Get Our Extension

Alberta

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
Alberta
Motto(s): 
Fortis et liber (Latin)
("Strong and free")
Coordinates: 55°59′30″N 114°22′36″W / 55.99167°N 114.37667°W / 55.99167; -114.37667[1]Coordinates: 55°59′30″N 114°22′36″W / 55.99167°N 114.37667°W / 55.99167; -114.37667[1]
CountryCanada
ConfederationSeptember 1, 1905; 117 years ago (1905-09-01) (split from NWT) (10th, with Saskatchewan)
CapitalEdmonton
Largest cityCalgary
Largest metroCalgary Region
Government
 • TypeParliamentary constitutional monarchy
 • Lieutenant governorSalma Lakhani
 • PremierDanielle Smith
LegislatureLegislative Assembly of Alberta
Federal representationParliament of Canada
House seats34 of 338 (10.1%)
Senate seats6 of 105 (5.7%)
Area
 • Total661,848 km2 (255,541 sq mi)
 • Land640,081 km2 (247,137 sq mi)
 • Water19,531 km2 (7,541 sq mi)  3%
 • Rank6th
 6.6% of Canada
Population
 (2021)
 • Total4,262,635 [2]
 • Estimate 
(Q3 2022)
4,543,111 [3]
 • Rank4th
 • Density6.66/km2 (17.2/sq mi)
DemonymAlbertan
Official languagesEnglish[4][5]
GDP
 • Rank3rd
 • Total (2015)CA$326.433 billion[6]
 • Per capitaCA$78,100 (2nd)
HDI
 • HDI (2019)0.948[7]Very high (1st)
Time zoneUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (Mountain DST)
Canadian postal abbr.
AB
Postal code prefix
ISO 3166 codeCA-AB
FlowerWild rose
TreeLodgepole pine
BirdGreat horned owl
Rankings include all provinces and territories

Alberta (/ælˈbɜːrtə/ al-BUR-tə) is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is part of Western Canada and is one of the three prairie provinces. Alberta is bordered by British Columbia to the west, Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories (NWT) to the north, and the U.S. state of Montana to the south. It is one of the only two landlocked provinces in Canada (Saskatchewan being the other).[8] The eastern part of the province is occupied by the Great Plains, while the western part borders the Rocky Mountains. The province has a predominantly continental climate but experiences quick temperature changes due to air aridity. Seasonal temperature swings are less pronounced in western Alberta due to occasional Chinook winds.[9]

Alberta is the fourth largest province by area at 661,848 square kilometres (255,541 square miles),[10] and the fourth most populous, being home to 4,262,635 people.[2] Alberta's capital is Edmonton, while Calgary is its largest city.[11] The two are Alberta's largest census metropolitan areas.[12] More than half of Albertans live in either Edmonton or Calgary, which contributes to continuing the rivalry between the two cities. English is the official language of the province. In 2016, 76.0% of Albertans were anglophone, 1.8% were francophone and 22.2% were allophone.[13]

Alberta's economy is based on hydrocarbons, petrochemical industries, livestock and agriculture.[14] The oil and gas industry has been a pillar of Alberta's economy since 1947, when substantial oil deposits were discovered at Leduc No. 1 well.[15] It has also become a part of the province's identity. Since Alberta is the province most rich in hydrocarbons, it provides 70% of the oil and natural gas exploited on Canadian soil. In 2018, Alberta's output was CA$338.2 billion, 15.27% of Canada's GDP.[16][17]

In the past, Alberta's political landscape hosted parties like the centre-left Liberals and the agrarian United Farmers of Alberta. Today, Alberta is generally perceived as a conservative province. The right-wing Social Credit Party held office continually from 1935 to 1971 before the centre-right Progressive Conservatives held office continually from 1971 to 2015, the latter being the longest unbroken run in government at the provincial or federal level in Canadian history.

Before becoming part of Canada, Alberta was home to several First Nations like Plain Indians and Woodland Cree. It was also a territory used by fur traders of the rival companies HBC and NWC. The Dominion of Canada bought the lands that would become Alberta as part of the NWT in 1870.[18] From the late 1800s to early 1900s, many immigrants arrived to prevent the prairies from being annexed by the US. Growing wheat and cattle ranching also became very profitable. In 1905, the Alberta Act was passed, creating the province of Alberta.[19] Massive oil reserves were discovered in 1947. The exploitation of oil sands began in 1967.[15]

Alberta is renowned for its natural beauty, richness in fossils and for housing important nature reserves. Alberta is home to six UNESCO designated World Heritage Sites: The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, Dinosaur Provincial Park, the Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Wood Buffalo National Park and Writing-on-Stone Provincial Park.[20] Other popular sites include Banff National Park, Elk Island National Park, Jasper National Park, Waterton Lakes National Park, and Drumheller.

Discover more about Alberta related topics

Canadian Prairies

Canadian Prairies

The Canadian Prairies is a region in Western Canada. It includes the Canadian portion of the Great Plains and the Prairie Provinces, namely Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. These provinces are partially covered by grasslands, plains, and lowlands, mostly in the southern regions. The northernmost reaches of the Canadian Prairies are less dense in population, marked by forests and more variable topography. If the region is defined to include areas only covered by prairie land, the corresponding region is known as the Interior Plains. Physical or ecological aspects of the Canadian Prairies extend to northeastern British Columbia, but that area is not included in political use of the term.

British Columbia

British Columbia

British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It has a diverse geography, with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains, and borders the province of Alberta to the east and the Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north. With an estimated population of 5.3 million as of 2022, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria and its largest city is Vancouver. Vancouver is the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada; the 2021 census recorded 2.6 million people in Metro Vancouver.

Arid

Arid

A region is arid when it severely lacks available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life. Regions with arid climates tend to lack vegetation and are called xeric or desertic. Most arid climates straddle the Equator; these regions include parts of Africa, Asia, South America, North America, and Australia.

Calgary

Calgary

Calgary is the largest city in the western Canadian province of Alberta and the largest metro area of the three Prairie Provinces. As of 2021, the city proper had a population of 1,306,784 and a metropolitan population of 1,481,806, making it the third-largest city and fifth-largest metropolitan area in Canada.

Battle of Alberta

Battle of Alberta

The Battle of Alberta is a term applied to the intense rivalry between the Canadian cities of Calgary, the province's most populous city, and Edmonton, the capital of the province of Alberta. Most often it is used to describe sporting events between the two cities, although this is not exclusive as the rivalry predates organized sports in Alberta.

Allophone (Canada)

Allophone (Canada)

In Canada, an allophone is a resident whose mother tongue or home language is neither French nor English. The term parallels anglophone and francophone, which designate people whose mother tongues are English and French, respectively. Some sources do not consider native speakers of indigenous languages to be allophones.

Alberta Liberal Party

Alberta Liberal Party

The Alberta Liberal Party is a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada. Founded in 1905, it is the oldest active political party in Alberta and was the dominant political party until the 1921 election, with the first three provincial Premiers being Liberals. Since 1921, it has formed the official opposition in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta several times, most recently from 1993 until 2012. Fourteen Liberals have served as Leader of the Opposition of Alberta.

Agrarianism

Agrarianism

Agrarianism is a political and social philosophy that has promoted subsistence agriculture, smallholdings, and egalitarianism, with agrarian political parties normally supporting the rights and sustainability of small farmers and poor peasants against the wealthy in society. In highly developed and industrial nations or regions, it can denote use of financial and social incentives for self-sustainability, more community involvement in food production and smart growth that avoids urban sprawl, and also what many of its advocates contend are risks of human overpopulation; when overpopulation occurs, the available resources become too limited for the entire population to survive comfortably or at all in the long term.

Alberta Social Credit Party

Alberta Social Credit Party

Alberta Social Credit was a provincial political party in Alberta, Canada, that was founded on social credit monetary policy put forward by Clifford Hugh Douglas and on conservative Christian social values. The Canadian social credit movement was largely an out-growth of Alberta Social Credit. The Social Credit Party of Canada was strongest in Alberta, before developing a base in Quebec when Réal Caouette agreed to merge his Ralliement créditiste movement into the federal party. The British Columbia Social Credit Party formed the government for many years in neighbouring British Columbia, although this was effectively a coalition of centre-right forces in the province that had no interest in social credit monetary policies.

Alberta Act

Alberta Act

The Alberta Act, effective September 1, 1905, was the act of the Parliament of Canada that created the province of Alberta. The Act is similar in nature to the Saskatchewan Act, which established the province of Saskatchewan at the same time. Like the Saskatchewan Act, the Alberta Act was controversial because it allowed the Government of Canada to maintain control of all of Alberta's natural resources and public lands. Alberta did not win control of these resources until the passage of the Natural Resources Acts in 1930.

Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site

Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site

The Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site is located in the Canadian Rockies. It consists of seven contiguous parks including four national parks:Banff Jasper Kootenay Yoho

Banff National Park

Banff National Park

Banff National Park is Canada's oldest national park, established in 1885 as Rocky Mountains Park. Located in Alberta's Rocky Mountains, 110–180 kilometres (68–112 mi) west of Calgary, Banff encompasses 6,641 square kilometres (2,564 sq mi) of mountainous terrain, with many glaciers and ice fields, dense coniferous forest, and alpine landscapes. The Icefields Parkway extends from Lake Louise, connecting to Jasper National Park in the north. Provincial forests and Yoho National Park are neighbours to the west, while Kootenay National Park is located to the south and Kananaskis Country to the southeast. The main commercial centre of the park is the town of Banff, in the Bow River valley.

Etymology

Alberta was named after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta (1848–1939),[21] the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada (1878–83). Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were also named in her honour.[22][23]

The name "Alberta" itself is a feminine Latinized form of Albert, the name of Princess Louise's father, the Prince Consort (cf. Medieval Latin: Albertus, masculine) and its Germanic cognates, ultimately derived from the Proto-Germanic language *Aþalaberhtaz (compound of "noble" + "bright/famous").[24][25]

Discover more about Etymology related topics

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll

Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, was the sixth child and fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll

John Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll

John George Edward Henry Douglas Sutherland Campbell, 9th Duke of Argyll,, usually better known by the courtesy title Marquess of Lorne, by which he was known between 1847 and 1900, was a British nobleman who was Governor General of Canada from 1878 to 1883. He was the husband of Princess Louise, fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. He was the first president of "Rangers Football Club", thanks to his Argyll ties to the original founders of the football club.

Governor General of Canada

Governor General of Canada

The governor general of Canada is the federal viceregal representative of the Canadian monarch, currently King Charles III. The King is head of state of Canada and the 14 other Commonwealth realms, but he resides in his oldest and most populous realm, the United Kingdom. The King, on the advice of his Canadian prime minister, appoints a governor general to carry on the Government of Canada in the King's name, performing most of his constitutional and ceremonial duties. The commission is for an indefinite period—known as serving at His Majesty's pleasure—though five years is the usual length of time. Since 1959, it has also been traditional to alternate between francophone and anglophone officeholders—although many recent governors general have been bilingual.

Lake Louise (Alberta)

Lake Louise (Alberta)

Lake Louise is a glacial lake within Banff National Park in Alberta, Canada. It is located 5 km (3.1 mi) west of the Hamlet of Lake Louise and the Trans-Canada Highway.

Mount Alberta

Mount Alberta

Mount Alberta is a mountain located in the upper Athabasca River Valley of Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada. J. Norman Collie named the mountain in 1898 after Princess Louise Caroline Alberta. It is the most difficult of the 11,000ers from a climbing point of view.

Latinisation of names

Latinisation of names

Latinisation of names, also known as onomastic Latinisation, is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style. It is commonly found with historical proper names, including personal names and toponyms, and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin alphabet from another script. For authors writing in Latin, this change allows the name to function grammatically in a sentence through declension.

Albert (given name)

Albert (given name)

Albert is a masculine given name. It is derived from the Germanic Adalbert and Adelbert, containing the words adal ("noble") and beraht. It is also less commonly in use as a surname. Feminine forms of the names "Alberta" are declining in use.

Albert, Prince Consort

Albert, Prince Consort

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the consort of Queen Victoria from their marriage on 10 February 1840 until his death in 1861.

Cf.

Cf.

The abbreviation cf. is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed. Style guides recommend that cf. be used only to suggest a comparison, and the word "see" be used to point to a source of information.

Albertus (given name)

Albertus (given name)

Albertus is a given name. Notable people with the name include:Latinized namesAldberht or Albertus, Bishop of Hereford Albertus Parisiensis, French cantor and composer Albertus de Pisa, Italian Franciscan friar Albertus Stadensis (c.1187–c.1265), German Benedictine chronicler Albertus Magnus, German Dominican friar and bishop Albertus de Saxonia (c.1320–1390), German philosopher Albertus Pictor (c.1440-c.1507), Swedish painter Albertus de Brudzewo (c.1445–c.1497), Polish astronomer, mathematician, philosopher and diplomatBirth namesAlbertus Boom, Dutch cyclist Albertus Jonas Brandt (1787–1821), Dutch still life painter Albertus Brondgeest (1786–1849), Dutch art trader, drawer and landscape painter Albertus Theodore Briggs (1862–1937), American Methodist minister Albertus Bryne, English organist and composer Albertus Carpentier Alting, Netherlands Antilles luger and bobsledder Albertus W. Catlin (1868-1933), US Marine Corps brigadier general and Medal of Honor recipient Albertus Clouwet (1636–1679), Flemish engraver Albertus Jacobus Duymaer van Twist (1809–1887), Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies Albertus Eckhoff (1875–1949), New Zealand cricketer Albertus Geldermans, Dutch racing cyclist Albertus Klijn (1923–2012), Dutch biblical scholar Albertus Morton (c.1584–1625), English diplomat and Secretary of State Albertus van Naamen van Eemnes (1828-1902), Dutch politician and lawyer Albertus Antonie Nijland (1868-1936), Dutch astronomer Albertus Perk (1887–1919), Dutch fencer Albertus van Raalte (1811-1876), Dutch-born pastor of the Reformed Church of America Albertus John Rooks (1869–1958), American college president Albertus Seba (1665-1736), Dutch pharmacist, zoologist and collector Albertus Willem Sijthoff (1829-1913), prominent Dutch publisher Albertus Soegijapranata (1896-1963), first Indonesian native Roman Catholic archbishop Albertus Susanto Njoto, Hong Kong badminton player Albertus Swanepoel, South African fashion designer Albertus Van Loon, Dutch settler and owner of the Albertus Van Loon House Albertus Wielsma (1883–1968), Dutch rower Albertus Henricus Wiese (1761-1810), Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Germanic languages

Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania and Southern Africa. The most widely spoken Germanic language, English, is also the world's most widely spoken language with an estimated 2 billion speakers. All Germanic languages are derived from Proto-Germanic, spoken in Iron Age Scandinavia.

Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

Geography

A topographic map of Alberta, showing cities, towns, municipal district (county) and rural municipality borders, and natural features
A topographic map of Alberta, showing cities, towns, municipal district (county) and rural municipality borders, and natural features

Alberta, with an area of 661,848 square kilometres (255,541 square miles), is the fourth-largest province after Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia.[26]

Alberta's southern border is the 49th parallel north, which separates it from the U.S. state of Montana. The 60th parallel north divides Alberta from the Northwest Territories. The 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan; while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, and from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a generally southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.[27]

The province extends 1,223 kilometres (760 miles) north to south and 660 kilometres (410 miles) east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 metres (12,293 feet) at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 metres (499 feet) on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast.[28]

With the exception of the semi-arid climate of the steppe in the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous rivers and lakes in Alberta used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire (1,436 km2 [554 sq mi]) in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake (1,168 km2 [451 sq mi]), and Lake Athabasca (7,898 km2 [3,049 sq mi]), which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan. The longest river in the province is the Athabasca River, which travels 1,538 km (956 mi) from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca.[29]

The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2,100 m3/s (74,000 cu ft/s).[30] The Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.

Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada and serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada. With its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, the region has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km (170 mi) south of Edmonton and 240 km (150 mi) north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. Almost 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railways served as a means to populate the province in its early years.[31]

Moraine Lake at Banff National Park. The Alberta Mountain forests makes up the southwestern boundary of Alberta.
Moraine Lake at Banff National Park. The Alberta Mountain forests makes up the southwestern boundary of Alberta.

Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are largely temperate coniferous forests of the Alberta Mountain forests and Alberta–British Columbia foothills forests. The southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, and then east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population. Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south.[32]

The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, and features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, and remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the then lush landscape.

Climate

Alberta extends for over 1,200 km (750 mi) from north to south; its climate, therefore, varies considerably. Average high temperatures in January range from 0 °C (32 °F) in the southwest to −24 °C (−11 °F) in the far north. The presence of the Rocky Mountains also influences the climate to the southwest, which disrupts the flow of the prevailing westerly winds and causes them to drop most of their moisture on the western slopes of the mountain ranges before reaching the province, casting a rain shadow over much of Alberta. The northerly location and isolation from the weather systems of the Pacific Ocean cause Alberta to have a dry climate with little moderation from the ocean. Annual precipitation ranges from 300 mm (12 in) in the southeast to 450 mm (18 in) in the north, except in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains where total precipitation including snowfall can reach 600 mm (24 in) annually.[28][33]

Southeastern Alberta features a semi-arid steppe climate.
Southeastern Alberta features a semi-arid steppe climate.

Northern Alberta is mostly covered by boreal forest and has a subarctic climate. The agricultural area of southern Alberta has a semi-arid steppe climate because the annual precipitation is less than the water that evaporates or is used by plants. The southeastern corner of Alberta, part of the Palliser Triangle, experiences greater summer heat and lower rainfall than the rest of the province, and as a result, suffers frequent crop yield problems and occasional severe droughts. Western Alberta is protected by the mountains and enjoys the mild temperatures brought by winter Chinook winds. Central and parts of northwestern Alberta in the Peace River region are largely aspen parkland, a biome transitional between prairie to the south and boreal forest to the north.

Alberta has a humid continental climate with warm summers and cold winters. The province is open to cold Arctic weather systems from the north, which often produce cold winter conditions. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic air masses in the winter produce extreme minimum temperatures varying from −54 °C (−65 °F) in northern Alberta to −46 °C (−51 °F) in southern Alberta, although temperatures at these extremes are rare.

In the summer, continental air masses have produced record maximum temperatures from 32 °C (90 °F) in the mountains to over 40 °C (104 °F) in southeastern Alberta.[34] Alberta is a sunny province. Annual bright sunshine totals range between 1,900 up to just under 2,600 hours per year. Northern Alberta gets about 18 hours of daylight in the summer.[34] The average daytime temperatures range from around 21 °C (70 °F) in the Rocky Mountain valleys and far north, up to around 28 °C (82 °F) in the dry prairie of the southeast. The northern and western parts of the province experience higher rainfall and lower evaporation rates caused by cooler summer temperatures. The south and east-central portions are prone to drought-like conditions sometimes persisting for several years, although even these areas can receive heavy precipitation, sometimes resulting in flooding.

In the winter, the Alberta clipper, a type of intense, fast-moving winter storm that generally forms over or near the province and, pushed with great speed by the continental polar jetstream, descends over the rest of southern Canada and the northern tier of the United States.[35] In southwestern Alberta, the cold winters are frequently interrupted by warm, dry Chinook winds blowing from the mountains, which can propel temperatures upward from frigid conditions to well above the freezing point in a very short period. During one Chinook recorded at Pincher Creek, temperatures soared from −19 to 22 °C (−2 to 72 °F) in just one hour.[28] The region around Lethbridge has the most Chinooks, averaging 30 to 35 Chinook days per year. Calgary has a 56% chance of a white Christmas, while Edmonton has an 86% chance.[36]

After Saskatchewan, Alberta experiences the most tornadoes in Canada with an average of 15 verified per year.[37] Thunderstorms, some of them severe, are frequent in the summer, especially in central and southern Alberta. The region surrounding the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is notable for having the highest frequency of hail in Canada, which is caused by orographic lifting from the nearby Rocky Mountains, enhancing the updraft/downdraft cycle necessary for the formation of hail.

Climate averages for communities in Alberta[38]
Community Region July daily
maximum[38]
January daily
maximum[38]
Annual
precipitation[38]
Plant
hardiness
zone[39]
Medicine Hat Southern Alberta 28 °C (82 °F) −3 °C (27 °F) 323 mm (12.7 in) 4b
Brooks Southern Alberta 28 °C (82 °F) −4 °C (25 °F) 301 mm (11.9 in) 4a
Lethbridge Southern Alberta 26 °C (79 °F) 0 °C (32 °F) 380 mm (15 in) 4b
Fort McMurray Northern Alberta 24 °C (75 °F) −12 °C (10 °F) 419 mm (16.5 in) 3a
Wetaskiwin Central Alberta 24 °C (75 °F) −5 °C (23 °F) 497 mm (19.6 in) 3b
Edmonton Edmonton Metropolitan Region 23 °C (73 °F) −6 °C (21 °F) 456 mm (18.0 in) 4a
Cold Lake Northern Alberta 23 °C (73 °F) −10 °C (14 °F) 421 mm (16.6 in) 3a
Camrose Central Alberta 23 °C (73 °F) −6 °C (21 °F) 438 mm (17.2 in) 3b
Fort Saskatchewan Edmonton Metropolitan Region 23 °C (73 °F) −7 °C (19 °F) 455 mm (17.9 in) 3b
Lloydminster Central Alberta 23 °C (73 °F) −10 °C (14 °F) 409 mm (16.1 in) 3a
Red Deer Central Alberta 23 °C (73 °F) −5 °C (23 °F) 486 mm (19.1 in) 4a
Grande Prairie Northern Alberta 23 °C (73 °F) −8 °C (18 °F) 445 mm (17.5 in) 3b
Leduc Edmonton Metropolitan Region 23 °C (73 °F) −6 °C (21 °F) 446 mm (17.6 in) 3b
Calgary Calgary Metropolitan Region 23 °C (73 °F) −1 °C (30 °F) 419 mm (16.5 in) 4a
Chestermere Calgary Metropolitan Region 23 °C (73 °F) −3 °C (27 °F) 412 mm (16.2 in) 3b
St. Albert Edmonton Metropolitan Region 22 °C (72 °F) −6 °C (21 °F) 466 mm (18.3 in) 4a
Lacombe Central Alberta 22 °C (72 °F) −5 °C (23 °F) 446 mm (17.6 in) 3b

Ecology

Flora

The wild rose is the provincial flower of Alberta.
The wild rose is the provincial flower of Alberta.

In central and northern Alberta the arrival of spring is marked by the early flowering of the prairie crocus (Pulsatilla nuttalliana) anemone; this member of the buttercup family has been recorded flowering as early as March, though April is the usual month for the general population.[40] Other prairie flora known to flower early are the golden bean (Thermopsis rhombifolia) and wild rose (Rosa acicularis).[41] Members of the sunflower (Helianthus) family blossom on the prairie in the summer months between July and September.[42] The southern and east central parts of Alberta are covered by short prairie grass,[43] which dries up as summer lengthens, to be replaced by hardy perennials such as the prairie coneflower (Ratibida), fleabane, and sage (Artemisia). Both yellow and white sweet clover (Melilotus) can be found throughout the southern and central areas of the province.

The trees in the parkland region of the province grow in clumps and belts on the hillsides. These are largely deciduous, typically aspen, poplar, and willow. Many species of willow and other shrubs grow in virtually any terrain. North of the North Saskatchewan River, evergreen forests prevail for thousands of square kilometres. Aspen poplar, balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera) (or in some parts cottonwood (Populus deltoides), and paper birch (Betula papyrifera) are the primary large deciduous species. Conifers include jack pine (Pinus banksiana), Rocky Mountain pine, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), both white and black spruce, and the deciduous conifer tamarack (Larix laricina).

Fauna

A bighorn sheep in Kananaskis Country. The bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta.
A bighorn sheep in Kananaskis Country. The bighorn sheep is the provincial mammal of Alberta.

The four climatic regions (alpine, boreal forest, parkland, and prairie) of Alberta are home to many different species of animals. The south and central prairie was the homeland of the American bison, also known as buffalo, with its grasses providing pasture and breeding ground for millions of buffalo. The buffalo population was decimated during early settlement, but since then, buffalo have made a comeback, living on farms and in parks all over Alberta.

Herbivores are found throughout the province. Moose, mule deer, elk, and white-tailed deer are found in the wooded regions, and pronghorn can be found in the prairies of southern Alberta. Bighorn sheep and mountain goats live in the Rocky Mountains. Rabbits, porcupines, skunks, squirrels, and many species of rodents and reptiles live in every corner of the province. Alberta is home to only one venomous snake species, the prairie rattlesnake.

Alberta is home to many large carnivores such as wolves, grizzly bears, black bears, and mountain lions, which are found in the mountains and wooded regions. Smaller carnivores of the canine and feline families include coyotes, red foxes, Canada lynx, and bobcats. Wolverines can also be found in the northwestern areas of the province.

Central and northern Alberta and the region farther north are the nesting ground of many migratory birds. Vast numbers of ducks, geese, swans and pelicans arrive in Alberta every spring and nest on or near one of the hundreds of small lakes that dot northern Alberta. Eagles, hawks, owls, and crows are plentiful, and a huge variety of smaller seed and insect-eating birds can be found. Alberta, like other temperate regions, is home to mosquitoes, flies, wasps, and bees. Rivers and lakes are populated with pike, walleye, whitefish, rainbow, speckled, brown trout, and sturgeon. Native to the province, the bull trout, is the provincial fish and an official symbol of Alberta. Turtles are found in some water bodies in the southern part of the province. Frogs and salamanders are a few of the amphibians that make their homes in Alberta.

Alberta is the only province in Canada—as well as one of the few places in the world—that is free of Norwegian rats.[44] Since the early 1950s, the Government of Alberta has operated a rat-control program, which has been so successful that only isolated instances of wild rat sightings are reported, usually of rats arriving in the province aboard trucks or by rail. In 2006, Alberta Agriculture reported zero findings of wild rats; the only rat interceptions have been domesticated rats that have been seized from their owners. It is illegal for individual Albertans to own or keep Norwegian rats of any description; the animals can only be kept in the province by zoos, universities and colleges, and recognized research institutions. In 2009, several rats were found and captured, in small pockets in southern Alberta,[45] putting Alberta's rat-free status in jeopardy. A colony of rats was subsequently found in a landfill near Medicine Hat in 2012 and again in 2014.[46][47]

Paleontology

Specimens at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, located in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Some of the specimens, from left to right, are Hypacrosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Gorgosaurus (both in the background), Tyrannosaurus, and Triceratops.
Specimens at the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, located in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation at Dinosaur Provincial Park. Some of the specimens, from left to right, are Hypacrosaurus, Edmontosaurus, Lambeosaurus, Gorgosaurus (both in the background), Tyrannosaurus, and Triceratops.

Alberta has one of the greatest diversities and abundances of Late Cretaceous dinosaur fossils worldwide.[48] Taxa are represented by complete fossil skeletons, isolated material, microvertebrate remains, and even mass graves. At least 38 dinosaur type specimens were collected in the province. The Foremost Formation, Oldman Formation and Dinosaur Park Formations collectively comprise the Judith River Group and are the most thoroughly studied dinosaur-bearing strata in Alberta.[48]

Dinosaur-bearing strata are distributed widely throughout Alberta.[48] The Dinosaur Provincial Park area contains outcrops of the Dinosaur Park Formation and Oldman Formation. In Alberta's central and southern regions are intermittent Scollard Formation outcrops. In the Drumheller Valley and Edmonton regions there are exposed Horseshoe Canyon facies. Other formations have been recorded as well, like the Milk River and Foremost Formations. The latter two have a lower diversity of documented dinosaurs, primarily due to their lower total fossil quantity and neglect from collectors who are hindered by the isolation and scarcity of exposed outcrops. Their dinosaur fossils are primarily teeth recovered from microvertebrate fossil sites. Additional geologic formations that have produced only a few fossils are the Belly River Group and St. Mary River Formations of the southwest and the northwestern Wapiti Formation, which contains two Pachyrhinosaurus bone beds. The Bearpaw Formation represents strata deposited during a marine transgression. Dinosaurs are known from this formation, but represent specimens washed out to sea or reworked from older sediments.[48]

Discover more about Geography related topics

Geography of Alberta

Geography of Alberta

Alberta is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. Located in Western Canada, the province has an area of 661,190 km2 (255,290 sq mi) and is bounded to the south by the United States state of Montana along 49° north for 298 km (185 mi); to the east at 110° west by the province of Saskatchewan for 1,223 km (760 mi); and at 60° north the Northwest Territories for 644 km (400 mi). The southern half of the province borders British Columbia along the Continental Divide of the Americas on the peaks of the Rocky Mountains, while the northern half borders British Columbia along the 120th meridian west. Along with Saskatchewan it is one of only two landlocked provinces or territories.

British Columbia

British Columbia

British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, situated between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. It has a diverse geography, with rugged landscapes that include rocky coastlines, sandy beaches, forests, lakes, mountains, inland deserts and grassy plains, and borders the province of Alberta to the east and the Yukon and Northwest Territories to the north. With an estimated population of 5.3 million as of 2022, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The capital of British Columbia is Victoria and its largest city is Vancouver. Vancouver is the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada; the 2021 census recorded 2.6 million people in Metro Vancouver.

49th parallel north

49th parallel north

The 49th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 49° north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Canada–United States border

Canada–United States border

The border between Canada and the United States is the longest international border in the world. The terrestrial boundary is 8,891 km (5,525 mi) long. The land border has two sections: Canada's border with the contiguous United States to its south, and with the U.S. state of Alaska to its west. The bi-national International Boundary Commission deals with matters relating to marking and maintaining the boundary, and the International Joint Commission deals with issues concerning boundary waters. The agencies currently responsible for facilitating legal passage through the international boundary are the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) and U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP).

Montana

Montana

Montana is a state in the Mountain West division of the Western United States. It is bordered by Idaho to the west, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, and the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north. It is the fourth-largest state by area, the eighth-least populous state, and the third-least densely populated state. Its state capital is Helena. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, while the eastern half is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands, with smaller mountain ranges found throughout the state.

60th parallel north

60th parallel north

The 60th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees north of Earth's equator. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean.

Northwest Territories

Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of approximately 1,144,000 km2 (442,000 sq mi) and a 2016 census population of 41,790, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada. Its estimated population as of 2022 is 45,605. Yellowknife is the capital, most populous community, and only city in the territory; its population was 19,569 as of the 2016 census. It became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission.

110th meridian west

110th meridian west

The meridian 110° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

120th meridian west

120th meridian west

The meridian 120° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

Continental Divide of the Americas

Continental Divide of the Americas

The Continental Divide of the Americas is the principal, and largely mountainous, hydrological divide of the Americas. The Continental Divide extends from the Bering Strait to the Strait of Magellan, and separates the watersheds that drain into the Pacific Ocean from those river systems that drain into the Atlantic and Arctic oceans.

Mount Columbia (Canada)

Mount Columbia (Canada)

Mount Columbia is a mountain located in the Winston Churchill Range of the Rocky Mountains. It is the highest point in Alberta, Canada, and is second only to Mount Robson for height and topographical prominence in the Canadian Rockies. It is located on the border between Alberta and British Columbia on the northern edge of the Columbia Icefield. Its highest point, however, lies within Jasper National Park in Alberta.

List of rivers of Alberta

List of rivers of Alberta

Alberta's rivers flow towards three different bodies of water, the Arctic Ocean, the Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Alberta is located immediately east of the continental divide, so no rivers from Alberta reach the Pacific Ocean.

History

Blackfoot Confederacy warriors in Macleod in 1907
Blackfoot Confederacy warriors in Macleod in 1907

Paleo-Indians arrived in Alberta at least 10,000 years ago, toward the end of the last ice age. They are thought to have migrated from Siberia to Alaska on a land bridge across the Bering Strait and then possibly moved down the east side of the Rocky Mountains through Alberta to settle the Americas. Others may have migrated down the coast of British Columbia and then moved inland.[49] Over time they differentiated into various First Nations peoples, including the Plains Indians of southern Alberta such as those of the Blackfoot Confederacy and the Plains Cree, who generally lived by hunting buffalo, and the more northerly tribes such as the Woodland Cree and Chipewyan who hunted, trapped, and fished for a living.[28]

After the British arrival in Canada, approximately half of the province of Alberta, south of the Athabasca River drainage, became part of Rupert's Land which consisted of all land drained by rivers flowing into Hudson Bay. This area was granted by Charles II of England to the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in 1670, and rival fur trading companies were not allowed to trade in it.

The Athabasca River and the rivers north of it were not in HBC territory because they drained into the Arctic Ocean instead of Hudson Bay, and they were prime habitats for fur-bearing animals. The first European explorer of the Athabasca region was Peter Pond, who learned of the Methye Portage, which allowed travel from southern rivers into the rivers north of Rupert's Land. Other North American fur traders formed the North West Company (NWC) of Montreal to compete with the HBC in 1779. The NWC occupied the northern part of Alberta territory. Peter Pond built Fort Athabasca on Lac la Biche in 1778. Roderick Mackenzie built Fort Chipewyan on Lake Athabasca ten years later in 1788. His cousin, Sir Alexander Mackenzie, followed the North Saskatchewan River to its northernmost point near Edmonton, then setting northward on foot, trekked to the Athabasca River, which he followed to Lake Athabasca. It was there he discovered the mighty outflow river which bears his name—the Mackenzie River—which he followed to its outlet in the Arctic Ocean. Returning to Lake Athabasca, he followed the Peace River upstream, eventually reaching the Pacific Ocean, and so he became the first European to cross the North American continent north of Mexico.[50]

The extreme southernmost portion of Alberta was part of the French (and Spanish) territory of Louisiana and was sold to the United States in 1803. In the Treaty of 1818, the portion of Louisiana north of the Forty-Ninth Parallel was ceded to Great Britain.[51]

Fort Chipewyan, a trading post and regional headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820
Fort Chipewyan, a trading post and regional headquarters for the Hudson's Bay Company in 1820

Fur trade expanded in the north, but bloody battles occurred between the rival HBC and NWC, and in 1821 the British government forced them to merge to stop the hostilities.[52] The amalgamated Hudson's Bay Company dominated trade in Alberta until 1870 when the newly formed Canadian Government purchased Rupert's Land. Northern Alberta was included in the North-Western Territory until 1870, when it and Rupert's land became Canada's North-West Territories.

Downtown Calgary was one of several areas afflicted during the 2013 Alberta floods.
Downtown Calgary was one of several areas afflicted during the 2013 Alberta floods.

First Nations negotiated the Numbered Treaties with the Crown in which the Crown gained title to the land that would later become Alberta, and the Crown committed to the ongoing support of the First Nations and guaranteed their hunting and fishing rights. The most significant treaties for Alberta are Treaty 6 (1876), Treaty 7 (1877) and Treaty 8 (1899).

The District of Alberta was created as part of the North-West Territories in 1882. As settlement increased, local representatives to the North-West Legislative Assembly were added. After a long campaign for autonomy, in 1905, the District of Alberta was enlarged and given provincial status, with the election of Alexander Cameron Rutherford as the first premier. Less than a decade later, the First World War presented special challenges to the new province as an extraordinary number of volunteers left relatively few workers to maintain services and production. Over 50% of Alberta's doctors volunteered for service overseas.[53]

On June 21, 2013, during the 2013 Alberta floods Alberta experienced heavy rainfall that triggered catastrophic flooding throughout much of the southern half of the province along the Bow, Elbow, Highwood and Oldman rivers and tributaries. A dozen municipalities in Southern Alberta declared local states of emergency on June 21 as water levels rose and numerous communities were placed under evacuation orders.[54]

In 2016, the Fort McMurray wildfire resulted in the largest fire evacuation of residents in Alberta's history, as more than 80,000 people were ordered to evacuate.[55][56]

Since 2020, Alberta has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.[57]

Discover more about History related topics

History of Alberta

History of Alberta

The province of Alberta, Canada, has a history and prehistory stretching back thousands of years. The ancestors of today's First Nations in Alberta arrived in the area by at least 10,000 BC, according to the Bering land bridge theory. Southerly tribes, the Plain Indians, such as the Blackfoot, Blood, and Peigans eventually adapted to seminomadic plains bison hunting, originally without the aid of horses, but later with horses that Europeans had introduced.

Blackfoot Confederacy

Blackfoot Confederacy

The Blackfoot Confederacy, Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi, is a historic collective name for linguistically related groups that make up the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people: the Siksika ("Blackfoot"), the Kainai or Blood, and two sections of the Peigan or Piikani – the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani. Broader definitions include groups such as the Tsúùtínà (Sarcee) and A'aninin who spoke quite different languages but allied with or joined the Blackfoot Confederacy.

Fort Macleod

Fort Macleod

Fort Macleod is a town in southern Alberta, Canada. It was originally named Macleod to distinguish it from the North-West Mounted Police barracks it had grown around. The fort was named in honour of the then Commissioner of the North-West Mounted Police, Colonel James Macleod. Founded as the Municipality of the Town of Macleod in 1892, the name was officially changed to the already commonly used Fort Macleod in 1952.

Alaska

Alaska

Alaska is a state located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America. A semi-exclave of the U.S., it borders the Canadian province of British Columbia and the Yukon territory to the east; it also shares a maritime border with the Russian Federation's Chukotka Autonomous Okrug to the west, just across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas of the Arctic Ocean, while the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest.

Beringia

Beringia

Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula. It includes the Chukchi Sea, the Bering Sea, the Bering Strait, the Chukchi and Kamchatka Peninsulas in Russia as well as Alaska in the United States and the Yukon in Canada.

Bering Strait

Bering Strait

The Bering Strait is a strait between the Pacific and Arctic oceans, separating the Chukchi Peninsula of the Russian Far East from the Seward Peninsula of Alaska. The present Russia-United States maritime boundary is at 168° 58' 37" W longitude, slightly south of the Arctic Circle at about 65° 40' N latitude. The Strait is named after Vitus Bering, a Danish explorer in the service of the Russian Empire.

Coastal migration (Americas)

Coastal migration (Americas)

The coastal migration hypothesis is one of two leading hypotheses about the settlement of the Americas at the time of the Last Glacial Maximum. It proposes a migration route involving watercraft, via the Kurile island chain, along the coast of Beringia and the archipelagos off the Alaskan-British Columbian coast, continuing down the coast to Central and South America. The alternative is the "interior route hypothesis", which assumes migration along an ice-free corridor between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets during the Last Glacial Maximum.

First Nations in Canada

First Nations in Canada

First Nations is a term used to identify those Indigenous Canadian peoples who are neither Inuit nor Métis. Traditionally, First Nations in Canada were peoples who lived south of the tree line, and mainly south of the Arctic Circle. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands across Canada. Roughly half are located in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia.

Bison hunting

Bison hunting

Bison hunting was an activity fundamental to the economy and society of the Plains Indians peoples who inhabited the vast grasslands on the Interior Plains of North America, prior to the animal's near-extinction in the late 19th century following US expansion into the West. Bison hunting was an important spiritual practice and source of material for these groups, especially after the European introduction of the horse in the 16th through 18th centuries enabled new hunting techniques. The species' dramatic decline was the result of habitat loss due to the expansion of ranching and farming in western North America, industrial-scale hunting practiced by non-Indigenous hunters, increased Indigenous hunting pressure due to non-Indigenous demand for bison hides and meat, and cases of deliberate policy by settler governments to destroy the food source of the Indigenous peoples during times of conflict.

Chipewyan

Chipewyan

The Chipewyan are a Dene Indigenous Canadian people of the Athabaskan language family, whose ancestors are identified with the Taltheilei Shale archaeological tradition. Chipewyan is a Cree exonym (ᒌᐘᔮᐣ) meaning pointed hides, referring to the design of their parkas. They are part of the Northern Athabascan group of peoples, and come from what is now Western Canada.

British America

British America

British America comprised the colonial territories of the English Empire, which became the British Empire after the 1707 union of the Kingdom of England with the Kingdom of Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, in the Americas from 1607 to 1783. Prior to the union, this was termed English America, excepting Scotland's failed attempts to establish its own colonies. Following the union, these colonies were formally known as British America and the British West Indies before the Thirteen Colonies declared their independence in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and formed the United States of America.

Athabasca River

Athabasca River

The Athabasca River is a river in Alberta, Canada, which originates at the Columbia Icefield in Jasper National Park and flows more than 1,231 km (765 mi) before emptying into Lake Athabasca. Much of the land along its banks is protected in national and provincial parks, and the river is designated a Canadian Heritage River for its historical and cultural importance. The scenic Athabasca Falls is located about 30 km (19 mi) upstream from Jasper.

Demographics

Population density of Alberta
Population density of Alberta

{ The 2021 Canadian census reported Alberta had a population of 4,262,635 living in 1,633,220 of its 1,772,670 total dwellings, an 4.8% change from its 2016 population of 4,067,175. With a land area of 634,658.27 km2 (245,042.93 sq mi), it had a population density of 6.7/km2 in 2021.[2] Statistics Canada estimated the province to have a population of 4,543,111 in Q3 of 2022.[58]

Since 2000, Alberta's population has experienced a relatively high rate of growth, mainly because of its burgeoning economy. Between 2003 and 2004, the province had high birthrates (on par with some larger provinces such as British Columbia), relatively high immigration, and a high rate of interprovincial migration compared to other provinces.[59]

In 2016, Alberta continued to have the youngest population among the provinces with a median age of 36.7 years, compared with the national median of 41.2 years. Also in 2016, Alberta had the smallest proportion of seniors (12.3%) among the provinces and one of the highest population shares of children (19.2%), further contributing to Alberta's young and growing population.[60]

About 81% of the population lives in urban areas and only about 19% in rural areas. The Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is the most urbanized area in the province and is one of the most densely populated areas of Canada.[61] Many of Alberta's cities and towns have experienced very high rates of growth in recent history. Alberta's population rose from 73,022 in 1901[62] to 3,290,350 according to the 2006 census.[63]

According to the 2016 census Alberta has 779,155 residents (19.2%) between the ages of 0–14, 2,787,805 residents (68.5%) between the ages of 15–64, and 500,215 residents (12.3%) aged 65 and over.[64]

Additionally, as per the 2016 census, 1,769,500 residents hold a postsecondary certificate, diploma or degree, 895,885 residents have obtained a secondary (high) school diploma or equivalency certificate, and 540,665 residents do not have any certificate, diploma or degree.[64]

Municipalities

Largest metro areas and municipalities by population as of 2016
Census metropolitan areas: 2016[65] 2011[66] 2006[67] 2001[68] 1996[69]
Calgary CMA 1,392,609 1,214,839 1,079,310 951,395 821,628
Edmonton CMA 1,321,426 1,159,869 1,034,945 937,845 862,597
Lethbridge CMA 117,394 105,999 95,196 87,388 82,025
Urban municipalities (10 largest): 2016[70] 2011[71] 2006[72] 2001[73] 1996[74]
Calgary 1,239,220 1,096,833 988,193 878,866 768,082
Edmonton 932,546 812,201 730,372 666,104 616,306
Red Deer 100,418 90,564 82,772 67,707 60,080
Lethbridge 92,729 83,517 78,713 68,712 64,938
St. Albert (included in Edmonton CMA) 65,589 61,466 57,719 53,081 46,888
Medicine Hat 63,260 60,005 56,997 51,249 46,783
Grande Prairie 63,166 55,032 47,076 36,983 31,353
Airdrie (included in Calgary CMA) 61,581 42,564 28,927 20,382 15,946
Spruce Grove (included in Edmonton CMA) 34,066 26,171 19,496 15,983 14,271
Leduc (included in Edmonton CMA) 29,993 24,304 16,967 15,032 14,346
Specialized/rural municipalities (5 largest): 2016[70] 2011[71] 2006[72] 2001[73] 1996[74]
Strathcona County (included in Edmonton CMA) 98,044 92,490 82,511 71,986 64,176
Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo (includes Fort McMurray) 71,589 65,565 51,496 42,581 35,213
Rocky View County (included in Calgary CMA) 39,407 36,461 34,171 29,925 23,326
Parkland County (included in Edmonton CMA) 32,097 30,568 29,265 27,252 24,769
Municipal District of Foothills No. 31 22,766 21,258 19,736 16,764 13,714

Language

As of the 2021 Canadian Census, the ten most spoken languages in the province included English (4,109,720 or 98.37%), French (260,415 or 6.23%), Tagalog (172,625 or 4.13%), Punjabi (126,385 or 3.03%), Spanish (116,070 or 2.78%), Hindi (94,015 or 2.25%), Mandarin (82,095 or 1.97%), Arabic (76,760 or 1.84%), Cantonese (74,960 or 1.79%), and German (65,370 or 1.56%).[75] The question on knowledge of languages allows for multiple responses.

As of the 2016 census, English is the most common mother tongue, with 2,991,485 native speakers.[64] This is followed by Tagalog, with 99,035 speakers, German, with 80,050 speakers, French, with 72,150 native speakers, and Punjabi, with 68,695 speakers.[64]

The 2006 census found that English, with 2,576,670 native speakers, was the most common mother tongue of Albertans, representing 79.99% of the population. The next most common mother tongues were Chinese with 97,275 native speakers (3.02%), followed by German with 84,505 native speakers (2.62%) and French with 61,225 (1.90%).[76] Other mother tongues include: Punjabi, with 36,320 native speakers (1.13%); Tagalog, with 29,740 (0.92%); Ukrainian, with 29,455 (0.91%); Spanish, with 29,125 (0.90%); Polish, with 21,990 (0.68%); Arabic, with 20,495 (0.64%); Dutch, with 19,980 (0.62%); and Vietnamese, with 19,350 (0.60%). The most common aboriginal language is Cree 17,215 (0.53%). Other common mother tongues include Italian with 13,095 speakers (0.41%); Urdu with 11,275 (0.35%); and Korean with 10,845 (0.33%); then Hindi 8,985 (0.28%); Farsi 7,700 (0.24%); Portuguese 7,205 (0.22%); and Hungarian 6,770 (0.21%).

According to Statistics Canada, Alberta is home to the second-highest proportion (2%) of Francophones in western Canada (after Manitoba). Despite this, relatively few Albertans claim French as their mother tongue. Many of Alberta's French-speaking residents live in the central and northwestern regions of the province, after migration from other areas of Canada or descending from Métis.

Ethnicity

Alberta has considerable ethnic diversity. In line with the rest of Canada, many are descended from immigrants of Western European nations, notably England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France, but large numbers later came from other regions of Europe, notably Germany, Ukraine and Scandinavia.[77]

As per the 2016 census, 253,460 Albertans identify as Aboriginal, including 136,585 as First Nations, 114,370 as Métis, and 2,500 as Inuit.[64] There are also 933,165 residents who identify as a visible minority, including 230,930 South Asian people, 166,195 Filipinos, and 158,200 Chinese respondents.[64]

In the 2006 Canadian census, the most commonly reported ethnic origins among Albertans were: 885,825 English (27.2%); 679,705 German (20.9%); 667,405 Canadian (20.5%); 661,265 Scottish (20.3%); 539,160 Irish (16.6%); 388,210 French (11.9%); 332,180 Ukrainian (10.2%); 172,910 Dutch (5.3%); 170,935 Polish (5.2%); 169,355 North American Indian (5.2%); 144,585 Norwegian (4.4%); and 137,600 Chinese (4.2%). (Each person could choose as many ethnicities as were applicable.)[78] Amongst those of British heritage, the Scots have had a particularly strong influence on place-names, with the names of many cities and towns including Calgary, Airdrie, Canmore, and Banff having Scottish origins.

Alberta is the third most diverse province in terms of visible minorities after British Columbia and Ontario with 13.9% of the population consisting of visible minorities in 2006.[79] Over one-third of the populations of Calgary and Edmonton belong to a visible minority group.[80]

Aboriginal Identity Peoples made up 5.8% of the population in 2006, about half of whom consist of First Nations and the other half are Métis. There are also a small number of Inuit in Alberta.[81] The number of Aboriginal Identity Peoples have been increasing at a rate greater than the population of Alberta.[81]

As reported in the 2001 census, the Chinese represented nearly 4% of Alberta's population, and South Asians represented more than 2%. Both Edmonton and Calgary have historic Chinatowns, and Calgary has Canada's third-largest Chinese community. The Chinese presence began with workers employed in the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s. Indigenous Albertans makeup approximately 3% of the population.

Religion

According to the 2021 census, religious groups in Alberta included:[82]

As of the 2011 National Household Survey, the largest religious group was Roman Catholic, representing 24.3% of the population. Alberta had the second-highest percentage of non-religious residents among the provinces (after British Columbia) at 31.6% of the population. Of the remainder, 7.5% of the population identified themselves as belonging to the United Church of Canada, while 3.9% were Anglican. Lutherans made up 3.3% of the population while Baptists comprised 1.9%.[83] The remainder belonged to a wide variety of different religious affiliations, none of which constituted more than 2% of the population.

Members of LDS Church are mostly concentrated in the extreme south of the province. Alberta has a population of Hutterites, a communal Anabaptist sect similar to the Mennonites, and has a significant population of Seventh-day Adventists. Alberta is home to several Byzantine Rite Churches as part of the legacy of Eastern European immigration, including the Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Edmonton, and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada's Western Diocese which is based in Edmonton. Muslims made up 3.2% of the population, Sikhs 1.5%, Buddhists 1.2%, and Hindus 1.0%. Many of these are immigrants, but others have roots that go back to the first settlers of the prairies. Canada's oldest mosque, the Al-Rashid Mosque, is located in Edmonton,[84] whereas Calgary is home to Canada's largest mosque, the Baitun Nur Mosque.[85] Alberta is also home to a growing Jewish population of about 15,400 people who constituted 0.3% of Alberta's population. Most of Alberta's Jews live in the metropolitan areas of Calgary (8,200) and Edmonton (5,500).[86]

Discover more about Demographics related topics

Demographics of Alberta

Demographics of Alberta

Alberta has experienced a relatively high rate of growth in recent years, due in large part to its economy. Between 2003 and 2004, the province saw high birthrates, relatively high immigration, and a high rate of interprovincial migration when compared to other provinces. Approximately 81% of the population live in urban areas and only about 19% live in rural areas. The Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is the most urbanized area in Alberta and is one of Canada's four most urban regions. Many of Alberta's cities and towns have also experienced high rates of growth in recent history. From a population of 73,022 in 1901, Alberta has grown to 3,645,257 in 2011 and in the process has gone from less than 1.5% of Canada's population to 10.9%. As of July 1, 2018, Alberta's population represented 11.6% of Canada's total population of 37,058,856 making it the fourth most populated province in Canada. According to the 2018 third quarter report, Alberta's population increased by 23,096 to 4,330,206, the largest increase since the 2014 economic downturn.

2021 Canadian census

2021 Canadian census

The 2021 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population with a reference date of May 11, 2021. It follows the 2016 Canadian census, which recorded a population of 35,151,728. The overall response rate was 98%, which is slightly lower than the response rate for the 2016 census. It recorded a population of 36,991,981, a 5.2% increase from 2016.

Calgary–Edmonton Corridor

Calgary–Edmonton Corridor

The Calgary–Edmonton Corridor is a geographical region of the Canadian province of Alberta. It is the most urbanized area in Alberta and is one of Canada's four most urban regions. It consists of Statistics Canada Alberta census divisions No. 11, No. 8, and No. 6. Measured from north to south, the region covers a distance of approximately 400 km (250 mi). It includes the entire census metropolitan areas of Calgary and Edmonton and the census agglomerations of Red Deer and Wetaskiwin.

2006 Canadian census

2006 Canadian census

The 2006 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people. The previous census was the 2001 census and the following census was in 2011 census.

Airdrie, Alberta

Airdrie, Alberta

Airdrie is a city in Alberta, Canada within the Calgary Region. It is located north of Calgary within the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor at the intersection of Queen Elizabeth II Highway and Highway 567.

Brooks, Alberta

Brooks, Alberta

Brooks is a city in southeast Alberta, Canada that is surrounded by the County of Newell. It is located on Highway 1 and the Canadian Pacific Railway, approximately 186 km (116 mi) southeast of Calgary, and 110 km (68 mi) northwest of Medicine Hat. The city has an elevation of 760 m (2,490 ft).

Calgary

Calgary

Calgary is the largest city in the western Canadian province of Alberta and the largest metro area of the three Prairie Provinces. As of 2021, the city proper had a population of 1,306,784 and a metropolitan population of 1,481,806, making it the third-largest city and fifth-largest metropolitan area in Canada.

Camrose, Alberta

Camrose, Alberta

Camrose is a city in central Alberta, Canada that is surrounded by Camrose County. Located along Highway 13 it had its beginnings as a railroad hub.

Cold Lake, Alberta

Cold Lake, Alberta

Cold Lake is a city in northeastern Alberta, Canada and is named after the lake nearby. Canadian Forces Base Cold Lake is situated within the city's outer limits.

Edmonton

Edmonton

Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is situated on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Alberta's central region. The city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor".

Fort Saskatchewan

Fort Saskatchewan

Fort Saskatchewan is a city along the North Saskatchewan River in Alberta, Canada. It is 25 kilometres (16 mi) northeast of Edmonton, the provincial capital. It is part of the Edmonton census metropolitan area and one of 24 municipalities that constitute the Edmonton Metropolitan Region Board. Its population in the 2021 federal census was 27,088.

Grande Prairie

Grande Prairie

Grande Prairie is a city in northwest Alberta, Canada within the southern portion of an area known as Peace River Country. It is located at the intersection of Highway 43 and Highway 40, approximately 456 km (283 mi) northwest of Edmonton. The city is surrounded by the County of Grande Prairie No. 1.

Economy

Petroleum resources in Alberta
Petroleum resources in Alberta

Alberta's economy was one of the strongest in the world, supported by the burgeoning petroleum industry and to a lesser extent, agriculture and technology. In 2013, Alberta's per capita GDP exceeded that of the United States, Norway, or Switzerland,[87] and was the highest of any province in Canada at CA$84,390. This was 56% higher than the national average of CA$53,870 and more than twice that of some of the Atlantic provinces.[88][89] In 2006, the deviation from the national average was the largest for any province in Canadian history.[90] According to the 2006 census,[91] the median annual family income after taxes was $70,986 in Alberta (compared to $60,270 in Canada as a whole). In 2014, Alberta had the second-largest economy in Canada after Ontario, with a GDP exceeding CA$376 billion.[92] The GDP of the province calculated at basic prices rose by 4.6% in 2017 to $327.4 billion, which was the largest increase recorded in Canada, and it ended two consecutive years of decreases.[93]

Alberta's debt-to-GDP ratio is projected to peak at 12.1% in fiscal year 2021–2022, falling to 11.3% the following year.[94]

The Calgary-Edmonton Corridor is the most urbanized region in the province and one of the densest in Canada. The region covers a distance of roughly 400 km (250 mi) north to south. In 2001, the population of the Calgary-Edmonton Corridor was 2.15 million (72% of Alberta's population).[95] It is also one of the fastest-growing regions in the country. A 2003 study by TD Bank Financial Group found the corridor to be the only Canadian urban centre to amass a United States level of wealth while maintaining a Canadian style quality of life, offering universal health care benefits. The study found that GDP per capita in the corridor was 10% above average United States metropolitan areas and 40% above other Canadian cities at that time.

The Fraser Institute states that Alberta also has very high levels of economic freedom and rates Alberta as the freest economy in Canada,[96] and second-freest economy amongst U.S. states and Canadian provinces.[97]

In 2014, merchandise exports totalled US$121.4 billion. Energy revenues totalled $111.7 billion and Energy resource exports totalled $90.8 billion. Farm Cash receipts from agricultural products totalled $12.9 billion. Shipments of forest products totalled $5.4 billion while exports were $2.7 billion. Manufacturing sales totalled $79.4 billion, and Alberta's information and communications technology (ICT) industries generated over $13 billion in revenue. In total, Alberta's 2014 GDP amassed $364.5 billion in 2007 dollars, or $414.3 billion in 2015 dollars. In 2015, Alberta's GDP grew unstably despite low oil prices, with growth rates as high 4.4% and as low as 0.2%.[98][99]

Agriculture and forestry

Cows in Rocky View. Nearly one-half of Canadian beef is produced here.
Cows in Rocky View. Nearly one-half of Canadian beef is produced here.

Agriculture has a significant position in the province's economy. The province has over three million head of cattle,[100] and Alberta beef has a healthy worldwide market. Nearly one half of all Canadian beef is produced in Alberta. Alberta is one of the top producers of plains buffalo (bison) for the consumer market. Sheep for wool and mutton are also raised.

Wheat and canola[101] are primary farm crops, with Alberta leading the provinces in spring wheat production; other grains are also prominent. Much of the farming is dryland farming, often with fallow seasons interspersed with cultivation. Continuous cropping (in which there is no fallow season) is gradually becoming a more common mode of production because of increased profits and a reduction of soil erosion. Across the province, the once common grain elevator is slowly being lost as rail lines are decreasing; farmers typically truck the grain to central points.[102]

Alberta is the leading beekeeping province of Canada, with some beekeepers wintering hives indoors in specially designed barns in southern Alberta, then migrating north during the summer into the Peace River valley where the season is short but the working days are long for honeybees to produce honey from clover and fireweed. Hybrid canola also requires bee pollination, and some beekeepers service this need.[103]

Forestry plays a vital role in Alberta's economy, providing over 15,000 jobs and contributing billions of dollars annually.[104] Uses for harvested timber include pulpwood, hardwood, engineered wood and bioproducts such as chemicals and biofuels.

Industry

Alberta is the largest producer of conventional crude oil, synthetic crude, natural gas and gas products in Canada. Alberta is the world's second-largest exporter of natural gas and the fourth-largest producer.[105] Two of the largest producers of petrochemicals in North America are located in central and north-central Alberta. In both Red Deer and Edmonton, polyethylene and vinyl manufacturers produce products that are shipped all over the world. Edmonton's oil refineries provide the raw materials for a large petrochemical industry to the east of Edmonton.

The Athabasca oil sands surrounding Fort McMurray have estimated unconventional oil reserves approximately equal to the conventional oil reserves of the rest of the world, estimated to be 1.6 trillion barrels (254 km3). Many companies employ both conventional strip mining and non-conventional in situ methods to extract the bitumen from the oil sands. As of late 2006, there were over $100 billion in oil sands projects under construction or in the planning stages in northeastern Alberta.[106]

Another factor determining the viability of oil extraction from the oil sands is the price of oil. The oil price increases since 2003 have made it profitable to extract this oil, which in the past would give little profit or even a loss. By mid-2014, rising costs and stabilizing oil prices threatened the economic viability of some projects. An example of this was the shelving of the Joslyn north project in the Athabasca region in May 2014.[107]

With concerted effort and support from the provincial government, several high-tech industries have found their birth in Alberta, notably patents related to interactive liquid-crystal display systems.[108] With a growing economy, Alberta has several financial institutions dealing with civil and private funds.

Tourism

Alberta has been a tourist destination from the early days of the 20th century, with attractions including outdoor locales for skiing, hiking, and camping, shopping locales such as West Edmonton Mall, Calgary Stampede, outdoor festivals, professional athletic events, international sporting competitions such as the Commonwealth Games and Olympic Games, as well as more eclectic attractions. According to Alberta Economic Development, Calgary and Edmonton both host over four million visitors annually. Banff, Jasper and the Rocky Mountains are visited by about three million people per year.[109] Alberta tourism relies heavily on Southern Ontario tourists, as well as tourists from other parts of Canada, the United States, and many other countries.

There are also natural attractions like Elk Island National Park, Wood Buffalo National Park, and the Columbia Icefield. Alberta's Rockies include well-known tourist destinations Banff National Park and Jasper National Park. The two mountain parks are connected by the scenic Icefields Parkway. Banff is located 128 km (80 mi) west of Calgary on Highway 1, and Jasper is located 366 km (227 mi) west of Edmonton on the Yellowhead Highway. Five of Canada's fourteen UNESCO World Heritage Sites are located within the province: Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Wood Buffalo National Park, Dinosaur Provincial Park and Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump. A number of these areas hold ski resorts, most notably Banff Sunshine, Lake Louise, Marmot Basin, Norquay and Nakiska.

Bronco riding at the Calgary Stampede. The event is one of the world's largest rodeos.
Bronco riding at the Calgary Stampede. The event is one of the world's largest rodeos.

About 1.2 million people visit the Calgary Stampede,[110] a celebration of Canada's own Wild West and the cattle ranching industry. About 700,000 people enjoy Edmonton's K-Days (formerly Klondike Days and Capital EX).[111][112] Edmonton was the gateway to the only all-Canadian route to the Yukon gold fields, and the only route which did not require gold-seekers to travel the exhausting and dangerous Chilkoot Pass.

Another tourist destination that draws more than 650,000 visitors each year is the Drumheller Valley, located northeast of Calgary. Drumheller, "Dinosaur Capital of The World", offers the Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology. Drumheller also had a rich mining history being one of Western Canada's largest coal producers during the war years. Another attraction in east-central Alberta is Alberta Prairie Railway Excursions, a popular tourist attraction operated out of Stettler, that offers train excursions into the prairie and caters to tens of thousands of visitors every year.

Discover more about Economy related topics

Economy of Alberta

Economy of Alberta

The economy of Alberta is the sum of all economic activity in Alberta, Canada's fourth largest province by population. Alberta's GDP in 2018 was CDN$338.2 billion.

Atlantic Canada

Atlantic Canada

Atlantic Canada, also called the Atlantic provinces, is the region of Eastern Canada comprising the provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec. The four provinces are New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. As of 2021, the landmass of the four Atlantic provinces was approximately 488,000 km2, and had a population of over 2.4 million people. The provinces combined had an approximate GDP of $121.888 billion in 2011. The term Atlantic Canada was popularized following the admission of Newfoundland as a Canadian province in 1949.

History of Canada

History of Canada

The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of the Paleo-Indians to North America thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archeological investigations.

Debt-to-GDP ratio

Debt-to-GDP ratio

In economics, the debt-to-GDP ratio is the ratio between a country's government debt and its gross domestic product (GDP). While it is a "ratio", it is technically measured in units of year, and can be interpreted as the number of years a country needs to pay off its entire debt, if all its GDP is devoted towards it. A low debt-to-GDP ratio indicates that an economy produces goods and services sufficient to pay back debts without incurring further debt. Geopolitical and economic considerations – including interest rates, war, recessions, and other variables – influence the borrowing practices of a nation and the choice to incur further debt.

Fiscal year

Fiscal year

A fiscal year is used in government accounting, which varies between countries, and for budget purposes. It is also used for financial reporting by businesses and other organizations. Laws in many jurisdictions require company financial reports to be prepared and published on an annual basis but generally not the reporting period to align with the calendar year. Taxation laws generally require accounting records to be maintained and taxes calculated on an annual basis, which usually corresponds to the fiscal year used for government purposes. The calculation of tax on an annual basis is especially relevant for direct taxes, such as income tax. Many annual government fees—such as council tax and license fees, are also levied on a fiscal year basis, but others are charged on an anniversary basis.

Fraser Institute

Fraser Institute

The Fraser Institute is a libertarian-conservative Canadian public policy think tank and registered charity. The institute describes itself as independent and non-partisan. It is headquartered in Vancouver, with additional offices in Calgary, Toronto, and Montreal, and ties to a global network of 80 think tanks through the Economic Freedom Network. Fraser is a member of the Atlas Network of libertarian policy lobbyists.

Economic freedom

Economic freedom

Economic freedom, or economic liberty, is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions. This is a term used in economic and policy debates as well as in the philosophy of economics. One approach to economic freedom comes from the liberal tradition emphasizing free markets, free trade, and private property under free enterprise. Another approach to economic freedom extends the welfare economics study of individual choice, with greater economic freedom coming from a larger set of possible choices. Other conceptions of economic freedom include freedom from want and the freedom to engage in collective bargaining.

Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate information.

American bison

American bison

The American bison is a species of bison native to North America. Sometimes colloquially referred to as American buffalo or simply buffalo, it is one of two extant species of bison, alongside the European bison. Its historical range, by 9000 BC, is described as the great bison belt, a tract of rich grassland that ran from Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico, east to the Atlantic Seaboard as far north as New York, south to Georgia and, according to some sources, further south to Florida, with sightings in North Carolina near Buffalo Ford on the Catawba River as late as 1750. Once roaming in vast herds, the species nearly became extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. With a population in excess of 60 million in the late 18th century, the species was culled down to just 541 animals by 1889. Recovery efforts expanded in the mid-20th century, with a resurgence to roughly 31,000 wild bison as of March 2019. For many years, the population was primarily found in a few national parks and reserves. Through multiple reintroductions, the species now freely roams wild in several regions in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, with it also being introduced to Yakutia in Russia.

Cereal

Cereal

A cereal is any grass cultivated for the edible components of its grain, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran. Cereal grain crops are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and are therefore staple crops. They include wheat, rye, oats, and barley. Edible grains from other plant families, such as buckwheat, quinoa and chia, are referred to as pseudocereals.

Grain elevator

Grain elevator

A grain elevator is a facility designed to stockpile or store grain. In the grain trade, the term "grain elevator" also describes a tower containing a bucket elevator or a pneumatic conveyor, which scoops up grain from a lower level and deposits it in a silo or other storage facility.

Beekeeping

Beekeeping

Beekeeping is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis, but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces, such as beeswax, propolis, flower pollen, bee pollen, and royal jelly, as well as to pollinate crops or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard".

Government and politics

Distribution of Alberta's 6 specialized municipalities (red) and 74 rural municipalities, which include municipal districts (often named as counties) (orange), improvement districts (dark green) and special areas (light green) (2020)
Distribution of Alberta's 6 specialized municipalities (red) and 74 rural municipalities, which include municipal districts (often named as counties) (orange), improvement districts (dark green) and special areas (light green) (2020)

The Government of Alberta is organized as a parliamentary democracy with a unicameral legislature. Its unicameral legislature—the Legislative Assembly—consists of 87 members elected first past the post (FPTP) from single-member constituencies.[113] Locally municipal governments and school boards are elected and operate separately. Their boundaries do not necessarily coincide.

As King of Canada, Charles III is the head of state for the Government of Alberta. His duties in Alberta are carried out by Lieutenant Governor Salma Lakhani.[114] The King and lieutenant governor are figureheads whose actions are highly restricted by custom and constitutional convention. The lieutenant governor handles numerous honorific duties in the name of the King. The government is headed by the premier. The premier is normally a member of the Legislative Assembly, and draws all the members of the Cabinet from among the members of the Legislative Assembly. The City of Edmonton is the seat of the provincial government—the capital of Alberta. The current premier is Danielle Smith, who was sworn in on October 11th, 2022.

The Alberta Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.
The Alberta Legislative Building serves as the meeting place for the Legislative Assembly of Alberta.

Alberta's elections have tended to yield much more conservative outcomes than those of other Canadian provinces. Since the 1960s, Alberta has had three main political parties, the Progressive Conservatives ("Conservatives" or "Tories"), the Liberals, and the social democratic New Democrats. The Wildrose Party, a more libertarian party formed in early 2008, gained much support in the 2012 election and became the official opposition, a role it held until 2017 when it was dissolved and succeeded by the new United Conservative Party created by the merger of Wildrose and the Progressive Conservatives. The strongly conservative Social Credit Party was a power in Alberta for many decades, but fell from the political map after the Progressive Conservatives came to power in 1971.

For 44 years the Progressive Conservatives governed Alberta. They lost the 2015 election to the NDP (which formed their own government for the first time in provincial history, breaking almost 80 consecutive years of right-wing rule),[115] suggesting at the time a possible shift to the left in the province, also indicated by the election of progressive mayors in both of Alberta's major cities.[116] Since becoming a province in 1905, Alberta has seen only five changes of government—only six parties have governed Alberta: the Liberals, from 1905 to 1921; the United Farmers of Alberta, from 1921 to 1935; the Social Credit Party, from 1935 to 1971; the Progressive Conservative Party, from 1971 to 2015; from 2015 to 2019, the Alberta New Democratic Party; and from 2019, the United Conservative Party, with the most recent transfer of power being the first time in provincial history that an incumbent government was not returned to a second term.

Administrative divisions

The province is divided into ten types of local governments – urban municipalities (including cities, towns, villages and summer villages), specialized municipalities, rural municipalities (including municipal districts (often named as counties), improvement districts, and special areas), Métis settlements, and Indian reserves. All types of municipalities are governed by local residents and were incorporated under various provincial acts, with the exception of improvement districts (governed by either the provincial or federal government), and Indian reserves (governed by local band governments under federal jurisdiction).

Law enforcement

Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in St. Albert. The RCMP provides municipal policing throughout most of Alberta.
Royal Canadian Mounted Police officers in St. Albert. The RCMP provides municipal policing throughout most of Alberta.

Policing in the province of Alberta upon its creation was the responsibility of the Royal Northwest Mounted Police. In 1917, due to pressures of the First World War, the Alberta Provincial Police was created. This organization policed the province until it was disbanded as a Great Depression-era cost-cutting measure in 1932. It was at that time the, now renamed, Royal Canadian Mounted Police resumed policing of the province, specifically RCMP "K" Division. With the advent of the Alberta Sheriffs Branch, the distribution of duties of law enforcement in Alberta has been evolving as certain aspects, such as traffic enforcement, mobile surveillance and the close protection of the Premier of Alberta have been transferred to the Sheriffs. In 2006, Alberta formed the Alberta Law Enforcement Response Teams (ALERT) to combat organized crime and the serious offences that accompany it. ALERT is made up of members of the RCMP, Sheriffs Branch, and various major municipal police forces in Alberta.

Military

Military bases in Alberta include Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Cold Lake, CFB Edmonton, CFB Suffield and CFB Wainwright. Air force units stationed at CFB Cold Lake have access to the Cold Lake Air Weapons Range.[117] CFB Edmonton is the headquarters for the 3rd Canadian Division.[118] CFB Suffield hosts British troops and is the largest training facility in Canada.[119]

Taxation

According to Alberta's 2009 budget, government revenue in that year came mainly from royalties on non-renewable natural resources (30.4%), personal income taxes (22.3%), corporate and other taxes (19.6%), and grants from the federal government primarily for infrastructure projects (9.8%).[120] In 2014, Alberta received $6.1 billion in bitumen royalties. With the drop in the price of oil in 2015 it was down to $1.4 billion. In 2016, Alberta received "about $837 million in royalty payments from oil sands Royalty Projects".[121] According to the 2018–2021 fiscal plan, the two top sources of revenue in 2016 were personal income tax at $10,763 million and federal transfers of $7,976 million with total resource revenue at $3,097 million.[122]: 45  Alberta is the only province in Canada without a provincial sales tax. Alberta residents are subject to the federal sales tax, the Goods and Services Tax of 5%.

2018–2021 fiscal plan
Revenue source in millions of dollars[122]
personal income tax 10,763
federal transfers 7,976
Other tax revenue 5,649
Corporate income tax 3,769
Premiums, fees and licenses 3,701
Investment income 3,698
Resource revenue – other 1,614
Resource revenue – Bitumen royalties 1,483
Net income from business enterprises 543
Total revenue 42,293

From 2001 to 2016, Alberta was the only Canadian province to have a flat tax of 10% of taxable income, which was introduced by Premier, Ralph Klein, as part of the Alberta Tax Advantage, which also included a zero-percent tax on income below a "generous personal exemption".[123][124]

In 2016, under Premier Rachel Notley, while most Albertans continued to pay the 10% income tax rate, new tax brackets 12%, 14%, and 15% for those with higher incomes ($128,145 annually or more) were introduced.[125][123] Alberta's personal income tax system maintained a progressive character by continuing to grant residents personal tax exemptions of $18,451,[126] in addition to a variety of tax deductions for persons with disabilities, students, and the aged.[127] Alberta's municipalities and school jurisdictions have their own governments who usually work in co-operation with the provincial government. By 2018, most Albertans continued to pay the 10% income tax rate.[125]

According to a March 2015 Statistics Canada report, the median household income in Alberta in 2014 was about $100,000, which is 23% higher than the Canadian national average.[128]

Based on Statistic Canada reports, low-income Albertans, who earn less than $25,000 and those in the high-income bracket earning $150,000 or more, are the lowest-taxed people in Canada.[125] Those in the middle income brackets representing those that earn about $25,000 to $75,000[Notes 1] pay more in provincial taxes than residents in British Columbia and Ontario.[125] In terms of income tax, Alberta is the "best province" for those with a low income because there is no provincial income tax for those who earn $18,915 or less.[125] Even with the 2016 progressive tax brackets up to 15%, Albertans who have the highest incomes, those with a $150,000 annual income or more—about 178,000 people in 2015, pay the least in taxes in Canada.[125] — About 1.9 million Albertans earned between $25,000 and $150,000 in 2015.[125]

Alberta also privatized alcohol distribution. By 2010, privatization had increased outlets from 304 stores to 1,726; 1,300 jobs to 4,000 jobs; and 3,325 products to 16,495 products.[129] Tax revenue also increased from $400 million to $700 million.

In 2017/18 Alberta collected about $2.4 billion in education property taxes from municipalities.[130] Alberta municipalities raise a significant portion of their income through levying property taxes.[131] The value of assessed property in Alberta was approximately $727 billion in 2011.[132] Most real property is assessed according to its market value.[131] The exceptions to market value assessment are farmland, railways, machinery and equipment and linear property, all of which is assessed by regulated rates.[133] Depending on the property type, property owners may appeal a property assessment to their municipal 'Local Assessment Review Board', 'Composite Assessment Review Board,' or the Alberta Municipal Government Board.[131][134]

Discover more about Government and politics related topics

Monarchy in Alberta

Monarchy in Alberta

By the arrangements of the Canadian federation, Canada's monarchy operates in Alberta as the core of the province's Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. As such, the Crown within Alberta's jurisdiction is referred to as the Crown in Right of Alberta, His Majesty in Right of Alberta, or The King in Right of Alberta. The Constitution Act, 1867, however, leaves many royal duties in Alberta specifically assigned to the sovereign's viceroy, the Lieutenant Governor of Alberta, whose direct participation in governance is limited by the conventional stipulations of constitutional monarchy.

List of premiers of Alberta

List of premiers of Alberta

There have been 19 heads of government of the Canadian province of Alberta since it was created in 1905. Three were Liberal, three belonged to the United Farmers of Alberta, three were Social Credit, seven were Progressive Conservatives, two have belonged to the United Conservatives and one was New Democratic. The current premier of Alberta is Danielle Smith of the United Conservative Party.

List of Alberta general elections

List of Alberta general elections

The Canadian province of Alberta holds elections to its unicameral legislative body, the Legislative Assembly of Alberta. The maximum period between general elections of the assembly is five years, but the Lieutenant Governor is able to call one at any time. However, the Premier has typically asked the Lieutenant Governor to call the election in the fourth or fifth year after the preceding election. The number of seats has increased over time, from 25 for the first election in 1905, to the current 87.

Executive Council of Alberta

Executive Council of Alberta

The Executive Council of Alberta is a body of ministers of the Crown in right of Alberta, who along with the lieutenant governor, exercises the powers of the Government of Alberta. Ministers are selected by the premier and typically sit as a member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA). It is the provincial equivalent to the federal Cabinet of Canada.

List of specialized municipalities in Alberta

List of specialized municipalities in Alberta

A specialized municipality is a unique type of municipal status in the Canadian province of Alberta. These unique local governments are formed without the creation of special legislation, and typically allow for the coexistence of urban and rural areas within the jurisdiction of a single municipal government.

List of municipal districts in Alberta

List of municipal districts in Alberta

A municipal district (MD) is the most common form of all rural municipality statuses used in the Canadian province of Alberta. Alberta's municipal districts, most of which are branded as a county, are predominantly rural areas that may include either farmland, Crown land or a combination of both depending on their geographic location. They may also include country residential subdivisions and unincorporated communities, some of which are recognized as hamlets by Alberta Municipal Affairs.

Legislative Assembly of Alberta

Legislative Assembly of Alberta

The Legislative Assembly of Alberta is the deliberative assembly of the Alberta Legislature for the province of Alberta, Canada, and is seated at the Alberta Legislature Building in the provincial capital of Edmonton. The Legislative Assembly is a unicameral assembly of 87 members, elected first past the post from single-member electoral districts. Bills passed by the legislature are given royal assent by Charles III, King of Canada, represented by the lieutenant governor of Alberta.

First-past-the-post voting

First-past-the-post voting

In a first-past-the-post electoral system formally called single-member plurality voting (SMP) when used in single-member districts, or (informally) choose-one voting in contrast to ranked voting or score voting), voters cast their vote for a candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.

Monarchy of Canada

Monarchy of Canada

The monarchy of Canada is Canada's form of government embodied by the Canadian sovereign and head of state. It is at the core of Canada's constitutional federal structure and Westminster-style parliamentary democracy. The monarchy is the foundation of the executive (King-in-Council), legislative (King-in-Parliament), and judicial (King-on-the-Bench) branches of both federal and provincial jurisdictions. The king of Canada since 8 September 2022 has been Charles III.

Charles III

Charles III

Charles III is King of the United Kingdom and the 14 other Commonwealth realms. He was the longest-serving heir apparent and, at age 73, became the oldest person to accede to the British throne following the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, on 8 September 2022.

Constitutional convention (political custom)

Constitutional convention (political custom)

A constitutional convention is an informal and uncodified tradition that is followed by the institutions of a state. In some states, notably those Commonwealth of Nations states that follow the Westminster system and whose political systems derive from British constitutional law, most government functions are guided by constitutional convention rather than by a formal written constitution. In these states, actual distribution of power may be markedly different from those the formal constitutional documents describe. In particular, the formal constitution often confers wide discretionary powers on the head of state that, in practice, are used only on the advice of the head of government, and in some cases not at all.

Danielle Smith

Danielle Smith

Marlaina Danielle Smith is a Canadian politician and journalist who has been serving as the 19th premier of Alberta since October 11, 2022, and leader of the United Conservative Party (UCP) since October 6, 2022. Smith entered provincial politics in 2009, becoming the leader of the Wildrose Party. She won a seat in the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in 2012, serving as leader of the Opposition until 2014, when she resigned to join the governing Progressive Conservatives (PCs). She was the member of the Legislative Assembly (MLA) for Highwood from 2012 until 2015, and became MLA for Brooks-Medicine Hat on November 8, 2022.

Culture

Summer brings many festivals to the province of Alberta, especially in Edmonton. The Edmonton Fringe Festival is the world's second-largest after the Edinburgh Festival. Both Calgary and Edmonton host many annual festivals and events, including folk music festivals. The city's "heritage days" festival sees the participation of over 70 ethnic groups. Edmonton's Churchill Square is home to a large number of the festivals, including the large Taste of Edmonton and The Works Art & Design Festival throughout the summer months.

The City of Calgary is also famous for its Stampede, dubbed "The Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth". The Stampede is Canada's biggest rodeo festival and features various races and competitions, such as calf roping and bull riding. In line with the western tradition of rodeo are the cultural artisans that reside and create unique Alberta western heritage crafts.

In 2019, the then Minister of Culture and Tourism Ricardo Miranda announced the Alberta Artist in Residence program in conjunction with the province's first Month of the Artist[135] to celebrate the arts and the value they bring to the province, both socially and economically,[136] The Artist is selected each year via a public and competitive process is expected to do community outreach and attend events to promote the arts throughout the province. The award comes with $60,000 funding which includes travel and materials costs.[137] On January 31, 2019, Lauren Crazybull named Alberta's 1st Artist in Residence.[138][139][137] Alberta is the first province to launch an Artist in Residence program in Canada.

Discover more about Culture related topics

Culture of Alberta

Culture of Alberta

The culture of Alberta refers to the art, customs, and traditions of the people of Alberta. Alberta entered into Confederation in 1905, placing her in a tie with Saskatchewan as the country's second youngest province. Despite her short history, the province possesses a rich culture. The vastness of the land and variation of geography – which includes mountains, foothills, grassland, parkland, forest, and rockland – have served as important sources of creative inspiration across all art forms. Alberta's primary industries of farming, ranching, and petroleum also play a major part in the province's culture and identity.

List of festivals in Alberta

List of festivals in Alberta

The following is an incomplete list of annual festivals in the province of Alberta, Canada. This list includes festivals of diverse types, including regional festivals, commerce festivals, fairs, food festivals, arts festivals, religious festivals, folk festivals, and recurring festivals on holidays.

List of festivals in Edmonton

List of festivals in Edmonton

This is an incomplete list of festivals in Edmonton, a city in the province of Alberta, Canada. Edmonton plays host to several large festivals each year, hence its local nickname as 'the Festival City.'

Edmonton International Fringe Festival

Edmonton International Fringe Festival

The Edmonton International Fringe Festival is an annual arts festival held every August in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Produced by the Fringe Theatre Adventures (FTA), it is the oldest and largest fringe theatre festival in North America. The Edmonton Fringe is a founding member of the Canadian Association of Fringe Festivals.

Edinburgh Festival Fringe

Edinburgh Festival Fringe

The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world's largest arts and media festival, which in 2019 spanned 25 days and featured more than 59,600 performances of 3,841 different shows in 322 venues. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place in Edinburgh every August. The Edinburgh Festival Fringe has become a world-leading celebration of arts and culture, surpassed only by the Olympics and the World Cup in terms of global ticketed events. As an event it "has done more to place Edinburgh in the forefront of world cities than anything else" according to historian and former chairman of the board, Michael Dale.

Churchill Square (Edmonton)

Churchill Square (Edmonton)

Churchill Square is the main downtown square in Edmonton, Alberta, which plays host to a large number of festivals and events including: the Edmonton International Street Performers Festival, Edmonton Fashion Week, The Works Art & Design Festival, Taste of Edmonton, Cariwest, and Edmonton Pride.

The Works Art & Design Festival

The Works Art & Design Festival

The Works Art & Design Festival is a thirteen day festival held at the end of June and the beginning of July in downtown Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The festival displays the work of artists and designers from across Canada as well as exhibits from international presenters.

Calf roping

Calf roping

Calf roping, also known as tie-down roping, is a rodeo event that features a calf and a rider mounted on a horse. The goal of this timed event is for the rider to catch the calf by throwing a loop of rope from a lariat around its neck, dismount from the horse, run to the calf, and restrain it by tying three legs together, in as short a time as possible. A variant on the sport, with fewer animal welfare controversies, is breakaway roping, where the calf is roped, but not tied.

Bull riding

Bull riding

Bull riding is a rodeo sport that involves a rider getting on a bucking bull and attempting to stay mounted while the animal tries to buck off the rider.

Ricardo Miranda

Ricardo Miranda

Ricardo Miranda is a Canadian politician and trade unionist who was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Alberta in the 2015 Alberta general election representing the electoral district of Calgary-Cross.

Lauren Crazybull

Lauren Crazybull

Lauren Crazybull is a Blackfoot, Dene visual artist currently based in Vancouver, British Columbia and Alberta's first provincial Artist in Residence. Lauren is originally from Alberta, Canada.

Sports

List of sport teams in Alberta
Team City League Stadium/Arena Capacity
Edmonton Oilers Edmonton National Hockey League Rogers Place 18 347
Calgary Flames Calgary National Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 19 289
Edmonton Elks Edmonton Canadian Football League Commonwealth Stadium 60 081
Calgary Stampeders Calgary Canadian Football League McMahon Stadium 40 000
Calgary Wranglers Calgary American Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 19 289
Calgary Hitmen Calgary Canadian Hockey League Scotiabank Saddledome 19 289
Edmonton Oil Kings Edmonton Canadian Hockey League Rogers Place 18 347
Lethbridge Hurricanes Lethbridge Canadian Hockey League Enmax Centre 5 479
Medicine Hat Tigers Medicine Hat Canadian Hockey League Canalta Centre 7 100
Red Deer Rebels Red Deer Canadian Hockey League Peavey Mart Centrium 7 111
FC Edmonton Edmonton Canadian Premier League Clarke Stadium 5 000
Cavalry FC Calgary Canadian Premier League ATCO Field 6 000
Edmonton Stingers Edmonton Canadian Elite Basketball League Edmonton Expo Centre 4 000
Calgary Roughnecks Calgary National Lacrosse League Scotiabank Saddledome 19 289
Edmonton Riverhawks Edmonton West Coast League RE/MAX Field 9 200

Discover more about Sports related topics

Edmonton Oilers

Edmonton Oilers

The Edmonton Oilers are a professional ice hockey team based in Edmonton. The Oilers compete in the National Hockey League (NHL) as a member of the Pacific Division of the Western Conference. They play their home games at Rogers Place, which opened in 2016. Their current head coach Jay Woodcroft was hired on February 11, 2022, and Ken Holland was named as the general manager on May 7, 2019. The Oilers are one of two NHL franchises based in Alberta, the other being the Calgary Flames; their close proximity to each other has led to a fierce rivalry known as the "Battle of Alberta".

Edmonton

Edmonton

Edmonton is the capital city of the Canadian province of Alberta. Edmonton is situated on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Metropolitan Region, which is surrounded by Alberta's central region. The city anchors the north end of what Statistics Canada defines as the "Calgary–Edmonton Corridor".

National Hockey League

National Hockey League

The National Hockey League is a professional ice hockey league in North America comprising 32 teams—25 in the United States and 7 in Canada. It is considered to be the top ranked professional ice hockey league in the world, and is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. The Stanley Cup, the oldest professional sports trophy in North America, is awarded annually to the league playoff champion at the end of each season. The NHL is the fifth-wealthiest professional sport league in the world by revenue, after the National Football League (NFL), Major League Baseball (MLB), the National Basketball Association (NBA), and the English Premier League (EPL).

Calgary Flames

Calgary Flames

The Calgary Flames are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary. The Flames compete in the National Hockey League (NHL) as a member of the Pacific Division in the Western Conference, and are the third major professional ice hockey team to represent the city of Calgary, following the Calgary Tigers (1921–1927) and Calgary Cowboys (1975–1977). The Flames are one of two NHL franchises based in Alberta, the other being the Edmonton Oilers. The cities' proximity has led to a rivalry known as the "Battle of Alberta".

Calgary

Calgary

Calgary is the largest city in the western Canadian province of Alberta and the largest metro area of the three Prairie Provinces. As of 2021, the city proper had a population of 1,306,784 and a metropolitan population of 1,481,806, making it the third-largest city and fifth-largest metropolitan area in Canada.

Edmonton Elks

Edmonton Elks

The Edmonton Elks are a professional Canadian football team based in Edmonton, Alberta. The club competes in the Canadian Football League (CFL) as a member of the league's West Division and plays their home games at the Brick Field at Commonwealth Stadium. The Elks were founded in 1949 as the Edmonton Eskimos and have won the Grey Cup championship fourteen times, most recently in 2015. The team has a rivalry with the Calgary Stampeders and is one of the three community-owned teams in the CFL. The team discontinued using the "Eskimos" name in 2020, with the new name "Elks" being formally announced on June 1, 2021.

Canadian Football League

Canadian Football League

The Canadian Football League is a professional sports league in Canada. The CFL is the highest level of competition in Canadian football. The league consists of nine teams, each located in a city in Canada. They are divided into two divisions: four teams in the East Division and five teams in the West Division.

Commonwealth Stadium

Commonwealth Stadium

Commonwealth Stadium is an open-air, multipurpose stadium located in the McCauley neighbourhood of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It has a seating capacity of 56,302, making it the largest open-air stadium in Canada. Primarily used for Canadian football, it also hosts athletics, soccer, rugby union and concerts.

Calgary Stampeders

Calgary Stampeders

The Calgary Stampeders are a professional Canadian football team based in Calgary, Alberta. The Stampeders compete in the West Division of the Canadian Football League (CFL). The club plays its home games at McMahon Stadium and are the third-oldest active franchise in the CFL. The Stampeders were officially founded in 1945, although there were clubs operating in Calgary since the 1890s.

McMahon Stadium

McMahon Stadium

McMahon Stadium is a Canadian football stadium in Calgary, Alberta. The stadium is owned by the University of Calgary and operated by the McMahon Stadium Society.

Calgary Wranglers

Calgary Wranglers

The Calgary Wranglers are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, that began play in the 2022–23 American Hockey League (AHL) season. The team plays at the Scotiabank Saddledome, the home of their NHL affiliate team, the Calgary Flames.

American Hockey League

American Hockey League

The American Hockey League (AHL) is a professional ice hockey league based in the United States and Canada that serves as the primary developmental league for the National Hockey League (NHL). Since the 2010–11 season, every team in the league has an affiliation agreement with one NHL team. When NHL teams do not have an AHL affiliate, players are assigned to AHL teams affiliated with other NHL teams. Twenty-six AHL teams are located in the United States and the remaining six are in Canada. The league offices are located in Springfield, Massachusetts, and its current president is Scott Howson.

Education

As with any Canadian province, the Alberta Legislature has (almost) exclusive authority to make laws respecting education. Since 1905, the Legislature has used this capacity to continue the model of locally elected public and separate school boards which originated prior to 1905, as well as to create and regulate universities, colleges, technical institutions, and other educational forms and institutions (public charter schools, private schools, homeschooling).

Elementary and secondary

There are forty-two public school jurisdictions in Alberta, and seventeen operating separate school jurisdictions. Sixteen of the operating separate school jurisdictions have a Catholic electorate, and one (St. Albert) has a Protestant electorate. In addition, one Protestant separate school district, Glen Avon, survives as a ward of the St. Paul Education Region. The City of Lloydminster straddles the Albertan/Saskatchewan border, and both the public and separate school systems in that city are counted in the above numbers: both of them operate according to Saskatchewan law.

For many years the provincial government has funded the greater part of the cost of providing K–12 education. Prior to 1994 public and separate school boards in Alberta had the legislative authority to levy a local tax on property as supplementary support for local education. In 1994, the government of the province eliminated this right for public school boards, but not for separate school boards. Since 1994 there has continued to be a tax on property in support of K–12 education; the difference is that the provincial government now sets the mill rate, the money is collected by the local municipal authority and remitted to the provincial government. The relevant legislation requires that all the money raised by this property tax must go to support K–12 education provided by school boards. The provincial government pools the property tax funds from across the province and distributes them, according to a formula, to public and separate school jurisdictions and Francophone authorities.

Public and separate school boards, charter schools, and private schools all follow the Program of Studies and the curriculum approved by the provincial department of education (Alberta Education). Homeschool tutors may choose to follow the Program of Studies or develop their own Program of Studies. Public and separate schools, charter schools, and approved private schools all employ teachers who are certificated by Alberta Education, they administer Provincial Achievement Tests and Diploma Examinations set by Alberta Education, and they may grant high school graduation certificates endorsed by Alberta Education.

Post-secondary

The University of Alberta in 2005. The institution is the oldest, and largest university in Alberta.
The University of Alberta in 2005. The institution is the oldest, and largest university in Alberta.

The University of Alberta, located in Edmonton and established in 1908, is Alberta's oldest and largest university. The University of Calgary, once affiliated with the University of Alberta, gained its autonomy in 1966 and is now the second-largest university in Alberta. Athabasca University, which focuses on distance learning, and the University of Lethbridge are located in Athabasca and Lethbridge respectively.

In early September 2009, Mount Royal University became Calgary's second public university, and in late September 2009, a similar move made MacEwan University Edmonton's second public university. There are 15 colleges that receive direct public funding, along with two technical institutes, Northern Alberta Institute of Technology and Southern Alberta Institute of Technology.[140] Two of the colleges, Red Deer College and Grande Prairie Regional College, were approved by the Alberta government to become degree-granting universities.[141]

There are also many private post-secondary institutions, mostly Christian Universities, bringing the total number of universities to 12. Students may also receive government loans and grants while attending selected private institutions. There was some controversy in 2005 over the rising cost of post-secondary education for students (as opposed to taxpayers). In 2005, Premier Ralph Klein made a promise that he would freeze tuition and look into ways of reducing schooling costs.[142][143]

Discover more about Education related topics

Education in Alberta

Education in Alberta

Education in Alberta is provided mainly through funding from the provincial government. The earliest form of formal education in Alberta is usually preschool which is not mandatory and is then followed by the partially-mandatory kindergarten to Grade 12. This is managed by Alberta Education which has divided the province into 379 school authorities. Higher education in the province is managed by Alberta Advanced Education.

St. Albert, Alberta

St. Albert, Alberta

St. Albert is a city in Alberta on the Sturgeon River northwest of the City of Edmonton. It was originally settled as a Métis community, and is now the second-largest city in the Edmonton Metropolitan Region. St. Albert first received its town status in 1904 and was reached by the Canadian Northern Railway in 1906. Originally separated from Edmonton by several miles of farmland, the 1980s expansion of Edmonton's city limits placed St. Albert immediately adjacent to the larger city on St. Albert's south and east sides.

State school

State school

State schools or public schools are generally primary or secondary schools that educate all students without charge. They are funded in whole or in part by taxation. State funded schools exist in virtually every country of the world, though there are significant variations in their structure and educational programmes. State education generally encompasses primary and secondary education.

Homeschooling

Homeschooling

Homeschooling or home schooling, also known as home education or elective home education (EHE), is the education of school-aged children at home or a variety of places other than a school. Usually conducted by a parent, tutor, or an online teacher, many homeschool families use less formal, more personalized and individualized methods of learning that are not always found in schools. The actual practice of homeschooling can look very different. The spectrum ranges from highly structured forms based on traditional school lessons to more open, free forms such as unschooling, which is a lesson- and curriculum-free implementation of homeschooling. Some families who initially attended a school go through a deschool phase to break away from school habits and prepare for homeschooling. While "homeschooling" is the term commonly used in North America, "home education" is primarily used in Europe and many Commonwealth countries. Homeschooling should not be confused with distance education, which generally refers to the arrangement where the student is educated by and conforms to the requirements of an online school, rather than being educated independently and unrestrictedly by their parents or by themselves.

Higher education in Alberta

Higher education in Alberta

Higher education in Alberta refers to the post secondary education system for the province of Alberta. The Ministry of Advanced Education in Alberta oversees educational delivery through universities, publicly funded colleges, technical institutions, and private colleges. These institutions offer a variety of academic and vocational pursuits. Students have access to post-secondary options through most regions of Alberta, and a developed articulation system allows for increased student mobility.

University of Alberta

University of Alberta

The University of Alberta, also known as U of A or UAlberta, is a public research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta, and Henry Marshall Tory, the university's first president. It was enabled through the Post-secondary Learning Act.

Athabasca University

Athabasca University

Athabasca University (AU) is a Canadian public research university that primarily operates through online distance education. Founded in 1970, it is one of four comprehensive academic and research universities in Alberta, and was the first Canadian university to specialize in distance education.

Mount Royal University

Mount Royal University

Mount Royal University (MRU) is a public university in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

MacEwan University

MacEwan University

MacEwan University is a public undergraduate university located in the downtown core of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

The Northern Alberta Institute of Technology (NAIT) is a polytechnic and applied sciences institute in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. NAIT provides careers programs in applied research, technical training, applied education, and learning designed to meet the demands of Alberta's technical and knowledge-based industries. NAIT offers approximately 120 credit programs leading to degrees, applied degrees, diplomas, and certificates. As of 2018, there are approximately 16,000 students in credit programs, 12,000 apprentices registered in apprenticeship training, 14,500 students enrolled in non-credit courses, and more than 20,000 registrants for customized corporate based training. NAIT also attracts international students from 94 countries. NAIT is similar to an Institute of technology or university of applied sciences as termed in other jurisdictions. The campus newspaper, the NAIT Nugget, is a member of the Canadian University Press (CUP).

Southern Alberta Institute of Technology

Southern Alberta Institute of Technology

The Southern Alberta Institute of Technology (SAIT) is a polytechnic institute in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. SAIT offers more than 110 career programs in technology, trades and business. Established in 1916, it is Calgary's second oldest post-secondary institution and Canada's first publicly funded technical institute.

Ralph Klein

Ralph Klein

Ralph Philip Klein was a Canadian politician and journalist who served as the 12th premier of Alberta and leader of the Progressive Conservative Association of Alberta from 1992 until his retirement in 2006. Klein also served as the 32nd mayor of Calgary from 1980 to 1989.

Health care

Alberta provides a publicly funded, fully integrated health system, through Alberta Health Services (AHS)—a quasi-independent agency that delivers health care on behalf of the Government of Alberta's Ministry of Health.[144] The Alberta government provides health services for all its residents as set out by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984. Alberta became Canada's second province (after Saskatchewan) to adopt a Tommy Douglas-style program in 1950, a precursor to the modern medicare system.

Alberta's health care budget was $22.5 billion during the 2018–2019 fiscal year (approximately 45% of all government spending), making it the best-funded health-care system per-capita in Canada.[145] Every hour the province spends more than $2.5 million, (or $60 million per day), to maintain and improve health care in the province.[146]

Notable health, education, research, and resources facilities in Alberta, all of which are located within Calgary or Edmonton. Health centres in Calgary include:

Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary is the largest hospital in Alberta.
Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary is the largest hospital in Alberta.

Health centres in Edmonton include:

The Edmonton Clinic complex, completed in 2012, provides a similar research, education, and care environment as the Mayo Clinic in the United States.[147][148]

All public health care services funded by the Government of Alberta are delivered operationally by Alberta Health Services. AHS is the province's single health authority, established on July 1, 2008, which replaced nine regional health authorities. AHS also funds all ground ambulance services in the province, as well as the province-wide Shock Trauma Air Rescue Service (STARS) air ambulance service.[149]

Discover more about Health care related topics

Alberta Health Services

Alberta Health Services

Alberta Health Services (AHS) which is headquartered in Edmonton, Alberta is the single health authority for the Canadian province of Alberta and the "largest integrated provincial health care system" in Canada. AHS delivers medical care on behalf of the provincial Government of Alberta Ministry of Health It operates 850 facilities throughout the province, including hospitals, clinics, continuing care facilities, mental health facilities and community health sites, that provide a variety of programs and services. AHS is the largest employer in the province of Alberta. In 2019, AHS served 4.3 million Albertans with a staff of 125,000 staff and 10,000 physicians, and an annual budget of $15.365 billion. Mauro Chies is the interim President and CEO of AHS and reports to Dr. John Cowell, the AHS Official Administrator. The Official Administrator is accountable to the Minister of Health and the Premier.

Healthcare in Canada

Healthcare in Canada

Healthcare in Canada is delivered through the provincial and territorial systems of publicly funded health care, informally called Medicare. It is guided by the provisions of the Canada Health Act of 1984, and is universal. The 2002 Royal Commission, known as the Romanow Report, revealed that Canadians consider universal access to publicly funded health services as a "fundamental value that ensures national health care insurance for everyone wherever they live in the country."

Government of Alberta

Government of Alberta

The government of Alberta is the body responsible for the administration of the Canadian province of Alberta. As a constitutional monarchy, the Crown—represented in the province by the lieutenant governor—is the corporation sole, assuming distinct roles: the executive, as the Crown-in-Council; the legislature, as the Crown-in-Parliament; and the courts, as the Crown-on-the-Bench. The functions of the government are exercised on behalf of three institutions—the Executive Council; the Legislative Assembly; and the judiciary, respectively. Its powers and structure are partly set out in the Constitution Act, 1867.

Ministry of Health (Alberta)

Ministry of Health (Alberta)

Ministry of Health (Alberta) is a ministry of the Executive Council of Alberta. Its major responsibilities include setting "policy and direction to achieve a sustainable and accountable health system to promote and protect the health of Albertans."

Canada Health Act

Canada Health Act

The Canada Health Act is a statute of the Parliament of Canada, adopted in 1984, which establishes the framework for federal financial contributions to the provincial and territorial health insurance programs, commonly called "medicare". To receive federal funding, the provinces and territories must comply with the terms of the CHA, which establishes the principle of universal, single-payer healthcare.

Medicare (Canada)

Medicare (Canada)

Medicare is an unofficial designation used to refer to the publicly funded single-payer healthcare system of Canada. Canada's health care system consists of 13 provincial and territorial health insurance plans, which provide universal healthcare coverage to Canadian citizens, permanent residents, and depending on the province or territory, certain temporary residents. The systems are individually administered on a provincial or territorial basis, within guidelines set by the federal government. The formal terminology for the insurance system is provided by the Canada Health Act and the health insurance legislation of the individual provinces and territories.

Foothills Medical Centre

Foothills Medical Centre

Foothills Medical Centre (FMC) is the largest hospital in the province of Alberta and is located in the city of Calgary. It is one of Canada's most recognized medical facilities and one of the leading research and teaching hospitals. Foothills Medical Centre provides advanced healthcare services to over two million people from Calgary, and surrounding regions including southern Alberta, southeastern British Columbia, and southern Saskatchewan. Formerly operated by the Calgary Health Region, it is now under the authority of Alberta Health Services and part of the University of Calgary Medical Centre.

Alberta Children's Hospital

Alberta Children's Hospital

Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH) is the largest public hospital for sick children in the prairie provinces, and is located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is operated by Alberta Health Services – Calgary Health Region. The new facility opened on September 27, 2006, and is the first free-standing pediatric facility to be built in Canada in more than 20 years. It was originally opened on May 19, 1922, as the Junior Red Cross Children's Hospital. It is located west of the University of Calgary campus grounds and just across from the site of the Foothills Medical Centre.

Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta

Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta

The Libin Cardiovascular Institute is an entity of Alberta Health Services and the University of Calgary. It connects all cardiovascular research, education and clinical care in Southern Alberta. The Institute coordinates the activities of over 1,500 individuals in Southern Alberta. Of its more than 175 research and clinician members, over 75 are cardiologists, making it the largest heart or cardiovascular institute in Western Canada by that measure.

Peter Lougheed Centre

Peter Lougheed Centre

Peter Lougheed Centre (PLC) is a 506,000 square foot hospital in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is under the auspices of Alberta Health Services, formerly the Calgary Health Region, providing medical and surgical services to Calgary but also Southern Alberta. The PLC has a 24 hours emergency department, an intensive care unit (ICU), and offers ambulatory care. It was named after Peter Lougheed, who served as premier of Alberta from 1971 to 1985. The hospital opened in 1988 with 500 beds, and today contains over 600 beds. The new East Wing was completed in 2008 and includes 140 inpatient beds, as well as a new intensive care and coronary care unit. It was also designed with a new roof-top helipad for emergency services.

Cross Cancer Institute

Cross Cancer Institute

Cross Cancer Institute is the comprehensive cancer centre for northern Alberta. The institute, named for Wallace Warren Cross, is located in Edmonton near the southwest corner of the University of Alberta, and is one of two tertiary cancer centres in the province. The Cross Cancer Institute is a lead centre for the province-wide prevention, research and treatment program. The centre provides inpatient and outpatient services for cancer patients, advanced medical and supportive cancer care, and patient and professional education. The Cross Cancer Institute conducts research through the Alberta Cancer Research Institute.

Grey Nuns Community Hospital

Grey Nuns Community Hospital

The Grey Nuns Community Hospital is an acute care hospital located in the Mill Woods area of south Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The Grey Nuns Community Hospital provides a full range of services including a 24-hour Emergency Department. The 14-bed tertiary palliative care unit is known for its delivery of care and teaching practices. The hospital traces its roots to the Grey Nuns of Montreal who sent Sister Emery, Adel Lamy and Alphonse to the Edmonton area in 1859.

Transportation

Air

Calgary International Airport, the province's largest airport by passenger traffic.
Calgary International Airport, the province's largest airport by passenger traffic.

Alberta is well-connected by air, with international airports in both Calgary and Edmonton. Calgary International Airport and Edmonton International Airport are the fourth- and fifth-busiest in Canada, respectively. Calgary's airport is a hub for WestJet Airlines and a regional hub for Air Canada, primarily serving the prairie provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba) for connecting flights to British Columbia, eastern Canada, fifteen major United States centres, nine European airports, one Asian airport and four destinations in Mexico and the Caribbean.[150] Edmonton's airport acts as a hub for the Canadian north and has connections to all major Canadian airports as well as airports in the United States, Europe, Mexico, and the Caribbean .[151]

Public transit

Calgary, Edmonton, Red Deer, Medicine Hat, and Lethbridge have substantial public transit systems. In addition to buses, Calgary and Edmonton operate light rail transit (LRT) systems. Edmonton LRT, which is underground in the downtown core and on the surface outside the CBD, was the first of the modern generation of light rail systems to be built in North America, while the Calgary C Train has one of the highest numbers of daily riders of any LRT system in North America.

Rail

A Via Rail passenger train passing by freight trains in the background, at Jasper station
A Via Rail passenger train passing by freight trains in the background, at Jasper station

There are more than 9,000 km (5,600 mi) of operating mainline railway in Alberta. The vast majority of this trackage is owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway (CP) and Canadian National Railway (CN) companies, which operate freight transport across the province. Additional railfreight service in the province is provided by two shortline railways: the Battle River Railway and Forty Mile Rail.

Passenger trains include Via Rail's Canadian (Toronto–Vancouver) and Jasper–Prince Rupert trains, which use the CN mainline and pass through Jasper National Park and parallel the Yellowhead Highway during at least part of their routes. The Rocky Mountaineer operates two sections: one from Vancouver to Banff over CP tracks, and a section that travels over CN tracks to Jasper.

Road

Alberta has over 181,000 km (112,000 mi) of highways and roads, of which nearly 41,000 km (25,000 mi) are paved.[152] The main north–south corridor is Highway 2, which begins south of Cardston at the Carway border crossing and is part of the CANAMEX Corridor. Beginning at the Coutts border crossing and ending at Lethbridge, Highway 4, effectively extends Interstate 15 into Alberta and is the busiest United States gateway to the province. Highway 3 joins Lethbridge to Fort Macleod and links Highway 2 to Highway 4. Highway 2 travels north through Fort Macleod, Calgary, Red Deer, and Edmonton.[153]

North of Edmonton, the highway continues to Athabasca, then northwesterly along the south shore of Lesser Slave Lake into High Prairie, north to Peace River, west to Fairview and finally south to Grande Prairie, where it ends at an interchange with Highway 43.[153] The section of Highway 2 between Calgary and Edmonton has been named the Queen Elizabeth II Highway to commemorate the visit of the monarch in 2005.[154] Highway 2 is supplemented by two more highways that run parallel to it: Highway 22, west of Highway 2, known as Cowboy Trail, and Highway 21, east of Highway 2. Highway 43 travels northwest into Grande Prairie and the Peace River Country. Travelling northeast from Edmonton, the Highway 63 connects to Fort McMurrayand the Athabasca oil sands.[153]

Alberta has two main east–west corridors. The southern corridor, part of the Trans-Canada Highway system, enters the province near Medicine Hat, runs westward through Calgary, and leaves Alberta through Banff National Park. The northern corridor, also part of the Trans-Canada network and known as the Yellowhead Highway (Highway 16), runs west from Lloydminster in eastern Alberta, through Edmonton and Jasper National Park into British Columbia.[153] One of the most scenic drives is along the Icefields Parkway, which runs for 228 km (142 mi) between Jasper and Lake Louise, with mountain ranges and glaciers on either side of its entire length. A third corridor stretches across southern Alberta; Highway 3 runs between Crowsnest Pass and Medicine Hat through Lethbridge and forms the eastern portion of the Crowsnest Highway.[153] Another major corridor through central Alberta is Highway 11 (also known as the David Thompson Highway), which runs east from the Saskatchewan River Crossing in Banff National Park through Rocky Mountain House and Red Deer, connecting with Highway 12, 20 km (12 mi) west of Stettler. The highway connects many of the smaller towns in central Alberta with Calgary and Edmonton, as it crosses Highway 2 just west of Red Deer.[153]

Urban stretches of Alberta's major highways and freeways are often called trails. For example, Highway 2, the main north–south highway in the province, is called Deerfoot Trail as it passes through Calgary but becomes Calgary Trail (southbound) and Gateway Boulevard (northbound) as it enters Edmonton and then turns into St. Albert Trail as it leaves Edmonton for the City of St. Albert. Calgary, in particular, has a tradition of calling its largest urban expressways trails and naming many of them after prominent First Nations individuals and tribes, such as Crowchild Trail, Deerfoot Trail, and Stoney Trail.[155]

Discover more about Transportation related topics

List of airports in Alberta

List of airports in Alberta

This is a list of airports in Alberta. It includes all Nav Canada certified and registered water and land airports, aerodromes and heliports in the Canadian province of Alberta. Airport names in italics are part of the National Airports System.

Calgary International Airport

Calgary International Airport

Calgary International Airport, branded as YYC Calgary International Airport, is an international airport that serves the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. It is located approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) northeast of downtown and covers an area of 20.82 square kilometres. With 6.3 million passengers and 124,108 aircraft movements in 2021, Calgary International is the busiest airport in Alberta and the third-busiest in Canada by passenger traffic. This airport is served by the Calgary International Airport Emergency Response Service for aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF) protection. The region's petroleum and tourism industries have helped foster growth at the airport, which has nonstop flights to an array of destinations in North and Central America, Europe, and Asia. Calgary serves as the headquarters for WestJet and is a hub for Air Canada.

International airport

International airport

An international airport is an airport with customs and border control facilities enabling passengers to travel between countries around the world. International airports are usually larger than domestic airports and most feature longer runways and facilities to accommodate the heavier aircraft such as the Boeing 747 commonly used for international and intercontinental travel. International airports often also host domestic flights, which often help feed both passengers and cargo into international ones.

Edmonton International Airport

Edmonton International Airport

Edmonton International Airport, as of August 29, 2022, officially branded YEG Edmonton International Airport is the primary air passenger and air cargo facility in the Edmonton Metropolitan Region of the Canadian province of Alberta. Designated as an international airport by Transport Canada and operated by Edmonton Airports, it is located 14 nautical miles south southwest of Downtown Edmonton in Leduc County on Highway 2 opposite of the city of Leduc. The airport offers scheduled non-stop flights to major cities in Canada, the United States, Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America and Europe.

Air Canada

Air Canada

Air Canada is the flag carrier and the largest airline of Canada by the size and passengers carried. Air Canada maintains its headquarters in the borough of Saint-Laurent, Montreal, Quebec. The airline, founded in 1937, provides scheduled and charter air transport for passengers and cargo to 222 destinations worldwide. It is a founding member of the Star Alliance. Air Canada's major hubs are at Montréal–Trudeau International Airport (YUL), Toronto Pearson International Airport (YYZ), Calgary International Airport (YYC), and Vancouver International Airport (YVR). The airline's regional service is Air Canada Express.

Caribbean

Caribbean

The Caribbean is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.

Light rail

Light rail

Light rail transit (LRT) is a form of passenger urban rail transit characterized by a combination of tram and rapid transit features. While its rolling stock is more similar to a traditional tram, it operates at a higher capacity and speed, and often on an exclusive right-of-way. In many cities, light rail transit systems more closely resemble, and are therefore indistinguishable from, traditional underground or at-grade subways and heavy-rail metros.

Edmonton Light Rail Transit

Edmonton Light Rail Transit

Edmonton Light Rail Transit, commonly referred to as the LRT, is a light rail system in Edmonton, Alberta. Part of the Edmonton Transit Service (ETS), the system has 18 stations on two lines and 24.3 km (15.1 mi) of track. As of 2018, it is number seven on the busiest light rail transit systems in North America, with over 113,000 daily weekday riders.

CTrain

CTrain

CTrain is a light rail rapid transit system in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Most of the network functions as a light metro, though in the free-fare zone that runs through the downtown core the Red and Blue lines operate like a urban tramway. The CTrain began operation on May 25, 1981 and has expanded as the city has increased in population. The system is operated by Calgary Transit, as part of the Calgary municipal government's transportation department. In 2021, the system had a ridership of 35,522,200, or about 164,400 per weekday as of the second quarter of 2022, making it one of the busiest light rail transit systems in North America. About 45% of workers in Downtown Calgary take the CTrain to work.

Canadian (train)

Canadian (train)

The Canadian is a transcontinental passenger train operated by Via Rail with service between Union Station in Toronto, Ontario and Pacific Central Station in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Edmonton station (Via Rail)

Edmonton station (Via Rail)

Edmonton station or Edmonton Train Station, is the main inter-city train station in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada operated by Via Rail. The railway station is located approximately 5.5 kilometres northwest of Downtown Edmonton on a spur off the Canadian National Railway near the former site of the Edmonton City Centre Airport. Served by Via Rail's The Canadian, the station is unusually located on a branch off the main line, meaning that trains must either reverse into or out. The station opened in 1998 following the closure of the downtown Via Rail station which was located in the lower level of Edmonton's CN Tower.

Evansburg station

Evansburg station

Evansburg station is on the Canadian National Railway mainline in Evansburg, Alberta, located at the east end of town near range road 75. The station is served by Via Rail's The Canadian as a flag stop.

Friendship partners

Alberta has relationships with many provinces, states, and other entities worldwide.[156]

Discover more about Friendship partners related topics

Gangwon Province, South Korea

Gangwon Province, South Korea

Gangwon Province is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. It is bound on the east by the Sea of Japan, and borders Gyeonggi Province to its west, North Gyeongsang Province and North Chungcheong Province to its south, and the Military Demarcation Line to the north, separating it from North Korea's Kangwŏn Province. Before the division of Korea in 1945 Gangwon and Kangwŏn Provinces formed a single province. Pyeongchang County in Gangwon hosted the 2018 Winter Olympics and 2018 Winter Paralympics, with Gangwon hosting the 2024 Winter Youth Olympics.

Hokkaido

Hokkaido

Hokkaidō is Japan's second largest island and comprises the largest and northernmost prefecture, making up its own region. The Tsugaru Strait separates Hokkaidō from Honshu; the two islands are connected by the undersea railway Seikan Tunnel.

Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang

Heilongjiang, formerly romanized as Heilungkiang, is a province in northeast China. It is the northernmost and easternmost province of the country. The province is bordered by Jilin to the south and Inner Mongolia to the west. It also shares a border with Russia to the north and east. The capital and the largest city of the province is Harbin. Among Chinese provincial-level administrative divisions, Heilongjiang is the sixth-largest by total area, the 15th-most populous, and the second-poorest by GDP per capita.

Montana

Montana

Montana is a state in the Mountain West division of the Western United States. It is bordered by Idaho to the west, North Dakota and South Dakota to the east, Wyoming to the south, and the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north. It is the fourth-largest state by area, the eighth-least populous state, and the third-least densely populated state. Its state capital is Helena. The western half of Montana contains numerous mountain ranges, while the eastern half is characterized by western prairie terrain and badlands, with smaller mountain ranges found throughout the state.

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug–Yugra or Khantia-Mansia is a federal subject of Russia. It has a population of 1,532,243 as of the 2010 Census.

Jalisco

Jalisco

Jalisco, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Jalisco, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is located in Western Mexico and is bordered by six states, which are Nayarit, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Guanajuato, Michoacán, and Colima. Jalisco is divided into 125 municipalities, and its capital and largest city is Guadalajara.

Alaska

Alaska

Alaska is a state located in the Western United States on the northwest extremity of North America. A semi-exclave of the U.S., it borders the Canadian province of British Columbia and the Yukon territory to the east; it also shares a maritime border with the Russian Federation's Chukotka Autonomous Okrug to the west, just across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas of the Arctic Ocean, while the Pacific Ocean lies to the south and southwest.

Saxony

Saxony

Saxony, officially the Free State of Saxony, is a landlocked state of Germany, bordering the states of Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia, Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland and the Czech Republic. Its capital is Dresden, and its largest city is Leipzig. Saxony is the tenth largest of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of 18,413 square kilometres (7,109 sq mi), and the sixth most populous, with more than 4 million inhabitants.

Ivano-Frankivsk

Ivano-Frankivsk

Ivano-Frankivsk, formerly Stanyslaviv, is a city located in Western Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Raion. Ivano-Frankivsk hosts the administration of Ivano-Frankivsk urban hromada. Its population is 237,855.

Lviv

Lviv

Lviv is the largest city in western Ukraine, and the seventh-largest in Ukraine, with a population of 717,510. It serves as the administrative centre of Lviv Oblast and Lviv Raion, and is one of the main cultural centres of Ukraine. It was named in honour of Leo, the eldest son of Daniel, King of Ruthenia.

California

California

California is a state in the Western United States, located along the Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2 million residents across a total area of approximately 163,696 square miles (423,970 km2), it is the most populous U.S. state and the 3rd largest by area. It is also the most populated subnational entity in North America and the 34th most populous in the world. The Greater Los Angeles area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions respectively, with the former having more than 18.7 million residents and the latter having over 9.6 million. Sacramento is the state's capital, while Los Angeles is the most populous city in the state and the second most populous city in the country. San Francisco is the second most densely populated major city in the country. Los Angeles County is the country's most populous, while San Bernardino County is the largest county by area in the country. California borders Oregon to the north, Nevada and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; and has a coastline along the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Guangdong

Guangdong

Guangdong, alternatively romanized as Canton or Kwangtung, is a coastal province in South China on the north shore of the South China Sea. The capital of the province is Guangzhou. With a population of 126.01 million across a total area of about 179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi), Guangdong is the most populous province of China and the 15th-largest by area as well as the second-most populous country subdivision in the world. Its economy is larger than that of any other province in the nation and the third largest sub-national economy in the world with a GDP (nominal) of 1.95 trillion USD in 2021. The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, a Chinese megalopolis, is a core for high technology, manufacturing and foreign trade. Located in this zone are two of the four top Chinese cities and the top two Chinese prefecture-level cities by GDP; Guangzhou, the capital of the province, and Shenzhen, the first special economic zone in the country. These two are among the most populous and important cities in China, and have now become two of the world's most populous megacities and leading financial centres in the Asia-Pacific region.

Source: "Alberta", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 30th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alberta.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

See also
Notes
  1. ^ According to a 2018 CBC article, Albertans whose annual income is less than $25,000 pay the least income tax in Canada; those that earn about $50,000 "pay more than both Ontarians and British Columbians". Residents of British Columbia who earn about $75,000 pay $1,200 less in provincial taxes than those in Alberta. Albertans who earn about $100,000, "pay less than Ontarians but still more than people in B.C." Alberta taxpayers who earn $250,000 a year or more, pay $4,000 less in provincial taxes than someone with a similar income in B.C. and "about $18,000 less than in Quebec."
References
  1. ^ "Alberta". Geographical Names Data Base. Natural Resources Canada.
  2. ^ a b c "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Data table". Statistics Canada. February 9, 2022. Archived from the original on February 9, 2022. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  3. ^ "Population estimates, quarterly". Statistics Canada. June 22, 2022. Archived from the original on June 24, 2022. Retrieved July 2, 2022.
  4. ^ "Languages Act". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on May 2, 2021. Retrieved March 7, 2019.
  5. ^ Dupuis, Serge (February 5, 2020). "Francophones of Alberta (Franco-Albertains)". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved September 30, 2020. In 1988, as a reaction to the Supreme Court’s Mercure case, Alberta passed the Alberta Languages Act, making English the province's official language and repealing the language rights enjoyed under the North-West Territories Act, while allowing French in the Legislative Assembly and court.
  6. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory (2015)". Statistics Canada. November 9, 2016. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved January 26, 2017.
  7. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org. Archived from the original on July 18, 2021. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  8. ^ "Get to know Canada - Provinces and territories". aem. April 1, 2011. Archived from the original on October 18, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  9. ^ Erin Wenckstern (January 8, 2015). "Chinook winds and Alberta weather". The Weather Network. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
  10. ^ "Alberta - Climate". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  11. ^ "The 10 Biggest Cities In Alberta". WorldAtlas. September 9, 2019. Archived from the original on October 17, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  12. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. February 7, 2018. Archived from the original on February 23, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
  13. ^ "Census 2016 Language of Albertans" Archived December 4, 2019, at the Wayback Machine (consulted April 2021)
  14. ^ "Key Sectors". investalberta.ca. Archived from the original on November 16, 2019. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  15. ^ a b "The Leduc Era: 1947 to 1970s - Conventional Oil - Alberta's Energy Heritage". history.alberta.ca. Archived from the original on October 19, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  16. ^ "Economic Dashboard - Gross Domestic Product". economicdashboard.alberta.ca. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved September 21, 2019.
  17. ^ "Dictionary, Census of Population, 2016 - Market income". www12.statcan.gc.ca. May 3, 2017. Archived from the original on March 8, 2021. Retrieved November 7, 2019.
  18. ^ "History & Geology". Bow Valley Naturalists. Archived from the original on February 14, 2021. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  19. ^ "Alberta becomes a Province". Alberta Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on April 22, 2009. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  20. ^ "World Heritage Sites in Alberta". www.albertaparks.ca. Archived from the original on September 30, 2020. Retrieved October 16, 2020.
  21. ^ "History". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on July 26, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
  22. ^ "A land of freedom and beauty, named for love". Government of Alberta. 2002. Archived from the original on March 11, 2012. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
  23. ^ Larry Donovan; Tom Monto (2006). Alberta Place Names: The Fascinating People & Stories Behind the Naming of Alberta. Dragon Hill Publishing Ltd. p. 121. ISBN 1-896124-11-9.
  24. ^ Campbell, Mike. "Meaning, origin and history of the name Albert". Behind the Name. Archived from the original on September 29, 2019. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  25. ^ "Alberta | Origin and meaning of the name Alberta by Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Archived from the original on September 20, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  26. ^ "Land and freshwater area, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. February 2005. Archived from the original on October 16, 2012. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  27. ^ "Alberta, Canada". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on September 21, 2017. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
  28. ^ a b c d "Climate and Geography" (PDF). About Alberta. Government of Alberta. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  29. ^ "Athabasca River". The Canadian Heritage Rivers System. 2011. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
  30. ^ "PEACE RIVER AT PEACE POINT". www.r-arcticnet.sr.unh.edu. Retrieved October 29, 2022.
  31. ^ "Atlas of Alberta Railways Maps – Alberta Land Grants". ualberta.ca. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  32. ^ "Alberta". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Foundation of Canada. 2008. Archived from the original on December 13, 2013. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
  33. ^ "Alberta Weather and Climate Data". Government of Alberta, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development. 2012. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  34. ^ a b "Climate of Alberta". Agroclimatic Atlas of Alberta. Government of Alberta. 2003. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2008.
  35. ^ "Alberta Clipper". The Weather Notebook. Archived from the original on February 19, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2012.
  36. ^ "Chance of White Christmas". Environment Canada. Archived from the original on March 1, 2013. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  37. ^ Vettese, Dayna (September 4, 2014). "Tornadoes in Canada: Everything you need to know". The Weather Network. Archived from the original on December 21, 2014. Retrieved January 8, 2015.
  38. ^ a b c d "Canadian Climate Normals". Environment Canada. October 31, 2011. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  39. ^ "Plant Hardiness Zone by Municipality". Natural Resources Canada. Government of Canada. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
  40. ^ Prairie Crocus Information Archived May 15, 2013, at the Wayback Machine Alberta Plant Watch. Author Annora Brown. Published: no date given. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  41. ^ Neil L. Jennings (2010). In Plain Sight: Exploring the Natural Wonders of Southern Alberta. Rocky Mountain Books Ltd. p. 98. ISBN 978-1-897522-78-3. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved August 28, 2013.
  42. ^ Bradford Angier (1974). Field Guide to Edible Wild Plants. Stackpole Books. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-8117-2018-2. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  43. ^ Paul A. Johnsgard (2005). Prairie Dog Empire: A Saga of the Shortgrass Prairie. U of Nebraska Press. p. 181. ISBN 978-0-8032-2604-3. Archived from the original on June 28, 2014. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  44. ^ "The History of Rat Control in Alberta". Alberta Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on August 28, 2011. Retrieved January 11, 2007.
  45. ^ Markusoff, Jason (September 1, 2009). "Rodents defying Alberta's rat-free claim". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on August 22, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2011.
  46. ^ "Alberta's rat-free status in jeopardy: More than dozen found in landfill". The Globe and Mail. August 15, 2012. Archived from the original on August 17, 2012. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
  47. ^ "Several rats found at Medicine Hat landfill, one spotted at nearby farm". CBC News. April 8, 2014. Archived from the original on August 19, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2012.
  48. ^ a b c d Ryan, M. J., and Russell, A. P., 2001. Dinosaurs of Alberta (exclusive of Aves): In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life, edited by Tanke, D. H., and Carpenter, K., Indiana University Press, pp. 279–297.
  49. ^ "Canada's First Nations". Applied History. University of Calgary. 2000. Archived from the original on December 21, 2010. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
  50. ^ "Alexander Mackenzie Biography". Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2006.
  51. ^ Kennedy, D.; Cohen, L.; Bailey, T. (2010). The American Pageant: Volume I: To 1877. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-547-16659-9. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  52. ^ Easterbrook, W. T. Easterbrook (1988). Canadian Economic History. Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press. p. 320. ISBN 0-8020-6696-8. Archived from the original on July 25, 2020. Retrieved November 22, 2015.
  53. ^ Da Cambra, MP; McAlister, VC (2017). "Calgary, Edmonton and the University of Alberta: the extraordinary medical mobilization by Canada's newest province". Can J Surg. 60 (5): 296–299. doi:10.1503/cjs.012117. PMC 5608576. PMID 28930035.
  54. ^ Kaufmann, Bill (June 21, 2013). "Thousands flee rising waters from Red Deer to Crowsnest". Calgary Sun. p. 3.
  55. ^ "Fort McMurray residents flee in the largest fire evacuation in Alberta's history". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  56. ^ Press, The Canadian (May 1, 2017). "One year later: A look back at how the Fort McMurray wildfires unfolded - BNN Bloomberg". BNN. Archived from the original on March 1, 2021. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  57. ^ "Alberta hits new pandemic peak for active COVID-19 cases". CBC. October 19, 2020. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  58. ^ "Population by year of Canada of Canada and territories". Statistics Canada. September 26, 2014. Archived from the original on June 24, 2022. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
  59. ^ "Components of population growth, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on September 30, 2008. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  60. ^ "2016 Census of Canada – age and sex release". Alberta Treasury Board and Finance / Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  61. ^ "Types of Municipalities in Alberta". Alberta Municipal Affairs. May 16, 2006. Archived from the original on March 26, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  62. ^ "Population urban and rural, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. March 31, 2008. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  63. ^ "Profile for Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Divisions and Census Subdivisions, 2006 Census". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on January 24, 2022. Retrieved January 23, 2022.
  64. ^ a b c d e f Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Alberta [Province] and Canada [Country]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  65. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  66. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for census metropolitan areas, 2011 and 2006 censuses". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on June 22, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  67. ^ "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations, 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on October 15, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  68. ^ "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2001 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data". Statistics Canada. 2001. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  69. ^ "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Census Metropolitan Areas in Decreasing Order of 1996 Population, 1991 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data". Statistics Canada. 1996. Archived from the original on July 13, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  70. ^ a b Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (February 8, 2017). "Population and Dwelling Count Highlight Tables, 2016 Census". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on November 1, 2020. Retrieved September 26, 2020.
  71. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
  72. ^ a b "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2006 and 2001 censuses – 100% data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 2006. Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  73. ^ a b "Population and Dwelling Counts, for Canada, Provinces and Territories, and Census Subdivisions (Municipalities), 2001 and 1996 Censuses – 100% Data (Alberta)". Statistics Canada. 2001. Archived from the original on August 8, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  74. ^ a b "Community Profiles". Statistics Canada. 1996. Archived from the original on February 7, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
  75. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (August 17, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population Profile table Alberta [Province]". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved August 17, 2022.
  76. ^ "Detailed Mother Tongue (186), Knowledge of Official Languages (5), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2001 and 2006 Censuses – 20% Sample Data". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  77. ^ "Ethnocultural Portrait of Canada Highlight Tables". 2006 Census. Statistics Canada. 2008. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved August 19, 2008.
  78. ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on June 5, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  79. ^ "Canada's Ethnocultural Mosaic, 2006 Census: Provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  80. ^ "Visible minority groups, percentage distribution (2006), for Canada and census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population – 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on January 14, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  81. ^ a b "Aboriginal identity population by age groups, median age and sex, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces, and territories – 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on June 29, 2011. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  82. ^ Government of Canada, Statistics Canada (October 26, 2022). "Census Profile, 2021 Census of Population". www12.statcan.gc.ca. Retrieved November 9, 2022.
  83. ^ "NHS Profile, Alberta, 2011". Statistics Canada. May 8, 2013. Archived from the original on December 4, 2014. Retrieved November 7, 2014.
  84. ^ "Al-Rashid Mosque". Canadian Islamic Congress. Archived from the original on March 5, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009.
  85. ^ "Politicians and faithful open Canada's largest mosque". July 5, 2008. Archived from the original on October 12, 2008. Retrieved September 2, 2010.
  86. ^ Jewish Virtual Library. "Encyclopedia Judaica: Alberta, Canada". Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
  87. ^ "Provincial and Territorial Ranking: Income per Capita". How Canada Performs. The Conference Board of Canada. May 2014. Archived from the original on April 19, 2015. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  88. ^ "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. November 5, 2014. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2014.
  89. ^ "Population by year, by province and territory". Statistics Canada. September 27, 2012. Archived from the original on November 11, 2017. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
  90. ^ "The Alberta economic Juggernaut:The boom on the rose" (PDF). Statistics Canada. September 2006. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  91. ^ "Median earnings for economic families with earnings, both senior and non-senior families, for Canada, provinces and territories – 20% sample data". Statistics Canada. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  92. ^ Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics (November 19, 2012). "Gross domestic product, expenditure-based, by province and territory". statcan.gc.ca. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  93. ^ "Gross Domestic Product". Economic Dashboard. Archived from the original on February 18, 2021. Retrieved April 22, 2019.
  94. ^ "Canadian Federal and Provincial Fiscal Tables" (PDF). Economic Reports. Royal Bank of Canada. January 14, 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 5, 2020. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  95. ^ "Calgary-Edmonton corridor". Statistics Canada, 2001 Census of Population. January 20, 2003. Archived from the original on February 23, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  96. ^ "Alberta Rated as Best Investment Climate". The Fraser Institute. November 2006. Archived from the original on April 16, 2007. Retrieved March 2, 2007.
  97. ^ Economic Freedom of North America 2008 Annual Report. The Fraser Institute. 2008. ISBN 978-0-88975-213-9. Archived from the original on June 21, 2008. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
  98. ^ Alberta, Government of (December 12, 2017). "Economic highlights". albertacanada.com. Archived from the original on July 3, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
  99. ^ "Inflation Calculator". bankofcanada.ca. Archived from the original on September 21, 2014. Retrieved August 3, 2015.
  100. ^ "Alberta Livestock Inspections – October 2011". Government of Alberta. November 24, 2011. Archived from the original on January 28, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  101. ^
  102. ^ Gerson, Jen (April 7, 2013). "Preserving prairie cathedrals: Progress is leaving Alberta's historic grain elevators in its wake". National Post. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  103. ^ "Beekeeping in Alberta". Government of Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development. Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved January 18, 2017.
  104. ^ "Agriculture and Forestry – Forest Business". agric.gov.ab.ca. Archived from the original on October 4, 2018. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  105. ^ "Alaska – Alberta Relations" (PDF). Government of Alberta. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  106. ^ "Canada Oilsands Opportunities". U.S. Commercial Service. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  107. ^ "Cost escalation leads Total to put Joslyn oil sands project on hold". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on June 5, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  108. ^ Interactive display system—US Patent U.S. Patent No. 5,448,263; Archived February 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine—SMART Technologies
  109. ^ "Living in Canada : Alberta". AKCanada. Archived from the original on January 26, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
  110. ^ "History of the Stampede". Calgary Stampede. Archived from the original on May 20, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  111. ^ Manisha Krishnan (July 29, 2012). "Capital Ex to be named K-Days (Poll)". Edmonton Journal. Postmedia Network. Archived from the original on July 31, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  112. ^ "K-Days Edmonton". Northlands. Archived from the original on June 24, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  113. ^ "Legislative Assembly of Alberta". assembly.ab.ca. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  114. ^ "Prime Minister announces new Lieutenant Governor for Alberta". Prime Minister of Canada. June 30, 2020. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved August 27, 2020.
  115. ^ Eisen, Ben (March 31, 2018). "Alberta's Rae Days—the 2018 budget shows Rachel is just like Bob". Fraser Institute. Archived from the original on September 23, 2018. Retrieved September 22, 2018. When Rachel Notley’s NDP shook Alberta’s political landscape by winning a majority government in 2015, the similarities to Ontario’s Bob Rae NDP government in the 1990s were striking. Both cases marked the first NDP government in provincial history, and both brought an end to Progressive Conservative dynasties (though in the case of Ontario, the beginning of the end had come a few years earlier when David Peterson formed a minority Liberal government).
  116. ^ Gary Mason (May 5, 2015). "An NDP victory changes everything Canadians think about Alberta". Archived from the original on May 8, 2015. Retrieved May 6, 2015.
  117. ^ "4 Wing Home". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. December 9, 2008. Archived from the original on September 3, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  118. ^ "About CFB Edmonton". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. December 5, 2011. Archived from the original on September 5, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2012.
  119. ^ "Welcome to Canadian Forces Base Suffield". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. October 22, 2012. Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved November 24, 2012.
  120. ^ "Building On Our Strength". Finance Alberta. Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on May 11, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  121. ^ "Oil sands royalties", Government of Alberta, n.d., archived from the original on May 15, 2019, retrieved May 21, 2019
  122. ^ a b 2018–21 Fiscal Plan (PDF). Finance Alberta (Report). Government of Alberta. March 22, 2018. ISBN 978-1-4601-3834-2. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 26, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  123. ^ a b Tedds, Lindsay (May 9, 2018). "The winners and losers if Alberta returns to a flat tax system". Maclean's. Archived from the original on May 10, 2018. Retrieved May 21, 2019. As the province debates the merits of a less progressive tax system, voters will have to make tradeoffs that help and punish different income earners
  124. ^ "What are the income tax rates in Canada for 2009?". Canada Revenue Agency. Archived from the original on April 5, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  125. ^ a b c d e f g Fletcher, Robson (May 24, 2018). "Think Alberta has the lowest income taxes? If you're in the middle class, think again". CBC News. Archived from the original on December 27, 2018. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  126. ^ "TD1AB – 2015 Alberta Personal Tax Credits Return". cra-arc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on May 22, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  127. ^ "Alberta Tax and Credits". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on June 24, 2017. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  128. ^ Johnson, Tracy (March 5, 2015). "Albertans make too much money, some economists say". CBC News. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  129. ^ "The Right Way to Sell Booze in New Brunswick". Taxpayer. Archived from the original on January 18, 2011. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
  130. ^ "Provincial 2012 Equalized Assessment Report (page 19)" (PDF). Alberta Municipal Affairs. 2018. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 11, 2019. Retrieved May 21, 2019.
  131. ^ a b c "Municipal Government Act". Alberta Queen's Printer. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  132. ^ "Provincial 2012 Equalized Assessment Report (page 19)" (PDF). Alberta Municipal Affairs. 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 9, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  133. ^ "2011 Regulated Property Minister's Guidelines". Alberta Municipal Affairs. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  134. ^ "Assessment Complaints and Appeals". Alberta Municipal Affairs. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  135. ^ "Alberta's Month of the Artist Moved to September". Galleries West. December 17, 2019. Archived from the original on March 2, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2020.
  136. ^ "Alberta announces Month of the Artist and new Artist in Residence program". Alberta Foundation for the Arts. November 15, 2018. Archived from the original on March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  137. ^ a b Clancy, Clare (February 19, 2019). "Alberta's artist-in-residence plans large-scale map focusing on Indigenous culture | Edmonton Journal". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on February 28, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  138. ^ "Alberta's 1st Artist in Residence revealed". Alberta Foundation for the Arts. January 31, 2019. Archived from the original on March 1, 2020. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  139. ^ Collins, Leah (February 21, 2019). "She's Alberta's first artist in residence, so how will Lauren Crazybull spend her year?". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on November 2, 2019. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  140. ^ "Service Centres" (PDF). Government of Alberta. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 4, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  141. ^ "RDC's Future – Today is the start of our University journey – Red Deer College". rdc.ab.ca. Archived from the original on December 16, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  142. ^ "Advocacy". University of Alberta. Archived from the original on June 3, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  143. ^ Bellamy, Marshall (February 16, 2005). "Klein promises tuition freeze". The Gazette. Archived from the original on August 10, 2013. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  144. ^ "Alberta Health". Alberta Health. Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on January 7, 2014. Retrieved January 4, 2014.
  145. ^ "Government of Alberta". November 7, 2011. Archived from the original on December 11, 2018. Retrieved September 24, 2016.
  146. ^ "Health Funding: Budget 2018". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on January 7, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  147. ^ "Edmonton Clinic". Alberta Health Services; University of Alberta. Archived from the original on August 22, 2009. Retrieved August 31, 2009.
  148. ^ Larson, Jackie (December 3, 2012). "$30-million donation from Donald Kaye makes Kaye Edmonton Clinic possible". Edmonton Sun. Archived from the original on August 18, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2013.
  149. ^ "STARS; About Us". STARS. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.
  150. ^ "Calgary Airport Authority". Calgary Airport Authority. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  151. ^ "EIA". Edmonton International Airport. Archived from the original on April 18, 2009. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
  152. ^ "Roads and highways". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
  153. ^ a b c d e f "Provincial Highway 1–216 Progress Chart" (PDF). Alberta Transportation. March 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
  154. ^ "Highway 2 receives 'Royal' treatment". Alberta Transportation. May 23, 2005. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved November 4, 2016. Highway 2 between Edmonton and Calgary is now known as the Queen Elizabeth II Highway.
  155. ^ "Calgary, Alberta". Google Maps. Archived from the original (Map) on October 8, 2018. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  156. ^ "Twinning Relationships". Government of Alberta. Archived from the original on April 9, 2016. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
  157. ^ "Gangwon – Alberta Relations" (PDF). AlbertaCanada.com. Government of Alberta. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2013. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
  158. ^ "California's Sister State Relationships". ca.gov. Archived from the original on May 14, 2016. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
Further reading
External links
Categories

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.