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Albert Brewer

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Albert Brewer
Alabama Governor Albert Brewer.jpg
47th Governor of Alabama
In office
May 7, 1968 – January 18, 1971
LieutenantVacant
Preceded byLurleen Wallace
Succeeded byGeorge Wallace
21st Lieutenant Governor of Alabama
In office
January 16, 1967 – May 7, 1968
GovernorLurleen Wallace
Preceded byJames Allen
Succeeded byJere Beasley
Personal details
Born
Albert Preston Brewer

(1928-10-26)October 26, 1928
Bethel Springs, Tennessee, U.S.
DiedJanuary 2, 2017(2017-01-02) (aged 88)
Montgomery, Alabama, U.S.
Political partyDemocratic
SpouseMartha Farmer (1950–2006)
EducationUniversity of Alabama (BA, LLB)

Albert Preston Brewer (October 26, 1928 – January 2, 2017) was an American politician who was the 47th governor of Alabama from 1968 to 1971.

Early life

Albert Preston Brewer was born on October 26, 1928, in Bethel Springs, Tennessee, United States, to Daniel A. Brewer, a farmer, and Clara Albert Brewer.[1] While Albert was a child, the family moved to Decatur so his father could take a job with the Tennessee Valley Authority.[2] Brewer stayed there and attended local schools[1] until he left for the University of Alabama in 1946 to study history and political science. He earned his law degree from the University of Alabama School of Law in 1952 and returned to Decatur to practice law.[2]

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Bethel Springs, Tennessee

Bethel Springs, Tennessee

Bethel Springs is a town in McNairy County, Tennessee. The population was 998 at the 2020 census.

Decatur, Alabama

Decatur, Alabama

Decatur is the largest city and county seat of Morgan County in the U.S. state of Alabama. Nicknamed "The River City", it is located in northern Alabama on the banks of Wheeler Lake, along the Tennessee River. The population in 2020 was 57,938.

Tennessee Valley Authority

Tennessee Valley Authority

The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) is a federally owned electric utility corporation in the United States. TVA's service area covers all of Tennessee, portions of Alabama, Mississippi, and Kentucky, and small areas of Georgia, North Carolina, and Virginia. While owned by the federal government, TVA receives no taxpayer funding and operates similarly to a private for-profit company. It is headquartered in Knoxville, Tennessee, and is the sixth largest power supplier and largest public utility in the country.

University of Alabama

University of Alabama

The University of Alabama is a public research university in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. Established in 1820 and opened to students in 1831, the University of Alabama is the oldest and largest of the public universities in Alabama as well as the University of Alabama System. It is classified among "R1: Doctoral Universities – Very high research activity".

University of Alabama School of Law

University of Alabama School of Law

The University of Alabama School of Law, located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama is a nationally ranked top-tier law school and the only public law school in the state. It is one of five law schools in the state, and one of three that are ABA accredited. According to Alabama's official 2017 ABA-required disclosures, 84% of the Class of 2017 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation. An additional 8.4% of the Class of 2017 obtained JD-advantage employment.

Legislative career

Brewer as governor in 1970.
Brewer as governor in 1970.

House of Representatives

In 1953, Brewer chaired the "Young Democrats" chapter for Alabama's 8th congressional district.[3] In 1954, the incumbent legislator serving Morgan County in the Alabama House of Representatives announced his retirement. Local community leaders recruited Brewer to run.[2] He won the Democratic primary[4] and, facing no opposition in the general election,[5] was seated the following year. He was reelected in 1958 and 1962.[2]

With the support of Governor-elect George Wallace, he was elected Speaker at the opening of the 1963 legislative session on January 8 without opposition. The speakership also made him ex officio chairman of the House Rules Committee.[6] Under Brewer's leadership, the House was generally supportive of Wallace's goals.[7] During the session, a bill to increase education spending, coupled with new tax increases, was introduced and passed through the legislature.[8] Brewer, wary of Wallace's campaign promises to block tax increases, met with the governor to ask when he would veto the bill and send it back to the legislature. Wallace stated that he did not intend to veto the bill to preserve his campaign pledge, instead saying that he would "just yell nigger" to avoid scrutiny. After this, Brewer began to have doubts about Wallace's merits.[9]

In 1964, Brewer and the future U.S. Senator James B. Allen, then the lieutenant governor, were among the unpledged presidential electors on the Alabama ballot. They lost to the Republican slate committed to Barry M. Goldwater. No electors pledged to U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson were permitted on the Alabama ballot. While national Democrats balked over Johnson's exclusion, most supported the unpledged slate, which competed directly with the Republican electors. As The Tuscaloosa News explained, loyalist electors would have offered a clearer choice to voters than did the unpledged slate.[10]

Lieutenant Governor

In 1966 Brewer considered running for the office of governor, as incumbent Governor George Wallace was constitutionally restricted from seeking another term. The governor's wife, Lurleen Wallace, entered the race and Brewer, convinced a gubernatorial candidacy would be futile, decided to run for the office of lieutenant governor of Alabama. With a coalition of Wallace supporters, organized labor, and urbanites, he overwhelmingly defeated his opponent[2] in the Democratic primary and faced no opposition in the general election. He was sworn in on January 16, 1967.[11] Lurleen Wallace also won and was inaugurated that month.[12] As lieutenant governor, he convinced the legislature to create an Education Study Commission.[13]

In early July 1967 Lurleen Wallace traveled to Texas for cancer treatment. State law stipulated that if the governor was out of state for 21 days, the lieutenant governor officially assumed their responsibilities as acting governor. This went into effect at the beginning of July 24, and Brewer served as acting governor for about 15 hours, meeting with some state officials, signing extradition papers, and appointing 25 honorary colonels, before Wallace was flown back to Alabama.[14][15]

Discover more about Legislative career related topics

Alabama's 8th congressional district

Alabama's 8th congressional district

Alabama's 8th congressional district, now obsolete, was established in 1877.

Morgan County, Alabama

Morgan County, Alabama

Morgan County is a county in the north central part of the U.S. state of Alabama. As of the 2020 census, its population was 123,421. The county seat is Decatur. The county was created by the Alabama Territorial legislature on February 6, 1818, from land acquired from the Cherokee Indians in the Treaty of Turkeytown, and was originally called Cotaco County. On June 14, 1821, it was renamed in honor of American Revolutionary War General Daniel Morgan of Virginia. It is a prohibition or dry county, although alcohol sales are allowed in the cities of Decatur, Hartselle, and Priceville. Morgan County is included in the Decatur, AL Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Huntsville-Decatur-Albertville, AL Combined Statistical Area. It is a part of the North, Northwest, and North-Central regions of Alabama.

Alabama House of Representatives

Alabama House of Representatives

The Alabama State House of Representatives is the lower house of the Alabama Legislature, the state legislature of state of Alabama. The House is composed of 105 members representing an equal number of districts, with each constituency containing at least 42,380 citizens. There are no term limits in the House. The House is also one of the five lower houses of state legislatures in the United States that is elected every four years. Other lower houses, including the United States House of Representatives, are elected for a two-year term.

George Wallace

George Wallace

George Corley Wallace Jr. was an American politician who served as the 45th governor of Alabama for four terms. A member of the Democratic Party, he is best remembered for his staunch segregationist and populist views. During his tenure, he promoted "industrial development, low taxes, and trade schools." Wallace sought the United States presidency as a Democrat three times, and once as an American Independent Party candidate, unsuccessfully each time. Wallace opposed desegregation and supported the policies of "Jim Crow" during the Civil Rights Movement, declaring in his 1963 inaugural address that he stood for "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever".

Speaker (politics)

Speaker (politics)

The speaker of a deliberative assembly, especially a legislative body, is its presiding officer, or the chair. The title was first used in 1377 in England.

Lieutenant Governor of Alabama

Lieutenant Governor of Alabama

The lieutenant governor of Alabama is the president and presiding officer of the Alabama Senate, elected to serve a four-year term. The office was created in 1868, abolished in 1875, and recreated in 1901. According to the current constitution, should the governor be out of the state for more than 20 days, the lieutenant governor becomes acting governor, and if the governor dies, resigns or is removed from office, the lieutenant governor ascends to the governorship. Earlier constitutions said the powers of the governor devolved upon the successor, rather than them necessarily becoming governor, but the official listing includes these as full governors. The governor and lieutenant governor are not elected on the same ticket.

Republican Party (United States)

Republican Party (United States)

The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by anti-slavery activists who opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which allowed for the potential expansion of chattel slavery into the western territories. Since Ronald Reagan's presidency in the 1980s, conservatism has been the dominant ideology of the GOP. It has been the main political rival of the Democratic Party since the mid-1850s.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. He had previously served as the 37th vice president from 1961 to 1963 under President John F. Kennedy, and was sworn in shortly after Kennedy's assassination. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson also served as a U.S. representative, U.S. senator and the Senate's majority leader. He holds the distinction of being one of the few presidents who served in all elected offices at the federal level.

The Tuscaloosa News

The Tuscaloosa News

The Tuscaloosa News is a daily newspaper serving Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States, and the surrounding area in west central Alabama.

Lurleen Wallace

Lurleen Wallace

Lurleen Burns Wallace was the 46th governor of Alabama for 15 months from January 1967 until her death in May 1968. She was the first wife of Alabama governor George Wallace, whom she succeeded as governor because the Alabama constitution forbade consecutive terms. She was Alabama's first female governor and was the only female governor to hold the position until Kay Ivey became the second woman to succeed to the office in 2017. She is also the only female governor in U.S. history to have died in office. In 1973, she was posthumously inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame.

Acting governor

Acting governor

An acting governor is a person who acts in the role of governor. In Commonwealth jurisdictions where the governor is a vice-regal position, the role of "acting governor" may be filled by a lieutenant governor or an administrator.

Colonel (U.S. honorary title)

Colonel (U.S. honorary title)

The honorable title prefix and style of "Colonel" is designated legally for various reasons by US governors in common law to citizens, employees, travelers and visitors within their states. The origins of the titular colonelcy can be traced back to colonial and antebellum times when men of the landed gentry were given the title to commission companies or for financing the local militias without actual expectations of command. This practice can actually be traced back to the English Renaissance when a colonelcy was purchased by a lord or prominent gentleman but the actual command would fall to a lieutenant colonel, who would deputize its members for the proprietor.

Governor

Executive action

Brewer (left) greets Dr. Wernher von Braun; Alabama Senator John Sparkman is at center
Brewer (left) greets Dr. Wernher von Braun; Alabama Senator John Sparkman is at center

Though aware of Lurleen Wallace's affliction with cancer, Brewer was not familiar with the severity of her condition until shortly before she died.[16] Wallace succumbed on May 7, 1968, and, as stipulated in the constitution, Brewer succeeded to the office of governor.[2] Taking the oath before only his family and George Wallace, Brewer remained very guarded about his feelings and views early in his new tenure, and delayed moving into the governor's mansion until Wallace had found a new home for his family.[17] Wallace's erstwhile legal counsel, Cecil Jackson, directed all executive cabinet members to offer their resignations to Brewer to allow him to build a team of his choosing. Brewer ended up retaining most of the cabinet, though he fired the public safety director and the director of the Department of Conservation after they refused to offer their resignations (and after the latter became involved in a physical altercation with another state employee).[18]

Fairly soon after taking office, Brewer and his new state finance director, Bob Ingram, uncovered the large extent to which the Wallace administration had favored supporters in conducting state business, including alleged kickbacks for road construction contracts and asking state troopers to funnel stranded motorists to preferred tow truck services. Brewer was personally bothered by these improprieties but, wanting to seek election to his own gubernatorial term in 1970, felt it would be unwise to anger Wallace supporters by publicly exposing and denouncing these practices.[19] As part of their attempt to quietly reform the executive branch, Brewer and Ingram tapped experienced public servants who they viewed as ethical, such as Tom Brassell, who was made assistant finance director.[20] Despite this commitment to reform, he sometimes intervened in hiring and other state business to assist friends and dole out favors. On the whole, politicization in Brewer's administration was more muted than his predecessors', and civil servant morale improved during his tenure.[15]

Unlike his two predecessors, Brewer held weekly press conferences. At one such meeting in June 1968, Brewer called for the establishment of a state motor pool, saying he would create one by executive order and then ask for the legislature to affirm it. The motor pool system, which he hoped would limit inappropriate use of state vehicles for personal purposes, required all vehicles to be checked out and all fuel to be purchased from the state. He also had state insignia prominently affixed to all motor pool vehicles to increase their visibility as government property.[21] All vehicles deemed unnecessary—totaling about 1,000—were requisitioned from various agencies and listed for sale, including the governor's limousine. In the end, the reforms only generated minor cost savings for the government.[22] He also had excess copy machines sold, consolidated the state's computer systems, eliminated 12 senior assistant positions, and dispatched various staff the Wallaces' had loaned to the governor's office back to their agencies of origin to handle their official competencies.[15]

George Wallace was critical of some of the reforms, particularly the motor pool, complaining that they reflected a de facto rebuke of his late wife. While originally cautious about besmirching the Wallaces, the complaints annoyed Brewer and led him to abandon his earlier concerns.[23] The governor also initiated an investigation into commissions collections by agents of the Alcohol Beverage Control Board. While the practiced had been de jure eliminated by law in 1963 supported by both Wallace and Brewer, many board agents were purportedly collecting commissions on distillery sales without authorization during the Wallaces' tenures. George Wallace denied any knowledge of the impropriety and Brewer affirmed his innocence, but Wallace still criticized Brewer for the publicity the scandal received.[24]

Brewer also took actions in accordance with his own socially conservative views which were popular among most Alabamians. After being informed by his wife that phonographic movies were being displayed in Bessemer, he authorized a series of state raids on theatres. He also initiated crackdowns on alcohol and narcotics abuse.[25] Following a series of influence peddling scandals in the legislature, Brewer issued an executive order creating an ethics commission tasked with drafting a code of ethics for potential adoption by the legislature Among his suggested points were the prohibition of gifts for officials, a ban on officials working for and receiving compensation from entities they regulated, and establishing conflict of interest disclosure rules. He offered funds from his office budget to support the commission's work.[26]

To promote economic development, Brewer pursued industrial recruitment, traveling to New York to speak with corporate executives and hosting various in-person meetings with company representatives. He created the Alabama Program Development Office to link federal grant applications with local government's development efforts.[27] Following a series of major fish kills on state rivers caused by dumping of chemicals, Brewer encouraged the state to take action against Geigy Chemical Company and create new anti-pollution laws.[28]

Legislative action

In legislative and policy disputes, Brewer preferred negotiation and finding common ground rather than public spats or power plays with patronage, as George Wallace had.[29] In anticipation of the first legislative session being convened while he was governor, he decided to focus on improving education, consolidating bureaucratic procedures, trimming unnecessary spending, and improving Alabama's national image.[30] He investigated the state of education in Alabama, and found that overall the system was not improving relative to other states, despite efforts at reform during the Wallace administrations. He informed state education officials that he wanted to alter the state's strategy for responding to federal school desegregation orders; in contrast to Wallace's flagrant hostility and refusals, Brewer would "try to do it in a way that will let us do the most palatable thing for the people, the patrons of our system."[13]

Brewer believed that a school choice policy which permitted integrated schooling options could satisfy the federal government's demands and be accepted by most Alabamians, thus preserving popular support for his goal of improving the public education system. Many school choice proponents in the South had advocated for choice policies to deliberately stall integration and preserve segregated schools, and by that point many federal courts were dissatisfied with such proposals.[31] Several weeks after Brewer communicated to President Lyndon B. Johnson that he would engage the federal government in good faith on school segregation issues, the United States Attorney General sued in the United States District Court for the Middle District of Alabama to replace school choice options.[13] After the court ordered new measures be taken to further integration, Johnson ordered the schools integrate their faculty at a specific ratio and directed that some black schools be closed.[32] The governor responded by engaging in similar rhetoric as segregationist, complaining of bureaucratic interference and social engineering.[33] He also warned that under a more directed desegregation plan, most white parents would simply enroll their children in private schools. Despite this, he pledged to respect any court orders on racial matters.[34] His request that Johnson reconsider his order was rejected.[35]

Meanwhile, the Education Study Commission released a report on education in Alabama which outlined numerous deficiencies including overcrowded schools, inadequate instructional materials, underqualified educators, and uncompetitive pay rates for teachers. The commission recommended that additional funding was needed to improve the situation.[36] In 1969 he called the legislature into special session to consider 30 bills aimed at improving education.[37][38] Despite resistance from some urban legislators who thought the package did more to improve rural areas, the proposals were passed, increasing education spending by $132 million, raising teacher salaries by over 20 percent over two years, making the state and local superintendent positions appointive, granting the Education Study Commission statutory status, and creating the Alabama Commission on Higher Education.[38]

At the beginning of the 1969 session, Brewer announced that he would push for new pollution control laws.[39] With industrial groups heavily lobbying the legislature, only a weak bill was passed. More focused on education reform, Brewer decided against pushing for stronger regulations in a matter which would anger corporate interests and, in his view, earn him few additional votes in the 1970 election.[40] More fish kills and serious mercury pollution in 1970 led for Brewer to appeal for federal assistance a commission a water quality survey and, as a lame duck, he briefly considered convening a special session to address inadequate pollution controls before ruling it unfeasible.[41] His efforts during the 1969 session to strengthen consumer credit protections or schedule the legislature for annual sessions (instead of biannual) also failed. Despite this, Brewer's administration was able to obtain funding for a state Medicaid program, a state employee pay hike, new highway safety legislation, two anti-pornography measures, a meat inspection law, and a requirement that all workers contracted by the state for construction be guaranteed standard wages.[42]

1970 gubernatorial campaign

Brewer supported Wallace's 1968 presidential campaign, soliciting donations and delivering speeches on his behalf.[30] Within months of Brewer assuming office, Wallace assured him privately and stated publicly that he would not seek the governor's office in 1970.[43] Around the Thanksgiving holiday in 1968, Wallace confronted Brewer about the alcohol agents scandal, and told Brewer in a meeting at the governor's mansion, "If you keep talking about it, it's going to reflect on me and I may just have to run against you in 1970."[44] Brewer countered, "[Y]ou never have had a better friend than I've been to you and [your wife], and you told me [so] yourself when she died."[44] The two spoke infrequently after the meeting, and Brewer continued with his preparations to be elected as governor in his own right in 1970, and, mindful of the possibility of another Wallace candidacy, took increasingly bolder policy positions and actions.[45]

In that effort, he gained an important ally in U.S. President Richard M. Nixon, who had defeated Wallace in the 1968 presidential election and sought to neutralize Wallace as a potential adversary in 1972.[46] Brewer's 1970 gubernatorial campaign, however, was revolutionary in many respects. Although earlier in his political career he was regarded as a segregationist but not a race-baiter,[47] Brewer refused to engage in racist rhetoric and courted newly registered black voters. He hoped to build a coalition of black people, educated middle-class whites, and working-class whites from northern Alabama, traditionally a more liberal part of the state. He unveiled a platform calling for more funding for education, an ethics commission and a commission to revise Alabama's 1901 state constitution, which had been deliberately framed to disenfranchise black people and poor whites.[48]

Brewer led Wallace in the Democratic primary but failed to win an outright majority. He then faced Wallace in a runoff. Running openly against the "black bloc" vote, Wallace slurred Brewer and his family. Wallace narrowly won the Democratic runoff[48] and won the general election in a landslide. He was succeeded by Wallace on January 18, 1971, after 987 days in office.[49]

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John Sparkman

John Sparkman

John Jackson Sparkman was an American jurist and politician from the state of Alabama. A Southern Democrat, Sparkman served in the United States House of Representatives from 1937 to 1946 and the United States Senate from 1946 until 1979. He was the Democratic Party's nominee for vice president in the 1952 presidential election.

Motorpool

Motorpool

A motorpool is a group of motor vehicles whose use is shared on a short-term basis by the personnel of an organization, such as a governmental agency or military installation. The term can also refer to the place where such vehicles are parked when not in use, and to the staff that manages the vehicles and or maintains them such that they are operable and ready for use when requested.

Conflict of interest

Conflict of interest

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another. Typically, this relates to situations in which the personal interest of an individual or organization might adversely affect a duty owed to make decisions for the benefit of a third party.

Fish kill

Fish kill

The term fish kill, known also as fish die-off, refers to a localized die-off of fish populations which may also be associated with more generalized mortality of aquatic life. The most common cause is reduced oxygen in the water, which in turn may be due to factors such as drought, algae bloom, overpopulation, or a sustained increase in water temperature. Infectious diseases and parasites can also lead to fish kill. Toxicity is a real but far less common cause of fish kill.

Novartis

Novartis

Novartis AG is a Swiss-American multinational pharmaceutical corporation based in Basel, Switzerland and Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. It is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

School choice

School choice

School choice is a term for education options that allow students and families to select alternatives to public schools.

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon B. Johnson

Lyndon Baines Johnson, often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th president of the United States from 1963 to 1969. He had previously served as the 37th vice president from 1961 to 1963 under President John F. Kennedy, and was sworn in shortly after Kennedy's assassination. A Democrat from Texas, Johnson also served as a U.S. representative, U.S. senator and the Senate's majority leader. He holds the distinction of being one of the few presidents who served in all elected offices at the federal level.

Lame duck (politics)

Lame duck (politics)

In politics, a lame duck or outgoing politician is an elected official whose successor has already been elected or will be soon. An outgoing politician is often seen as having less influence with other politicians due to their limited time left in office. Conversely, a lame duck is free to make decisions that exercise the standard powers with little fear of consequence, such as issuing executive orders, pardons, or other controversial edicts. Lame duck politicians result from term limits, planned retirement, or electoral losses, and are especially noticeable where political systems build in a delay between the announcement of results and the taking of office by election winners. Even at the local level, politicians who do not seek re-election can lose credibility and influence. Uncompleted projects may fall to the wayside as their influence diminishes.

Medicaid

Medicaid

Medicaid in the United States is a federal and state program that helps with healthcare costs for some people with limited income and resources. Medicaid also offers benefits not normally covered by Medicare, including nursing home care and personal care services. The main difference between the two programs is that Medicaid covers healthcare costs for people with low incomes while Medicare provides health coverage for the elderly. There are also dual health plans for people who have both Medicaid and Medicare. The Health Insurance Association of America describes Medicaid as "a government insurance program for persons of all ages whose income and resources are insufficient to pay for health care."

George Wallace 1968 presidential campaign

George Wallace 1968 presidential campaign

Former Governor of Alabama George Wallace ran in the 1968 United States presidential election as the candidate for the American Independent Party against Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Wallace's pro-segregation policies during his term as Governor of Alabama were rejected by most. The impact of the Wallace campaign was substantial, winning the electoral votes of several states in the Deep South. Although Wallace did not expect to win the election, his strategy was to prevent either major party candidate from winning a majority in the Electoral College. This would throw the election into the House of Representatives, where Wallace would have bargaining power sufficient to determine, or at least strongly influence, the selection of a winner.

1972 United States presidential election

1972 United States presidential election

The 1972 United States presidential election was the 47th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1972. Incumbent Republican President Richard Nixon defeated Democratic Senator George McGovern of South Dakota. Until the 1984 election, this was the largest margin of victory in the Electoral College in a U.S. presidential election, and as of 2022, it remains the last time a presidential candidate captured more than 60% of the popular vote. It was also the first presidential election that would see California move ahead of New York in each state's number of electoral votes, a gap that has since widened.

Coalition

Coalition

A coalition is a group formed when two or more people or groups temporarily work together to achieve a common goal.

Later life

After leaving office in 1970, Brewer joined a law firm in Montgomery. He considered challenging Wallace again in the 1974 gubernatorial election, hoping that the salience of racial politics would decline by that point, but decided against it as Wallace's popularity persisted unabated after a 1972 assassination attempt.[50] When Wallace ran again in 1982, Brewer endorsed Republican Emory Folmar in the general election.[51] In 1987 he became a professor of law and government at Samford University's Cumberland School of Law.[2] Before his death, he taught a course on Professional Responsibility at the Cumberland School of Law. He was also an active leader with the Alabama Citizens for Constitutional Reform since 2000.

On January 2, 2017, Brewer died in Jackson Hospital, Montgomery, Alabama, at 88.[52][53][54]

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Emory Folmar

Emory Folmar

Emory McCord Folmar was an American politician who served as the mayor of Montgomery, Alabama, from 1977 to 1999. Although the mayor's office is nonpartisan, Folmar was known to be a Republican.

Samford University

Samford University

Samford University is a private Christian university in Homewood, Alabama. In 1841, the university was founded as Howard College by Baptists. Samford University describes itself as the 87th oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. The university enrolls 5,683 students from 47 states, 2 U.S. territories, and 19 countries.

Cumberland School of Law

Cumberland School of Law

Cumberland School of Law is an ABA accredited law school at Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama, United States. It was founded in 1847 at Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennessee and is the 11th oldest law school in the United States and has more than 11,000 graduates. Its alumni include two United States Supreme Court Justices; Nobel Peace Prize recipient Cordell Hull, "the father of the United Nations"; over 50 U.S. representatives; and numerous senators, governors, and judges.

Montgomery, Alabama

Montgomery, Alabama

Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County. Named for Richard Montgomery, it stands beside the Alabama River, on the coastal Plain of the Gulf of Mexico. In the 2020 Census, Montgomery's population was 200,603. It is the second most populous city in Alabama, after Huntsville, and is the 119th most populous in the United States. The Montgomery Metropolitan Statistical Area's population in 2020 was 386,047; it is the fourth largest in the state and 142nd among United States metropolitan areas.

Legacy

Albert P. Brewer High School in eastern Morgan County is named in honor of Brewer. The school opened in 1972.[55]

Historian Gordon E. Harvey wrote, "Brewer did more to improve education in Alabama than most of his predecessors and all but a few of his successors."[56]

Source: "Albert Brewer", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 25th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Brewer.

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Notes
  1. ^ a b Sandomir, Richard (January 7, 2017). "Albert P. Brewer, a Former Governor of Alabama, Dies at 88". The New York Times. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Harvey, Gordon (May 12, 2008). "Albert P. Brewer (1968-71)". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Alabama Humanities Alliance. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  3. ^ "Albert Brewer Runs For House". The Decatur Daily. Vol. 42, no. 282. January 21, 1954. p. 1.
  4. ^ "Sheriff M'Cutcheon Trails in Morgan". Birmingham Post-Herald. May 5, 1954. p. 12.
  5. ^ "Morgan Rejecting Voting Machines". The Decatur Daily. November 3, 1954. pp. 1–2.
  6. ^ "Brewer Officially Speaker". The Decatur Daily. Associated Press. January 8, 1963. p. 1.
  7. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 40.
  8. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 47–48.
  9. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 48–49.
  10. ^ The Tuscaloosa News, reprinted in The Birmingham News, September 5, 1964
  11. ^ "Brewer Predicts 'Very Progressive 4 Years'". Birmingham Post-Herald. January 17, 1967. p. 17.
  12. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 180, 186.
  13. ^ a b c Frederick 2007, p. 243.
  14. ^ Wasson, Don F. (July 26, 1967). "Brewer Serves His Tenure; Turns Out Short, Sweet". The Montgomery Advertiser. p. 2.
  15. ^ a b c Frederick 2007, p. 228.
  16. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 220–221.
  17. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 223.
  18. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 225, 238.
  19. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 224–225.
  20. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 225.
  21. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 227.
  22. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 227–228.
  23. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 228–229.
  24. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 229–230.
  25. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 233–234.
  26. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 234.
  27. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 236.
  28. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 236–238.
  29. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 223–224.
  30. ^ a b Frederick 2007, p. 226.
  31. ^ Harvey 2002, pp. 9, 23.
  32. ^ Harvey 2002, pp. 23–24.
  33. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 244.
  34. ^ Harvey 2002, p. 21.
  35. ^ Harvey 2002, p. 27.
  36. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 245–246.
  37. ^ Harvey 2002, pp. 9–10.
  38. ^ a b Frederick 2007, p. 247.
  39. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 239.
  40. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 239–240.
  41. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 240–241.
  42. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 242.
  43. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 225–226.
  44. ^ a b Frederick 2007, p. 230.
  45. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 230, 233.
  46. ^ Kornacki, Steve (2011-05-09) Rick Santorum and the problem with the "loser" label Archived May 11, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, Salon.com
  47. ^ Time
  48. ^ a b Rogers 1994, p. 576.
  49. ^ "Brewer exits right after parade's end". Birmingham Post-Herald. January 19, 1971. p. 7.
  50. ^ Frederick 2007, pp. 269, 335.
  51. ^ Frederick 2007, p. 385.
  52. ^ http://www.decaturdaily.com/news/local/funeral-arrangements-for-former-gov-albert-brewer
  53. ^ Staff (January 2, 2017). "Albert Brewer, Alabama's 47th governor, dies at age 88". Archived from the original on January 3, 2017. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  54. ^ Archibald, John (January 2, 2017). "Former Alabama Gov. Albert Brewer has died". AL.com. Retrieved January 3, 2017.
  55. ^ "A.P. Brewer High School and Area Vocational School : Brewer History". Brewer High School. Blackboard, Inc. Retrieved September 10, 2022.
  56. ^ Harvey 2002, p. 17.
Works cited
External links
Political offices
Preceded by Lieutenant Governor of Alabama
January 16, 1967–May 7, 1968
Succeeded by
Preceded by Governor of Alabama
May 7, 1968–January 18, 1971
Succeeded by

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