|Coordinates: 32°27′N 99°45′W / 32.450°N 99.750°WCoordinates: 32°27′N 99°45′W / 32.450°N 99.750°W|
|Named for||Abilene, Kansas|
|County seat||Taylor County|
|• City Council||Mayor Anthony Williams (R)|
Weldon W. Hurt
|• City Manager||Robert Hanna|
|• City||112.09 sq mi (290.32 km2)|
|• Land||106.67 sq mi (276.27 km2)|
|• Water||5.42 sq mi (14.05 km2)|
|Elevation||1,719 ft (527 m)|
|• Density||1,157/sq mi (447/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−6 (CST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−5 (CDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||1329173|
Abilene (/ˈæbɪliːn/ AB-i-leen) is a city in Taylor and Jones counties in the U.S. state of Texas. Its population was 125,182 at the 2020 census. It is the principal city of the Abilene metropolitan statistical area, which had an estimated population of 169,893, as of 2016. Abilene is home to three Christian universities: Abilene Christian University, McMurry University, and Hardin–Simmons University. It is the county seat of Taylor County. Dyess Air Force Base is located on the west side of the city.
Abilene is located off Interstate 20, between exits 279 on its western edge and 292 on the east. It is 150 miles (240 km) west of Fort Worth. The city is looped by I-20 to the north, US 83/84 on the west, and Loop 322 to the east. A railroad divides the city down the center into north and south. The historic downtown area is on the north side of the railroad.
Discover more about Abilene, Texas related topics
Established by cattlemen as a stock shipping point on the Texas and Pacific Railway in 1881, the city was named after Abilene, Kansas, the original endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. The T&P had bypassed the town of Buffalo Gap, the county seat at the time. Eventually, a landowner north of Buffalo Gap, Clabe Merchant, known as the father of Abilene, chose the name for the new town. According to a Dallas newspaper, about 800 people had already begun camping at the townsite before the lots were sold. The town was laid out by Colonel J. Stoddard Johnson, and the auction of lots began early on March 15, 1881. By the end of the first day, 139 lots were sold for a total of $23,810, and another 178 lots were sold the next day for $27,550.
Abilene was incorporated soon after being founded in 1881, and residents began to set their sights on bringing the county seat to Abilene. In a three-to-one vote, they won the county election to do so. In 1888, the Progressive Committee was formed to attract businesses to the area, and in 1890 renamed itself as the Board of Trade. By 1900, 3,411 people lived in Abilene. In that decade, the Board of Trade changed its name to the 25,000 Club, in the hope of reaching a population of 25,000 by the next census. By 1910, though, the population had increased only to 9,204. Another group was formed, the Young Men's Booster Club, which became the Abilene Chamber of Commerce in 1914.
The cornerstone was laid in 1891 for Simmons College, the first of three universities in Abilene. It later developed as Hardin–Simmons University. Childers Classical Institute was founded in 1906, and developed as Abilene Christian University, the largest of the three. In 1923, McMurry College was founded; it later expanded its offerings as McMurry University.
In the late 20th century, Abilene succeeded in gaining branches of Texas State Technical College and Cisco College. Headquarters of the latter institution are located in the city.
In 1940, Abilene raised the money to purchase land to attract establishment of a U.S. Army base, southwest of town. It was named Camp Barkeley. When fully operational, it was twice the size of Abilene, with 60,000 men. When the base closed after World War II, many worried that Abilene could become a ghost town, but as the national economy boomed, many veterans returned to start businesses in Abilene.
In the early-1950s, to advocate for an Air Force base, residents raised US$893,261 (equivalent to about $9,325,416 in 2021) to purchase 3,400 acres (14 km2) of land. The Southern block of Congressmen gained approval for such a base here. For decades, Dyess Air Force Base has been the city's largest employer, with 6076 employees in 2007.
From 1950 to 1960, Abilene's population nearly doubled, from 45,570 to 90,638. In 1960, a second high school was added to the city's school system, Cooper High School.
In 1966, the Abilene Zoo was established near Abilene Regional Airport. The following year, one of the most important bond elections in the city's history passed for the funding of the construction of the Abilene Civic Center and the Taylor County Coliseum, as well as major improvements to Abilene Regional Airport. In 1969, the Woodson elementary and high school for black students closed as the city integrated its school system, more than 10 years after the US Supreme Court's ruling in Brown v. Board of Education (1954) that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional.
In 1982, Abilene became the first city in Texas to create a downtown reinvestment zone. Texas State Technical College opened an Abilene branch three years later. The 2,250-bed French Robertson Prison Unit was built in 1989. A half-cent sales tax earmarked for economic development was created after the decline in the petroleum business in the 1980s. A branch of Cisco College was located in the city in 1990.
Several major projects of restoration and new construction: The Grace Museum and Paramount Theatre, and development of Artwalk in 1992, sparked a decade of downtown revitalization. In 2004, Frontier Texas!, a multimedia museum highlighting the history of the area from 1780 to 1880, was constructed. That year an $8 million, 38-acre (150,000 m2) Cisco Junior College campus was built at Loop 322 and Industrial Boulevard. Simultaneously, subdivisions and businesses started locating along the freeway, on the same side as the CC campus. This area attracted Abilene growth on the Loop.
Abilene has become the commercial, retail, medical, and transportation hub of a 19-county area more commonly known as "The Big Country", but also known as the "Texas Midwest". It is part of the Central Great Plains ecoregion. By the end of 2005, commercial and residential development had reached record levels in and around the city.
- Settlement established.
- Texas & Pacific Railroad begins operating.
- Abilene Reporter newspaper begins publication.
- Town of Abilene incorporated.
- D. B. Corley becomes mayor.
- Abilene becomes seat of Taylor County.
- 1890 – Population: 3,194.
- 1891 – Simmons College founded.
- 1898 – "Federation" subscription library organized.
- 1903 – Saloons banned in Abilene.
- 1906 – Childers Classical Institute established.
- 1910 – Population: 9,204.
- 1919 – Abilene Zoological Gardens established.
- 1923 – McMurry College established.
- 1924 – First Presbyterian Church built.
- 1925 – Majestic Theater, a major movie theater, opened.
- 1936 – KRBC radio begins broadcasting.
- Abilene Reporter-News in publication.
- Regional "West Texas Chamber of Commerce" relocated to Abilene.
- 1942 – Temple Mizpah (synagogue) built.
- 1945 – Eisenhower Returns celebration.
- 1946 – Abilene Blue Sox baseball team formed.
- 1947 – Office of city manager established.
- 1949 – Park Drive-In cinema in business.
- 1950 – Abilene Philharmonic Orchestra active.
- 1953 – KRBC-TV (television) begins broadcasting.
- U.S. military Abilene Air Force Base begins operating.
- KPAR-TV (television) begins broadcasting.
- 1960 – Population: 90,368.
- 1977 – Abilene Preservation League organized.
- 1978 – Alcohol prohibition ends in Abilene.
- 1979 – Charles Stenholm was elected as the Democratic U.S. representative for Texas's 17th congressional district. He was re-elected for 13 terms.
- 2000 – City website online (approximate date).
- 2001 – World War II-related "12th Armored Division Memorial Museum" opens.
- 2005 – Republican Randy Neugebauer was elected as U.S. representative for Texas's newly redrawn 19th congressional district, including Abilene.
- 2010 – Population: 117,063.
- 2017 – Jodey Arrington becomes U.S. representative for Texas's 19th congressional district.
- 2019 – revamping the downtown area of North Abilene. As of October 2019 a couple of buildings were torn down and Hilton developed a new Double Tree hotel.
Discover more about History related topics
Abilene is located in northeastern Taylor County. The city limits extend north into Jones County. Interstate 20 leads east 149 miles (240 km) to Fort Worth and west 148 miles (238 km) to Midland. Three U.S. highways pass through the city. US 83 runs west of the city center, leading north 24 miles (39 km) to Anson and south 55 miles (89 km) to Ballinger. US 84 runs with US 83 through the southwest part of the city but leads southeast 52 miles (84 km) to Coleman and west with I-20 40 miles (64 km) to Sweetwater. US 277 follows US 83 around the northwest side of the city and north to Anson, but heads southwest from Abilene 89 miles (143 km) to San Angelo.
According to the United States Census Bureau, Abilene has a total area of 112.2 sq mi (290.6 km2), of which 106.8 sq mi (276.6 km2) are land and 5.4 sq mi (14.0 km2) are covered by water (4.82%). The water area is mainly from three reservoirs in the city: Lytle Lake southeast of downtown on the western edge of Abilene Regional Airport, Kirby Lake on the southeast corner of the US 83/84 and Loop 322 interchange, and Lake Fort Phantom Hill in Jones County in northern Abilene. Clear Creek runs through the city just east of downtown, flowing north to Elm Creek and ultimately part of the Brazos River watershed.
The fastest-growing sections of the city are in the southwest, along Southwest Drive, the Winters Freeway, and the Buffalo Gap Road corridor; the southeast, along Loop 322, Oldham Lane, Industrial Drive, and Maple Street; and in the northeast near the intersection of SH 351 and I-20. Many developments have begun in these three areas within the last few years with a citywide focus on the reinvigoration of downtown Abilene.
According to the Köppen climate classification, Abilene lies at the edge of a humid subtropical climate, with areas to the west being semiarid.
|Climate data for Abilene, Texas (1991−2020 normals)|
|Record high °F (°C)||90
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||80
|Average high °F (°C)||58.8
|Average low °F (°C)||33.7
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||18
|Record low °F (°C)||−9
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||1.10
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||0.7
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||4.7||5.4||6.0||5.0||7.7||7.0||5.1||5.9||5.8||6.6||4.6||5.1||68.9|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||0.9||0.7||0.3||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||0.3||0.6||2.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||204.6||203.4||263.5||282.0||306.9||330.0||347.2||316.2||258.0||248.0||198.0||192.2||3,150|
|Source: National Weather Service, San Angelo Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1961–1990)|
Notable and historical buildings in Abilene include:
- Hotel Wooten (1930) at 302 Cypress Street downtown, built by grocery entrepreneur H. O. Wooten, at 16 stories tall, is designed after the Drake Hotel in Chicago. It was restored in 2004 as a high-end apartment building.
- First Baptist Church (1954) at 1442 North Second Street has a spire 140 feet from the ground. Pastor Dr. Jesse Northcutt oversaw the planning of this building of 325 tons of steel.
- The Church of the Heavenly Rest, Episcopal, at 602 Meander Street, reflects surprising Gothic architecture on the West Texas Plains. Its plaque reads: "No man entering a house ignores him who dwells in it. This is the house of God and He is here."
- The 20-story Enterprise Tower at 500 Chestnut Street, the highest structure in Abilene, rises to 283 feet above the Plains. It is the tallest building in west-central Texas and one of the five highest in the western two-thirds of the state.
- The Taylor County Courthouse at 300 Oak Street, with its international architectural style of concrete and pink granite, resembles few other courthouses.
- Paramount Theatre at 352 Cypress Street opened in 1930 and restored in 1986 had an original marquee 90 feet tall, with 1,400 lights.
- Lincoln Junior High School, 1699 South First Street. In 2012, the Abilene Independent School District deeded the property to the City of Abilene. This property was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on August 28, 2012. Built in 1923, the architecture is Gothic Revival and includes two large gargoyles at the entrance and has Gothic and art deco motifs. It opened as Abilene High School in 1924, became Lincoln Junior High in 1955, and Lincoln Middle School in 1985. The campus closed in 2007. As of 2019, the Abilene Heritage Square was renovating the school into "a multipurpose center for learning, making, discovery, building community and innovating and encouraging our city's future businesses." The Abilene Public Library will also use the restored building as the new main branch.
Discover more about Geography related topics
|U.S. Census Bureau|
|Black or African American (NH)||12,242||9.78%|
|Native American or Alaska Native (NH)||496||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander (NH)||141||0.11%|
|Some Other Race (NH)||388||0.31%|
|Hispanic or Latino||33,634||26.87%|
As of the census of 2000, 115,930 people, 41,570 households, and 28,101 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,102.7 people per square mile (425.8/km2). The 45,618 housing units averaged 433.9 per square mile (167.5/km2). As of the 2010 census, Abilene had a population of 117,063. In 2020, its population was 125,182, with 43,607 households and 28,118 families residing in the city.
In 2000, the racial makeup of the city was 78.07% white, 8.81% African American, 0.55% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 8.73% from other races, and 2.44% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 19.45% of the population. The racial and ethnic makeup of the population in 2010 was 62.4% non-Hispanic White, 9.6% Black or African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% non-Hispanic reporting some other race, 3.3% of two or more races, and 24.5% Hispanic or Latino. By 2020, its racial and ethnic composition was 56.23% non-Hispanic white, 9.78% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 2.14% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 0.31% some other race, 4.16% multiracial, and 26.87% Hispanic or Latino of any race.
At the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the city was $33,007, and for a family was $40,028. Males had a median income of $28,078 versus $20,918 for females. The per capita income for the city was $16,577. About 10.9% of families and 15.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.6% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. At the 2020 American Community Survey, the median household income in the city was $52,518. The mean household income was $70,807.
Discover more about Demographics related topics
1890 United States census
1900 United States census
1910 United States census
1920 United States census
1930 United States census
1940 United States census
1950 United States census
1960 United States census
1970 United States census
1980 United States census
1990 United States census
2000 United States census
The economy in Abilene was originally based on the livestock and agricultural sectors, but is now based strongly on government, education, healthcare, and manufacturing. The petroleum industry is prevalent in the surrounding area, also. The city has established incentives to bring new businesses to the area, including job training grants, relocation grants, and more.
The top 15 employers in Abilene, as of December 2019, were:
|1||Dyess Air Force Base||8400||Military|
|2||Hendrick Health System||3200||Healthcare|
|4||Abilene Christian University||1900||Education|
|5||City of Abilene||1300||Government|
|6||Abilene State Supported Living Center||1225||Mental health|
|7||Texas Department of Criminal Justice||1190||Law enforcement|
|8||Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas Claims Center||1090||Call center|
|9||Abilene Regional Medical Center||830||Healthcare|
|11||First Financial Bank (Texas)||540||Banking|
|14||Eagle Aviation Services||470||Aviation|
Discover more about Economy related topics
Dyess Air Force Base
Hendrick Health System
Abilene Independent School District
Abilene Christian University
Texas state supported living centers
Texas Department of Criminal Justice
Health Care Service Corporation
Taylor County, Texas
Wylie Independent School District (Taylor County, Texas)
Government and infrastructure
The Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) operates the Abilene District Parole Office in the city. The Robertson Unit prison and the Middleton Unit transfer unit are in Abilene and in Jones County.
The United States Postal Service operates the Abilene Post Office and the Abilene Southern Hills Post Office.
On June 17, 2017, Abilene elected its first African-American mayor, Anthony Williams.
- D. B. Corley, 1883–1885
- G. A. Kirkland, 1885–1886
- D. W. Wristen, 1886–1891
- H. A. Porter, 1891–1893
- D. W. Wristen, 1893–1897
- A. M. Robertson, 1897–1899
- John Bowyers, 1899–1901
- F. C. Digby Roberts, 1901–1904
- R. W. Ellis, 1904–1905
- Morgan Weaver, 1905–1907
- E. N. Kirby, 1906–1919
- Dallas Scarborough, 1919–1923
- Charles E. Coombes, 1923–1927
- Thomas E. Hayden, 1927–1931
- Lee R. York, 1931–1933
- C. L. Johnson, 1933–1937
- Will Hair, 1937–1947
- B. R. Blankenship, 1947–1949
- Hudson Smart, 1949–1951
- Ernest Grissom, 1951–1953
- C. E. Gatlin, 1953–1957
- Jess F. (T-Bone) Winters, 1957–1959
- George L Minter, 1959–1961
- C. R. Kinard, 1961–1963
- W. L. Byrd, 1963–1966
- Ralph N. Hooks, 1966–1969
- J. C. Hunter, Jr., 1969–1975
- Fred Lee Hughes, 1975–1978
- Oliver Howard, 1978–1981
- Elbert E. Hall, 1981–1984
- David Stubbeman, 1984–1987
- Dale E. Ferguson, 1987–1990
- Gary D. McCaleb, 1990–1999
- Grady Barr, 1999–2004
- Norm Archibald, 2004–2017
- Anthony Williams, 2017–present
Discover more about Government and infrastructure related topics
Abilene has two school districts within the city limits: Abilene Independent School District (AISD) and Wylie Independent School District (WISD). High schools include Abilene High School and Cooper High School of AISD, and Wylie High School of WISD.
Colleges and universities
Abilene is home to six colleges, three of which are religiously affiliated. Hardin–Simmons University is the oldest, founded in 1891. Abilene Christian University is the largest with 2012 undergraduate enrollment at 4,371.
|Abilene Christian University||Churches of Christ||1906||5,731|
|Texas State Technical College West Texas||1985||1,049|
|Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center Abilene Campus||2006||332|
Discover more about Education related topics
Abilene Independent School District
Wylie Independent School District (Taylor County, Texas)
Cooper High School (Abilene, Texas)
Wylie High School (Abilene, Texas)
Abilene Christian University
Churches of Christ
Texas State Technical College
Hendrick Medical Center includes two large hospital campuses on the north and south sides of Abilene, and is one of the city's largest employers. It is one of seven healthcare institutions affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas.
The Presbyterian Medical Care Mission was founded in 1983 as a medical and dental clinic. Its services are focused to low-income individuals and families without insurance.
The cultural aspects of Abilene revolve around a mix of the local college and university campuses, the agriculture community of the surrounding area, and a growing nightlife scene in the downtown area. Abilene is also home to the restored Paramount Theatre, the Abilene Philharmonic Orchestra, the Grace Museum, the Center for Contemporary Arts, the National Center for Children's Illustrated Literature, The Abilene Zoo, Frontier Texas!, the 12th Armored Division Museum, the Taylor County Expo Center, the Abilene Convention Center, six libraries (three private, three public), 26 public parks, six television stations, a daily newspaper, and several radio stations, including one NPR station (89.5 KACU).
Discover more about Culture related topics
The Abilene Reporter-News is the primary daily newspaper of the city of Abilene and the surrounding Big Country area.
- 88.1 FM KGNZ (Christian contemporary)
- 89.5 FM KACU (Public Radio)
- 90.5 FM KAGT (Christian contemporary)
- 91.3 FM KAQD (Religious)
- 91.7 FM KQOS (Religious)
- 92.5 FM KMWX (Red Dirt Country)
- 93.3 FM KBGT (Tejano)
- 94.1 FM KVVO-LP (Inspirational Country)
- 95.1 FM KABW (Country)
- 96.1 FM KORQ (Farm, Country)
- 98.1 FM KTLT (Active Rock)
- 99.7 FM KBCY (Country)
- 100.7 FM KULL (Classic hits)
- 101.7 FM KTJK (Adult hits)
- 102.7 FM KHXS (Classic Rock)
- 103.7 FM KCDD (Top 40)
- 105.1 FM KEAN (Country)
- 106.3 FM KKHR (Regional Mexican)
- 106.9 FM KLGD (Country)
- 107.9 FM KEYJ (Active Rock)
- 1280 AM KSLI (Country)
- 1340 AM KWKC (News Talk)
- 1470 AM KYYW (News Talk)
- 1560 AM KZQQ (Sports talk)
Discover more about Media related topics
The city of Abilene is served by Abilene Regional Airport.
Discover more about Transportation related topics
- Ken Baumann, actor
- Raleigh Brown, member of the Texas House of Representatives and a state-court judge
- Doyle Brunson, two-time World Series of Poker champion, attended and played basketball at Hardin–Simmons College
- Randall "Tex" Cobb, heavyweight boxer and actor
- Charles Coody, Masters-winning professional golfer (from Stamford and Abilene) — graduate of ACU
- Carole Cook, an actress, was born January 14, 1924, in Abilene as Mildred Frances Cook
- Roy Crane, nationally syndicated cartoonist (Wash Tubbs, Captain Easy, Buz Sawyer)
- Dorian, hip hop recording artist, was born in Abilene
- Bob Estes, professional golfer
- W. C. Friley, first president of Hardin–Simmons University, 1892–1894
- Billy Gillispie, former Texas Tech University Red Raiders, Kentucky, and Texas A&M men's basketball coach
- Ryan Guzman, actor
- Homer Hailey (1903–2000), Church of Christ clergyman and professor at Abilene Christian University
- David W. Harper (born 1961), actor, played James Robert Walton on CBS television series The Waltons, 1972–1981
- Kristy Hawkins (born 1980), IFBB professional bodybuilder
- Jerry Herron (born 1949), dean of Wayne State University Honors College
- Katie Hill, former U.S. congresswoman from CA-25
- Micah P. Hinson, indie rock singer
- Gregory Hoblit, film director
- Robert Dean Hunter, member of Texas House of Representatives from Abilene, 1986–2007; vice president emeritus of Abilene Christian University
- Bill Jones, former NFL player for the Kansas City Chiefs
- Morgan Jones, railroad builder
- Rainy Day Jordan, Playboy playmate (Miss December 2011)
- Ashley Kavanaugh, public official and former political aide; wife of Supreme Court Justice Brett Kavanaugh
- Case Keenum, quarterback for the Buffalo Bills
- Johnny Knox, former wide receiver for the Chicago Bears
- John Lackey, former starting pitcher for the Chicago Cubs
- Billy Maxwell, golfer, winner of seven PGA Tour events
- Mildred Paxton Moody, wife of Governor Dan Moody
- Bobby Morrow, three-time gold medal winner at 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne, named Sportsman of the Year in 1956 by Sports Illustrated
- Scott Nagy, head coach of the Wright State University men's basketball team, and former head coach for South Dakota State University men's basketball
- Billy Olson, pole vaulter (1988 Summer Olympics, for the U.S. team that boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics); held several world records
- Ty O'Neal, rodeo cowboy and film actor
- Terry Orr, tight end for the Washington Redskins — played for CHS
- Fess Parker (1924–2010), actor and hotel and winery owner, attended Hardin–Simmons University, played football at HSU before transferring to University of Texas, starred in TV as Davy Crockett and Daniel Boone
- Lee Roy Parnell, country musician
- Vinnie Paul (1964–2018), born in Abilene; musician, co-founder, and drummer of heavy metal band Pantera and Damageplan, drummer of Hellyeah
- Charles Perry, member of Texas Senate from Lubbock, was born in Abilene in 1962
- Dominic Rhodes, born in Waco Texas, football player for Cooper High School, NFL football player for Indianapolis Colts
- Lou Halsell Rodenberger, author and biographer of Jane Gilmore Rushing, professor at McMurry University
- Rick Roderick, philosopher
- Bill Sharman, Hall-of-Fame NBA basketball player and coach, born in Abilene
- Jessica Simpson, singer and actress, born in Abilene
- Jorge A. Solis (born 1951), U.S. federal judge, 5th Circuit
- Rawson Stovall, video game producer/designer, author, and first nationally syndicated reviewer of video games
- Steven Stucky, Pulitzer Prize-winning American composer
- Sarah Weddington, lawyer, represented "Jane Roe" in case of Roe v. Wade
- Ann Wedgeworth, actress
- Mason Williams, musician, best known for his guitar instrumental "Classical Gas"
Discover more about Notable people related topics
- Chita, Zabaykalsky Krai, Russia
Source: "Abilene, Texas", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 22nd), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abilene,_Texas.
Get our FREE extension now!
Webb County, Texas
Tom Green County, Texas
Taylor County, Texas
Tarrant County, Texas
Jones County, Texas
Eastland County, Texas
Wichita Falls, Texas
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Hoiberg, Dale H., ed. (2010). "Abilene". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. I: A-ak Bayes (15th ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. pp. 32–33. ISBN 978-1-59339-837-8.
- ^ "Abilene Mayor | City of Abilene". www.abilenetx.gov. Archived from the original on 7 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
- ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 7, 2020.
- ^ "Geographic Identifiers: 2020 Census Summary File 1 (G001): Abilene city, Texas (revision of 10-24-2021)". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved December 26, 2021.
- ^ "Look Up a Zip Code". USPS.com. Archived from the original on 2016-12-22. Retrieved 2016-12-30.
- ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Archived from the original on 2012-02-12. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Abilene city, Texas". www.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2021-11-07. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
- ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 22. ISBN 0-7884-0579-9.
- ^  Archived October 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "History of Abilene "From railroad tracks to vapor trails"". myabilene.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2007. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- ^  Archived October 9, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b c d "Significant Dates in Abilene History". Abilenetx.com. City of Abilene, Texas. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ a b "US Newspaper Directory". Chronicling America. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ a b c d Hellmann 2006.
- ^ a b "City of Abilene Mayors 1883-2004". City of Abilene. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ a b c d "City Population History from 1850–2000: Abilene", Texas Almanac, Texas State Historical Association, 12 January 2011, archived from the original on 2017-08-25
- ^ "Historical Sketches of Texas Libraries: Abilene", Handbook of Texas Libraries, Austin: Texas Library Association, no. 1, 1904, hdl:2027/uc1.b4221835
- ^ a b c d e Fane Downs. "Abilene, TX". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ Vernon N. Kisling, Jr., ed. (2001). "Zoological Gardens of the United States". Zoo and Aquarium History. USA: CRC Press. ISBN 978-1-4200-3924-5. Archived from the original on 2017-02-16. (Chronological list)
- ^ a b c "Movie Theaters in Abilene, TX". CinemaTreasures.org. Los Angeles: Cinema Treasures LLC. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ Jack Alicoate, ed. (1939), "Standard Broadcasting Stations of the United States: Texas", Radio Annual, New York: Radio Daily, OCLC 2459636
- ^ Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association.
- ^ "Texas: West Texas". Encyclopedia of Southern Jewish Communities. Jackson, Mississippi: Goldring / Woldenberg Institute of Southern Jewish Life. Archived from the original on July 3, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^  video of Eisenhower in Abilene, timestamp 39:46
- ^ a b "United States TV Stations Texas", Yearbook of Radio and Television, New York: Radio Television Daily, 1964, OCLC 7469377, archived from the original on 2017-03-20 – via Internet Archive
- ^ "About". Abilene Preservation League. Archived from the original on April 12, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ "Texas". Official Congressional Directory. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1979. hdl:2027/mdp.39015012846567 – via HathiTrust.
- ^ "City of Abilene, TX". Archived from the original on August 17, 2000 – via Internet Archive, Wayback Machine.
- ^ Kevin Hyde; Tamie Hyde (eds.). "United States of America: Texas". Official City Sites. Utah. OCLC 40169021. Archived from the original on August 24, 2000.
- ^ "World War II museum turns 15", Abilene Reporter-News, October 5, 2016, archived from the original on August 25, 2017
- ^ Reporter-News 2016.
- ^ "Abilene city, Texas". QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ Civic Impulse, LLC. "Members of Congress". GovTrack. Washington, D.C. Archived from the original on April 11, 2017. Retrieved April 11, 2017.
- ^ "Downtown Abilene Initiative | Shopping, Dining, Entertainment & More". Downtown Abilene Initiative. Retrieved 2018-11-25.
- ^ "Abilene Climate Data". National Weather Service, San Angelo. Archived from the original on 2014-10-13. Retrieved 2022-09-19.
- ^ "Climatological Normals of Abilene". Hong Kong SAR Government. Archived from the original on 2012-07-27. Retrieved 2011-12-10.
- ^ "Abilene Heritage Square". Abilene Heritage Square. Retrieved 2022-01-09.
- ^ "Library, event center, coffee shop, and more part of $41.5 million project at old Lincoln Middle School". KTAB - BigCountryHomepage.com. 2019-07-26. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- ^ "Abilene population US Census". Archived from the original on 2014-10-03. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
- ^ a b c "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
- ^ "Census.gov". Census.gov.
- ^ "About the Hispanic Population and its Origin". www.census.gov. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
- ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-06-04.
- ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved 2022-06-04.
- ^ "Incentives : Abilene Industrial Foundation". Archived from the original on 26 January 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- ^ "Community Profile". Develop Abilene. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
- ^ "Parole Division Region V Archived 2011-09-26 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
- ^ "Super Neighborhood Areas Archived 2011-06-09 at the Wayback Machine." (Direct map link Archived 2011-06-09 at the Wayback Machine) City of Abilene. Retrieved on July 23, 2010.
- ^ "Robertson Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on July 23, 2010.
- ^ "Middleton Unit Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine." Texas Department of Criminal Justice. Retrieved on July 23, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location - ABILENE Archived 2010-06-15 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
- ^ "Post Office Location - ABILENE SOUTHERN HILLS Archived 2010-06-13 at the Wayback Machine." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on May 22, 2010.
- ^ "Mayor". City of Abilene. Archived from the original on December 11, 2004.
- ^ "Quick Facts". acu.edu. Abilene Christian University. Retrieved 2020-11-11.
- ^ Bethel, Brian (27 January 2006). "Cisco Junior College Abilene outgrows building". Abilene Reporter News. Archived from the original on 19 July 2013. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- ^ a b c d Fowler, Ethan (12 September 2012). "Tarleton State, TSTC increase fall enrollments; other Big Country schools decline". Abilene Reporter News. Archived from the original on 17 September 2012. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- ^ "About Us". ehendrick.org. Archived from the original on 2 September 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- ^ "Medical Care Mission : Abilene". medicalcaremission.org. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- ^ a b c Al Pickett. "Abilene has produced more than its share of stars," Archived 2007-10-28 at the Wayback Machine Abilene Reporter-News, December 24, 1999
- ^ "Information about Abilene Christian University". Acu.edu. Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2015-07-12.
- ^ Ted Dunnam. "Coaching by Hood vaulted ACU over top," Archived 2008-02-22 at the Wayback Machine Abilene Reporter-News, June 25, 2000.
- ^ All-Time U.S. Rankings — Men's Pole Vault Archived 2007-12-01 at the Wayback Machine, ranked #1 in the world for 1982.
- ^ Frank Litsky "Billy Olson is inching ahead on way to a 19-foot (5.8 m) vault," Archived 2008-12-09 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times, February 22, 1982, page C6, column 1 (late city final edition).
- ^ Abilene, Texas at IMDb
- ^ Coe, Andre (25 April 2000). "Abilene gives Western farewell to delegates from new sister city". Abilene Reporter-News. Archived from the original on 26 February 2005. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- "Abilene". Texas State Gazetteer and Business Directory. St. Louis: R.L. Polk & Co. 1884.
- "Abilene". Texas State Gazetteer and Business Directory. Detroit: R.L. Polk & Co. 1890.
- Abilene City Directory. Dallas: John F. Worley Directory Co. 1919 – via University of North Texas.
- Federal Writers' Project (1940), "Abilene", Texas: a Guide to the Lone Star State, American Guide Series, New York: Hastings House, pp. 470–472, hdl:2027/mdp.39015002677667 – via HathiTrust
- Abilene City Directory. Dallas: John F. Worley Directory Co. 1946 – via University of North Texas.
- Abilene...On Catclaw Creek: A Profile of a West Texas Town (Abilene, Texas: Reporter Publishing, 1969)
- Katharyn Duff and Betty Kay Seibt. Catclaw Country: An Informal History of Abilene in West Texas (Burnet, Texas: Eakin Press, 1980)
- Fane Downs, ed. The Future Great City of West Texas: Abilene, 1881–1981 (Abilene: Richardson, 1981).
- Paul D. Lack et al. The History of Abilene (Abilene, Texas: McMurry College, 1981)
- Juanita Daniel Zachry. Abilene (Northridge, California: Windsor, 1986).
- Tracy M. Shilcutt; David A. Coffey; Donald S. Frazier (2000). Historic Abilene: An Illustrated History. San Antonio: Historical Publishing Network "for the Abilene Preservation League". ISBN 978-1-893619-06-7.
- David J. Wishart, ed. (2004). "Cities and Towns: Abilene, Texas". Encyclopedia of the Great Plains. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-4787-7.
- Paul T. Hellmann (2006). "Texas: Abilene". Historical Gazetteer of the United States. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-135-94859-3.
- Donald S. Frazier; Robert F. Pace (2009). Abilene Landmarks: An Illustrated Tour. State House Press. ISBN 9781933337302.
- Jack E. North (2010). Early Abilene. Images of America. Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia. ISBN 9781439624791.
- Glenn Dromgoole; Jay Moore; Joe W. Specht, eds. (2013). Abilene Stories: From Then to Now. Abilene Christian University Press. ISBN 978-0-89112-368-2.
- Lost Abilene: Images of America, Charleston, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. 2013. ISBN 978-0-73859-693-8
- David G. McComb (2015). "Railroad Towns: Abilene". The City in Texas: a History. University of Texas Press. pp. 133+. ISBN 978-0-292-76746-1.
- "Larry the Answer Guy: Several congressmen have come from this area", Abilene Reporter-News, March 22, 2016 (List of U.S. Congressional representatives for Abilene, 1883–2016)
- Official website
- Convention & Visitors Bureau
- Abilene, Texas at Curlie
- "Collections: City Directories: Abilene". Portal to Texas History. University of North Texas Libraries. (circa 1900s-1950s)
- "Historical Maps of Texas Cities: Abilene". Perry–Castañeda Library Map Collection. University of Texas at Austin.
- "Abilene". Texas Archive of the Moving Image. Austin, Texas. Archived from the original on 2017-04-11. Retrieved 2017-08-25.
- Items related to Abilene, Texas, various dates (via Digital Public Library of America)
- "Locations: Taylor County". West Texas Digital Archives – via University of North Texas Libraries.
- 1881 establishments in Texas
- Abilene, Texas
- All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify
- All articles with bare URLs for citations
- All articles with unsourced statements
- Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from August 2022
- Articles needing cleanup from August 2022
- Articles with Curlie links
- Articles with GND identifiers
- Articles with J9U identifiers
- Articles with LCCN identifiers
- Articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers
- Articles with NARA identifiers
- Articles with VIAF identifiers
- Articles with WORLDCATID identifiers
- Articles with bare URLs for citations from August 2022
- Articles with short description
- Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020
- Busking venues
- Cities in Jones County, Texas
- Cities in Taylor County, Texas
- Cities in Texas
- Cities in the Abilene metropolitan area
- Commons category link is on Wikidata
- Coordinates on Wikidata
- County seats in Texas
- Official website different in Wikidata and Wikipedia
- Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images
- Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments
- Populated places established in 1881
- Short description is different from Wikidata
- Webarchive template wayback links
- Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2022
The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.