.

Anwar Ibrahim sodomy trials

Anwar Ibrahim sodomy trials

The Anwar Ibrahim sodomy trials are a source of considerable political controversy in Malaysia. The first trial was held in 1998, and resulted in former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim being convicted, and given a nine-year prison sentence. This verdict was overturned in 2004, resulting in Anwar's release from prison.

2008 Malaysian general election

2008 Malaysian general election

A general election was held on Saturday, 8 March 2008 for members of the 12th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 222 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 505 state constituencies in 12 out of 13 states on the same day.

2013 Malaysian general election

2013 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Sunday, 5 May 2013 to elect the members of the 13th Parliament. Voting took place in all 222 parliamentary constituencies, each electing one MP to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 505 state constituencies in 12 of the 13 states on the same day.

2018 Malaysian general election

2018 Malaysian general election

The 2018 Malaysian General Election, formally known as the 14th Malaysian General Election, was held on Wednesday, 9 May 2018, for members of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia. At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 505 seats in 12 out of the 13 state legislative assemblies of Malaysia. The 13th Parliament of Malaysia was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.

2018 Port Dickson by-election

2018 Port Dickson by-election

A by-election was held on 13 October 2018 for the Dewan Rakyat seat of Port Dickson. The seat became vacant after the resignation of the incumbent member Danyal Balagopal Abdullah, a member of Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and the governing Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. This was the first federal by-election since the 9 May 2018 general election (GE14), which saw the first-ever change of federal government in Malaysia's history.

2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

The 2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis was a political crisis in Malaysia. It was caused by several members of the 14th parliament (MPs) changing party support, leading to the loss of a parliamentary majority, the collapse of three successive coalition governments, and the resignation of two Prime Ministers in less than 18 months. The crisis led to a 2022 snap general election and eventual formation of a unity government.

2022 Malaysian general election

2022 Malaysian general election

The 2022 Malaysian general election, formally the 15th Malaysian general election (GE15), was held on Saturday, 19 November 2022, to elect the 222 members of the Dewan Rakyat in the 15th Parliament of Malaysia.

Early life and education

Anwar bin Ibrahim was born in Cherok Tok Kun, Bukit Mertajam, Penang, Malaya.[13] His father, Ibrahim bin Abdul Rahman, started his career as a hospital porter, later to join politics as the UMNO Member of Parliament for Seberang Perai Central between 1959 and 1969 and also as the Parliamentary Secretary in the Ministry of Health from 1964 to 1969 until his defeat in the 1969 General Election by a candidate from Gerakan. His mother, Che Yan binti Hussein, was a housewife active in UMNO grassroots politics in Penang.[14]

He undertook his secondary education at the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. He was educated at the University of Malaya, where he got a bachelor's degree in Malay Studies,[15] and worked on his Masters in Literature through the National University of Malaysia while in prison from 1974 to 1975.[16]

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Cherok Tok Kun

Cherok Tok Kun

Cherok Tokun, sometimes spelt as Cherok To' Kun or Cherok Tok Kun, is a small town in Penang, Malaysia.

Bukit Mertajam

Bukit Mertajam

Bukit Mertajam is the administrative centre of the city of Seberang Perai in Penang, Malaysia. It also serves as the seat of the Central Seberang Perai District. As of 2010, Bukit Mertajam (core) contains a total of 13,097 residents.

Malayan Union

Malayan Union

The Malayan Union was a union of the Malay states and the Straits Settlements of Penang and Malacca. It was the successor to British Malaya and was conceived to unify the Malay Peninsula under a single government to simplify administration. Following opposition by the ethnic Malays, the union was reorganised as the Federation of Malaya in 1948.

Malay College Kuala Kangsar

Malay College Kuala Kangsar

The Malay College Kuala Kangsar is a premier residential school in Malaysia. It is an elite all-boys and all-Malay school in the royal town of Kuala Kangsar, Perak. It is sometimes dubbed "the Eton College of the East".

University of Malaya

University of Malaya

The University of Malaya is a public research university located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It is the oldest and highest ranking Malaysian institution of higher education according to two international ranking agencies, and also the only university in the post-independent Malaya. The university has graduated five prime ministers of Malaysia, and other political, business, and cultural figures of national prominence.

National University of Malaysia

National University of Malaysia

The National University of Malaysia is a public university located in Bandar Baru Bangi, Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia. Its teaching hospital, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) is located in Cheras and also has a branch campus in Kuala Lumpur.

Early years (1968–1982)

Anwar Ibrahim speaking in 2005
Anwar Ibrahim speaking in 2005

From 1968 to 1971, as a student, Anwar was the president of the National Union of Malaysian Muslim Students. Around the same time, he was also the president of the University of Malaya Malay Language Society (Malay: Persatuan Bahasa Melayu Universiti Malaya (PBMUM)). In 1971, he was a member of the pro tem committee of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia, which he co-founded. At the same time, he was elected as the 2nd President of the Malaysian Youth Council or Majlis Belia Malaysia (MBM). In 1974, Anwar was arrested during student protests against rural poverty and hunger. This came as a report surfaced stating that a family died from starvation in a village in Baling, in the state of Kedah, which was later demonstrated to be false. However, the rubber tappers in Baling were experiencing severe hardship as the price of rubber dropped in 1974. He was imprisoned under the Internal Security Act (ISA), which allows for detention without trial, and spent 20 months in the Kamunting Detention Centre. From 1975 until 1982, he served as a representative for Asia Pacific of World Assembly of Muslim Youth (WAMY).[17] Anwar Ibrahim is also the co-founder of the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) in the USA (founded 1981).[18] Anwar has been one of 4 acting directors, a board member of IIIT[19] and a trustee.[20][21] He was also a chancellor of International Islamic University Kuala Lumpur between 1983 and 1988.[17]

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Malay language

Malay language

Malay is an Austronesian language that is an official language of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore, and that is also spoken in East Timor and parts of the Philippines and Thailand. Altogether, it is spoken by 290 million people across Maritime Southeast Asia.

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia is an Islamic organisation founded on 6 August 1971 by Ustaz Wahab Sulaiman.

Kamunting Detention Centre

Kamunting Detention Centre

The Kamunting Detention Centre is a prison camp in Kamunting, Larut, Matang and Selama District, Perak, Malaysia. The prison is used by the government to detain and interrogate persons arrested under the Internal Security Act (ISA). The detention is also known as Malaysia's Supermax prison or Maximum security prison. It is alleged that this is the site where the Malaysian authorities would hold up political prisoners. Among notable events which prompted widespread use of the ISA were Operation Lalang in 1987 and the years during the Reformasi movement, beginning 1999. The centre has also been used to detain other groups of people declared by the government to be a threat to national security such as terrorists and cults. Some notable groups detained in Kamunting includes the Al-Arqam cult and the Al-Ma'unah terrorist group.

World Assembly of Muslim Youth

World Assembly of Muslim Youth

The World Assembly of Muslim Youth is an international Islamic educational organization whose stated purpose is “preserve the identity of Muslim youth and help overcome the problems they face in modern society”. Reportedly the world's largest Muslim organization, WAMY organizes conferences, symposia, educational workshops and research circles to address youth and students issues, in addition to football tournaments and European Muslim Scouts camps for Muslim youth in Europe. Along with the Muslim World League, it is part of a "worldwide network of largely Saudi-funded groups...promoting Islamic teachings and encouraging Muslims to be more religiously observant, as well as providing interested non-Muslims and recent converts with information about Islam". It maintains satellite chapters in 31 other countries and is affiliated with some 196 other Muslim youth groups on five continents.

International Institute of Islamic Thought

International Institute of Islamic Thought

The International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) is a privately held non-profit organization in the United States founded by Ismail al-Faruqi and Anwar Ibrahim. It was established as a non-profit 501(c)(3) non-denominational organization in Pennsylvania in 1981, and its headquarters are in Herndon, Virginia, within the suburbs around Washington, DC. The stated objective of the group is to focus on conducting research in advancing education in Muslim societies and the publication, translation and teaching of the work through various means, with "the objectives of revival and reform of Islamic thought."

Early political career (1982–1993)

In 1982, Anwar, who was the founding leader and second president of an Islamic youth organisation called Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM), by joining the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), led by Mahathir Mohamad, who had become prime minister in 1981.

Anwar rapidly rose to high-ranking positions; his first ministerial office was that of Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1983; after that, he headed the Agriculture Ministry in 1984 before becoming Minister of Education in 1986.

During his tenure as Education Minister, Anwar introduced numerous policies in the national school curriculum. One of his major changes was to rename the national language from Bahasa Malaysia to Bahasa Melayu. Non-Malays criticised this move as it would cause the younger generation to be detached from the national language since they would attribute it to being something that belongs to the Malays and not to Malaysians. As the minister of education, Anwar was elected as the 25th President of UNESCO's General Conference. In 1988, Anwar Ibrahim became the second President of International Islamic University of Malaysia.[22] According to former Law Minister Zaid Ibrahim, Anwar is an Islamist who "helped Islamicise the whole government system" and played a major role in the Islamicisation of the education system when he was Education Minister in the 1980s.[23]

In 1991, Anwar was appointed as Minister of Finance. During his tenure as Finance Minister, his impact was immediate; Malaysia enjoyed unprecedented prosperity and economic growth. Shortly after becoming Finance Minister, Euromoney named him as a top-four finance minister and in 1996 Asiamoney named him Finance Minister of the Year. In the midst of the 1997 Asian financial crisis, Anwar, as a deputy prime minister and finance minister, was hailed for guiding Malaysia through the period of instability. Anwar backed free-market principles and highlighted the proximity of business and politics in Malaysia. He advocated greater accountability, refused to offer government bail-outs and instituted widespread spending cuts. In March 1998, Anwar was selected as the Chairman of the Development Committee of World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) from March 1998 until September 1998.[24]

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Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia

Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (ABIM) or the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia is an Islamic organisation founded on 6 August 1971 by Ustaz Wahab Sulaiman.

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir bin Mohamad is a Malaysian politician, author, and physician who served as the 4th and 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held office from July 1981 to October 2003 and later from May 2018 to March 2020 for a cumulative total of 24 years, making him the country's longest-serving prime minister. Before his promotion to the premiership, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and in other Cabinet positions. He has served as a member of parliament for Langkawi from May 2018 to October 2022, Kubang Pasu from August 1974 to March 2004, and Kota Setar Selatan from April 1964 to May 1969. His political career has spanned more than 75 years, from joining protests opposing citizenship policies for non-Malays in the Malayan Union in the 1940s to forming the Gerakan Tanah Air coalition in 2022.

Minister of Agriculture and Food Industries (Malaysia)

Minister of Agriculture and Food Industries (Malaysia)

The Minister of Agriculture and Food Industries of Malaysia is Ronald Kiandee, since 10 March 2020. Ronald is assisted by First and Second Deputy Ministers, Ahmad Hamzah and Nik Muhammad Zawawi Salleh. The Minister administers the portfolio through the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industries.

Minister of Education (Malaysia)

Minister of Education (Malaysia)

The current Malaysian Minister of Education is on vacancy since 24 November 2022. The minister is supported by the Deputy Ministers of Education, who also vacancy since 24 November 2022. The minister administers the portfolio through the Ministry of Education.

Malays (ethnic group)

Malays (ethnic group)

Malays are an Austronesian ethnic group native to eastern Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands that lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world. These locations are today part of the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia, southern part of Thailand, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam.

Malaysian Malaysia

Malaysian Malaysia

The phrase "Malaysian Malaysia" was originally used in the mid-1960s as the rallying motto of the Malaysian Solidarity Convention, a coalition of political parties led by Lee Kuan Yew of the People's Action Party (PAP) that served as an Opposition bloc to the Government of Malaysia, the Alliance Party.

Islamism

Islamism

Islamism is a political ideology which posits that modern states and regions should be reconstituted in constitutional, economic and judicial terms, in accordance with what is conceived as a revival or a return to authentic Islamic practice in its totality.

Minister of Finance (Malaysia)

Minister of Finance (Malaysia)

The Minister of Finance is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of Malaysia. One of the senior posts in the Cabinet of Malaysia, the finance minister is responsible for determining the fiscal policy and managing national budget of the government.

Euromoney

Euromoney

Euromoney is an English-language monthly magazine focused on business and finance. First published in 1969, it is the flagship production of Euromoney Institutional Investor plc.

Asiamoney

Asiamoney

Asiamoney, a financial publication established in 1989, has now merged with other key capital markets publications from the Euromoney Institutional Investor Group: Euroweek, Total Securitization and Derivatives Week, to form GlobalCapital. GlobalCapital delivers daily services dedicated to the following key market sectors: FIG/bank finance including covered bonds, corporate bonds, syndicated loans, equity, leveraged finance, global emerging markets, securitization and offshore RMB.

1997 Asian financial crisis

1997 Asian financial crisis

The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion. However, the recovery in 1998–1999 was rapid and worries of a meltdown subsided. The crisis started in Thailand on 2 July, with the financial collapse of the Thai baht after the Thai government was forced to float the baht due to lack of foreign currency to support its currency peg to the U.S. dollar. Capital flight ensued almost immediately, beginning an international chain reaction. At the time, Thailand had acquired a burden of foreign debt. As the crisis spread, most of Southeast Asia and later South Korea and Japan saw slumping currencies, devalued stock markets and other asset prices, and a precipitous rise in private debt.

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is a major financial agency of the United Nations, and an international financial institution, headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of 190 countries. Its stated mission is "working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1944, started on 27 December 1945, at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international monetary system. It now plays a central role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. Countries contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had XDR 477 billion. The IMF is regarded as the global lender of last resort.

Deputy Prime Minister (1993–1998)

In 1993, he became Mahathir's Deputy Prime Minister after winning the Deputy Presidency of UMNO against Ghafar Baba, he was seem and expected to succeed Mahathir as prime minister as he frequently alluded in public to his "son-father" relationship with Mahathir. By then, speculation was rife about Anwar's ascent to the Deputy Prime Minister's position.

In May 1997, Mahathir had appointed Anwar to be acting Prime Minister while he took a two-month holiday.[25] In Mahathir's absence, Anwar had independently taken radical steps, which directly conflicted with Mahathir's policies, to change the country's governing mechanisms. Issues such as how Malaysia would respond to a financial crisis were often at the forefront of this conflict. Towards the end of the 1990s, however, the relationship with Mahathir had begun to deteriorate, triggered by their conflicting views on governance.[26][27]

Anwar's frontal attack against what he described as the widespread culture of nepotism and cronyism within UMNO (and the ruling coalition as a whole) angered Mahathir, as did his attempts to dismantle the protectionist policies that Mahathir had set up. "Cronyism" was identified by Anwar as a major cause of corruption and misappropriation of funds in the country.

US Secretary of Defense William Cohen (right) meets with Anwar Ibrahim (left) in his Pentagon office in 1998.
US Secretary of Defense William Cohen (right) meets with Anwar Ibrahim (left) in his Pentagon office in 1998.

Financial crisis

During the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, Anwar supported the IMF plan as a finance minister. He also instituted an austerity package that cut government spending by 18%, cut ministerial salaries and deferred major projects. "Mega projects", despite being a cornerstone of Mahathir's development strategy, were greatly curtailed.[27]

Although many Malaysian companies faced bankruptcy, Anwar declared: "There is no question of any bailout. The banks will be allowed to protect themselves and the government will not interfere." Anwar advocated a free-market approach to the crisis, including foreign investment and trade liberalisation. Mahathir blamed currency speculators like George Soros for the crisis and supported currency controls and tighter regulation of foreign investment.[28]

Fall from power and first sodomy conviction

In 1998 Newsweek magazine named Anwar the "Asian of the Year".[29] However, in that year, matters between Anwar and Mahathir came to a head around the quadrennial UMNO General Assembly. The Youth wing of UMNO, headed by Anwar's associate Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, gave notice that it would initiate a debate on "cronyism and nepotism". At the General Assembly, a book by Khalid Jafri, "50 Dalil Kenapa Anwar Tidak Boleh Jadi PM" ("50 Reasons Why Anwar Cannot Become Prime Minister") was circulated containing graphic allegations of homosexuality, as well as accusations of corruption against Anwar. Khalid Jafri was an ex-editor of the government-controlled newspaper Utusan Malaysia and former editor-in-chief of a failed magazine, Harian National. Anwar obtained a court injunction to prevent further distribution of the book and filed a lawsuit against the author for defamation. Police charged the author of the book with malicious publishing of false news.[30] The police were instructed to investigate the veracity of the claims.

On 2 September 1998, Anwar was fired from the Cabinet, and many reports state that he was under investigation for sodomy, an act that is illegal in Malaysia. The following day, he was expelled from UMNO. In what the Sydney Morning Herald termed a "blatantly political fix-up",[31] Anwar was arrested on 20 September 1998 and detained without trial under the country's controversial Internal Security Act (ISA). The Home Minister at the time was also the Prime Minister, Mahathir. Weeks later, Anwar was charged with corruption for allegedly interfering with the police investigation of him. While he was in police custody in 1998, Anwar was beaten by the then Inspector General of Police, Rahim Noor. The public and the media only witnessed his black eye after being brought to Court for the first time. Mahathir remarked that it could have been a self-inflicted injury to garner public sympathy. Rahim was subsequently found guilty of assault and jailed for two months in 2000. He made a public apology to Anwar and paid undisclosed damages.[32] During the trial, a mattress supposedly stained with Anwar's semen was presented to the court as DNA evidence of Anwar's sexual acts. Anwar denied having anything to do with the mattress, although the DNA tests came out positive. Lim Kong Boon, a DNA chemist, testified during the trial that DNA taken from 10 of 13 semen stains on the mattress matched Anwar's DNA.[33][34][35] The defence team implied that DNA samples may have been taken from Anwar, while unconscious, after his beating in police custody, to create false forensics evidence to frame Anwar; however, High Court Judge Augustine Paul accepted that DNA evidence.[34][35]

The High Court eventually handed down its decision in April 1999, sentencing Anwar to six years' imprisonment for corruption and sodomy. Two months later, he was sentenced to nine years' imprisonment for sodomy, which he was ordered to serve after completing his six-year sentence for corruption.[36] His trial and conviction were widely discredited by the international community. Amnesty International stated that the trial proceedings "exposed a pattern of political manipulation of key state institutions including the police, public prosecutor's office and the judiciary" and declared Anwar a prisoner of conscience, stating that he had been arrested in order to silence him as a political opponent.[37]

The Federal Court overturned his conviction and Anwar was finally released from solitary confinement on 2 September 2004.[38]

Discover more about Deputy Prime Minister (1993–1998) related topics

Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia

Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia

The deputy prime minister of Malaysia is the second highest political office in Malaysia. There have been 13 officeholders since the office was created in 1957. The first prime minister of Malaysia, Tunku Abdul Rahman, started the convention of appointing a deputy prime minister, but some cabinets have opted not to appoint a deputy prime minister.

Nepotism

Nepotism

Nepotism is an advantage, privilege, or position that is granted to relatives and friends in an occupation or field. These fields may include but are not limited to, business, politics, academia, entertainment, sports, fitness, religion, and other activities. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to important positions by Catholic popes and bishops.

Cronyism

Cronyism

Cronyism is the practice of partiality in awarding jobs and other advantages to friends or trusted colleagues, especially in politics and between politicians and supportive organizations. For example, cronyism occurs when appointing "cronies" to positions of authority regardless of their qualifications. This is in contrast to a meritocracy, in which appointments are made based on merit.

Protectionism

Protectionism

Protectionism, sometimes referred to as trade protectionism, is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations. Proponents argue that protectionist policies shield the producers, businesses, and workers of the import-competing sector in the country from foreign competitors; however, they also reduce trade and adversely affect consumers in general, and harm the producers and workers in export sectors, both in the country implementing protectionist policies and in the countries protected against.

Austerity

Austerity

Austerity is a set of political-economic policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both. There are three primary types of austerity measures: higher taxes to fund spending, raising taxes while cutting spending, and lower taxes and lower government spending. Austerity measures are often used by governments that find it difficult to borrow or meet their existing obligations to pay back loans. The measures are meant to reduce the budget deficit by bringing government revenues closer to expenditures. Proponents of these measures state that this reduces the amount of borrowing required and may also demonstrate a government's fiscal discipline to creditors and credit rating agencies and make borrowing easier and cheaper as a result.

George Soros

George Soros

George Soros is a Hungarian-American businessman and philanthropist. As of March 2021, he had a net worth of US$8.6 billion, having donated more than $32 billion to the Open Society Foundations, of which $15 billion has already been distributed, representing 64% of his original fortune. Forbes called him the "most generous giver".

Anwar Ibrahim sodomy trials

Anwar Ibrahim sodomy trials

The Anwar Ibrahim sodomy trials are a source of considerable political controversy in Malaysia. The first trial was held in 1998, and resulted in former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim being convicted, and given a nine-year prison sentence. This verdict was overturned in 2004, resulting in Anwar's release from prison.

Newsweek

Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly online news magazine and digital news platform, co-owned 50 percent each by Dev Pragad, its president and CEO, and Johnathan Davis, who has no operational role at Newsweek. Founded as a weekly print magazine in 1933, it was widely distributed during the 20th century, and had many notable editors-in-chief. The magazine was acquired by The Washington Post Company in 1961, and remained under its ownership until 2010.

Ahmad Zahid Hamidi

Ahmad Zahid Hamidi

Dato' Seri Dr. Ahmad Zahid bin Hamidi is a Malaysian politician who has served as the 6th Chairman of the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition, 8th President of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) since May 2018 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Bagan Datuk since April 1995. He served as the 14th Leader of the Opposition from July 2018 to March 2019, 11th Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Home Affairs, Minister of Defence and Minister in the Prime Minister's Department in the BN administration under former Prime Ministers Abdullah Ahmad Badawi and Najib Razak from March 2008 to the collapse of the BN administration in May 2018.

Abdul Rahim Mohd Noor

Abdul Rahim Mohd Noor

Tan Sri Abdul Rahim bin Mohd. Noor is the fifth Inspector-General of Police of Royal Malaysia Police and served from 16 January 1994 until 7 January 1999.

Amnesty International

Amnesty International

Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organization focused on human rights, with its headquarters in the United Kingdom. The organization says it has more than ten million members and supporters around the world. The stated mission of the organization is to campaign for "a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments." The organization has played a notable role on human rights issues due to its frequent citation in media and by world leaders.

Prisoner of conscience

Prisoner of conscience

A prisoner of conscience (POC) is anyone imprisoned because of their race, sexual orientation, religion, or political views. The term also refers to those who have been imprisoned or persecuted for the nonviolent expression of their conscientiously held beliefs.

Reformasi and formation of KEADILAN (1998–1999)

Shortly after Anwar was dismissed as deputy prime minister by the then prime minister Mahathir Mohamad, Anwar and his supporters initiated the Reformasi movement. It consisted of several mass demonstrations and rallies against the long-standing Barisan Nasional coalition government. At the 1998 APEC Summit in Kuala Lumpur, the vice-president of the United States, Al Gore, gave a speech supporting Anwar and the Reformasi movement in front of the Prime Minister of Malaysia and other Asia-Pacific premiers.[39]

Reformasi led to the formation of a new multiracial-based party named Parti Keadilan Nasional or National Justice Party (KEADILAN). In 1999, a general election was held. The new KEADILAN, Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS), and Democratic Action Party (DAP) formed a Barisan Alternatif or Alternative Front (BA), in a combined initiative to replace the standing Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition government. In August 2003, KEADILAN merged with Parti Rakyat Malaysia or Malaysian's People Party (PRM) to form Parti Keadilan Rakyat or People's Justice Party (PKR) headed by Wan Azizah as president. PKR made huge gains in the 2008 general election, winning 31 seats and becoming the parliament's largest opposition party. In April 2008, PKR, PAS and DAP formed a new alliance named Pakatan Rakyat (PR).[40]

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Reformasi (Malaysia)

Reformasi (Malaysia)

Reformasi is a political movement in Malaysia. It was initiated in September 1998 by Anwar Ibrahim, former Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, after he was sacked from his position by Malaysia's then-Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad. The movement, which began while the country hosted the Commonwealth Games, initially demanded the resignation of Malaysia's then-Prime Minister, Mahathir Mohamad, and for the end of alleged corruption and cronyism within the Barisan Nasional-led (BN) government. It later became a reformist movement demanding social equality and social justice in Malaysia. The movement consisted of civil disobedience, demonstrations, sit-ins, rioting, occupations and online activism.

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies in the Pacific Rim that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Following the success of ASEAN's series of post-ministerial conferences launched in the mid-1980s, APEC started in 1989, in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world; it aimed to establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe. Headquartered in Singapore, APEC is recognized as one of the highest-level multilateral blocs and oldest forums in the Asia-Pacific region, and exerts a significant global influence.

Al Gore

Al Gore

Albert Arnold Gore Jr. is an American politician, businessman, and environmentalist who served as the 45th vice president of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. Gore was the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election, losing to George W. Bush in a very close race after a Florida recount.

Democratic Action Party

Democratic Action Party

The Democratic Action Party is a centre-left social democratic political party in Malaysia. As one of four component parties of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, it formed the federal government after defeating Barisan Nasional in the 2018 Malaysian general election, ending the party's 53 year-long stay in the opposition. However, before the coalition finished its first term, defections from partnering parties caused it to lose power after 22 months, culminating in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. At the 2022 Malaysian general election, the PH coalition which the DAP was part of was returned to power again, albeit with a smaller majority leading it to form a unity government with political rivals.

Barisan Alternatif

Barisan Alternatif

The Barisan Alternatif was a coalition of Malaysian opposition parties, formed as a counterweight to the ruling Barisan Nasional. Disbanded after the 2004 general elections, all 4 former component parties of BA have formed a new coalition, Pakatan Rakyat, following the 2008 general elections.

Parti Rakyat Malaysia

Parti Rakyat Malaysia

The Malaysian People's Party is a political party in Malaysia. Founded on 11 November 1955 as Partai Ra'ayat, it is one of the older political parties in Malaysia and traces its pedigree to the anti-colonial movements from the pre World War II period like the Kesatuan Melayu Muda.

People's Justice Party (Malaysia)

People's Justice Party (Malaysia)

The People's Justice Party is a reformist political party in Malaysia, formed in 2003 by a merger of the National Justice Party and the older Malaysian People's Party. The party was led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and increased its parliamentary representation from one seat to 31 seats in the 2008 general election, until the five-year political ban imposed on former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was lifted on 14 April 2008. The party is the second largest party in the Pakatan Harapan coalition after Democratic Action Party (DAP) that formed the government after defeating Barisan Nasional, which had ruled the country for 60 years since independence in the 2018 election. It enjoys strong support from urban states such as Selangor, Penang and Johor. It also enjoys huge support from the capital city of Kuala Lumpur.

Pakatan Rakyat

Pakatan Rakyat

The People's Alliance was an informal Malaysian political coalition and successor to Barisan Alternatif (BA). The political coalition was formed by the People's Justice Party (PKR), Democratic Action Party (DAP), and Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) on 1 April 2008, after the 12th Malaysian general election, having previously formed the Barisan Alternatif in the 10th general election. On 20 April 2010, the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) officially joined as a member of the Pakatan Rakyat after being expelled from Barisan Nasional, but quit the coalition on 6 May 2011. The DAP declared the coalition "dead" on 16 June 2015, citing the inability of the rest of the alliance to work with PAS, after PAS's congress passed the motion to sever ties with DAP without debate. It was succeeded by Pakatan Harapan and Gagasan Sejahtera.

Interim years (1999–2007)

First sodomy conviction

In 1999, Anwar brought suit against Prime Minister Mahathir for defamation for allegedly uttering accusations of immoral acts and calling Anwar a homosexual at a news conference in Malaysia.[41]

The sodomy verdict was partially overturned in 2004, resulting in Anwar's release from prison as he had already served his sentence for the corruption offence.[42] Anwar successfully sued Khalid Jafri for his "50 Dalil Kenapa Anwar Tidak Boleh Jadi PM" book, but Khalid died in 2005 of complications from diabetes before the High Court found that he had committed libel and awarded Anwar millions of ringgit in compensation.[43] The Federal Court on 8 March 2010 ruled that the 1998 dismissal of Anwar from his Cabinet posts by Mahathir was constitutional and valid, meaning Anwar had failed in his bid to challenge his sacking.[44][45][46]

An appeal on the corruption charges was heard on 6 September 2004. Under Malaysian law, a person is banned from political activities for five years after the end of his sentence. Success in this appeal would have allowed him to return to politics immediately. On 7 September, the court agreed to hear Anwar's appeal. However, on 15 September, the Court of Appeal ruled unanimously that its previous decision to uphold a High Court ruling that found Anwar guilty was in order, relegating Anwar to the sidelines of Malaysian politics until 14 April 2008. The only way for Anwar to have been freed from this structure would have been for him to receive a pardon from the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, informally known as the King of Malaysia.[47]

Teaching and non-profit work

After his release from prison, Anwar held teaching positions at St Antony's College, Oxford, where he was a visiting fellow and senior associate member, at Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies in Washington DC as a Distinguished Senior Visiting Fellow, and in 2005–2006 as a visiting professor at the Prince Alwaleed Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University.[48] In March 2006 he was appointed as Honorary President of the London-based organisation AccountAbility (Institute of Social and Ethical AccountAbility).[49]

In July 2006, Anwar was elected Chair of the Washington-based Foundation For the Future.[50] In this capacity, he signed 1 October 2006 letter to Robin Cleveland of the World Bank, requesting the transfer of Shaha Riza from the US Department of State to the Foundation for the Future. This transaction led to Paul Wolfowitz's resignation as president of the organisation.[51] He was one of the signatories of "A Common Word Between Us and You" in 2007, an open letter by Islamic scholars to Christian leaders, calling for peace and understanding.

Return to politics

In November 2006, Anwar announced he planned to run for Parliament in 2008 after his disqualification expired. Anwar was critical of government policies after his release from prison, most notably the New Economic Policy (NEP), which provided affirmative action for the Bumiputras. The policy set a number of quotas, such as for units of housing and initial public offerings, that must be met.[52]

Before he became re-entitled to run for Parliament in 2008, he acted as an "advisor" of Parti Keadilan Rakyat, the party of which his wife Dr Wan Azizah was president. He was at the forefront in organising a November 2007 mass rally, called the 2007 Bersih Rally, which took place at Dataran Merdeka, Kuala Lumpur, to demand clean and fair elections. The gathering was organised by Bersih, a coalition comprising political parties and civil society groups, and drew supporters from all over the country.[53]

The 2008 general election date was set for 8 March 2008, before Anwar's disqualification from politics expired, sparking criticisms that Barisan Nasional called for early elections in a bid to deny Anwar's plans for a return to Parliament. In response, Anwar's wife, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, declared that she would step down should she retain her Permatang Pauh parliamentary seat to force a by-election in which Anwar himself would contest.[54]

When asked about the possibility of Anwar becoming the next Prime Minister, former leader Tun Dr Mahathir reacted by saying, "He would make a good Prime Minister of Israel".[55]

On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was fired as Deputy Prime Minister. The opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst-ever showing for the Barisan Nasional coalition that has ruled for half a century, with Anwar at the helm.[56] A gathering of more than 40,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming his return to politics. Police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly two hours and called for him to stop the gathering since there was no legal permission for the rally.[57]

On 29 April 2008, after 10 years of absence, he returned to the Parliament, albeit upon invitation as a spouse guest of Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, People's Justice Party and the first female opposition leader in Malaysian Parliament's history.[58]

Permatang Pauh by-election

Anwar Ibrahim was victorious in the Permatang Pauh by-election held on 26 August 2008. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the UMNO, stated: "Yes, of course we have lost ... we were the underdogs going into this race."[59] Final results announced by the Election Commission revealed that Anwar Ibrahim won 31,195 of the estimated 47,000 votes cast in the district, while Arif Shah Omar Shah received 15,524 votes and a third candidate had 92 votes.[60][61]

On 28 August 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black songkok hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 am before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation."[62][63] At that time Anwar needed 30 government lawmakers to defect to the Opposition to form the next government.[64][65][66]

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Defamation

Defamation

Defamation is the act of communicating to a third party false statements about a person, place or thing that results in damage to its reputation. It can be spoken (slander) or written (libel). It constitutes a tort or a crime. The legal definition of defamation and related acts as well as the ways they are dealt with can vary greatly between countries and jurisdictions.

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong, also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, the Paramount Ruler or simply as the Agong, and unofficially as the King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the Conference of Rulers, comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, with the office de facto rotated between them, making Malaysia one of the world's few elective monarchies.

St Antony's College, Oxford

St Antony's College, Oxford

St Antony's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Founded in 1950 as the result of the gift of French merchant Sir Antonin Besse of Aden, St Antony's specialises in international relations, economics, politics, and area studies relative to Europe, Russia, former Soviet states, Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Japan, China, and South and South East Asia.

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies

Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies

The Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) is a graduate school of Johns Hopkins University based in Washington, D.C., United States, with campuses in Bologna, Italy, and Nanjing, China. It is consistently ranked one of the top graduate schools for international relations in the world.

Georgetown University

Georgetown University

Georgetown University is a private research university in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C. Founded by Bishop John Carroll in 1789 as Georgetown College, the university has grown to comprise eleven undergraduate and graduate schools, including the Walsh School of Foreign Service, McDonough School of Business, Medical School, Law School, and a campus in Qatar. The school's main campus, on a hill above the Potomac River, is identifiable by its flagship Healy Hall, a National Historic Landmark. The school was founded by and is affiliated with the Society of Jesus, and is the oldest Catholic institution of higher education in the United States, though the majority of students presently are not Catholic.

World Bank

World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. The World Bank is the collective name for the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and International Development Association (IDA), two of five international organizations owned by the World Bank Group. It was established along with the International Monetary Fund at the 1944 Bretton Woods Conference. After a slow start, its first loan was to France in 1947. In the 1970s, it focused on loans to developing world countries, shifting away from that mission in the 1980s. For the last 30 years, it has included NGOs and environmental groups in its loan portfolio. Its loan strategy is influenced by the Millennium Development Goals as well as environmental and social safeguards.

Shaha Riza

Shaha Riza

Shaha Riza, is a Libyan former World Bank employee. Her external assignment at the Foundation for the Future, a "semi-independent foundation to promote democracy" is both in the Middle East and in North Africa.

A Common Word Between Us and You

A Common Word Between Us and You

"A Common Word between Us and You" is an open letter, from October 13, 2007, from Muslim to Christian leaders. It calls for peace between Muslims and Christians and tries to work for common ground and understanding between both religions, in line with the Qur'anic command: "Say: 'O People of the Scripture! come to a common word as between us and you: that we worship none but God" and the Biblical commandment to love God, and one's neighbour. In 2008, the initiative was awarded the Eugen Biser Award, and the Building Bridges Award from the UK's Association of Muslim Social Scientists.

Malaysian New Economic Policy

Malaysian New Economic Policy

The New Economic Policy (NEP) was a social re-engineering and affirmative action program formulated by the National Operations Council (NOC) in the aftermath of 13 May Incident in Malaysia. This policy was adopted in 1971 for a period of 20 years and it was succeeded by the National Development Policy (NDP) in 1991. This article looks into the historical context that gave rise to the formulation of this policy, its objectives and implementation methods as well as its impact on the Malaysian economy in general.

Affirmative action

Affirmative action

Affirmative action, also known as positive discrimination, involves sets of policies and practices within a government or organization seeking to include particular groups based on their gender, race, sexuality, creed or nationality in areas in which such groups are underrepresented - such as education and employment. Historically and internationally, support for affirmative action has sought to achieve goals such as bridging inequalities in employment and pay, increasing access to education, promoting diversity, and redressing apparent past wrongs, harms, or hindrances.

Initial public offering

Initial public offering

An initial public offering (IPO) or stock launch is a public offering in which shares of a company are sold to institutional investors and usually also to retail (individual) investors. An IPO is typically underwritten by one or more investment banks, who also arrange for the shares to be listed on one or more stock exchanges. Through this process, colloquially known as floating, or going public, a privately held company is transformed into a public company. Initial public offerings can be used to raise new equity capital for companies, to monetize the investments of private shareholders such as company founders or private equity investors, and to enable easy trading of existing holdings or future capital raising by becoming publicly traded.

First term as Leader of the Opposition (2008–2015)

Anwar Ibrahim speaks at an election campaign in 2009 as opposition leader.
Anwar Ibrahim speaks at an election campaign in 2009 as opposition leader.

On 26 August 2008, Anwar won re-election in the Permatang Pauh by-election and returned to Parliament as Leader of the Opposition. He has stated the need for liberalisation, including an independent judiciary and free media, to combat the endemic corruption that he considers pushes Malaysia close to failed state status.[67]

Petition against Najib Razak

Anwar continued to attack Najib on his first day as prime minister, stating he found inconsistencies in the latter's decision to release 13 Internal Security Act (ISA) detainees. He said as long as the ISA existed, Barisan Nasional could still detain citizens at will.[68] In September 2011 Prime Minister Najib Razak acted to abolish the ISA and three other laws.[69] Some members of the opposition did not view this in a positive way.[70]

Parliamentary censure over APCO and 1Malaysia

Anwar has made numerous remarks about a supposed conspiracy among the Malaysian government, APCO (a public relations firm retained by the Malaysian government), Israel, and the United States. Anwar condemned the Malaysian government for seeking advice from APCO. He claims that the firm is linked to the "murder of Muslims in Palestine." He further claims to have given proof to a disciplinary committee of the Malaysian parliament, investigating his comments, that APCO is a front for the Israeli government. On another occasion, Anwar, speaking from the parliament, claimed that the firm was controlled by Jews and working on behalf of the American government to influence Malaysian foreign policy. He further implied that changes in Malaysian foreign policy could only be explained if Jews were manipulating Malaysia for the United States.[71]

On 22 April 2010 Anwar was censured by Malaysia's parliament for remarks he made during a press conference in parliament on 30 March 2010. During the press conference, Anwar claimed to have documents linking 1Malaysia with One Israel and the public relations firm APCO but refused to allow access to the documents when challenged.[72] The Malaysian government and APCO have both strongly denied Anwar's allegations. The censure motion passed by the House of Representatives referred Anwar's case to the Rights and Privileges Committee which will recommend a punishment for approval by the full chamber. Such punishment could include being banned from parliament.[73][74][75] However Anwar retaliated against the Malaysian government attacks by producing two documents to support his claims of links between APCO and 1Malaysia.[74][75]

Attempts to form a majority coalition

Anwar has missed several deadlines he personally set for the transfer of power.[76] Anwar said he would need more time, and the recalibration of his message has not gone unnoticed: Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak chose that day to initiate a broadband internet program Anwar opposes, saying that he had not doubted that the government would still be in office on 16 September.[77] Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi too pointed out that Anwar had missed his own deadline, and dismissed his claim to have secured the defection of 30 MPs.[78]

By 25 September, Anwar had still not amassed enough votes, creating doubts for Malaysians about whether he was really ready to take power,[79] particularly in light of his failure to meet his own 16 September deadline for the transition of power. In the interim, UMNO had its own party meeting[80][81] to broker Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's step down from power in June 2009, a year earlier than previously promised[82]

On 24 October 2008, Anwar admitted problems with his stalled bid to topple the UMNO's majority, saying that Pakatan Rakyat is running out of options to create a majority.[83] His "credibility among ordinary Malaysians has been somewhat dented after Sept 16 and the new promise of forming the Government has not generated the sort of anticipation or excitement as before."[84] Media within the country have taken an increasingly hostile view towards Anwar's protestations and failed threats to assemble a majority government.[85]

2013 general election

Anwar during GE13
Anwar during GE13

In the 2013 general election (GE13), Anwar Ibrahim, as the Leader of the Opposition, led his Pakatan Rakyat coalition (comprising the three parties DAP, PAS, and PKR) to contest in the election. On 25 February 2013, Pakatan Rakyat launched their manifesto titled The People's Manifesto: Pakatan the hope of the people, pledging to reduce their financial burden, among other promises.[86][87] Anwar, who has taught at Oxford and Georgetown University, said he would return to academic life if he lost the next election to incumbent prime minister Najib Razak.[88]

Anwar speaking at a rally denouncing the May 2013 election results.
Anwar speaking at a rally denouncing the May 2013 election results.

Pakatan Rakyat did not achieve the regime change target in the election despite obtaining 50.9% of the popular vote compared to the 47.4% gained by Barisan Nasional. This was attributed to the heavy malapportionment of the electoral districts.[89] Pakatan Rakyat also gained 7 more parliamentary seats compared to the 12th general election.

Anwar did not concede defeat, alleging widespread electoral fraud. Al Jazeera reported that Anwar Ibrahim came close to winning the election on 5 May 2013 but refused to admit defeat, and therefore also did not step down.[90] In an interview for ABC News, interviewer Jim Middleton suggested that Anwar Ibrahim was going to be the Lee Kuan Yew of the Malaysian opposition.[91][92] Anwar answered that he was not at that stage yet.

On 7 May 2013, Anwar Ibrahim vowed to lead a "fierce movement" to reform the country's electoral system and challenge the results of an election he lost.[93] On 8 May 2013, about 120,000 people wearing black gathered at Petaling Jaya Stadium, Kelana Jaya, Selangor, to attend a rally organised by Anwar to protest against the election results and demand a free and fair election.[94] The #Black505 movement continued for another 2 months with touring all over the country. A successful fundraising #Black505 dinner was held in Thean Hou Temple hall on 22 June 2013, hosted by Wangsa Maju MP Datuk Dr Tan Kee Kwong on behalf of PKR. Anwar Ibrahim immediately launched electoral petitions for over 30 disputed parliamentary seats in July 2013. However, the cases were thrown off election court for technical reasons. Anwar described the decision as a bad decision and disgraced the name of the country's judicial institution.[95]

Kajang Move

On 27 January 2014, the member of the Selangor State Legislative Assembly for Kajang, Lee Chin Cheh, resigned.[96] This triggered a by-election. A day later, Anwar Ibrahim was announced as Pakatan Rakyat candidate for the by-election.[97] Anwar's candidacy was originally to propel him to become Selangor's Menteri Besar.[98] Later, this move was known as the "Kajang Move".

This move, however, did not materialize as he was sentenced to five years' prison after Malaysia's Court of Appeal overturned his sodomy acquittal, causing Anwar to lose his qualification to be the state assembly candidate.[99] On 9 March 2014, PKR announced party president Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail as its new candidate for the Kajang by-election.[100] Anwar's Datuk Seri title was stripped by the Sultan of Selangor for "repeated questioning of the integrity" of the state's ruler during the subsequent crisis that saw the Sultan refuse to appoint Wan Azizah as Menteri Besar.[101] Anwar was able to continue using the "Datuk Seri" title because it had also been conferred on him by several other Malaysian states.[102]

2008-2014 sodomy trials

On 29 June 2008, online news portal Malaysiakini reported that a male aide of Anwar, Saiful Bukhari Azlan, had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar.[103] Anwar said that the possibility of a prison sentence as a result of the allegations could be seen as an attempt to remove him from the leadership of the opposition following his growing support and by-election victories. He also reaffirmed his innocence and cited evidence in the form of medical reports.[67] In July 2008, he was arrested over allegations of sodomy again, but was acquitted of the charge in January 2012 by The High Court.[104] The presiding judge ruled that DNA evidence used in the case had been compromised and was unreliable.[105] The prosecution filed an appeal against the acquittal.[106] In March 2014 the appeal court overruled the high Court reinstating the conviction. The decision came as Anwar was preparing to contest a by-election on 23 March 2014, which he was expected to win. The conviction prevented him from standing. Human Rights Watch was critical of the decision, saying it was politically motivated.[107]

On 7 March 2014, the Court of Appeal overturned the acquittal by unanimously deciding that the High Court failed to "critically evaluate" the evidence submitted by government chemist Dr Seah Lay Hong.[108] The Court of Appeal rushed through an unanimous decision, signed by all three judges, and sentenced Anwar to five years imprisonment, disqualifying him from nomination in the Kajang by-election scheduled on 11 March. The conviction was viewed by some as a politically motivated attempt to prevent Anwar from contesting in the 2014 Kajang by-election, which he was expected to win and becoming Selangor's chief minister.[109] Human Rights Watch and the International Commission of Jurists have accused the Malaysian government of meddling in this particular judicial matter and said the verdict was politically motivated.[110] On 10 February 2015, the Federal Court of Malaysia upheld the decision of the Court of Appeal and affirmed the five-year prison sentence. He was sent immediately to Sungai Buloh Prison, Selangor, to serve the sentence.[111]

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2008 Permatang Pauh by-election

2008 Permatang Pauh by-election

A by-election was held for the Dewan Rakyat parliamentary seat of Permatang Pauh on 26 August 2008 with nomination day on 16 August 2008. The seat of Permatang Pauh in the Dewan Rakyat, fell vacant after the resignation of the incumbent, Datuk Seri Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, on 31 July 2008. Wan Azizah was the Leader of the Opposition as well as the President of the Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR), a component party of the opposition Pakatan Rakyat (PR) coalition. The by-election was contested by the PR candidate former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim. This election has been dubbed "the mother of all by-elections" by the media due to the potentially significant implication of the election as well as the high profile of Anwar Ibrahim.

Leader of the Opposition (Malaysia)

Leader of the Opposition (Malaysia)

The Leader of the Opposition in Malaysian Federal Politics is a Member of Parliament in the Dewan Rakyat. The Leader of the Opposition is, by convention, the leader of the largest political party in the Dewan Rakyat that is not in government.

Judiciary of Malaysia

Judiciary of Malaysia

Judiciary of Malaysia is largely centralised despite Malaysia's federal constitution, heavily influenced by the English common law, as well as Islamic jurisprudence.

Mass media in Malaysia

Mass media in Malaysia

The mass media in Malaysia includes television, radio, newspapers, and web-based media such as bloggers. Many media outlets are either owned directly by the government of Malaysia or owned by component parties of the Barisan Nasional coalition which formed the government until May 2018. Opposition parties PAS and PKR, now the main parties of the ruling "Pakatan Harapan" coalition, publish their own newspapers, Harakah and Suara Keadilan, respectively, which are openly sold alongside regular publications.

Corruption in Malaysia

Corruption in Malaysia

Corruption in Malaysia is relatively low in comparison to the rest of East Asia and Southeast Asia. According to a 2013 public survey in Malaysia by Transparency International, a majority of the surveyed households perceived Malaysian political parties to be highly corrupt. A quarter of the surveyed households consider the government's efforts in the fight against corruption to be ineffective.

Failed state

Failed state

A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly. A state can also fail if the government loses its legitimacy even if it is performing its functions properly. For a stable state, it is necessary for the government to enjoy both effectiveness and legitimacy. The Fund for Peace characterizes a failed state as having the following characteristics:Loss of control of its territory, or of the monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force Erosion of legitimate authority to make collective decisions Inability to provide public services Inability to interact with other states as a full member of the international community

Najib Razak

Najib Razak

Dato' Sri Haji Mohammad Najib bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak is a Malaysian politician who served as the 6th prime minister of Malaysia from April 2009 to May 2018. In 2020, he was convicted of corruption in the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal, one of the largest money-laundering scandals in history. He is the son of former prime minister Abdul Razak Hussein. Najib Razak was the chairman of the Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition from April 2009 to May 2018 and the president of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) from November 2008 to May 2018, which had maintained control of Malaysia's government with a parliamentary majority for more than sixty years until the coalition's defeat in the 2018 general election.

APCO Worldwide

APCO Worldwide

APCO Worldwide is a independent global public affairs and strategic communications consultancy. With 680 employees in 35 worldwide locations, it is also the fifth largest independently owned PR firm in the United States. Headquartered in Washington, D.C., APCO was founded in 1984 by Margery Kraus, who is now the firm's Executive Chairman.

Censure

Censure

A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure, it is a debatable main motion that could be adopted by a majority vote. Among the forms that it can take are a stern rebuke by a legislature, a spiritual penalty imposed by a church, or a negative judgment pronounced on a theological proposition. It is usually non-binding, unlike a motion of no confidence.

1Malaysia

1Malaysia

1Malaysia is a programme designed by Malaysian 6th Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak in summer 2009 with the stated goal of promoting ethnic harmony, national unity, and efficient governance.

2013 Malaysian general election

2013 Malaysian general election

General elections were held in Malaysia on Sunday, 5 May 2013 to elect the members of the 13th Parliament. Voting took place in all 222 parliamentary constituencies, each electing one MP to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 505 state constituencies in 12 of the 13 states on the same day.

Democratic Action Party

Democratic Action Party

The Democratic Action Party is a centre-left social democratic political party in Malaysia. As one of four component parties of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, it formed the federal government after defeating Barisan Nasional in the 2018 Malaysian general election, ending the party's 53 year-long stay in the opposition. However, before the coalition finished its first term, defections from partnering parties caused it to lose power after 22 months, culminating in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. At the 2022 Malaysian general election, the PH coalition which the DAP was part of was returned to power again, albeit with a smaller majority leading it to form a unity government with political rivals.

Pakatan Harapan backbencher (2018–2020)

Anwar met with Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi in New Delhi, 2019
Anwar met with Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi in New Delhi, 2019

Royal pardon and release

After the Pakatan Rakyat's dissolution during his imprisonment, a new opposition coalition named the Pakatan Harapan was formed with Anwar as the de facto leader in absentia. The coalition had come into power by over-throwing Barisan Nasional in the 2018 general election (GE14). Following the formation of the new ruling government, Anwar was given a full royal pardon and was released from prison on 16 May 2018. He was designated to take over the reins from interim Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad as planned and agreed by the coalition before GE14.[112][113] In an interview, he justified his reluctance to immediately step into power on the basis that Mahathir has appeared committed to the reform agenda, and doing a good job tackling a "disintegrating" political system. He also added that he was keen to travel and honour speaking engagements.[114] Anwar also indicated that he initially had reservations about Mahathir's "reconciliation efforts", but he eventually forgave his former enemy after Mahathir showed "compassion and concern which (Anwar) thought was absent in the past".

Return to politics and PD Move

Anwar contested in the Port Dickson by-election, dubbed as PD Move which was set to allow him to return to Parliament.[115] He won with an increased majority, albeit with a lower turnout, and returned to parliament again after 3 years of absence.

Sheraton Move and return to opposition

In late February 2020, the Pakatan Harapan government of Dr Mahathir Mohamad collapsed following defections by Anwar's deputy, Azmin Ali, and several PKR MP's aligned to him, along with the withdrawal of BERSATU by party President Muhyyidin Yassin from Pakatan Harapan. Mahathir promptly resigned from the premiership, as well as from his party, BERSATU. The political manoeuvring has been labelled the "Sheraton Move" for the hotel in Petaling Jaya at which defecting MP's gathered with the opposition to show support for a new government.[116] Following the resignation of Mahathir, Anwar attempted to gather support for his appointment as Prime Minister. However, BERSATU president, Muhyiddin Yassin, was eventually appointed Prime Minister, with the support of a slender majority in the Dewan Rakyat.[117] Thus, Pakatan Harapan returned to the opposition benches, while Anwar was named Opposition Leader.[118]

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Narendra Modi

Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the chief minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014 and is the Member of Parliament from Varanasi. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a right-wing Hindu nationalist paramilitary volunteer organisation. He is the longest serving prime minister from outside the Indian National Congress.

Pakatan Harapan

Pakatan Harapan

The Alliance of Hope is a Malaysian political coalition consisting of centre–left political parties which was formed in 2015 to succeed the Pakatan Rakyat coalition. It has been the ruling coalition since November 2022 after it formed the coalition government with other political coalitions and parties as a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, and after it won the 2018 Malaysian general election to February 2020 when it lost power as a result of the 2020 Malaysian political crisis at the federal level for 22 months. The coalition deposed the Barisan Nasional coalition government during the 2018 election, ending its 60-year-long reign since independence.

In absentia

In absentia

Absentia is Latin for absence. In absentia, a legal term, is Latin for "in the absence" or "while absent".

2018 Malaysian general election

2018 Malaysian general election

The 2018 Malaysian General Election, formally known as the 14th Malaysian General Election, was held on Wednesday, 9 May 2018, for members of the 14th Parliament of Malaysia. At stake were all 222 seats in the Dewan Rakyat and 505 seats in 12 out of the 13 state legislative assemblies of Malaysia. The 13th Parliament of Malaysia was dissolved by Prime Minister Najib Razak on 7 April 2018. It would have been automatically dissolved on 24 June 2018, five years after the first meeting of the first session of the 13th Parliament of Malaysia on 24 June 2013.

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir Mohamad

Mahathir bin Mohamad is a Malaysian politician, author, and physician who served as the 4th and 7th Prime Minister of Malaysia. He held office from July 1981 to October 2003 and later from May 2018 to March 2020 for a cumulative total of 24 years, making him the country's longest-serving prime minister. Before his promotion to the premiership, he served as Deputy Prime Minister and in other Cabinet positions. He has served as a member of parliament for Langkawi from May 2018 to October 2022, Kubang Pasu from August 1974 to March 2004, and Kota Setar Selatan from April 1964 to May 1969. His political career has spanned more than 75 years, from joining protests opposing citizenship policies for non-Malays in the Malayan Union in the 1940s to forming the Gerakan Tanah Air coalition in 2022.

2018 Port Dickson by-election

2018 Port Dickson by-election

A by-election was held on 13 October 2018 for the Dewan Rakyat seat of Port Dickson. The seat became vacant after the resignation of the incumbent member Danyal Balagopal Abdullah, a member of Parti Keadilan Rakyat (PKR) and the governing Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition. This was the first federal by-election since the 9 May 2018 general election (GE14), which saw the first-ever change of federal government in Malaysia's history.

Azmin Ali

Azmin Ali

Mohamed Azmin bin Ali is a Malaysian politician who served as Senior Minister of the Economic Cluster and as Minister of International Trade and Industry from 2020 to 2022. A member of Parti Pribumi Bersatu Malaysia (BERSATU), which is the component party of Perikatan Nasional (PN) coalition, he served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Gombak from 2008 to 2022 and Member of the Selangor State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Bukit Antarabangsa since March 2008.

Malaysian United Indigenous Party

Malaysian United Indigenous Party

The Malaysian United Indigenous Party, abbreviated BERSATU or PPBM, is a nationalist political party in Malaysia. The party was preceded by the United Indigenous Association of Malaysia. It is a major component party within the Perikatan Nasional coalition and the Barisan Nasional coalition, after the collapse of the Pakatan-led government. BERSATU was approved and fully registered on 14 January 2017 by the Registrar of Societies (ROS) and the use of the BERSATU logo was authorized by the Malaysian Election Commission (SPR). The party held the Prime Ministerial position as well as the majority of positions in the cabinet from May 2020 to August 2021. The party's founding members came from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) and Barisan Nasional rebel group Gabungan Ketua Cawangan Malaysia in 2016.

Muhyiddin Yassin

Muhyiddin Yassin

Tan Sri Dato' Haji Mahiaddin bin Md Yasin, commonly known as Muhyiddin bin Mohd. Yassin, is a Malaysian politician who served as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia from March 2020 to August 2021. Appointed as prime minister amid a political crisis, Muhyiddin served for 17 months and resigned after losing parliamentary support, making him the second shortest-serving prime minister in Malaysian history after Ismail Sabri Yaakob.

Petaling Jaya

Petaling Jaya

Petaling Jaya, commonly called "PJ" is a city in Petaling District, in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Originally developed as a satellite township for Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia, it is part of the Greater Kuala Lumpur area. Petaling Jaya was granted city status on 20 June 2006. It has an area of approximately 97.2 square kilometres (37.5 sq mi).

Second term as Leader of the Opposition (2020–2022)

While Muhyiddin formed a government under the auspices of a new coalition known as Perikatan Nasional, Mahathir attempted to regain his post with his Pakatan allies. However, under Anwar's leadership, KEADILAN refused to endorse Mahathir's bid for a third term as premier, claiming the nonagenarian had reneged on his repeated pledge to hand over the office to Anwar.[119] Mahathir, in turn, refused to lend support to Anwar's candidacy, and instead nominated Sabah Chief Minister, Shafie Apdal, for the Prime Minister's post instead. Despite the support of allies DAP and Amanah for this compromise, KEADILAN again rejected the proposal and continued to propose Anwar as the coalition candidate.[120]

Support from UMNO MPs

In September 2020, Anwar claimed to have gathered support from a "formidable" majority of MP's for his appointment as Prime Minister.[121] The move however failed. In July 2022, Anwar said he had the chance to lead the country when a majority of MPs signed statutory declarations backing him as prime minister. However, he claimed he was forced to back down from his quest to become prime minister as he was asked to give assurances to key figures in Barisan Nasional and UMNO that he would discontinue their court cases.[122]

Leaked phone call with Zahid Hamidi

In April 2021, the four-minute clip, allegedly of a phone conversation between Anwar and UMNO's president, Zahid Hamidi, was first posted on Facebook and started with Zahid's speech during the recent UMNO general assembly, in which he said the party in which he is the president would not accept Anwar, DAP or BERSATU as allies. It was followed by a phone conversation, with the speaker who sounded like Anwar praising the other for the speech. Zahid has since expressed his shock and disappointment at the recording, calling it fake and an attempt to weaken and destroy UMNO, while Anwar has also rejected the audio recording, similarly calling it fake and slanderous and the latest ploy by "some elements in the government leadership" to damage inter-party ties within the Opposition Pakatan Harapan coalition ahead of GE15.[123]

Although Anwar did not publicly admit his involvement, he said the leaked audio recording of a conversation between himself and Zahid does not reveal any wrongdoing and is simply a political tactic to try and damage his reputation. He says that if the recording is genuine, then there is no problem as there is no evidence of treachery or corruption.[123]

In July 2021, Zahid Hamidi has admitted that it was his voice in a recording of a phone conversation with Anwar, which exposed his cooperation with the PKR leader. Zahid also admitted that he had signed a letter supporting Anwar as prime minister.[124]

Nominations as the prime minister candidate

In the 20 October 2022 PH convention, PH officially announced Anwar Ibrahim as the coalition's candidate for prime minister in the 2022 general election. [125] Anwar announced he will contest the Tambun parliamentary seat in the 2022 general election. He declared Perak as PH's GE15 frontline state. If he becomes PM, the first order of business will be to form a smaller cabinet and reduce cabinet ministers' salaries.[126] Anwar has picked Tambun as one of the seats to contest in the upcoming general election as a message that treachery in politics is not acceptable. The incumbent Tambun MP is former Perak's Menteri Besar Ahmad Faizal Azumu, who is accused of traitorously switching sides to Perikatan Nasional shortly after the Sheraton Move.[127]

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Perikatan Nasional

Perikatan Nasional

The National Alliance is a political coalition composed of the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU), Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) and Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (GERAKAN). This coalition was preceded by the Malaysian Party Alliance Association, also known as the Persatuan Perikatan Parti Malaysia (PPPM).

Sabah

Sabah

Sabah is a state of Malaysia located in northern Borneo, in the region of East Malaysia. Sabah borders the Malaysian state of Sarawak to the southwest and the North Kalimantan province of Indonesia to the south. The Federal Territory of Labuan is an island just off Sabah's west coast. Kota Kinabalu is the state capital city, the economic centre of the state, and the seat of the Sabah state government. Other major towns in Sabah include Sandakan and Tawau. The 2020 census recorded a population of 3,418,785 in the state. It has an equatorial climate with tropical rainforests, abundant with animal and plant species. The state has long mountain ranges on the west side which forms part of the Crocker Range National Park. Kinabatangan River, the second longest river in Malaysia runs through Sabah. The highest point of Sabah, Mount Kinabalu is also the highest point of Malaysia.

Shafie Apdal

Shafie Apdal

Datuk Seri Panglima Mohd Shafie bin Apdal is a Malaysian politician who has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Semporna since April 1995, State Leader of the Opposition of Sabah since September 2020 and Member of the Sabah State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Senallang since May 2018. He served as the 15th Chief Minister and the State Minister of Finance of Sabah from May 2018 to September 2020, Minister of Rural and Regional Development from April 2009 to July 2015 and Vice-President of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), a component party of the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) coalition. He has served as the 1st and founding President of Heritage Party (WARISAN), the opposition party that is aligned with the Pakatan Harapan (PH) opposition coalition, since October 2016. He lost the power as Chief Minister of Sabah following the defeat of his coalition WARISAN + in the 2020 state election.

2022 Malaysian general election

2022 Malaysian general election

The 2022 Malaysian general election, formally the 15th Malaysian general election (GE15), was held on Saturday, 19 November 2022, to elect the 222 members of the Dewan Rakyat in the 15th Parliament of Malaysia.

Tambun (federal constituency)

Tambun (federal constituency)

Tambun is a federal constituency in Kinta District, Perak, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1986.

Ahmad Faizal Azumu

Ahmad Faizal Azumu

Ahmad Faizal bin Azumu, nicknamed Peja, is a Malaysian politician who served as the Minister of Youth and Sports in the Barisan Nasional (BN) administration under former Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob from August 2021 to the collapse of the BN administration in November 2022, Special Advisor to the Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin in the Perikatan Nasional (PN) administration for only 11 days in August 2021, 12th and 13th Menteri Besar of Perak from May 2018 to his resignation and collapse of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) state administration in March 2020 and again from March 2020 to his resignation again and the collapse of the PN state administration in December 2020. He also served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Tambun and Member of the Perak State Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Chenderiang from May 2018 to November 2022. He is a member, Deputy President and State Chairman of Perak as well as Pahang of the Malaysian United Indigenous Party (BERSATU), a component party of the ruling PN coalition at the federal level and former component party of the PH opposition coalition at both the federal and state levels. He was the State Chairman of PH of Perak. He was one of the only two Menteris Besar of Malaysia who has ruled in two state administrations of two different and opposing political coalitions, which were PH state administration from May 2018 to his resignation and its collapse in March 2020 and PN state administration from March 2020 to his resignation and its collapse in December 2020.

2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis

The 2020–2022 Malaysian political crisis was a political crisis in Malaysia. It was caused by several members of the 14th parliament (MPs) changing party support, leading to the loss of a parliamentary majority, the collapse of three successive coalition governments, and the resignation of two Prime Ministers in less than 18 months. The crisis led to a 2022 snap general election and eventual formation of a unity government.

Prime Minister (since 2022)

Anwar Ibrahim swearing in as 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia in Istana Negara, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim.
Anwar Ibrahim swearing in as 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia in Istana Negara, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim.
Official prime ministerial portrait, 2022
Official prime ministerial portrait, 2022

Forming the federal government

In the 2022 Malaysian general election on 19 November 2022, Anwar's Pakatan Harapan coalition won a plurality of 82 seats out of 222, below the 112 seats needed for a majority.[128] On 20 November, Anwar said that Pakatan Harapan had negotiated with other parties to form the federal government with a majority pending approval by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, but Anwar refused to mention which other parties were cooperating with Pakatan Harapan.[129] Also that day, Perikatan Nasional leader Muhyiddin Yassin claimed to have a sufficient majority to be appointed as Prime Minister, citing support from Perikatan Nasional, Barisan Nasional, Gabungan Parti Sarawak, and Gabungan Rakyat Sabah.[130] On 21 November, Anwar was one of several Pakatan Harapan leaders that met in Seri Pacific Hotel with several Barisan Nasional leaders, including Ahmad Zahid Hamidi and Ismail Sabri Yaakob.[131]

On 22 November, the royal palace stated that after the Yang di-Pertuan Agong reviewed the statutory declarations for prime minister, he found that "no member of parliament has the majority support to be appointed prime minister", so the Yang di-Pertuan Agong summoned Anwar and Muhyiddin to meet him.[132][133] After the meeting, Muhyiddin said that the Yang di-Pertuan Agong proposed a unity government between Pakatan Harapan and Perikatan Nasional, but Muhyiddin rejected it as Perikatan Nasional "will not cooperate" with Pakatan Harapan; while Anwar acknowledged that the prime minister had yet to be determined, while stating that "given time, I think we will secure a simple majority".[134][135]

Anwar was sworn-in as Malaysia's 10th Prime Minister on 24 November 2022, by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, Al-Sultan Abdullah, after consulting with the Conference of Rulers of Malaysia.[3][136] However, Muhyiddin continued to insist that he had the support of a majority of 115 MPs to form the next government and called on Anwar to prove his majority by showing his Statutory Declarations.[137] As of 24 November, Anwar has received support from MPs from PH, BN, GPS, Warisan, MUDA and PBM, as well as independent MPs.[138] Anwar has pledged to hold a vote of confidence on 19 December 2022, once MPs are sworn into the Dewan Rakyat.[138]

On 25 November, both Anwar and GRS leader Hajiji Noor stated that GRS had joined the unity government, supporting Anwar; this resulted in Anwar having two-thirds support in Parliament, stated Anwar.[139][140] Meanwhile, Muhyiddin congratulated Anwar and acknowledged him as Prime Minister, thanked Anwar for inviting PN to join the unity government, and declined Anwar's invitation, stating that PN would play the role of a "credible opposition" to ensure "corruption-free governance".[141][142]

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Istana Negara, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim

Istana Negara, Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim

The Istana Negara is the official residence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, the monarch of Malaysia. It is located along Jalan Tuanku Abdul Halim in Damansara Heights, northwestern Kuala Lumpur. The palace opened in 2011 and replaced the old Istana Negara which was located at a different compound in central Kuala Lumpur.

2022 Malaysian general election

2022 Malaysian general election

The 2022 Malaysian general election, formally the 15th Malaysian general election (GE15), was held on Saturday, 19 November 2022, to elect the 222 members of the Dewan Rakyat in the 15th Parliament of Malaysia.

Prime Minister of Malaysia

Prime Minister of Malaysia

The prime minister of Malaysia is the head of government of Malaysia. The prime minister directs the executive branch of the federal government. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong appoints as the prime minister a member of Parliament (MP) who, in his opinion, is most likely to command the confidence of a majority of MPs; this person is usually the leader of the party winning the most seats in a general election.

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

Yang di-Pertuan Agong

The Yang di-Pertuan Agong, also known as the Supreme Head of the Federation, the Paramount Ruler or simply as the Agong, and unofficially as the King of Malaysia, is the constitutional monarch and head of state of Malaysia. The office was established in 1957, when the Federation of Malaya gained independence from the United Kingdom. The Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the Conference of Rulers, comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, with the office de facto rotated between them, making Malaysia one of the world's few elective monarchies.

Abdullah of Pahang

Abdullah of Pahang

Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta'in Billah has reigned as the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia and the 6th Sultan of Pahang since January 2019. He was proclaimed as sultan on 15 January 2019, succeeding his father, Sultan Ahmad Shah, whose abdication was decided at a Royal Council meeting on 11 January 2019.

Conference of Rulers

Conference of Rulers

The Conference of Rulers in Malaysia is a council comprising the nine rulers of the Malay states, and the governors or Yang di-Pertua Negeri of the other four states. It was officially established by Article 38 of the Constitution of Malaysia, and is the only such institution in the world, according to the Malaysian National Library. Its main responsibility is the election of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) and their deputy, the Timbalan Yang di-Pertuan Agong, which occurs every five years or when the positions fall vacant. Although its position in the process of elective monarchy is unique, the Conference of Rulers also plays a role in amending the Constitution of Malaysia and some other policies, in particular, those Articles which have been "entrenched", namely those pertaining to the status of the rulers, the special privileges of the indigenous Bumiputra, the status of the Malay language as the national language, and the clause governing the entrenchment of such Articles.

Muhyiddin Yassin

Muhyiddin Yassin

Tan Sri Dato' Haji Mahiaddin bin Md Yasin, commonly known as Muhyiddin bin Mohd. Yassin, is a Malaysian politician who served as the 8th Prime Minister of Malaysia from March 2020 to August 2021. Appointed as prime minister amid a political crisis, Muhyiddin served for 17 months and resigned after losing parliamentary support, making him the second shortest-serving prime minister in Malaysian history after Ismail Sabri Yaakob.

Malaysian United Democratic Alliance

Malaysian United Democratic Alliance

The Malaysian United Democratic Alliance is a multi-racial and youth-centric political party in Malaysia formed by Syed Saddiq Syed Abdul Rahman in September 2020.

Parti Bangsa Malaysia

Parti Bangsa Malaysia

Parti Bangsa Malaysia, is a registered centre-right political party in Malaysia. The party was founded as the Sarawak Workers Party before being handed over in November 2021. The party, which had six elected Members of Parliament (MP) lost all but one of their parliamentary seats at the 15th general election (GE15).

Dewan Rakyat

Dewan Rakyat

The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

Political positions and views

Anwar has advocated for Islamic democracy and has expressed hope that Malaysia is an example of democratic practices in the Muslim world.[143][144] He has been described as a "liberal reformer, talented technocrat, genuine intellectual and perhaps even a man capable of bringing the spirit of the Arab Spring to one of Asia's largest majority Muslim nations."[145] He has supported the Islamic concept of Ummah as a framework for democracy in Muslim countries, and called the three-world model "redundant" and "simplistic".[146] Anwar has called for judicial independence, good governance and rejection of authoritarianism.[147] Referencing longstanding affirmative action policies for Malays and other bumiputera, he has called for transitioning to "affirmative-action policies [being] premised on need instead of race" and that those living in poverty can receive government support regardless of their race.[147]

In 2018, The Guardian described him as a "uniting figure" for the opposition throughout his imprisonment and trials.[148]

Israel and Palestine

In a press conference at the London School of Economics in March 2010, Anwar stated that Jews should not be condemned, but rather only the state ideology of Zionism and the aggression and injustice perpetrated against the Palestinians. He also believes that there are good and bad Jews, just as there are good and bad Muslims.[149]

In May 2010, B'nai B'rith International, a prominent Jewish human rights organisation, argued that Anwar has used his position in Malaysian parliament to spread anti-Semitic propaganda, such as his claim that Israeli spies are "directly involved in the running of the government". B'nai B'rith asked US officials to suspend their ties with Anwar Ibrahim.[150]

In a 2012 interview with The Wall Street Journal, Anwar Ibrahim stated that he believes the policy towards Israel and Palestine should be clear – protecting the security of Israel while also being firm in protecting the legitimate interests of the Palestinians.[151] This sparked criticism from UMNO, with MP Khairy Jamaluddin stating that Anwar's comments show blanket support for anything Israel does.[152] Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad also said he was not surprised by Anwar's comments, and stated that Ibrahim's relationship with the Jewish community must be taken into account.[153] Anwar later clarified his stance, saying that the remarks were consistent with the two-state solution adopted by the United Nations and Malaysia itself.[152]

LGBT issues

Anwar has stated that while he opposes gay marriage and upholds the sanctity of marriage between men and women. In a 2015 interview with BBC, Anwar reaffirmed his belief that marriage should remain between men and women. However, he stated that laws on sodomy in Malaysia must be changed as they are archaic.[154] He clarified that he does not advocate legalising homosexuality or making gay marriage permissible — only that the laws should be amended to ensure private affairs are not penalised.[155] In 2018, Anwar called for people of all faith to oppose efforts to recognise LGBT people from what he called "super liberals".[156]

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Islam and democracy

Islam and democracy

There exist a number of perspectives on the relationship of Islam and democracy among Islamic political theorists, the general Muslim public, and Western authors.

Muslim world

Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community, which is also known as the Ummah. This consists of all those who adhere to the religious beliefs and laws of Islam or to societies in which Islam is practiced. In a modern geopolitical sense, these terms refer to countries in which Islam is widespread, although there are no agreed criteria for inclusion. The term Muslim-majority countries is an alternative often used for the latter sense.

Intellectualism

Intellectualism

Intellectualism is the mental perspective that emphasizes the use, the development, and the exercise of the intellect; and also identifies the life of the mind of the intellectual person. In the field of philosophy, "intellectualism" is synonymous with rationalism, knowledge derived from reason. Sociologically, the term intellectualism can also have a socially negative connotation about an intellectual who gives "too much attention to thinking" and who shows an "absence of affection and feeling". Hierarchical Intellectualism or hierarchical theory of intelligence is any theory of intelligence postulating that the abilities constituting intelligence are arranged in a series of levels ranging from general to specific. Most notable Hierarchical Intellectualism is the use of the IQ test.

Arab Spring

Arab Spring

The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests, uprisings and armed rebellions that spread across much of the Arab world in the early 2010s. It began in Tunisia in response to corruption and economic stagnation. From Tunisia, the protests then spread to five other countries: Libya, Egypt, Yemen, Syria and Bahrain. Rulers were deposed or major uprisings and social violence occurred including riots, civil wars, or insurgencies. Sustained street demonstrations took place in Morocco, Iraq, Algeria, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman and Sudan. Minor protests took place in Djibouti, Mauritania, Palestine, Saudi Arabia and the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is ash-shaʻb yurīd isqāṭ an-niẓām!.

Judicial independence

Judicial independence

Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary should be independent from the other branches of government. That is, courts should not be subject to improper influence from the other branches of government or from private or partisan interests. Judicial independence is important to the idea of separation of powers.

Good governance

Good governance

Good governance is the process of measuring how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources and guarantee the realization of human rights in a manner essentially free of abuse and corruption and with due regard for the rule of law. Governance is "the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented ". Governance in this context can apply to corporate, international, national, or local governance as well as the interactions between other sectors of society.

Ketuanan Melayu

Ketuanan Melayu

Ketuanan Melayu is a political concept that emphasises Malay preeminence in present-day Malaysia. The Malays of Malaysia have claimed a special position and exceptional rights owing to their longer history in the area and the fact that the present Malaysian state itself evolved from a Malay polity. The oldest political institution in Malaysia is the system of Malay rulers of the nine Malay states. The British colonial authorities transformed the system and turned it first into a system of indirect rule, then in 1948, using this culturally based institution, they incorporated the Malay monarchy into the blueprints for the independent Federation of Malaya.

Malays (ethnic group)

Malays (ethnic group)

Malays are an Austronesian ethnic group native to eastern Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands that lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world. These locations are today part of the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia, southern part of Thailand, Singapore and Brunei Darussalam.

Bumiputera (Malaysia)

Bumiputera (Malaysia)

Bumiputera or Bumiputra is a term used in Malaysia to describe Malays, the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia, and various indigenous peoples of East Malaysia. The term is sometimes controversial, and has similar usage in the Malay world, used similarly in Indonesia and Brunei.

Opposition (Malaysia)

Opposition (Malaysia)

The Opposition in Malaysia fulfils the same function as the official opposition in other Commonwealth of Nations monarchies. It is seen as the alternative government and the existing administration's main opponent at a general election.

London School of Economics

London School of Economics

The London School of Economics and Political Science is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the university in 1901. LSE began awarding its degrees in its own name in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London.

Palestinians

Palestinians

Palestinians or Palestinian people, also referred to as Palestinian Arabs, are an ethnonational group descending from peoples who have inhabited the region of Palestine over the millennia, and who are today culturally and linguistically Arab.

Personal life

He is married to former Deputy Prime Minister Wan Azizah Wan Ismail on 26 February 1980,[157] and they have five daughters and a son. His eldest daughter, Nurul Izzah Anwar, was an MP for Permatang Pauh.[158]

Awards and recognitions

Honours of Malaysia

Foreign Honors and Awards

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Pahang

Pahang

Pahang officially Pahang Darul Makmur with the Arabic honorific Darul Makmur is a sultanate and a federal state of Malaysia. It is the third largest Malaysian state and the largest state in peninsular by area, and ninth largest by population. The state occupies the basin of the Pahang River, and a stretch of the east coast as far south as Endau. Geographically located in the East Coast region of the Peninsular Malaysia, the state shares borders with the Malaysian states of Kelantan and Terengganu to the north, Perak, Selangor and Negeri Sembilan to the west, Johor to the south, while South China Sea is to the east. The Titiwangsa mountain range that forms a natural divider between the Peninsula's east and west coasts is spread along the north and south of the state, peaking at Mount Tahan, which is 2,187 metres (7,175 ft) high & the famous Kuantan 188 which is 188 metres (617 ft) high. Although two thirds of the state is covered by dense rain forest, its central plains are intersected by numerous rivers, and along the coast there is a 32-kilometre (20 mi) wide expanse of alluvial soil that includes the deltas and estuarine plains of the Kuantan, Pahang, Rompin, Endau, and Mersing rivers.

Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang

Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang

The Most Illustrious Order of Sultan Ahmad Shah of Pahang is a knighthood order of the Sultanate of Pahang.

Malacca

Malacca

Malacca is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. Its capital is Malacca City, dubbed the Historic City, which has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

List of post-nominal letters (Malacca)

List of post-nominal letters (Malacca)

This is a list of post-nominal letters used in Malacca. The order in which they follow an individual's name is the same as the order of precedence for the wearing of order insignias, decorations, and medals. When applicable, non-hereditary titles are indicated.

Penang

Penang

Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait. It has two parts: Penang Island, where the capital city, George Town, is located, and Seberang Perai on the Malay Peninsula. They are connected by Malaysia's two longest road bridges, the Penang Bridge and the Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah Bridge; the latter is also the second longest oversea bridge in Southeast Asia. The second smallest Malaysian state by land mass, Penang is bordered by Kedah to the north and the east, and Perak to the south.

List of post-nominal letters (Penang)

List of post-nominal letters (Penang)

This is a list of post-nominal letters used in Penang. The order in which they follow an individual's name is the same as the order of precedence for the wearing of order insignias, decorations, and medals. When applicable, non-hereditary titles are indicated.

List of post-nominal letters (Selangor)

List of post-nominal letters (Selangor)

This is a list of post-nominal letters used in Selangor. The order in which they follow an individual's name is the same as the order of precedence for the wearing of order insignias, decorations, and medals. When applicable, non-hereditary titles are indicated.

Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan

Negeri Sembilan is a state in Malaysia which lies on the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It borders Selangor on the north, Pahang in the east, and Malacca and Johor to the south.

Orders, decorations, and medals of Negeri Sembilan

Orders, decorations, and medals of Negeri Sembilan

The following is the orders, decorations, and medals given by Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Negeri Sembilan. When applicable, post-nominal letters and non-hereditary titles are indicated.

Order of Kinabalu

Order of Kinabalu

The Illustrious Order of Kinabalu is the only order conferred by the Governor of Sabah, Malaysia.

Orders, decorations, and medals of Perak

Orders, decorations, and medals of Perak

The following is the orders, decorations, and medals given by Sultan of Perak. When applicable, post-nominal letters and non-hereditary titles are indicated.

Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail

Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail

The Most Esteemed Order of the Gallant Prince Syed Sirajuddin Jamalullail is a Malaysian dynastic order of merit founded by Sirajuddin of Perlis in 2001.

Election results

Parliament of Malaysia[162][163][164]
Year Constituency Votes Pct Opponent(s) Votes Pct Ballots cast Majority Turnout
1982 P041 Permatang Pauh, Penang Anwar Ibrahim (BN-UMNO) 18,849 74.88% Zabidi Ali (PAS) 4,497 17.90% 25,885 14,352 Unknown
Tan Ah Huat (DAP) 1,825 7.25%
1986 Anwar Ibrahim (BN-UMNO) 17,979 70.56% Mohamad Sabu (PAS) 7,500 29.44% 26,098 10,479 74.82%
1990 Anwar Ibrahim (BN-UMNO) 23,793 75.69% Mahfuz Omar (PAS) 7,643 24.31% 31,740 16,150 78.32%
1995 P044 Permatang Pauh, Penang Anwar Ibrahim (BN-UMNO) 27,945 76.08% Abdul Rahman Manap (DAP) 4,715 12.84% 37,618 23,230 78.79%
Mazani Abdullah (PAS) 4,071 11.08%
2008 Anwar Ibrahim (PR-PKR) 31,195 66.64% Arif Shah Omar Shah (UMNO) 15,524 33.16% 47,258 15,671 80.84%
Hanafi Mamat (AKIM) 92 0.20%
2013 Anwar Ibrahim (PR-PKR) 37,090 58.56% Mazlan Ismail (UMNO) 25,369 40.06% 63,332 11,721 88.33%
Abdullah Zawawi Samsudin (Ind) 201 0.32%
2018 P132 Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan Anwar Ibrahim (PH-PKR) 31,016 71.32% Mohd Nazari Mokhtar (PAS) 7,456 17.14% 43,489 23,560 58.25%
Mohd Isa Abdul Samad (Ind) 4,230 9.73%
Stevie Chan Keng Leong (Ind) 337 0.78%
Lau Seck Yan (Ind) 214 0.49%
Kan Chee Yuen (Ind) 154 0.35%
Saiful Bukhari Azlan (Ind) 82 0.19%
2022 P063 Tambun, Perak Anwar Ibrahim (PH-PKR) 49,625 39.77% Ahmad Faizal Azumu (BERSATU) 45,889 36.78% 124,769 3,736 77.71%
Aminuddin Md Hanafiah (UMNO) 28,140 22.55%
Abdul Rahim Tahir (PEJUANG) 1,115 0.89%

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Dewan Rakyat

Dewan Rakyat

The Dewan Rakyat is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament, the federal legislature of Malaysia. The chamber and its powers are established by Article 44 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The Dewan Rakyat sits in the Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur, along with the Dewan Negara, the upper house.

1982 Malaysian general election

1982 Malaysian general election

A general election was held between Thursday, 22 April and Monday, 26 April 1982 for members of the 6th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 154 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 293 state constituencies on the same day. It was the first election for Mahathir Mohamed as Prime Minister since his appointment to this position in 1981.

Permatang Pauh (federal constituency)

Permatang Pauh (federal constituency)

Permatang Pauh is a federal constituency in Central Seberang Perai District, Penang, Malaysia, that has been represented in the Dewan Rakyat since 1974.

Barisan Nasional

Barisan Nasional

The National Front is a political coalition of Malaysia that was founded in 1973 as a coalition of right-wing political parties. It is also the third largest political coalition with 30 seats in the Dewan Rakyat after coalition Pakatan Harapan with 82 seats and the coalition Perikatan Nasional with 73 seats.

United Malays National Organisation

United Malays National Organisation

The United Malays National Organisation or less commonly PEKEMBAR), is a nationalist right-wing political party in Malaysia. As the oldest continuous national political party within Malaysia, UMNO has once been called Malaysia's "Grand Old Party".

Democratic Action Party

Democratic Action Party

The Democratic Action Party is a centre-left social democratic political party in Malaysia. As one of four component parties of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) coalition, it formed the federal government after defeating Barisan Nasional in the 2018 Malaysian general election, ending the party's 53 year-long stay in the opposition. However, before the coalition finished its first term, defections from partnering parties caused it to lose power after 22 months, culminating in the 2020 Malaysian political crisis. At the 2022 Malaysian general election, the PH coalition which the DAP was part of was returned to power again, albeit with a smaller majority leading it to form a unity government with political rivals.

1986 Malaysian general election

1986 Malaysian general election

A general election was held between Saturday, 2 August and Sunday, 3 August 1986 for members of the 7th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 177 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 351 state constituencies in 11 states of Malaysia on the same day.

Mohamad Sabu

Mohamad Sabu

Mohamad bin Sabu, commonly known as Mat Sabu, is a Malaysian politician who served as the Minister of Defence in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad from May 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Kota Raja since May 2018, Kuala Kedah from November 1999 to March 2004, Kubang Kerian from April 1995 to November 1999 and Nilam Puri from October 1990 to April 1995. He is a member of the National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the Pakatan Harapan (PH) opposition coalition. He has also served as the 1st and founding President of AMANAH since September 2015.

1990 Malaysian general election

1990 Malaysian general election

A general election was held between Saturday, 20 October and Sunday, 21 October 1990 for members of the 8th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 180 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 351 state constituencies in 11 states of Malaysia on the same day.

Mahfuz Omar

Mahfuz Omar

Mahfuz bin Omar is a Malaysian politician who served as Deputy Minister of Human Resources in the Pakatan Harapan (PH) administration under former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad and former Minister M. Kulasegaran from July 2018 to the collapse of the PH administration in February 2020. He has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Pokok Sena since March 2008 and from November 1999 to March 2004. He is a member of National Trust Party (AMANAH), a component party of the PH opposition coalition.

1995 Malaysian general election

1995 Malaysian general election

A general election was held between Monday, 24 April and Tuesday, 25 April 1995 for members of the 9th Parliament of Malaysia. Voting took place in all 192 parliamentary constituencies of Malaysia, each electing one Member of Parliament to the Dewan Rakyat, the dominant house of Parliament. State elections also took place in 394 state constituencies in 11 out of 13 states of Malaysia on the same day.

Source: "Anwar Ibrahim", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, December 2nd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anwar_Ibrahim.

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Other references

Bibliography
External links
Party political offices
Preceded by
Shuhaimi Kamarudin
Leader of the United Malays National Organisation Youth Branch
1982–1987
Succeeded by
Preceded by Deputy President of the United Malays National Organisation
1993–1998
Vacant
Title next held by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Preceded by Leader of the People's Pact
2008–2015
Position abolished
New office Leader of the Alliance of Hope
2017–present
Incumbent
Parliament of Malaysia
Preceded by
Zabidi Ali
Member of the Dewan Rakyat
for Permatang Pauh

1982–1999
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the Dewan Rakyat
for Permatang Pauh

2008–2015
Preceded by Member of the Dewan Rakyat
for Port Dickson

2018–2022
Succeeded by
Preceded by Member of the Dewan Rakyat
for Tambun

2022–
Incumbent
Political offices
Preceded by Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports
1983–1984
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Manan Osman
Minister of Agriculture
1984–1986
Succeeded by
Sanusi Junid
Preceded by Minister of Education
1986–1991
Succeeded by
Preceded by Minister of Finance
1991–1998
Succeeded by
Preceded by Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia
1993–1998
Vacant
Title next held by
Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
Preceded by Leader of the Opposition
2008–2015
Succeeded by
Preceded by Leader of the Opposition
2020–2022
Succeeded by
Preceded by Prime Minister of Malaysia
2022–
Incumbent
Academic offices
Preceded by President of International Islamic University Malaysia
1988–1998
Succeeded by
Categories

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