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Abu Thawr

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Abu Thawr
أبو ثور
Born~170 H/ 764 CE
Died240 H/ 854 CE
EraAbbasid era
RegionAbbasid Caliphate
SchoolShafi‘i / Ijtihad[1]
ProfessionFaqih, scholar
Muslim leader
ProfessionFaqih, scholar

Ibrahim ibn Khalid al-Kalbi al-Baghdadi (764–854) better known as Abu Thawr (Arabic: أَبُو ثَوْر) was an early scholar of Islam. He was born in 170 AH.

A personal school was built by the followers of Abu Thawr which disappeared by the 4th century Hijra.[5][6] Abu Thawr was asked, "Who are the Qadariyyah?" and he replied:

" The Qadariyyah are those who say Allaah did not create the actions of the servants and that Allah did not decree acts of disobedience for the servants and that He did not create them (the acts of disobedience). Therefore these Qadariyyah are not be prayed behind, nor are their sick to be visited and nor are their funerals to be attended. Their repentance from this saying should be sought. If they repent (then so) and if not then their necks are to be struck."[7]

Source: "Abu Thawr", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 17th),

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  1. ^ Cook, Michael. "Magian cheese: an archaic problem in Islamic law." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 47.3 (1984): 449-467. "On the Sunni side, such a position is ascribed to Abu Thawr (d. 240),39 a Baghdadi lawyer who was in some sense a Shafi'ite"
  2. ^ B. Hallaq, Wael (2005). The Origins and Evolution of Islamic Law. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-521-80332-8. Ibrahim b. Khalid Abu Thawr (d. 240/854).. who became a traditionalist and a school founder
  3. ^ Williams, Wesley. "Aspects of the creed of Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal: a study of Anthropomorphism in early Islamic discourse." International Journal of Middle East Studies 34.3 (2002): 441-463. "Abu Thawr (d. 854), a student of al-Shafi'i, stated..."
  4. ^ Amin, Yasmin. "Prayer in Islamic Thought and Practice." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 32.2 (2015): 135. "...such as those of the Shafi'i jurists Abu Thawr (d. 240/845 [sic]) and al-Muzani (d. 246/878)."
  5. ^ Dutton, Yasin. "The Formation of the Sunni Schools of Law, 9-10th Centuries CE." (1999): 164-168. " they are 'to be classified amongst the schools of law that died out over time, of which the most renowned are those of Abu Thawr, Dawud al-Zahiri, and al-Tabari'"
  6. ^ Ali, Abdullah bin Hamid. "Scholarly consensus: Ijma ‘: between use and misuse." Journal of Islamic Law and Culture 12.2 (2010): 92-113.
  7. ^ reported by al-Laalikaa'ee in his "I'tiqaad", 1/172, no. 319

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