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Allonautilus perforatus

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Allonautilus perforatus
Allonautilus perforatus.jpg
CITES Appendix II (CITES)[1]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
Subclass: Nautiloidea
Order: Nautilida
Family: Nautilidae
Genus: Allonautilus
A. perforatus
Binomial name
Allonautilus perforatus
(Conrad, 1847)
  • Nautilus perforatus
    Conrad, 1847

Allonautilus perforatus also known as the Bali chambered nautilus, is a species of nautilus native to the waters around Bali, Indonesia. It is known only from drifted shells and, as such, is the least studied of the six recognized nautilus species. Thus, not much is known about it outside of the shell.

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Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. East of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller offshore islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan to the southeast. The provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second-largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. The upland town of Ubud in Greater Denpasar is considered Bali's cultural centre. The province is Indonesia's main tourist destination, with a significant rise in tourism since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy.



In biology, a species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. It is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, morphology, behaviour, or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined.



The nautilus is a pelagic marine mollusc of the cephalopod family Nautilidae. The nautilus is the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina.



Indonesia, officially the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world's largest archipelagic state and the 14th-largest country by area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres. With over 275 million people, Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous country and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population.

Habitat and Distribution

The nautilus is reported to live on the coastal reefs of Bali[2]and Papua New Guinea.[3] They have been reported to live in nearby deep-water habitats as well.[2]

Ultimately little is known about the exact distribution of A. perforatus compared with the more abundant relatives such as A. scrobiculatus. Shells of the nautilus are sold in Balinese market places[3] and tend to be less common.

Reports from these markers detail that the shells have notable Octopus borings in their chambers. Markings indicate that the nautilus obtained are shells that have drifted onto the shoreline.[3] Likely due to predation by Octopus, the shells are empty upon arrival.

Due to the A. scrobiculatus specimen being isolated in the region of Papua New Guinea, in addition to being close relatives, it is thought that both species of the nautilus are organisms that are isolated geographically.[3]

Commercial use of shells

Known to be valued in the commercial market as collectibles, nautilus shells and are traded around the world.[4] A. perforatus are traded locally in Bali, Indonesia.[3] These markets tend to last for a brief period of time before eventually becoming nonfunctional.

In addition to their trading and commercial value as souvenirs, shells are also owned by museums for collection.[3]


Little is known about wild specimens of A. perforatus and this nautilus has mostly been distinguished by shells that have drifted onto land.[5] Thus, not much is known about this particular creature. The genus Allonautilus contains only two species; A.perforatus and A. scrobiculatus. [6]

Due to its geographically isolated nature, the genus overall tends to be more restricted in distribution than Nautilus


Like other nautilus species, A.perforatus has a coiled shell, shell covering its internal body. The shell has multiple chambers, the outermost chamber being where the nautilus lives. In addition the organism possesses tentacles that form two rings around its mouth.[7]

A. perforatus shows a shell shape and coloration very similar to that of A. scrobiculatus and shares with this species the characteristic open umbilicus.[3] However, it bears highly distinctive shell-ribbing, which is unique among extant ectocochleate cephalopods, and lacks scrobiculate shell sculpture.

It is not known whether A. perforatus possesses the thick encrusting layer (periostracum) characteristic of A. scrobiculatus. Maximum known shell diameter is around 180 mm.[7] Sexual dimorphism are apparent as females tend to be smaller in size. The shell also possesses a series of plicae (ribs) on the sides of the body chamber neat the organism's aperture. Plicae tend to be 30mm long and its crests 10mm apart, and are explicitly expressed on both the inside and outside of the shell.[3]

Source: "Allonautilus perforatus", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 4th),

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  1. ^ "Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  2. ^ a b Groth, Jeff G.; Arbisser, Ilana; Landman, Neil H.; Barrowclough, George F. (April 2015). "The Mitochondrial Genome of Allonautilus (Mollusca: Cephalopoda): Base Composition, Noncoding-Region Variation, and Phylogenetic Divergence". American Museum Novitates (3834): 1–13. doi:10.1206/3834.1. ISSN 0003-0082. S2CID 55734274.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Ward, P.D. & W.B. Saunders 1997. Allonautilus: a new genus of living nautiloid cephalopod and its bearing on phylogeny of the Nautilida. Journal of Paleontology 71(6): 1054–1064.
  4. ^ De Angelis, Patricia (2012-01-01). "Assessing the impact of international trade on chambered nautilus". Geobios. 45 (1): 5–11. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2011.11.005. ISSN 0016-6995.
  5. ^ Bonacum, James; Landman, Neil H.; Mapes, Royal H.; White, Matthew M.; White, Alicia-Jeannette; Irlam, Justin (March 2011). "Evolutionary Radiation of Present-Day Nautilus and Allonautilus". American Malacological Bulletin. 29 (1/2): 77–93. doi:10.4003/006.029.0221. ISSN 0740-2783. S2CID 86014620.
  6. ^ "Allonautilus scrobiculatus", Wikipedia, 2020-03-28, retrieved 2020-03-30
  7. ^ a b Jereb, P. 2005. Family Nautilidae. In: P. Jereb & C.F.E. Roper, eds. Cephalopods of the world. An annotated and Illustrated catalogue of species known to date. Volume 1. Chambered nautiluses and sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae). FAO Species Catalogue for Fishery Purposes. No. 4, Vol. 1. Rome, FAO. pp. 51–55.
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