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Andranik

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Andranik
Andranik hat.png
General Andranik Ozanian, wearing his uniform and medals with a papakha hat
Nickname(s)Andranik pasha[1]
Born(1865-02-25)25 February 1865
Shabin-Karahisar, Ottoman Empire
Died31 August 1927(1927-08-31) (aged 62)
Richardson Springs, California, U.S.
Buried
Ararat Cemetery (1927–28)
Père Lachaise (1928–2000)
Yerablur (2000–present)
Allegiance Dashnaktsutyun (1892–1907)
Bulgaria Bulgaria (1912–13)
 Russian Empire (1914–16)
Armenian paramilitaries (1917–19)
Years of service1888–1904 (fedayi)
1912–13 (Bulgaria)
1914–16 (WWI)
1917–19 (Armenia)
RankCommander of the fedayi (1899–1904)[2]
Rank insignia of Старши лейтенант of the Bulgarian Army (horizontal).png First lieutenant (Bulgaria)
Imperial Russian Army MajGen 1917 h.png Major-general (Russia)[A]
Commander of the Western Armenian division of the Armenian Army Corps (1918)
Commander of the Special Striking Division (1919)
WarsArmenian National Liberation Movement
Sasun Uprising
First Balkan War
World War I Armenian–Azerbaijani War
Awardssee below
SignatureAndraniksignature-1-.png

Andranik Ozanian,[B] commonly known as General Andranik[4][C] or simply Andranik;[D] 25 February 1865 – 31 August 1927),[E] was an Armenian military commander and statesman, the best known fedayi[1][5][7] and a key figure of the Armenian national liberation movement.[8] From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, he was one of the main Armenian leaders of military efforts for the independence of Armenia.

He became active in an armed struggle against the Ottoman government and Kurdish irregulars in the late 1880s. Andranik joined the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktustyun) party and, along with other fedayi (militias), sought to defend the Armenian peasantry living in their ancestral homeland, an area known as Western (or Turkish) Armenia—at the time part of the Ottoman Empire. His revolutionary activities ceased and he left the Ottoman Empire after the unsuccessful uprising in Sasun in 1904. In 1907, Andranik left Dashnaktustyun because he disapproved of its cooperation with the Young Turks, a party which years later perpetrated the Armenian genocide. Between 1912 and 1913, together with Garegin Nzhdeh, Andranik led a few hundred Armenian volunteers within the Bulgarian army against the Ottomans during the First Balkan War.

From the early stages of World War I, Andranik commanded the first Armenian volunteer battalion within the Russian Imperial army against the Ottoman Empire, capturing and later governing much of the traditional Armenian homeland. After the Revolution of 1917, the Russian army retreated and left the Armenian irregulars outnumbered against the Turks. Andranik led the defense of Erzurum in early 1918, but was forced to retreat eastward. By May 1918, Turkish forces stood near Yerevan—the future Armenian capital—and were halted at the Battle of Sardarabad. The Dashnak-dominated Armenian National Council declared the independence of Armenia and signed the Treaty of Batum with the Ottoman Empire, by which Armenia gave up its rights to Western Armenia. Andranik never accepted the existence of the First Republic of Armenia because it included only a small part of the area many Armenians hoped to make independent. Andranik, independently from the Republic of Armenia, fought in Zangezur against the Azerbaijani and Turkish armies, and helped to keep it within Armenia.[9]

Andranik left Armenia in 1919 due to disagreements with the Armenian government and spent his last years of life in Europe and the United States seeking relief for Armenian refugees. He settled in Fresno, California in 1922 and died five years later in 1927. Andranik is greatly admired as a national hero by Armenians; numerous statues of him have been erected in several countries. Streets and squares were named after Andranik, and songs, poems and novels have been written about him, making him a legendary figure in Armenian culture.[10]

Discover more about Andranik related topics

Armenians

Armenians

Armenians are an ethnic group native to the Armenian highlands of Western Asia. Armenians constitute the main population of Armenia and the de facto independent Artsakh. There is a wide-ranging diaspora of around five million people of full or partial Armenian ancestry living outside modern Armenia. The largest Armenian populations today exist in Russia, the United States, France, Georgia, Iran, Germany, Ukraine, Lebanon, Brazil, and Syria. With the exceptions of Iran and the former Soviet states, the present-day Armenian diaspora was formed mainly as a result of the Armenian genocide.

Armenian fedayi

Armenian fedayi

Fedayi, also known as the Armenian irregular units or Armenian militia, were Armenian civilians who voluntarily left their families to form self-defense units and irregular armed bands in reaction to the mass murder of Armenians and the pillage of Armenian villages by criminals, Kurdish gangs, Turkish forces, and Hamidian guards during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II in late 19th and early 20th centuries, known as the Hamidian massacres. Their ultimate goal was always to gain Armenian autonomy (Armenakans) or independence depending on their ideology and the degree of oppression visited on Armenians.

Armenian national movement

Armenian national movement

The Armenian national movement included social, cultural, but primarily political and military movements that reached their height during World War I and the following years, initially seeking improved status for Armenians in the Ottoman and Russian Empires but eventually attempting to achieve an Armenian state.

Armenia

Armenia

Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a landlocked country in the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. It is a part of the Caucasus region; and is bordered by Turkey to the west, Georgia to the north, the Lachin corridor and Azerbaijan to the east, and Iran and the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhchivan to the south. Yerevan is the capital, largest city and the financial center.

Armenian Revolutionary Federation

Armenian Revolutionary Federation

The Armenian Revolutionary Federation, abbr. ARF or ARF-D) also known as Dashnaktsutyun is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. Today the party operates in Armenia, Artsakh, Lebanon, Iran and in countries where the Armenian diaspora is present. Although it has long been the most influential political party in the Armenian diaspora, it has a comparatively smaller presence in modern-day Armenia. As of October 2021, the party was represented in three national parliaments with ten seats in the National Assembly of Armenia, three seats in the National Assembly of Artsakh and three seats in the Parliament of Lebanon as part of the March 8 Alliance.

1904 Sasun uprising

1904 Sasun uprising

The Sasun uprising or Sasun rebellion of 1904 was an uprising by Armenian militia against the Ottoman Empire in Turkey's Sason region in 1904. The empire wanted to prevent the formation of another semi-autonomous Armenian region in the eastern vilayets after its defeat in the First Zeitun Rebellion. In Sason, the Armenian national liberation movement recruited young Armenians.

Armenian genocide

Armenian genocide

The Armenian genocide was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

First Balkan War

First Balkan War

The First Balkan War lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and involved actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan states' combined armies overcame the initially numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, achieving rapid success.

Erzurum

Erzurum

Erzurum is a city in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is the largest city and capital of Erzurum Province and is 1,900 meters above sea level. Erzurum had a population of 367,250 in 2010.

Battle of Sardarabad

Battle of Sardarabad

The Battle of Sardarabad was a battle of the Caucasus campaign of World War I that took place near Sardarabad, Armenia, from 21 to 29 May 1918, between the regular Armenian military units and militia on one side and the Ottoman army that had invaded Eastern Armenia on the other. As Sardarabad is approximately 40 kilometres (25 mi) west of the capital of Yerevan, the battle not only halted the Ottoman advance into the rest of Armenia, but also prevented the complete destruction of the Armenian nation. In the words of Christopher J. Walker, had the Armenians lost this battle, "it is perfectly possible that the word Armenia would have henceforth denoted only an antique geographical term".

Armenian National Council (1917–18)

Armenian National Council (1917–18)

The Armenian National Council was a permanent executive body formed by the Armenian National Congress in Tbilisi in October 1917. The Council was responsible for creating the First Republic of Armenia in May 1918, the first independent Armenian state since the Middle Ages.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was the first secular democratic republic in the Turkic and Muslim worlds. The ADR was founded by the Azerbaijani National Council in Tiflis on 28 May 1918 after the collapse of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, and ceased to exist on April 28, 1920. Its established borders were with Russia to the north, the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north-west, the Republic of Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. It had a population of around 3 million. Ganja was the temporary capital of the Republic as Baku was under Bolshevik control. The name of "Azerbaijan" which the leading Musavat party adopted, for political reasons, was, prior to the establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic in 1918, exclusively used to identify the adjacent region of contemporary northwestern Iran.

Early life

Undated photo of Andranik. The text on the flag is from a Mikayel Nalbandian poem, "The Song of an Italian Girl", which became Armenia's national anthem): "Death is the same everywhere / A man dies but once / Blessed is the one that dies / For the freedom of his nation."
Undated photo of Andranik. The text on the flag is from a Mikayel Nalbandian poem, "The Song of an Italian Girl", which became Armenia's national anthem): "Death is the same everywhere / A man dies but once / Blessed is the one that dies / For the freedom of his nation."

Andranik Ozanian was born on 25 February 1865,[11] in the town of Shabin-Karahisar (Şebinkarahisar), Sivas Vilayet, Ottoman Empire, to Mariam and Toros Ozanian.[12] Andranik means "firstborn" in Armenian. His paternal ancestors came from the nearby village of Ozan (now Ozanlı) in the early 18th century and settled in Shabin-Karahisar to avoid persecution from the Turks.[12] His ancestors took the surname Ozanian in honor of their hometown. Andranik's mother died when he was one year old and his elder sister Nazeli took care of him. Andranik went to the local Musheghian School from 1875 to 1882 and thereafter worked in his father's carpentry shop.[13] He married at the age of 17, but his wife died a year later while giving birth to their son—who also died days after the birth.[12]

The situation of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire had worsened under the reign of Abdul Hamid II, who sought to unify all Muslims under his rule.[14] In 1882, Andranik was arrested for assaulting a Turkish gendarme for mistreating Armenians. With the help of his friends, he escaped from prison. He settled in the Ottoman capital Constantinople in 1884 and stayed there until 1886, working as a carpenter.[15] He began his revolutionary activities in 1888 in the province of Sivas.[16][17] Andranik joined the Hunchak party in 1891.[18] He was arrested in 1892 for taking part in the assassination of Constantinople's police chief, Yusup Mehmet Bey—known for his anti-Armenianism—on 9 February.[19] Andranik once again escaped from prison.[15] In 1892, he joined the newly created Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF or Dashnaktsutyun).[16][17] During the Hamidian massacres, Andranik with other fedayi defended the Armenian villages of Mush and Sasun from attacks of the Turks and the Kurdish Hamidiye units.[17][20] The massacres, which occurred between 1894 and 1896 and are named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II, killed between 80,000 and 300,000 people.[21]

In 1897, Andranik went to Tiflis—the largest city of the Caucasus and a major center of Armenian culture at the time—where the ARF headquarters was located.[17] Andranik returned to Turkish Armenia "entrusted with extensive powers, and with a large supply of arms" for the fedayi.[20] Several dozen Russian Armenians joined him, with whom he went to the Mush-Sasun area where Aghbiur Serob was operating.[22] Serob's forces had already established semi-independent Armenian areas by expelling the Ottoman government representatives.[8]

Discover more about Early life related topics

Mikayel Nalbandian

Mikayel Nalbandian

Mikayel Nalbandian was a Russian-Armenian writer, poet, political theorist and activist.

Mer Hayrenik

Mer Hayrenik

"Mer Hayreniḱ" is the national anthem of Armenia. It was arranged by Barsegh Kanachyan; the lyrics were written by Mikayel Nalbandian. First adopted in 1918 as the anthem of the short-lived First Republic of Armenia, it was subsequently banned after the country was invaded by then incorporated into the Soviet Union. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the restoration of sovereignty in 1991, the song was re-adopted as the national anthem, albeit with slightly modified lyrics.

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire

Armenians in the Ottoman Empire mostly belonged to either the Armenian Apostolic Church or the Armenian Catholic Church. They were part of the Armenian millet until the Tanzimat reforms in the nineteenth century equalized all Ottoman citizens before the law. Armenians were a significant minority in the Empire. They played a crucial role in Ottoman industry and commerce, and Armenian communities existed in almost every major city of the empire. Despite their importance, Armenians were heavily persecuted by the Ottoman authorities especially from the latter half of the 19th century, culminating in the Armenian Genocide.

Constantinople

Constantinople

Constantinople was the capital of the Roman Empire, and, later, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Latin Empire (1204–1261), and the Ottoman Empire (1453–1922). Following the Turkish War of Independence, the Turkish capital then moved to Ankara. Officially renamed Istanbul in 1453, the city is today the largest city and financial centre of the Republic of Turkey (1923–present). It is also the largest city in Europe.

Armenian Revolutionary Federation

Armenian Revolutionary Federation

The Armenian Revolutionary Federation, abbr. ARF or ARF-D) also known as Dashnaktsutyun is an Armenian nationalist and socialist political party founded in 1890 in Tiflis, Russian Empire by Christapor Mikaelian, Stepan Zorian, and Simon Zavarian. Today the party operates in Armenia, Artsakh, Lebanon, Iran and in countries where the Armenian diaspora is present. Although it has long been the most influential political party in the Armenian diaspora, it has a comparatively smaller presence in modern-day Armenia. As of October 2021, the party was represented in three national parliaments with ten seats in the National Assembly of Armenia, three seats in the National Assembly of Artsakh and three seats in the Parliament of Lebanon as part of the March 8 Alliance.

Hamidian massacres

Hamidian massacres

The Hamidian massacres also called the Armenian massacres, were massacres of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire in the mid-1890s. Estimated casualties ranged from 100,000 to 300,000, resulting in 50,000 orphaned children. The massacres are named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who, in his efforts to maintain the imperial domain of the declining Ottoman Empire, reasserted pan-Islamism as a state ideology. Although the massacres were aimed mainly at the Armenians, in some cases they turned into indiscriminate anti-Christian pogroms, including the Diyarbekir massacres, where, at least according to one contemporary source, up to 25,000 Syriac/Aramaic Christians (Arameans) were also killed.

Muş

Muş

Muş is a city and the provincial capital of Muş Province in Turkey. Its population is mostly Kurds.

Sasun (historical region)

Sasun (historical region)

Sasun or Sassoun, also known as Sanasun or Sanasunkʻ, was a region of historical Armenia, now located in the eastern part of modern-day Turkey.

Hamidiye (cavalry)

Hamidiye (cavalry)

The Hamidiye regiments were well-armed, irregular, mainly Sunni Kurdish but also Turkish, Circassian, Turkmen, Yörük, and Arab cavalry formations that operated in the south eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire. Established by and named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1891, they were intended to be modeled after the Cossacks and were supposedly tasked to patrol the Russo-Ottoman frontier. However, the Hamidiye were more often used by the Ottoman authorities to harass and assault Armenians living in Eastern Provinces of the Ottoman Empire.

Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II

Abdülhamid or Abdul Hamid II was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 31 August 1876 to 27 April 1909, and the last sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state. The time period which he reigned in the Ottoman Empire is known as the Hamidian Era. He oversaw a period of decline, with rebellions, and he presided over an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire (1877–1878) followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897, though Ottoman gains were tempered by subsequent Western European intervention.

Caucasus

Caucasus

The Caucasus or Caucasia, is a region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, mainly comprising Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and parts of Southern Russia. The Caucasus Mountains, including the Greater Caucasus range, have historically been considered as a natural barrier between Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

Aghbiur Serob

Aghbiur Serob

Serob Vardanian, better known by his noms de guerre Aghbiur Serob and Serob Pasha, was a famed Armenian military commander who organized a guerrilla network that fought against the Ottoman Empire during the latter part of the 19th century.

Leader of the fedayi

Andranik on his horse, early 1900s
Andranik on his horse, early 1900s

Aghbiur Serob, the main leader of the fedayi in the 1890s, was killed in 1899 by a Kurdish chieftain, Bushare Khalil Bey.[17] Months later, Bey committed further atrocities against the Armenians by killing a priest, two young men and 25 women and children in Talvorik, a village in the Sasun region.[22] Andranik replaced Serob as the head of the Armenian irregular forces "with 38 villages under his command" in the Mush-Sasun region of Western Armenia,[8] where a "warlike semi-independent Armenian peasantry" lived.[17] Andranik sought to kill Bey; he captured and reportedly decapitated the chieftain, and took the medal given to Bey by Sultan Abdul Hamid II.[22][23][20] Andranik thus earned an undisputed authority among his fedayi.[24]

Although small groups of Armenian fedayi conducted an armed struggle against the Ottoman state and the Kurdish tribes, the situation in Western Armenia deteriorated as the European powers stood indifferent to the Armenian Question. Article 61 of the 1878 Treaty of Berlin intended the Ottoman government to "carry out, without further delay, the improvements and reforms demanded by local requirements in the provinces inhabited by the Armenians, and to guarantee their security against the Circassians and Kurds" remained unimplemented.[25] According to Christopher J. Walker, the attention of the European powers was on Macedonia, while Russia was "in no mood for reactivating the Armenian question."[26]

The New York Times report on the battle
The New York Times report on the battle

Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery

In November 1901 the fedayi clashed with the Ottoman troops in what later became known as the Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery. One of the best-known episodes of Andranik's revolutionary activities, it was an attempt by the Ottoman government to suppress his activities. Since Andranik had gained more influence over the region, more than 5,000 Turkish soldiers were sent after him and his band. The Turks chased and eventually circled him and his men, numbering around 50, at the Arakelots (Holy Apostles) Monastery in early November. A regiment under the command of Ferikh Pasha and Ali Pasha besieged the fort-like monastery. The Turkish generals leading the army of twelve hundred men asked the fedayi to negotiate their surrender.[27]

After weeks of resistance and negotiations—in which Armenian clergy and the headman of Mush and foreign consuls took part—Andranik and his companions left the monastery and fled in small groups. According to Leon Trotsky, Andranik—dressed in the uniform of a Turkish officer—"went the rounds of the entire guard, talking to them in excellent Turkish," and "at the same time showing the way out to his own men."[17][28] After breaking through the siege of the monastery, Andranik gained legendary stature among provincial Armenians.[4][29] He became so popular that the men he led came to refer to him always by his first name.[30] Andranik intended to attract the attention of the foreign consuls at Mush to the plight of the Armenian peasants and to provide hope for the oppressed Armenians of the eastern provinces.[30] According to Trotsky, Andranik's "political thinking took shape in a setting of Carbonarist activity and diplomatic intrigue."[20]

1904 Sasun uprising and exodus

In 1903, Andranik demanded the Ottoman government stop the harassment of Armenians and implement reforms in the Armenian provinces.[31] Most fedayi were concentrated in the mountainous region of Sasun, an area of about 12,000 km2 (4,600 sq mi) with an overwhelming Armenian majority—1,769 Armenian and 155 Kurdish households—which was traditionally considered their main operational area.[32] The region was in "a state of revolutionary turmoil" because the local Armenians had refused to pay taxes for the past seven years.[8][33] Andranik and tens of other fedayi—including Hrayr and Sebouh—held a meeting at Gelieguzan village in the third quarter of 1903 to manage the future defense of the Armenian villages from possible Turkish and Kurdish attacks. Andranik suggested a widespread uprising of the Armenians of Taron and Vaspurakan; Hrayr opposed his view and suggested a small, local uprising in Sasun, because the Armenian irregulars lacked resources. Hrayr's suggestion was eventually approved by the fedayi meeting. Andranik was chosen as the main commander of the uprising.[34][33]

The location of the Sasun uprising (orange) and the Bitlis Vilayet (yellow).
The location of the Sasun uprising (orange) and the Bitlis Vilayet (yellow).

The first clashes took place in January 1904 between the fedayi and Kurdish irregulars supported by the Ottoman government.[34] The Turkish offensive started in early April with an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 soldiers and 7,000 Kurdish irregulars put against 100 to 200 Armenian fedayi and 700 to 1,000 local Armenian men.[35][36] Hrayr was killed during the intense fighting; Andranik survived and resumed the fight.[37] Between 7,000 and 10,000 Armenian civilians were killed during the two months of the uprising, while about 9,000 were left homeless.[38] Around 4,000 Sasun villagers were forced into exile after the uprising.[35]

After weeks of fighting and cannon bombardment of the Armenian villages,[35] the Ottoman forces and Kurdish irregulars suppressed the uprising by May 1904; they outnumbered the Armenian forces several times.[8][38] Minor clashes occurred thereafter.[38] According to Christopher J. Walker, the fedayi came "near to organising an uprising and shaking Ottoman power in Armenia," but "even then it was unthinkable that the empire would lose any of her territory, since the idea of intervention was far from Russia."[26] Trotsky wrote that international attention was on the Russo-Japanese War and the uprising went largely unnoticed by the European powers and Russia.[35]

In July–August 1904, Andranik and his fedayi reached Lake Van and got to Aghtamar Island with sailing ships.[39][35] They escaped to Persia via Van in September 1904,[39] "leaving little more than a heroic memory."[8] Trotsky states that they were forced to leave Turkish Armenia to avoid further killings of Armenians and to lower the tensions,[35] while Tsatur Aghayan wrote that Andranik left the Ottoman Empire because he sought to "gather new resources and find practical programs" for the Armenian struggle.[15]

Discover more about Leader of the fedayi related topics

Armenian fedayi

Armenian fedayi

Fedayi, also known as the Armenian irregular units or Armenian militia, were Armenian civilians who voluntarily left their families to form self-defense units and irregular armed bands in reaction to the mass murder of Armenians and the pillage of Armenian villages by criminals, Kurdish gangs, Turkish forces, and Hamidian guards during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II in late 19th and early 20th centuries, known as the Hamidian massacres. Their ultimate goal was always to gain Armenian autonomy (Armenakans) or independence depending on their ideology and the degree of oppression visited on Armenians.

Sasun (historical region)

Sasun (historical region)

Sasun or Sassoun, also known as Sanasun or Sanasunkʻ, was a region of historical Armenia, now located in the eastern part of modern-day Turkey.

Abdul Hamid II

Abdul Hamid II

Abdülhamid or Abdul Hamid II was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 31 August 1876 to 27 April 1909, and the last sultan to exert effective control over the fracturing state. The time period which he reigned in the Ottoman Empire is known as the Hamidian Era. He oversaw a period of decline, with rebellions, and he presided over an unsuccessful war with the Russian Empire (1877–1878) followed by a successful war against the Kingdom of Greece in 1897, though Ottoman gains were tempered by subsequent Western European intervention.

Christopher J. Walker

Christopher J. Walker

Christopher Joseph Walker was a British historian and author.

Macedonia (region)

Macedonia (region)

Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Today the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan countries: larger parts in Greece, North Macedonia, and Bulgaria, and smaller parts in Albania, Serbia, and Kosovo. It covers approximately 67,000 square kilometres (25,869 sq mi) and has a population of 4.76 million.

Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery

Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery

The Battle of Holy Apostles Monastery was an armed conflict between Ottoman Empire forces and Armenian militia at the Holy Apostles (Arakhelots) Monastery near Mush, Ottoman Empire in November 1901.

Arakelots Monastery

Arakelots Monastery

Arakelots Monastery was an Armenian monastery in the historic province of Taron, 11 km south-east of Mush (Muş), in present-day eastern Turkey. According to tradition, Gregory the Illuminator founded the monastery to house relics of several apostles. The monastery was, however, most likely built in the 11th century. During the 12th-13th centuries it was a major center of learning. In the following centuries it was expanded, destroyed and renovated. It remained one of the prominent monasteries of Turkish (Western) Armenia until the Armenian genocide of 1915, when it was attacked and subsequently abandoned. It remained standing until the 1960s when it was reportedly blown up. Today, ruins of the monastery are still visible.

Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky

Lev Davidovich Bronstein, better known as Leon Trotsky, was a Russian revolutionary, political theorist and politician. Ideologically a Marxist, his developments to the ideology are called Trotskyism.

Carbonari

Carbonari

The Carbonari was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831. The Italian Carbonari may have further influenced other revolutionary groups in France, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, Uruguay and Russia. Although their goals often had a patriotic and liberal basis, they lacked a clear immediate political agenda. They were a focus for those unhappy with the repressive political situation in Italy following 1815, especially in the south of the Italian Peninsula. Members of the Carbonari, and those influenced by them, took part in important events in the process of Italian unification, especially the failed Revolution of 1820, and in the further development of Italian nationalism. The chief purpose was to defeat tyranny and to establish a constitutional government. In the north of Italy other groups, such as the Adelfia and the Filadelfia, were associate organizations.

1904 Sasun uprising

1904 Sasun uprising

The Sasun uprising or Sasun rebellion of 1904 was an uprising by Armenian militia against the Ottoman Empire in Turkey's Sason region in 1904. The empire wanted to prevent the formation of another semi-autonomous Armenian region in the eastern vilayets after its defeat in the First Zeitun Rebellion. In Sason, the Armenian national liberation movement recruited young Armenians.

Hrayr Dzhoghk

Hrayr Dzhoghk

Hrayr Dzhoghk, born, also known as Hrair, Hrayr, Tjokhk, Djohkh, Dzhokhk, was an Armenian military leader and strategist, fedayee, statesman and teacher, part of the Armenian national liberation movement. He was a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.

Sebouh Nersesian

Sebouh Nersesian

Arshag Nersesian, better known by his nom de guerre Sebouh or General Sebouh, was an Armenian military commander. He was the right-hand man of General Andranik Ozanian.

Immigration and conflict with the ARF

Andranik in the Bulgarian army, c. 1913
Andranik in the Bulgarian army, c. 1913

From Persia, Andranik moved to the Caucasus,[17] where he met the Armenian leaders in Baku and Tiflis. He then left Russia and traveled to Europe, where he was engaged in advocacy in support of the Armenians' national liberation struggle.[15][39] In 1906 in Geneva, he published a book on military tactics.[40] Most of the work was about his activities and the strategies he used during the 1904 Sasun uprising.[29]

In February–March 1907, Andranik went to Vienna to participate in the fourth ARF Congress. The ARF, which had been collaborating with Turkish émigré political groups in Europe since 1902, discussed and approved the negotiations with the Young Turks—who later perpetrated the Armenian genocide—to overthrow Sultan Abdul Hamid II. Andranik strongly denounced this cooperation and left the party.[8][41] In 1908, the ARF asked Andranik to move to Constantinople and nominate his candidacy in the Ottoman parliament election, but he declined the offer, saying "I don't want to sit there and do nothing."[11][42] Andranik distanced himself from active political and military affairs for several years.

First Balkan War

Armenian volunteers under Andranik during the Balkan War
Armenian volunteers under Andranik during the Balkan War

In 1907 Andranik settled in Sofia, where he met the leaders of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization—including revolutionary Boris Sarafov—and the two pledged to work jointly for the oppressed peoples of Armenia and Macedonia.[35][43] During the First Balkan War (1912–13), Andranik led a company of 230 Armenian volunteers— part of the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps of Aleksandar Protogerov within the Bulgarian army—against the Ottoman Empire.[17][44][45] He shared the command with Garegin Nzhdeh.[46] On the opposite side, approximately 8,000 Armenians fought for the Ottoman Empire.[47] Andranik was given the rank of a first lieutenant by the Bulgarian government.[39] He distinguished himself in several battles, including in the Battle of Merhamli, when he helped the Bulgarians to capture Turkish commander Yaver Pasha.[48][49] Andranik was honored with the Order of Bravery by General Protogerov in 1913.[49][50] However, Andranik disbanded his men in May 1913,[51] and foreseeing the war between Bulgaria and Serbia he "retired to a village near Varna, and lived as a farmer until August 1914."[39]

Discover more about Immigration and conflict with the ARF related topics

Baku

Baku

Baku is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. Baku is located 28 metres (92 ft) below sea level, which makes it the lowest lying national capital in the world and also the largest city in the world located below sea level. Baku lies on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, alongside the Bay of Baku. Baku's urban population was estimated at two million people as of 2009. Baku is the primate city of Azerbaijan—it is the sole metropolis in the country, and about 25% of all inhabitants of the country live in Baku's metropolitan area.

Geneva

Geneva

Geneva is the second-most populous city in Switzerland and the most populous city of Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland. Situated in the south west of the country, where the Rhône exits Lake Geneva, it is the capital of the Republic and Canton of Geneva.

Armenian genocide

Armenian genocide

The Armenian genocide was the systematic destruction of the Armenian people and identity in the Ottoman Empire during World War I. Spearheaded by the ruling Committee of Union and Progress (CUP), it was implemented primarily through the mass murder of around one million Armenians during death marches to the Syrian Desert and the forced Islamization of Armenian women and children.

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization

The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, was a secret revolutionary society founded in the Ottoman territories in Europe, that operated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Boris Sarafov

Boris Sarafov

Boris Petrov Sarafov was a Bulgarian Army officer and revolutionary, one of the leaders of Supreme Macedonian-Adrianople Committee (SMAC) and Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (VMORO). He is considered an ethnic Macedonian in North Macedonia, having identified occasionally as a Macedonian in his life.

First Balkan War

First Balkan War

The First Balkan War lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and involved actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The Balkan states' combined armies overcame the initially numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, achieving rapid success.

Company (military unit)

Company (military unit)

A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–250 soldiers and usually commanded by a major or a captain. Most companies are formed of three to seven platoons, although the exact number may vary by country, unit type, and structure.

Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps

Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps

The Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps was a volunteer corps of the Bulgarian Army during the Balkan Wars. It was formed on 23 September 1912 and consisted of Bulgarian volunteers from Macedonia and Thrace, regions still under Ottoman rule, and thus not subject to Bulgarian military service.

Aleksandar Protogerov

Aleksandar Protogerov

Alexandar Protogerov was a Bulgarian general, politician and revolutionary, as well as a member of the revolutionary movement in Macedonia, Thrace and Pomoravlje. Protogerov was a Bulgarian Freemason and held a leading position in the lodge where he was a member.

Garegin Nzhdeh

Garegin Nzhdeh

Garegin Ter-Harutyunyan, better known by his nom de guerre Garegin Nzhdeh, was an Armenian statesman, military commander and political thinker. As a member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, he was involved in the national liberation struggle and revolutionary activities during the First Balkan War and World War I and became one of the key political and military leaders of the First Republic of Armenia (1918–1921). He is widely admired as a charismatic national hero by Armenians.

First lieutenant

First lieutenant

First lieutenant is a commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces; in some forces, it is an appointment.

Battle of Merhamli

Battle of Merhamli

The Battle of Merhamli was part of the First Balkan War between the armies of Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire which took place on 14/27 November 1912. After a long chase throughout Western Thrace the Bulgarian troops led by General Nikola Genev and Colonel Aleksandar Tanev surrounded the 10,000-strong Kırcaali Detachment under the command of Mehmed Yaver Pasha. Attacked in the surrounding of the village Merhamli, only a few of the Ottomans managed to cross the Maritsa River. The rest surrendered in the following day on 28 November.

World War I

Andranik as the commander of the first Armenian volunteer battalion
Andranik as the commander of the first Armenian volunteer battalion
Andranik with his men during World War I
Andranik with his men during World War I

With the outbreak of World War I in July 1914 between Russia, France and Britain on one side and Germany, the Ottoman Empire and Austria on the other, Andranik left Bulgaria for Russia.[17] He was appointed the commander of the first Armenian volunteer battalion by the Russian government. From November 1914 to August 1915, Andranik took part in the Caucasus Campaign as the head commander of the first Armenian battalion of about 1,200 volunteers within the Imperial Russian Army.[52][49] Andranik's battalion particularly stood out at the Battle of Dilman in April 1915.[17] By the victory at Dilman, the Russian and Armenian forces under the command of General Nazarbekian, effectively stopped the Turks from invading the Caucasus via Iranian Azerbaijan.[49][53]

Through 1915, the Armenian genocide was underway in the Ottoman Empire.[53] By the end of the war, virtually all Armenians living in their ancestral homeland were either dead or forced into exile by the Ottoman government. An estimated 1.5 million Armenians died in the process, ending the Armenian presence in Western Armenia.[54][55] The only major resistance to the Turkish atrocities took place in Van.[56] The Turkish army besieged the city but the local Armenians, under the leadership of Aram Manukian, kept them out until the Armenian volunteers reached Van, forcing the Turks to retreat.[57] Andranik with his unit entered Van on 19 May 1915.[53] Andranik subsequently helped the Russian army to take control of Shatakh, Moks and Tatvan on the southern shore of Lake Van.[58] During the summer of 1915, the Armenian volunteer units disintegrated and Andranik went to Tiflis to recruit more volunteers and continued the combat from November 1915 until March 1916.[57] With Andranik's support, the city of Mush was captured by Russians in February 1916.[58] In recognition of lieutenant general Theodore G. Chernozubov, the successes of Russian army in numerous locations were significantly associated with the fighting of the first Armenian battalion, headed by Andranik. Chernozubov praised Andranik as a brave and experienced chief, who well understood the combat situation; Chernozubov described him as always at the head of militia, enjoying great prestige among the volunteers.[59]

The situation drastically changed in 1916 when the Russian government ordered the Armenian volunteer units to be demobilized and prohibited any Armenian civic activity.[56] Andranik resigned as the commander of the first Armenian battalion.[57] Despite the earlier Russian promises, their plan for the region was to make Western Armenia an integral part of Russia and "possibly repopulate by Russian peasants and Cossacks."[60] Richard Hovannisian wrote that because the "Russian armies were in firm control of most of the Armenian plateau by the summer of 1916, there was no longer any need to expend niceties upon the Armenians."[61] According to Tsatur Aghayan, Russia used the Armenian volunteers for its own interests.[57] Andranik and other Armenian volunteers, disappointed by the Russian policy, left the front in July 1916.[57]

Russian Revolution and Turkish reoccupation

The greatest extent of the Russian occupation of Turkish Armenia during World War I, September 1917. The area was reoccupied by the Turks between February and April 1918.
The greatest extent of the Russian occupation of Turkish Armenia during World War I, September 1917. The area was reoccupied by the Turks between February and April 1918.

The February Revolution was positively accepted by the Armenians because it ended the autocratic rule of Nicholas II.[59] The Special Transcaucasian Committee (known as OZAKOM) was set up in the South Caucasus by the Russian Provisional Government.[61] In April 1917, Andranik initiated the publication of the newspaper Hayastan (Armenia) in Tiflis.[59][62] Vahan Totovents became the editor of this non-partisan, Ottoman Armenian-orientated newspaper.[63] Until December 1917, Andranik remained in the South Caucasus where he sought to help the Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire in their search for basic needs.[57] The provisional government decree of 9 May 1917 put Turkish Armenia under civil administration, with Armenians holding key positions. About 150,000 local Armenians began to rebuild devastated Turkish Armenia; however the Russian army units gradually disintegrated and many soldiers deserted and returned to Russia.[61]

After the 1917 October Revolution, the chaotic retreat of Russian troops from Western Armenia escalated.[64] Bolshevik Russia and the Ottoman Empire signed the Armistice of Erzincan on 5 December 1917, ending the hostilities. The Soviet Russian government formally acknowledged the right of self-determination of the Ottoman Armenians in January 1918, but on 3 March 1918, Russia signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with the Central Powers, ceding Western Armenia and large areas in Eastern Europe to concentrate its forces against the Whites in the Russian Civil War.[65]

In December 1917, because the Russian divisions were deserting the region en masse, the Russian command authorized the formation of the Armenian Army Corps under the Transcaucasian Commissariat. Under the command of General Nazarbekian, the Corps was positioned in the front line from Van to Erzincan—a city of around about 20,000 people. Two of the Corps' three divisions were made up of Russian Armenians, while Andranik commanded the Turkish (Western) Armenian division.[66] The Georgian forces patrolled the area between Erzincan and the Black Sea. Hovannisian states that the only "several thousand men now defended a 300-mile front formerly secured by a half million Russian regulars."[67] Since December 1917, Andranik commanded the Armenian forces in Erzurum. In January 1918, he was appointed commander of the Western Armenian division of the Armenian Army Corps and given the rank of major-general by the Caucasus Front command.[3][11] Andranik was unable to defend Erzurum for long and the outnumbering Turks captured the city on 12 March 1918, forcing the Armenians to evacuate.[66][17]

While the Transcaucasian delegation and the Turks were holding a conference in Trebizond, through March and April the Turkish forces, according to Walker, "overran the temporary establishment of Armenian rule in Turkish Armenia, extinguishing the hope so recently raised."[66] Hovannisian wrote, "the battle for Turkish Armenia had been quickly decided; the struggle for Russian Armenia was now at hand."[68] After the Turks captured Erzurum, the largest city in Turkish Armenia, Andranik retreated through Kars, passed through Alexandropol and Jalaloghly, and arrived in Dsegh by 18 May.[11][69] By early April 1918, the Turkish forces had reached the pre-war international borders.[68] Andranik and his unit in Dsegh were not able to take part in the battles of Sardarabad, Abaran and Karakilisa.[69]

Discover more about World War I related topics

World War I

World War I

World War I, often abbreviated as WWI, was one of the deadliest global conflicts in history. It was fought between two coalitions, the first being the Allies, whose key members included France, Britain, Russia, Italy, Japan and their respective colonial empires, with the United States joining as an associated power in 1917. They faced the Central Powers, primarily Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire, with fighting occurring throughout Europe, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific, and parts of Asia. An estimated 9 million soldiers were killed in combat, plus another 23 million wounded, while 5 million civilians died as a result of military action, hunger, and disease. Millions more died as a result of genocide, while the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic was exacerbated by the movement of combatants during the war.

Imperial Russian Army

Imperial Russian Army

The Imperial Russian Army was the armed land force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917. In the early 1850s, the Russian Army consisted of more than 900,000 regular soldiers and nearly 250,000 irregulars.

Battle of Dilman

Battle of Dilman

The Battle of Dilman was a battle during World War I fought at Dilman between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire.

Tovmas Nazarbekian

Tovmas Nazarbekian

Tovmas Nazarbekian, also known as Foma Nazarbekov, was an Armenian general in the Russian Caucasus Army and later promoted to commander-in-chief of the First Republic of Armenia.

Western Armenia

Western Armenia

Western Armenia is a term to refer to the eastern parts of Turkey that are part of the historical homeland of the Armenians. Western Armenia, also referred to as Byzantine Armenia, emerged following the division of Greater Armenia between the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Persia in 387 AD.

Defense of Van (1915)

Defense of Van (1915)

The defense of Van was the armed resistance of the Armenian population of Van against the Ottoman Empire's attempts to massacre the Ottoman Armenian population of the Van Vilayet in the 1915 Armenian genocide. Several contemporaneous observers and later historians have concluded that the Ottoman government deliberately instigated an armed Armenian resistance in the city and then used this insurgency as the main pretext to justify beginning the deportation and slaughter of Armenians throughout the empire. Witness reports agree that the Armenian posture at Van was defensive and an act of resistance to massacre. The self-defense action is frequently cited in Armenian genocide denial literature; it has become "the alpha and omega of the plea of 'military necessity'" to excuse the genocide and portray the persecution of Armenians as justified.

Aram Manukian

Aram Manukian

Aram Manukian, was an Armenian revolutionary, statesman, and a leading member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) party. He is widely regarded as the founder of the First Republic of Armenia.

Tatvan

Tatvan

Tatvan is a city on the western shore of Lake Van. It is the chief city of Tatvan District within Bitlis Province in eastern Turkey, and has about 96,000 inhabitants. The current mayor is Mehmet Emin Geylani (AKP).

Cossacks

Cossacks

The Cossacks are a predominantly East Slavic Orthodox Christian people originating in the Pontic–Caspian steppe of Ukraine and southern Russia. Historically, they were a semi-nomadic and semi-militarized people, who, while under the nominal suzerainty of various Eastern European states at the time, were allowed a great degree of self-governance in exchange for military service. Although numerous linguistic and religious groups came together to form the Cossacks, most of them coalesced and became East Slavic-speaking Orthodox Christians. The Cossacks were particularly noted for holding democratic traditions. The rulers of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Russian Empire endowed Cossacks with certain special privileges in return for the military duty to serve in the irregular troops. The various Cossack groups were organized along military lines, with large autonomous groups called hosts. Each host had a territory consisting of affiliated villages called stanitsa.

February Revolution

February Revolution

The February Revolution, known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution and sometimes as the March Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

First Republic of Armenia

Republic of Armenia delegation to the United States. Andranik is second from the bottom right.
Republic of Armenia delegation to the United States. Andranik is second from the bottom right.

After the Ottoman forces were effectively stopped at Sardarabad, the Armenian National Council declared the independence of the Russian Armenian lands on 28 May 1918. Andranik condemned this move and denounced the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.[70] Angry with the Dashnaks, he favored good relations with Bolshevik Russia instead.[17][69] Andranik refused to acknowledge the Republic of Armenia, which he regarded as little more than "a pawn in the grip of [Ottoman] Turkey․"[71] He condemned the singing of the Treaty of Batum (by which the Ottoman Empire recognized the independence of a greatly reduced Armenia and imposed a number of humiliating conditions) as an act of treason.[71] As Christopher Walker notes, many Turkish Armenians saw the new republic as "only a dusty province without Turkish Armenia whose salvation Armenians had been seeking for 40 years."[72] In early June, Andranik departed from Dilijan with thousands of refugees; they traveled through Sevan, Nor Bayazet and Vayots Dzor, and arrived in Nakhichevan on 17 June.[11] He subsequently tried to help the Armenian refugees from Van at Khoy, Iran. He sought to join the British forces in northern Iran, but after encountering a large number of Turkish soldiers he retreated to Nakhichevan.[11][71] On 14 July 1918, he proclaimed Nakhichevan an integral part of (Soviet) Russia. His move was welcomed by Armenian Bolshevik leader Stepan Shahumyan and Vladimir Lenin.[17][73]

Zangezur

Andranik with the commanders of the Special Striking Division in Zangezur, 1918
Andranik with the commanders of the Special Striking Division in Zangezur, 1918

As the Turkish forces moved towards Nakhichevan, Andranik with his Armenian Special Striking Division moved to the mountainous region of Zangezur to set up a defense.[11] By mid-1918, the relations between the Armenians and Azerbaijanis in Zangezur had deteriorated.[74] Andranik arrived in Zangezur at a critical moment with around 30,000 refugees and an estimated force of between 3,000 and 5,000 men. He established effective control of the region by September. The role of Zangezur was crucial because it was a connection point between Turkey and Azerbaijan. Under Andranik, the region became one of the last centers of Armenian resistance after the Treaty of Batum.[71]

Andranik's irregulars remained in Zangezur surrounded by Muslim villages that controlled the key routes connecting the different parts of Zangezur.[71] According to Donald Bloxham, Andranik initiated the change of Zangezur into a solidly Armenian land by destroying Muslim villages and trying to ethnically homogenize key areas of the Armenian state.[75] In late 1918, Azerbaijan accused Andranik of killing innocent Azerbaijani peasants in Zangezur and demanded that he withdraw Armenian units from the area. Antranig Chalabian wrote that, "Without the presence of General Andranik and his Special Striking Division, what is now the Zangezur district of Armenia would be party of Azerbaijan today. Without General Andranik and his men, only a miracle could have saved the sixty thousand Armenian inhabitants of the Zangezur district from complete annihilation by the Turko-Tatar forces in the fall of 1918";[76] he further stated that Andranik "did not massacre peaceful Tatars."[77] Andranik's activities in Zangezur were protested by Ottoman general Halil Pasha, who threatened the Dashnak government with retaliation for Andranik's actions. Armenia's Prime Minister Hovhannes Katchaznouni said he had no control over Andranik and his forces.[78]

Karabakh

Andranik with the Military Council of Goris, 1918
Andranik with the Military Council of Goris, 1918

The Ottoman Empire was officially defeated in the First World War and the Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October 1918. The Ottoman forces evacuated Karabakh in November 1918 and by the end of October of that year, Andranik's forces were concentrated between Zangezur and Karabakh. Before moving towards Karabakh, Andranik made sure that the local Armenians would support him in fighting the Azerbaijanis. In mid-November 1918, he received letters from Karabakh Armenian officials asking him to postpone the offensive for 10 days to allow negotiations with the Muslims of the region. According to Hovannisian, "the time lost proved crucial." In late November, Andranik's forces headed towards Shushi—the main city of Karabakh and a major Armenian cultural center. After an intense fight against the local Kurds, his forces broke through Abdallyar (Lachin) and the surrounding villages.[79]

By early December, Andranik was 40 km (25 mi) away from Shushi when he received a message from British General W. M. Thomson in Baku, suggesting that he retreat from Karabakh because the World War was over and any further Armenian military activity would adversely affect the solution of the Armenian question, which was soon to be considered by the 1919 peace conference in Paris.[80] Trusting the British, Andranik returned to Zangezur.[81]

The region was left under limited control of the Armenian Karabakh Council. The British mission under command of Thomson arrived in Karabakh in December 1918. Thomson insisted the council "act only in local, nonpolitical matters," which sparked discontent among the Armenians.[80] An "ardent pan-Turkist" Khosrov bey Sultanov was soon appointed the governor of Karabakh and Zangezur by Thomson to "squash any unrest in the region."[81] Christopher J. Walker wrote that "[Karabakh] with its large Armenian majority remained Azerbaijani throughout the pre-Soviet and Soviet period" because of "Andranik's trust of the word of a British officer."[82]

Departure

Andranik with his men and two archbishops in Etchmiadzin just before leaving Armenia, April 1919
Andranik with his men and two archbishops in Etchmiadzin just before leaving Armenia, April 1919

During the winter of 1918–19, Zangezur was isolated from Karabakh and Yerevan by snow. The refugees intensified the famine and epidemic conditions and gave way to inflation. In December 1918, Andranik withdrew from Karabakh to Goris. On his way, he met with British officers who suggested the Armenian units stay in Zangezur for the winter. Andranik agreed to such a proposal and on 23 December 1918, a group of Armenian leaders met in a conference and concluded that Zangezur could not cope with the influx of refugees until spring.[83] They agreed that the first logical step in relieving the tension was the reparation of more than 15,000 refugees from Nakhichevan—the adjoining district that had been evacuated by the Ottoman armies.[84] Andranik and the conference called upon the British to provide for the refugees in the interim. Major W. D. Gibbon arrived with limited supplies and money donated by the Armenians of Baku, but this was not enough to support the refugees.[85]

Andranik Ozanian and Hovhannes Tumanyan in Tiflis
Andranik Ozanian and Hovhannes Tumanyan in Tiflis

At the end of February 1919, Andranik was ready to leave Zangezur. Gibbon suggested Andranik and his soldiers leave by Baku-Tiflis railway at Yevlakh station. Andranik rejected this plan and on 22 March 1919, he left Goris and traveled across Sisian through deep snowdrifts to Daralagyaz, then moved to the Ararat plain with his few thousand irregulars.[84] After a three-week march, his men and horses reached the railway station of Davalu. He was met by Dro, the Assistant Minister of Military Affairs and Sargis Manasian, the Assistant Minister of Internal Affairs, who offered to take him to visit Yerevan, but he rejected their invitation as he believed the Dashnak government had betrayed the Armenians and was responsible for the loss of his homeland and the annihilation of his people. Zangezur became more vulnerable to Azerbaijani threats after Andranik left the district. Earlier, before Andranik's and his soldiers' dismissal, the local Armenian forces had requested support from Yerevan.[85]

On 13 April 1919, Andranik reached Etchmiadzin, the seat of Catholicos of All Armenians and the religious center of the Armenians, who helped the troops prepare for disbanding.[86] His 5,000-strong division had dwindled to 1,350 soldiers.[87] As a result of Andranik's disagreements with the Dashnak government and the diplomatic machinations of the British in the Caucasus, Andranik disbanded his division and handed his belongings and weapons to the Catholicos George V.[88] On 27 April 1919, he left Etchmiadzin accompanied by 15 officers, and went to Tiflis on a special train; according to Blackwood, "news of his journey traveled before him. At every station crowds were waiting to get a glimpse of their national hero."[86] He left Armenia for the last time; in Tiflis he met with Georgia's Foreign Minister Evgeni Gegechkori and discussed the Georgian–Armenian War. The Tbilisi-based writer Hovhannes Tumanyan served as their interpreter.[88]

Discover more about First Republic of Armenia related topics

Russian Armenia

Russian Armenia

Russian Armenia is the period of Armenian history under Russian rule from 1828, when Eastern Armenia became part of the Russian Empire following Qajar Iran's loss in the Russo-Persian War (1826–1828) and the subsequent ceding of its territories that included Eastern Armenia per the out coming Treaty of Turkmenchay of 1828.

Treaty of Batum

Treaty of Batum

The Treaty of Batum was signed in Batum on 4 June 1918, between the Ottoman Empire and the three Transcaucasian states: the First Republic of Armenia, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and the Democratic Republic of Georgia. It was the first treaty of the First Republic of Armenia and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic and had 14 articles.

Dilijan

Dilijan

Dilijan is a spa town and urban municipal community in the Tavush Province of Armenia. The town is one of the most important resorts in Armenia, situated within the Dilijan National Park. The forested town is home to numerous Armenian artists, composers, and filmmakers and features some traditional Armenian architecture. The town is often referred to as the Armenian Switzerland or Little Switzerland by the locals.

Sevan, Armenia

Sevan, Armenia

Sevan is a town and urban municipal community, as well as one of the most popular resorts in Armenia, located in the Gegharkunik Province on the northwestern shores of Lake Sevan. The town is built at a height of more than 1,925 metres above sea level, 65 km (40 mi) northeast of the capital Yerevan, and 35 km (22 mi) north of the provincial centre Gavar.

Nakhchivan (city)

Nakhchivan (city)

Nakhchivan is the capital of the eponymous Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, located 450 km (280 mi) west of Baku. The municipality of Nakhchivan consists of the city of Nakhchivan, the settlement of Əliabad and the villages of Başbaşı, Bulqan, Haciniyyət, Qaraçuq, Qaraxanbəyli, Tumbul, Qarağalıq, and Daşduz. It is spread over the foothills of Zangezur Mountains, on the right bank of the Nakhchivan River at an altitude of 873 m (2,864 ft) above sea level.

Khoy

Khoy

Khoy, is a city and capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran. At the 2012 census, its population was 200,985.

Donald Bloxham

Donald Bloxham

Donald Bloxham FRHistS is a Professor of Modern History, specialising in genocide, war crimes and other mass atrocities studies. He is the editor of the Journal of Holocaust Education.

Antranig Chalabian

Antranig Chalabian

Antranig Chalabian was a medical illustrator, cartographer and historian, an author of several volumes on Armenian history. He is best known for his biography of General Andranik Ozanyan.

Halil Pasha

Halil Pasha

Halil Pasha was an Ottoman statesman who served as the governor of Ottoman Egypt from 1631 to 1633. He was known for his "gentle, impartial, and prosperous administration" which was in large contrast to the "rapacious" administration of his predecessor, Koca Musa Pasha. In Shawwal 1041 AH, while governor, he sent an expeditionary force to the Hejaz to retake Mecca from Yemeni troops who had seized the city in the name of a pretender to the Sharifate.

Goris

Goris

Goris is a town and the centre of the urban community of Goris, in Syunik Province at the south of Armenia. Located in the valley of the Goris River, it is 254 km from the Armenian capital Yerevan and 67 km from the provincial capital Kapan. Goris is the second-largest city in Syunik in terms of population. During the 2011 census, it had a population of 20,591, down from 23,261 reported in the 2001 census. However, as per the 2016 official estimate, the population of Goris was 20,300. Goris is the seat of the Diocese of Syunik of the Armenian Apostolic Church.

Armistice of Mudros

Armistice of Mudros

Concluded on 30 October 1918 and taking effect at noon the next day, the Armistice of Mudros ended hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey and British Admiral Somerset Arthur Gough-Calthorpe, on board HMS Agamemnon in Moudros harbor on the Greek island of Lemnos.

Karabakh

Karabakh

Karabakh is a geographic region in present-day southwestern Azerbaijan and eastern Armenia, extending from the highlands of the Lesser Caucasus down to the lowlands between the rivers Kura and Aras.

Last years

Andranik Ozanian with General Jaques Bagratuni and Hovhannes Katchaznouni and Armenian military personnel in the United States, 1919
Andranik Ozanian with General Jaques Bagratuni and Hovhannes Katchaznouni and Armenian military personnel in the United States, 1919

From 1919 to 1922, Andranik traveled around Europe and the United States seeking support for the Armenian refugees. He visited Paris and London, where he tried to persuade the Allied powers to occupy Turkish Armenia.[17] In 1919, during his visit to France, Andranik was bestowed the title of Legion of Honor Officier by President Raymond Poincaré.[89][90] In late 1919, Andranik led a delegation to the United States to lobby its support for a mandate for Armenia and fund-raising for the Armenian army.[17][91][92] He was accompanied by General Jaques Bagratuni and Hovhannes Katchaznouni.[93] In Fresno, he directed a campaign which raised US$500,000 for the relief of Armenian war refugees.[94]

Andranik's wedding in Paris, 1922
Andranik's wedding in Paris, 1922

When he returned to Europe, Andranik married Nevarte Kurkjian in Paris on 15 May 1922; Boghos Nubar was their best man.[95] Andranik and Nevarte moved to the United States and settled in Fresno, California in 1922.[96] In his 1936 short story, Antranik of Armenia, Armenian-American writer William Saroyan described Andranik's arrival. He wrote, "It looked as if all Armenians of California were at the Southern Pacific depot at the day he arrived." He said Andranik "was a man of about fifty in a neat Armenians suit of clothes. He was a little under six feet tall, very solid and very strong. He had an old-style Armenian mustache that was white. The expression of his face was both ferocious and kind."[97] Andranik lived with the family of Armen Alchian, who later became a prominent economist, in Fresno for several months.[98]

In his novel Call of the Plowmen («Ռանչպարների կանչը», 1979), where Andranik is called Shapinand, Khachik Dashtents describes his life in Fresno:

After clashing with the leaders of the Araratian Republic and leaving Armenia, Shapinand settled in the city of Fresno, California. The basement of his house was converted into a hotel. His sword, the Mosin–Nagant rifle and his military uniform hung from the wall. This is also where he kept his horse, which he had brought to America on a steamship. Those weapons, that uniform, the grey papakhi, the black boots, and lion-like steed – this was the personal wealth he had come to possess throughout his life. His business no longer had to do with weapons. Shapinand spent his free time making small wooden chairs in his hotel. Many people, refusing to buy the quality American armchairs, bought his simple ones, some for use, others as souvenirs.[99]

Discover more about Last years related topics

Jaques Bagratuni

Jaques Bagratuni

Prince Jaques Bagratuni was an Armenian prince and military commander. He was a Major General of the Russian Empire and First Republic of Armenia during World War I, and later became the Ambassador of Armenia to England.

Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Poincaré

Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré was a French statesman who served as President of France from 1913 to 1920, and three times as Prime Minister of France.

Paris

Paris

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km², making it the 30th most densely populated city in the world in 2020. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of the world's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, gastronomy, and science. For its leading role in the arts and sciences, as well as its very early system of street lighting, in the 19th century it became known as "the City of Light". Like London, prior to the Second World War, it was also sometimes called the capital of the world.

Boghos Nubar

Boghos Nubar

Boghos Nubar, also known as Boghos Nubar Pasha, was a chairman of the Armenian National Delegation, and the founder, alongside ten other Armenian national movement leaders, of the Armenian General Benevolent Union (AGBU) on April 15, 1906, becoming its first ever president, a position he held from 1906 to 1928.

Fresno, California

Fresno, California

Fresno is a major city in the San Joaquin Valley of California, United States. It is the county seat of Fresno County and the largest city in the greater Central Valley region. It covers about 115 square miles (300 km2) and had a population of 542,107 in 2020, making it the fifth-most populous city in California, the most populous inland city in California, and the 34th-most populous city in the nation. The Metro population of Fresno is 1,008,654 as of 2022.

William Saroyan

William Saroyan

William Saroyan was an Armenian-American novelist, playwright, and short story writer. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Drama in 1940, and in 1943 won the Academy Award for Best Story for the film The Human Comedy. When the studio rejected his original 240-page treatment, he turned it into a novel, The Human Comedy. Saroyan is regarded as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.

Armen Alchian

Armen Alchian

Armen Albert Alchian was an American economist. He spent almost his entire career at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). A major microeconomic theorist, he is known as one of the founders of new institutional economics and widely acknowledged for his work on property rights.

Khachik Dashtents

Khachik Dashtents

Khachik Dashtents was an ethnic Armenian Soviet writer, poet and translator.

First Republic of Armenia

First Republic of Armenia

The First Republic of Armenia, officially known at the time of its existence as the Republic of Armenia, was the first modern, although short-lived, Armenian state since the loss of Armenian statehood in the Middle Ages. The republic was established in May 1918, in the Armenian-populated territories of the former Russian Empire known as Eastern or Russian Armenia. The country bordered the Democratic Republic of Georgia to the north, the Ottoman Empire to the west, Persia to the south, and the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic to the east.

Mosin–Nagant

Mosin–Nagant

The Mosin–Nagant is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed military rifle. Known officially as the 3-line rifle M1891 and informally in Russia and former Soviet Union as Mosin's rifle, it is primarily found chambered for its original 7.62×54mmR cartridge.

Death

Andranik's grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris
Andranik's grave in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris
Andranik's grave at Yerablur cemetery
Andranik's grave at Yerablur cemetery

In February 1926, Andranik left Fresno to reside in San Francisco in an unsuccessful attempt to regain his health.[94] According to his death certificate found in the Butte County, California records, Andranik died from angina on 31 August 1927 at Richardson Springs, California.[100][101] On 7 September 1927, citywide public attention was accorded to him for his funeral in the Ararat Cemetery, Fresno.[102] On October 9 more than 2,500 members of the Armenian community attended memorial services at Carnegie Hall in New York.[103]

He was initially buried at Ararat Cemetery in Fresno. After his first funeral, it was planned to take Andranik's remains to Armenia for final burial; however, when they arrived in France, the Soviet authorities refused permission to allow his remains to enter Soviet Armenia.[6][17] Instead they remained in France and, after a second funeral service held in the Armenian Church of Paris, were buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris on 29 January 1928.[104][105] In early 2000, the Armenian and French governments arranged the transfer of Andranik's body from Paris to Yerevan. Asbarez wrote that the transfer was initiated by Armenia's Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan.[106] Andranik's body was moved to Armenia on 17 February 2000.[107] It was placed in the Sport & Concert Complex in Yerevan for two days and was then taken to Etchmiadzin Cathedral, where Karekin II officiated the funeral service.[106] Andranik was re-interred at Yerablur military cemetery in Yerevan on 20 February 2000, next to Vazgen Sargsyan.[106][108][109] In his speech during the reburial ceremony, Armenia's President Robert Kocharyan described Andranik as "one of the greatest sons of the Armenian nation."[110] Prime Minister Aram Sargsyan, Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian, and one of Andranik's soldiers, 102-year-old Grigor Ghazarian, were also in attendance.[111] A memorial was built on his grave with the phrase Zoravar Hayots—"General of the Armenians"—engraved on it.

Discover more about Death related topics

Père Lachaise Cemetery

Père Lachaise Cemetery

Père Lachaise Cemetery is the largest cemetery in Paris, France. With more than 3.5 million visitors annually, it is the most visited necropolis in the world. Notable figures in the arts buried at Père Lachaise include Michel Ney, Frédéric Chopin, Émile Waldteufel, Édith Piaf, Marcel Proust, Georges Méliès, Marcel Marceau, Sarah Bernhardt, Oscar Wilde, Thierry Fortineau, J.R.D. Tata, Jim Morrison and Sir Richard Wallace.

Butte County, California

Butte County, California

Butte County is a county located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California. In the 2020 census, its population was 211,632. The county seat is Oroville.

Richardson Springs, California

Richardson Springs, California

Richardson Springs is an unincorporated community in Butte County, California. It is located on Mud Creek 8.5 miles (13.7 km) north-northeast of Chico, at an elevation of 620 feet. The place is named for J.H. and Lee Richardson, who founded spas here in 1898. A post office was opened in 1933.

Ararat Cemetery

Ararat Cemetery

The Ararat Massis Armenian Cemetery, commonly known as the Ararat Cemetery, is an Armenian cemetery in Fresno, California. Established in 1885, the cemetery is the burial place of many prominent figures of Armenian-American history, including Soghomon Tehlirian, Victor Maghakian, and William Saroyan. The Ararat Massis Cemetery was the only Armenian cemetery built outside Armenia and the Middle East for more than a century.

Carnegie Hall

Carnegie Hall

Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City. It is at 881 Seventh Avenue, occupying the east side of Seventh Avenue between West 56th and 57th Streets. Designed by architect William Burnet Tuthill and built by philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, it is one of the most prestigious venues in the world for both classical music and popular music. Carnegie Hall has its own artistic programming, development, and marketing departments and presents about 250 performances each season. It is also rented out to performing groups.

Armenian Cathedral of St. John the Baptist

Armenian Cathedral of St. John the Baptist

The Armenian Apostolic Cathedral in Paris is located at 15 Rue Jean-Goujon in the 8th arrondissement of Paris and is dedicated to John the Baptist. Designed by Albert Guilbert, it was constructed between 5 October 1902 and 1904.

Asbarez

Asbarez

Asbarez is an Armenian-American bilingual daily newspaper published in Armenian and English in Los Angeles, California, formerly by the Western USA Central Committee of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation. As of late 2020, the newspaper is no longer affiliated with the Armenian Revolutionary Federation.

Karen Demirchyan Complex

Karen Demirchyan Complex

Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex, also known as Demirchyan Arena, Sports & Music Complex, or simply Hamalir, is a large multi-purpose sports and concert complex with 184 stairs leading up Tsitsernakaberd hill which dominates over the western parts of Yerevan, near the Hrazdan River gorge.

Etchmiadzin Cathedral

Etchmiadzin Cathedral

Etchmiadzin Cathedral is the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, located in the city dually known as Etchmiadzin (Ejmiatsin) or Vagharshapat, Armenia. It is usually considered the first cathedral built in ancient Armenia, and is often considered the oldest cathedral in the world.

Karekin II

Karekin II

Catholicos Karekin II is the current Catholicos of All Armenians, the supreme head of the Armenian Apostolic Church. In 2013 he was unanimously elected the Oriental Orthodox head of the World Council of Churches for the next eight years.

Robert Kocharyan

Robert Kocharyan

Robert Sedraki Kocharyan is an Armenian politician. He served as the President of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic from 1994 to 1997 and Prime Minister of Nagorno-Karabakh from 1992 to 1994. He served as the second President of Armenia between 1998 and 2008 and as Prime Minister of Armenia from 1997 to 1998.

Aram Sargsyan

Aram Sargsyan

Aram Zaveni Sargsyan is an Armenian political figure. He was Prime Minister of Armenia from 3 November 1999 to 2 May 2000.

Legacy and recognition

Public image

"General Andranik, the great Armenian leader, who is our national hero [...] For many years General Andranik kept alive the courage of all Armenians. He promised them freedom and constantly endangered his life to keep up the spirits of my people."

 —Aurora Mardiganian, Ravished Armenia (1918)[112]

Andranik was considered a hero during his lifetime.[113][114] The Literary Digest described Andranik in 1920 as "the Armenian's Robin Hood, Garibaldi, and Washington, all in one."[115] The Independent wrote that he is "worshiped by his countrymen for his heroic fighting in their defense against the Turks."[116] Andranik was praised by the noted Armenian writer Hovhannes Tumanyan,[59] while Armenian Bolshevik Anastas Mikoyan wrote in his memoirs that "the name Andranik was surrounded by halo of glory."[117]

General Andranik on the cover of the French magazine L'Image, 1919
General Andranik on the cover of the French magazine L'Image, 1919

Andranik is considered a national hero by Armenians worldwide.[108][118][119] He is also seen as a legendary figure in Armenian culture.[11][120] In a series of polls in 2006–08, Andranik consistently placed second after Vazgen Sargsyan in the list of Armenian national heroes and leaders.[121]

During the Soviet period, his legacy and those of other Armenian national heroes were diminished and "any reference to them would be dangerous since they represented the strive for independence," especially prior to the Khrushchev Thaw.[122] Paruyr Sevak, a prominent Soviet Armenian author, wrote an essay about Andranik in 1963 after reading one of his soldier's notes. Sevak wrote that his generation knew "little about Andranik, almost nothing." He continued, "knowing nothing about Andranik means to know nothing about modern Armenian history."[123] In 1965, Andranik's 100th anniversary was celebrated in Soviet Armenia.[11]

Criticism

Andranik's activities have also attracted occasional criticism. Andranik, generally seen as a pro-Russian (and pro-Soviet) figure,[124][69] was criticized by the scholar-turned-political activist Rafael Ishkhanyan for his constant reliance on Russia.[125] Ishkhanyan characterized Andranik and Hakob Zavriev as leaders of the stream within Armenian political thought unconditionally reliant on Russia. He contrasted them with Aram Manukian and his self-reliant stance.[125] The poet Ruben Angaladyan [hy] spoke out against the erection of Andranik's statue in Yerevan. He opined that Andranik "doesn't have the right" to have a statue in the capital, because he did not do "anything real" for the First Republic and left Armenia. He called Andranik a popular hero and finds calling him a national hero unacceptable.[126]

Memorials

Statues and memorials of Andranik have been erected around the world, including in Bucharest, Romania (1936),[127] Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris (1945), Melkonian Educational Institute, Nicosia, Cyprus (1990),[128] Le Plessis-Robinson, Paris (2005),[129][130] Varna, Bulgaria (2011),[131] and Armavir, Russia.[132][133] A memorial exists in Richardson Springs, California, where Andranik died.[134] In May 2011, a statue of Andranik was erected in Volonka village near Sochi, Russia;[135] however, it was removed the same day, apparently under pressure from Turkey, which earlier announced that they would boycott the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympics if the statue remained standing.[136][137]

An equestrian statue of Andranik near the Saint Gregory Cathedral in central Yerevan
An equestrian statue of Andranik near the Saint Gregory Cathedral in central Yerevan
An equestrian statue of Andranik in Gyumri.
An equestrian statue of Andranik in Gyumri.

The first statue of Andranik in Armenia was erected in 1967 in the village of Ujan.[138][139] Another early statue in Armenia was erected in Voskehask, near Gyumri, in 1969.[140] More statues have been erected after Armenia's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991; three of which can be found in the Armenian capital of Yerevan—in Malatia-Sebastia district (2000); near the St. Gregory Cathedral (by Ara Shiraz, 2002); and outside the Fedayi Movement Museum (2006) in the Armenian capital Yerevan.[141] Elsewhere in Armenia, Andranik's statues stand in Voskevan and Navur villages of Tavush, in Gyumri's Victory Park (1994), Arteni, and Angeghakot, among other places.[142][143][144][145]

Numerous streets and squares both inside and outside Armenia, including in Córdoba, Argentina,[146] Plovdiv[147] and Varna[148] in Bulgaria, Meudon, Paris[149][150] and a section of Connecticut Route 314 state highway running entirely within Wethersfield, Connecticut[151] are named after Andranik. General Andranik Station of the Yerevan Metro was opened in 1989 as Hoktemberyan Station and was renamed for Andranik in 1992.[2][152] In 1995, General Andranik's Museum was founded in Komitas Park of Yerevan, but was soon closed because the building was privatized.[153] It was reopened on 16 September 2006, by Ilyich Beglarian as the Museum of Armenian Fedayi Movement, named after Andranik.[154]

According to Patrick Wilson, during the First Nagorno-Karabakh War Andranik "inspired a new generation of Armenians."[155] A volunteer regiment from Masis named "General Andranik" operated in Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh during the conflict.[156]

Many organizations and groups in the Armenian diaspora are named after Andranik.[157][158][159][160] On 11 September 2012, during the Bulgaria vs. Armenia football match in Sofia's Levski National Stadium, Armenian fans brought a giant poster with pictures of General Andranik and Armenian officer Gurgen Margaryan, who was murdered in 2004 by Azerbaijani lieutenant Ramil Safarov. The text on the poster read, "Andranik's children are also heroes ... The work will be done."[161] In the Armenian Youth Federation Eastern Region, the Granite City chapter is named "Antranig" in Andranik's honor.

The 65 page manuscripts of General Andranik, the only known memoir written by him, were returned to Armenia in May 2014 and sent to the History Museum of Armenia through Culture Minister Hasmik Poghosyan, almost a century after Andranik had parted with them.[162]

In culture

Lord Kitchener Wants You-influenced poster depicting Andranik. The caption reads "Chase the holy dream of your people."
Lord Kitchener Wants You-influenced poster depicting Andranik. The caption reads "Chase the holy dream of your people."
A comic by Stookie Allen depicting Andranik, New York Journal-American, 1920
A comic by Stookie Allen depicting Andranik, New York Journal-American, 1920

Andranik has been figured prominently in the Armenian literature, sometimes as a fictional character.[120] The Western Armenian writer Siamanto wrote a poem entitled "Andranik", which was published in Geneva in 1905.[163] The first book about Andranik was published during his lifetime. In 1920, Vahan Totovents, under the pen name Arsen Marmarian, published the book Gen. Andranik and His Wars (Զոր. Անդրանիկ և իր պատերազմները) in Entente-occupied Constantinople.[120] The famed Armenian-American writer William Saroyan wrote a short story titled Antranik of Armenia, which was included in his collection of short stories Inhale and Exhale (1936).[164] Another US-based Armenian writer Hamastegh's novel The White Horseman (Սպիտակ Ձիավորը, 1952) was based on Andranik and other fedayi.[165][166] Hovhannes Shiraz, one of the most prominent Armenian poets of the 20th century, wrote at least two poems about Andranik; one in 1963 and another in 1967. The latter one, titled Statue to Andranik (Արձան Անդրանիկին), was published in 1991 after Shiraz's death.[167] Sero Khanzadyan's novel Andranik was suppressed for years and was published in 1989 when the tight Soviet control over publications was relaxed.[168][169] Between the 1960s and the 1980s, author Suren Sahakyan collected folk stories and completed a novel, "Story about Andranik" (Ասք Անդրանիկի մասին). It was first published in Yerevan in 2008.[170]

Andranik's name has been memorialized in numerous songs.[31] In 1913, Leon Trotsky described Andranik as "a hero of song and legend."[16] Italian diplomat and historian Luigi Villari wrote in 1906 that he met a priest from Turkish Armenia in Erivan who "sang the war-song of Antranik, the leader of Armenian revolutionary bands in Turkey."[171] Andranik is one of the main figures featured in Armenian patriotic songs, performed by Nersik Ispiryan, Harout Pamboukjian and others. There are dozens of songs dedicated to him, including Like an Eagle by gusan Sheram, 1904[172] and Andranik pasha by gusan Hayrik.[173] Andranik also features in the popular song The Bravehearts of the Caucasus (Կովկասի քաջեր) and other pieces of Armenian patriotic folklore.[174]

Several documentaries about Andranik have been produced; these include Andranik (1929) by Armena-Film in France, directed by Asho Shakhatuni, who also played the main role;[175][176] General Andranik (1990) directed by Levon Mkrtchyan, narrated by Khoren Abrahamyan; and Andranik Ozanian, a 53-minute-long documentary by the Public Television of Armenia.[177]

Discover more about Legacy and recognition related topics

Aurora Mardiganian

Aurora Mardiganian

Aurora (Arshaluys) Mardiganian was an Armenian-American author, actress, and a survivor of the Armenian genocide.

Hovhannes Tumanyan

Hovhannes Tumanyan

Hovhannes Tumanyan was an Armenian poet, writer, translator, and literary and public activist. He is the national poet of Armenia.

Anastas Mikoyan

Anastas Mikoyan

Anastas Ivanovich Mikoyan was an Armenian Communist revolutionary, Old Bolshevik and Soviet statesman. He was the only Soviet politician who managed to remain at the highest levels of power within the Communist Party while that power oscillated between the Central Committee and the Politburo. His career extended from the days of Lenin, to the eras of Stalin and Khrushchev, to his peaceful retirement under Brezhnev.

Khrushchev Thaw

Khrushchev Thaw

The Khrushchev Thaw is the period from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations. The term was coined after Ilya Ehrenburg's 1954 novel The Thaw ("Оттепель"), sensational for its time.

Hakob Zavriev

Hakob Zavriev

Hakob Zavriev, also known as Yakov Zavriev Яков Христофорович Завриев, was an Armenian politician.

Aram Manukian

Aram Manukian

Aram Manukian, was an Armenian revolutionary, statesman, and a leading member of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Dashnaktsutyun) party. He is widely regarded as the founder of the First Republic of Armenia.

Bucharest

Bucharest

Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania. It is described as the cultural, financial, entertainment, and media center in Romania with a significant influence in Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. It is also an influence in education, tourism, research, technology, health care, art, fashion, sports, and politics in Romania. It is located in the southeast of the country, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km (37.3 mi) north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. It is also one of the most populated cities of the European Union (EU) within city limits and the most populated capital in South-Eastern Europe. It was the capital of Wallachia from 1659 to 1859 and the capital of the United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia from 1859 to 1881.

Melkonian Educational Institute

Melkonian Educational Institute

The Melkonian Educational Institute (MEI) was an Armenian boarding school of high academic standard located in Nicosia, Cyprus.

Nicosia

Nicosia

Nicosia is the largest city, capital, and seat of government of Cyprus. It is located near the centre of the Mesaoria plain, on the banks of the River Pedieos.

Le Plessis-Robinson

Le Plessis-Robinson

Le Plessis-Robinson is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 10.5 km (6.5 mi) from the center of Paris. As of 2017, it has 29,100 inhabitants.

Armavir, Russia

Armavir, Russia

Armavir is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the left bank of the Kuban River. Population: 187,177 (2021 Census); 188,832 (2010 Census); 193,964 (2002 Census); 160,983 (1989 Census). As of 2020, the city has a population of 188,960, while the agglomeration has a population of 207,570. Armavir was formerly the second-largest industrial center of Krasnodar Krai, after Krasnodar.

2014 Winter Olympics

2014 Winter Olympics

The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Russia. Opening rounds in certain events were held on 6 February 2014, the day before the opening ceremony.

Awards

Legion of Honour Officer certificate of Andranik
Legion of Honour Officer certificate of Andranik

Through his military career, Andranik was awarded with a number of medals and orders by governments of four countries.[178] Andranik's medals and sword were moved to Armenia and given to the History Museum of Armenia in 2006.[179][180]

Country Award Rank Year
Bulgaria Kingdom of Bulgaria MilitaryOrderBravery-Ribbon.gif Order of Bravery
IV grade,
"For Bravery"
1913[181][50]
 Russian Empire Order of Saint Stanislaus Ribbon.PNG Order of St. Stanislaus
II class
with Swords
1914–16[182]
Vladimir ribbon.jpg Order of St. Vladimir
IV class
1914–16[182][183]
RUS Order of Saint George 4th class ribbon 2000.svg Cross of St. George
I, II, III class
1914–16[49][182]
RUS Order of Saint George 4th class ribbon 2000.svg Order of St. George
II, III, IV classes
1914–16[184][182]
France French Republic Legion Honneur Officier ribbon.svg Legion of Honor
Officier
1919[115]
Greece Kingdom of Greece Greek War Cross 1917 2nd class ribbon.png War Cross
II class
1920[185][186]

Discover more about Awards related topics

History Museum of Armenia

History Museum of Armenia

The History Museum of Armenia is a museum in Armenia with departments of Archaeology, Numismatics, Ethnography, Modern History and Restoration. It has a national collection of 400,000 objects and was founded in 1920. 35% of the main collection is made up of archaeology related items, 8% of the collection is made up of Ethnography related items, Numismatics related items make up 45%, and 12% of the collection is made up of documents. It is regarded as Armenia's national museum and is located on Republic Square in Yerevan. The state financially supports the museum and owns both the collection and the building. The museum carries out conservation and restoration work and publishes works on Armenian architecture, archaeology, ethnography, and history. They also have published a series of reports on archaeological excavations since 1948. The museum carries out educational and scientific programs on Armenian history and culture as well.

Bulgaria

Bulgaria

Bulgaria, officially the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the eastern flank of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. Bulgaria covers a territory of 110,994 square kilometres (42,855 sq mi), and is the sixteenth-largest country in Europe. Sofia is the nation's capital and largest city; other major cities are Plovdiv, Varna and Burgas.

Kingdom of Bulgaria

Kingdom of Bulgaria

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Order of Bravery

Order of Bravery

The Order of Bravery is a Bulgarian order which existed during the Kingdom of Bulgaria and currently exists in the Republic of Bulgaria. It was the second highest in the Kingdom of Bulgaria and is the fourth highest in the Republic of Bulgaria. It has existed since 1880 with an interruption between 1946 and 2003.

Russian Empire

Russian Empire

The Russian Empire was an empire and the final period of the Russian monarchy from 1721 to 1917, ruling across large parts of Eurasia. It succeeded the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad, which ended the Great Northern War. The rise of the Russian Empire coincided with the decline of neighbouring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Qajar Iran, the Ottoman Empire, and Qing China. It also held colonies in North America between 1799 and 1867. Covering an area of approximately 22,800,000 square kilometres (8,800,000 sq mi), it remains the third-largest empire in history, surpassed only by the British Empire and the Mongol Empire; it ruled over a population of 125.6 million people per the 1897 Russian census, which was the only census carried out during the entire imperial period. Owing to its geographic extent across three continents at its peak, it featured great ethnic, linguistic, religious, and economic diversity.

Cross of St. George

Cross of St. George

The Cross of Saint George is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. It was initially established by Imperial Russia where it was officially known as the Decoration of the Military Order of Saint George between 1807 and 1913. The Cross of Saint George was reinstated into the Russian awards system in 1992.

Order of St. George

Order of St. George

The Order of Saint George is the highest military decoration of the Russian Federation. Originally established on 26 November 1769 Julian as the highest military decoration of the Russian Empire for commissioned officers and generals by Empress Catherine the Great. After the October Revolution in 1917, it was awarded by the White movement under Alexander Kolchak until their collapse in 1921. The order was revived in the Russian Federation on 8 August 2000 by Decree №1463 of the President of Russia. The current award criteria were amended on 7 September 2010 by Presidential Decree 1099.

France

France

France, officially the French Republic, is a country primarily located in Western Europe. It also includes overseas regions and territories in the Americas and the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans, giving it one of the largest discontiguous exclusive economic zones in the world. Its metropolitan area extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea; overseas territories include French Guiana in South America, Saint Pierre and Miquelon in the North Atlantic, the French West Indies, and many islands in Oceania and the Indian Ocean. Its eighteen integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi) and contain 68 million people.

French Third Republic

French Third Republic

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Greece

Greece

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, and is located at the crossroads of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Greece shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, and Turkey to the northeast. The Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, and the Sea of Crete and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin, featuring thousands of islands. The country consists of nine traditional geographic regions, and has a population of approximately 10.4 million. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki and Patras.

Kingdom of Greece

Kingdom of Greece

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War Cross (Greece)

War Cross (Greece)

The War Cross is a military decoration of Greece, awarded for heroism in wartime to both Greeks and foreign allies. There have been three versions of the cross, the 1917 version covering World War I, the 1940 version covering the Second World War and the Greek Civil War, and the 1974 version covering peacekeeping missions in the subsequent years.

Published works

  • Մարտական հրահանգներ: Առաջարկներ, նկատողութիւններ եւ խորհուրդներ [Combat Commands: Suggestions, Remarks, Recommendations]. Geneva: ARF Press. 1906. OCLC 320038626.[40]
  • Հայկական առանձին հարուածող զօրամասը [The Armenian Special Striking Division]. Boston: Azg. 1921. OCLC 49525413.[187]
  • Զորավար Անդրանիկը կը խոսի [General Andranik Speaks]. Paris: Abaka weekly. 1921. OCLC 234085160.
  • Առաքելոց վանքին կռիւը (Հայ յեղափոխութենէն դրուագ մը) [The Battle of Arakelots (An Episode of Armenian Revolution)]. Boston: Baikar. 1924. Memoirs of Andranik written down by Levon K. Lyulejian.[188]

Source: "Andranik", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andranik.

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References
Notes
  1. ^ Andranik was given the rank of a major-general by the command of the Caucasus Front, a formation of the army of the dissolved Russian Republic.[3]
  2. ^ In classical orthography his name is spelled Անդրանիկ Օզանեան and pronounced [ɑntʰɾɑniɡ ɔzɑnjɑn] in Western Armenian. In reformed orthography his name is spelled Անդրանիկ Օզանյան and pronounced [ɑndɾɑnik ɔzɑnjɑn] in Eastern Armenian.
  3. ^ Զօրավար Անդրանիկ in classical spelling, Զորավար Անդրանիկ in reformed, Zoravar Andranik.
  4. ^ Armenian: Անդրանիկ. Also spelled Antranik or Antranig
  5. ^ Some sources mistakenly indicate 1866 as Andranik's date of birth.[5] 1866 is also engraved on his grave in the Père Lachaise Cemetery. Some sources also erroneously indicate 1928 as his date of death, perhaps because Andranik's body was moved to France and reburied there in 1928.[6]
Citations
  1. ^ a b Libaridian, Gerard J. (1991). Armenia at the Crossroads: Democracy and Nationhood in the Post-Soviet Era. Watertown, Massachusetts: Blue Crane Books. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-9628715-1-1.
  2. ^ a b Holding, Nicholas (2008). Armenia, with Nagorno Karabagh (2nd ed.). Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt Travel Guides. p. 93. ISBN 978-1-84162-163-0.
  3. ^ a b Hovannisian, Richard G. (1967). Armenia on the Road to Independence, 1918. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-520-00574-7.
  4. ^ a b Adalian 2010, p. 79.
  5. ^ a b Hovannisian, Richard G. (2000). Armenian Van/Vaspurakan. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. p. 233. ISBN 978-1-56859-130-8.
  6. ^ a b Hovannisian 1971, p. 191.
  7. ^ Sarkisyanz, Manuel (1975). A Modern History of Transcaucasian Armenia: Social, Cultural, and Political. Leiden, Netherlands. p. 140. OCLC 8305411.
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  186. ^ "Министр обороны Армении передал саблю и ордена выдающегося армянского полководца Андраника Музею истории (Defense Minister of Armenia handed Andranik's sword and medals to the Museum of History)". Novosti Armenia (in Russian). 29 November 2006. Archived from the original on 24 June 2014.
  187. ^ "1921". National Library of Armenia. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.
  188. ^ "1924". National Library of Armenia. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2013.

Bibliography

Further reading

Articles

Books

  • Զօրավար Անդրանիկի կովկասեան ճակատի պատմական օրագրութիւնը 1914–1917 [Historic Timeline of Caucasian Front of General Andranik] (in Armenian). Boston: Baikar. 1924.
  • Aharonyan, Vardges (1957). Անդրանիկ. մարդը եւ ռազմիկը [Andranik: the man and the soldier] (in Armenian). Boston: Hairenik. OCLC 47085812.
  • Զօր. Անդրանիկ (Օզանեան) կեանքն ու գործունէութիւնը (PDF) (in Armenian). Beirut, Lebanon: Hamazkayin. 1985. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
  • Chalabian, Antranig (1986). Զօրավար Անդրանիկ Եւ Հայ Յեղափոխական Շարժումը [General Andranik and the Armenian Revolutionary Movement] (in Armenian). Beirut: Donikian Press.
  • Simonian, Hrachik (1988). "Истинный народный герой [The True Popular Hero]". Patma-Banasirakan Handes (in Russian). Yerevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences (3): 12–28. ISSN 0135-0536.
  • Antranig, Chalabian (1990). Զօրավար Անդրանիկ Եւ Հայ Յեղափոխական Շարժումը [General Andranik and the Armenian Revolutionary Movement] (in Armenian). Yerevan.
  • Garibdzhanian, Gevorg (1990). Ժողովրդական հերոս Անդրանիկ [Andranik the Popular Hero] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Hayastan Publishing. OCLC 26596860.
  • National Archives of Armenia (1991). Андраник Озанян. документы и материалы [Andranik Ozanian: documents and materials] (in Russian). Yerevan.
  • Aghayan, Tsatur (1994). Անդրանիկ. դարաշրջան, դեպքեր, դեմքեր [Andranik: era, events, faces] (in Armenian). Yerevan.
  • Simoyan, Hrachik (1996). Անդրանիկի ժամանակը [Andranik's time] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Kaisa.
  • Aghayan, Tsatur (1997). Андраник и его эпоха [Andranik and his era] (in Armenian). Moscow: Международный гуманитарный фонд арменоведения им. Ц. П. Агояна. ISBN 5-7801-0050-0.
  • Grigoryan, Ashot, ed. (2002–2004). Անդրանիկագիտական Հանդես Andranikological Review (in Armenian). Yerevan.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: untitled periodical (link)
  • Simonyan, Ruben (2006). Անդրանիկ. Սիբիրական վաշտի ոդիսականը [Andranik: The Siberian company's odyssey] (in Armenian). Yerevan: Voskan Yerevantsi. OCLC 76872489.
  • Andreasyan, Vazken (1982). Անդրանիկ (PDF) (in Armenian). Beirut, Lebanon: Tonikyan.
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