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23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line)

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 23 Street
 "R" train"W" train
MTA NYC logo.svg New York City Subway station (rapid transit)
BMT Broadway 23rd Street.jpg
Southbound platform with arriving W train
Station statistics
Addressintersection of 23rd Street, Fifth Avenue & Broadway
New York, NY 10010
BoroughManhattan
LocaleFlatiron District, Madison Square
Coordinates40°44′29″N 73°59′21″W / 40.741339°N 73.989272°W / 40.741339; -73.989272Coordinates: 40°44′29″N 73°59′21″W / 40.741339°N 73.989272°W / 40.741339; -73.989272
DivisionB (BMT)[1]
Line   BMT Broadway Line
Services   N weekends and late nights (weekends and late nights)
   Q late nights only (late nights only)
   R all except late nights (all except late nights)
   W weekdays only (weekdays only)
TransitBus transport NYCT Bus: M1, M2, M3, M23 SBS, M55, X27, X28, SIM3, SIM6, SIM6X, SIM10, SIM31
Bus transport MTA Bus: BM1, BM2, BM3, BM4, BM5
StructureUnderground
Platforms2 side platforms
Tracks4
Other information
OpenedJanuary 5, 1918 (105 years ago) (1918-01-05)[2]
Opposite-
direction
transfer
No
Traffic
20197,085,694[4]Decrease 13.1%
Rank53 out of 424[4]
Location
23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line) is located in New York City Subway
23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line)
23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line) is located in New York City
23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line)
23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line) is located in New York
23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line)
Track layout

Street map

Map

Station service legend
Symbol Description
Stops all times except late nights Stops all times except late nights
Stops weekdays only Stops weekdays only
Stops late nights and weekends Stops late nights and weekends
Stops late nights only Stops late nights only

The 23rd Street station is a local station on the BMT Broadway Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of 23rd Street, Broadway, and Fifth Avenue in the Flatiron District of Manhattan, it is served by the R train at all times except late nights, the W train on weekdays, the N train during late nights and weekends, and the Q train during late nights.

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Metro station

Metro station

A metro station or subway station is a train station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is usually called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, and evacuate the system in the case of an emergency. In the United Kingdom, they are known as underground stations, most commonly used in reference to the London Underground.

BMT Broadway Line

BMT Broadway Line

The BMT Broadway Line is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway in Manhattan. As of November 2016, it is served by four services, all colored yellow: the N and ​Q trains on the express tracks and the R and ​W trains on the local tracks during weekdays. The line is often referred to as the "N and R", since those were the only services on the line from 1988 to 2001, when the Manhattan Bridge's southern tracks were closed for rebuilding. The Broadway Line was built to give the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company access to Midtown Manhattan.

New York City Subway

New York City Subway

The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system in the New York City boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx. It is owned by the government of New York City and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, an affiliate agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened on October 27, 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the most-used, and the one with the most stations, with 472 stations in operation.

23rd Street (Manhattan)

23rd Street (Manhattan)

23rd Street is a broad thoroughfare in the New York City borough of Manhattan, one of the major two-way, east-west streets in the borough's grid. As with Manhattan's other "crosstown" streets, it is divided into its east and west sections at Fifth Avenue. The street runs from Avenue C and FDR Drive in the east to Eleventh Avenue in the west.

Broadway (Manhattan)

Broadway (Manhattan)

Broadway is a road in the U.S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi (21 km) through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi (3.2 km) through the Bronx, exiting north from New York City to run an additional 18 mi (29 km) through the Westchester County municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry, Irvington, and Tarrytown, and terminating north of Sleepy Hollow.

Flatiron District

Flatiron District

The Flatiron District is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan, named after the Flatiron Building at 23rd Street, Broadway and Fifth Avenue. Generally, the Flatiron District is bounded by 14th Street, Union Square and Greenwich Village to the south; the Avenue of the Americas and Chelsea to the west; 23rd Street and Madison Square to the north; and Park Avenue South and Gramercy Park to the east.

Manhattan

Manhattan

Manhattan is the most densely populated and geographically smallest of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is also coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. Located near the southern tip of New York State, Manhattan is based in the Eastern Time Zone and constitutes both the geographical and demographic center of the Northeast megalopolis and the urban core of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass. Over 58 million people live within 250 miles of Manhattan, which serves as New York City’s economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and the city’s historical birthplace. Residents of the outer boroughs of New York City often refer to Manhattan as "the city". Manhattan has been described as the cultural, financial, media, and entertainment capital of the world, and hosts the United Nations headquarters. Manhattan also serves as the headquarters of the global art market, with numerous art galleries and auction houses collectively hosting half of the world’s art auctions.

R (New York City Subway service)

R (New York City Subway service)

The R Broadway/Fourth Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

W (New York City Subway service)

W (New York City Subway service)

The W Broadway Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subway's B Division. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

N (New York City Subway service)

N (New York City Subway service)

The N Broadway Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet," is colored yellow, since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

Q (New York City Subway service)

Q (New York City Subway service)

The Q Second Avenue/Broadway Express/Brighton Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

History

Construction and opening

Mosaic name tablet
Mosaic name tablet
Detail of mosaic frieze
Detail of mosaic frieze

The New York Public Service Commission adopted plans for what was known as the Broadway–Lexington Avenue route on December 31, 1907. This route began at the Battery and ran under Greenwich Street, Vesey Street, Broadway to Ninth Street, private property to Irving Place, and Irving Place and Lexington Avenue to the Harlem River. After crossing under the Harlem River into the Bronx, the route split at Park Avenue and 138th Street, with one branch continuing north to and along Jerome Avenue to Woodlawn Cemetery, and the other heading east and northeast along 138th Street, Southern Boulevard, and Westchester Avenue to Pelham Bay Park. In early 1908, the Tri-borough plan was formed, combining this route, the under-construction Centre Street Loop Subway in Manhattan and Fourth Avenue Subway in Brooklyn, a Canal Street subway from the Fourth Avenue Subway via the Manhattan Bridge to the Hudson River, and several other lines in Brooklyn.[5][6]

The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company submitted a proposal to the Commission, dated March 2, 1911, to operate the Tri-borough system (but under Church Street instead of Greenwich Street), as well as a branch along Broadway, Seventh Avenue, and 59th Street from Ninth Street north and east to the Queensboro Bridge; the Canal Street subway was to merge with the Broadway Line instead of continuing to the Hudson River. The city, the BRT, and the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (which operated the first subway and four elevated lines in Manhattan) came to an agreement, and sent a report to the New York City Board of Estimate on June 5, 1911. The line along Broadway to 59th Street was assigned to the BRT, while the IRT obtained the Lexington Avenue line, connecting with its existing route at Grand Central–42nd Street. Construction began on Lexington Avenue on July 31, and on Broadway the next year. The Dual Contracts, two operating contracts between the city and the BMT and IRT, were adopted on March 4, 1913.[7]

A short portion of the line, coming off the north side of the Manhattan Bridge through Canal Street to 14th Street–Union Square, opened on September 4, 1917, at 2 P.M., with an eight car train carrying members of the Public Service Commission, representatives of the city government and officials of the BRT, leaving Union Square toward Coney Island. Service opened to the general public at 8 P.M., with trains leaving Union Square and Coney Island simultaneously.[8] The line was served by two services. One route ran via the Fourth Avenue Line and the Sea Beach Line to Coney Island, while the other line, the short line, ran to Ninth Avenue, where passengers could transfer for West End and Culver Line service. The initial headway on the line was three minutes during rush hours, three minutes and forty-five seconds at other times, except during late nights when service ran every fifteen minutes.[9]

23rd Street station opened on January 5, 1918, as the BMT Broadway Line was extended north from 14th Street–Union Square to Times Square–42nd Street and south to Rector Street. Service at this station was provided by local services running between Times Square and Rector Street.[2] Service was extended one station to Whitehall Street–South Ferry on September 20, 1918.[10][11] On August 1, 1920, the Montague Street Tunnel opened, extending local service from Lower Manhattan to DeKalb Avenue in Downtown Brooklyn by traveling under the East River.[12][13]

Later years

View of the station in 1999, before its 2001 renovation
View of the station in 1999, before its 2001 renovation

The city government took over the BMT's operations on June 1, 1940.[14][15] The station was renovated in the 1970s to accommodate ten-car trains. As part of the renovation, the original wall tiles, old signs, and incandescent lighting were covered by modern-look wall tile band and tablet mosaics, and new signs and fluorescent lights were installed. Staircases and platform edges were also renovated.

On January 3, 1999, a schizophrenic man, Andrew Goldstein, pushed 32-year-old journalist and photographer Kendra Webdale onto the tracks from the Brooklyn-bound platform of this station. Webdale was then struck and killed by an oncoming N train.[16] After two mistrials due to his mental incapacity, Goldstein pleaded guilty of manslaughter in October 2006 and sentenced to 23 years in prison.[17] The incident led to the passing of Kendra's Law, which allows judges to order people suffering from certain psychological disorders to undergo regular treatment.[18][19]

In 2001, the station received a major refurbishment, including installing ADA yellow safety treads along the platform edges, restoring the original tiling, repairing the staircases, installing new tiling on the floors, new signage and upgrading the station's lighting and installing a public address system.

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New York Public Service Commission

New York Public Service Commission

The New York Public Service Commission is the public utilities commission of the New York state government that regulates and oversees the electric, gas, water, and telecommunication industries in New York as part of the Department of Public Service. The department's regulations are compiled in title 16 of the New York Codes, Rules and Regulations. The current chairman of the Commission and chief executive of the Department is Rory M. Christian. His term began on June 10, 2021 and runs through February 1, 2027.

Greenwich Street

Greenwich Street

Greenwich Street is a north–south street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It extends from the intersection of Ninth Avenue and Gansevoort Street in the Meatpacking District at its northernmost end to its southern end at Battery Park. Greenwich Street runs through the Meatpacking District, the West Village, Hudson Square, and Tribeca.

Lexington Avenue

Lexington Avenue

Lexington Avenue, often colloquially abbreviated as "Lex", is an avenue on the East Side of Manhattan in New York City. The avenue carries southbound one-way traffic from East 131st Street to Gramercy Park at East East 21st Street. Along its 5.5-mile (8.9-kilometer), 110-block route, Lexington Avenue runs through Harlem, Carnegie Hill, the Upper East Side, Midtown, and Murray Hill to a point of origin that is centered on Gramercy Park. South of Gramercy Park, the axis continues as Irving Place from 20th Street to East 14th Street.

Harlem River

Harlem River

The Harlem River is an 8-mile (13 km) tidal strait in New York, United States, flowing between the Hudson River and the East River and separating the island of Manhattan from the Bronx on the New York mainland.

The Bronx

The Bronx

The Bronx is a borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the state of New York. It is south of Westchester County; north and east of the New York City borough of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of the New York City borough of Queens, across the East River. The Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2) and a population of 1,472,654 in the 2020 census. If each borough were ranked as a city, the Bronx would rank as the ninth-most-populous in the U.S. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, and third-highest population density. It is the only borough of New York City not primarily on an island. With a population that is 54.8% Hispanic as of 2020, it is the only majority-Hispanic county in the Northeastern United States and the fourth-most-populous nationwide.

Jerome Avenue

Jerome Avenue

Jerome Avenue is one of the longest thoroughfares in the New York City borough of the Bronx, New York, United States. The road is 5.6 miles (9.0 km) long and stretches from Concourse to Woodlawn. Both of these termini are with the Major Deegan Expressway which runs parallel to the west. Most of the elevated IRT Jerome Avenue Line runs along Jerome Avenue. The Cross Bronx Expressway interchanges with Jerome and the Deegan. Though it runs through what is now the West Bronx neighborhood, Jerome Avenue is the dividing avenue between nominal and some named "West" and "East" streets in the Bronx; Fifth Avenue, and to a lesser extent, Broadway, also splits Manhattan into nominal "West" and "East" streets.

Southern Boulevard (Bronx)

Southern Boulevard (Bronx)

Southern Boulevard is a street in the Bronx, New York City, United States. It stretches from Bruckner Boulevard in Mott Haven to Bronx Park East in Allerton where it becomes Allerton Avenue. From 1981 until 2011, the portion north of Fordham Road, adjacent to the New York Botanical Garden, was also named Dr. Theodore L. Kazimiroff Boulevard. In 2011, the name of Kazimiroff, a Bronx historian and a founder of The Bronx County Historical Society, was changed to an honorary designation for this portion of Southern Boulevard after the New York City Department of Transportation, having been lobbied by Fordham University, decided that the designation was little known and confusing to those unfamiliar with the area.

Pelham Bay Park

Pelham Bay Park

Pelham Bay Park is a municipal park located in the northeast corner of the New York City borough of the Bronx. It is, at 2,772 acres (1,122 ha), the largest public park in New York City. The park is more than three times the size of Manhattan's Central Park. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

Hudson River

Hudson River

The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) river that flows from north to south primarily through eastern New York. It originates in the Adirondack Mountains of Upstate New York and flows southward through the Hudson Valley to the New York Harbor between New York City and Jersey City, eventually draining into the Atlantic Ocean at Lower New York Bay. The river serves as a physical boundary between the states of New Jersey and New York at its southern end. Farther north, it marks local boundaries between several New York counties. The lower half of the river is a tidal estuary, deeper than the body of water into which it flows, occupying the Hudson Fjord, an inlet which formed during the most recent period of North American glaciation, estimated at 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Even as far north as the city of Troy, the flow of the river changes direction with the tides.

Queensboro Bridge

Queensboro Bridge

The Queensboro Bridge, officially named the Ed Koch Queensboro Bridge, is a cantilever bridge over the East River in New York City. Completed in 1909, it connects the neighborhood of Long Island City in the borough of Queens with the Upper East Side in Manhattan, passing over Roosevelt Island. The bridge is also known as the 59th Street Bridge because its Manhattan end is located between 59th and 60th streets.

Interborough Rapid Transit Company

Interborough Rapid Transit Company

The Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) was the private operator of New York City's original underground subway line that opened in 1904, as well as earlier elevated railways and additional rapid transit lines in New York City. The IRT was purchased by the city in June 1940, along with the younger BMT and IND systems, to form the modern New York City Subway. The former IRT lines are now the A Division or IRT Division of the Subway.

Early history of the IRT subway

Early history of the IRT subway

The first regularly operated subway in New York City was opened on October 27, 1904, and was operated by the Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT). The early IRT system consisted of a single trunk line below 96th Street in Manhattan, running under Broadway, 42nd Street, Park Avenue, and Lafayette Street. The line had three northern branches in Upper Manhattan and the Bronx, and a southern branch to Brooklyn. The system had four tracks between Brooklyn Bridge–City Hall and 96th Street, allowing for local and express service. The original line and early extensions consisted of:The IRT Eastern Parkway Line from Atlantic Avenue–Barclays Center to Borough Hall The IRT Lexington Avenue Line from Borough Hall to Grand Central–42nd Street The IRT 42nd Street Shuttle from Grand Central–42nd Street to Times Square The IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line from Times Square to Van Cortlandt Park–242nd Street The IRT Lenox Avenue Line from 96th Street to 145th Street The IRT White Plains Road Line from 142nd Street Junction to 180th Street–Bronx Park

Station layout

Downtown station entrance
Downtown station entrance
View of station artwork
View of station artwork
G Street level Exit/entrance
P
Platform level
Side platform
Northbound local "R" train toward Forest Hills–71st Avenue (28th Street)
"W" train toward Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard weekdays (28th Street)
"N" train toward Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard late nights/weekends (28th Street)
"Q" train toward 96th Street late nights (28th Street)
Northbound express "N" train"Q" train do not stop here
Southbound express "N" train"Q" train do not stop here →
Southbound local "R" train toward Bay Ridge–95th Street (14th Street–Union Square)
"W" train toward Whitehall Street–South Ferry weekdays (14th Street–Union Square)
"N" train toward Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue via Sea Beach late nights/weekends (14th Street–Union Square)
"Q" train toward Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue via Brighton late nights (14th Street–Union Square)
Side platform

This underground station has four tracks and two side platforms. The two center tracks are used by the N train on weekdays and Q train at all times except late nights. The platforms have their original trim line, which has "23" tablets on it at regular intervals, and name tablets, which read "23RD STREET" in serif font.

The 2002 artwork here is called Memories of Twenty-Third Street by Keith Godard. The platform walls feature mosaics depicting hats that famous people of the Flatiron District wore, including Oscar Wilde, Sarah Bernhardt, and W. E. B. Du Bois.[20]

 23rd St subway cross-section
8th Av 7th Av 6th Av 5th Av &
Broadway
Park Av
A / C / E 1 / 2 / 3 FM↓ PATH FM↑ N / Q / R / W 6 /
underpass underpass

Exits

Each platform has two same-level fare control areas. The primary ones are at the north ends of the platforms. The Queens-bound platform has a bank of regular and high exit-only turnstiles, the station's full-time token booth, and four street stairs. Two go up to the northeastern corner of Broadway and 23rd Street (outside Madison Square Park) and the other two go to the southeast. The Brooklyn-bound platform has a bank of regular and high exit-only turnstiles, a now defunct customer assistance booth, and two street stairs. One is connected to fare control via a passageway and goes up to the southeastern corner of 23rd Street and Fifth Avenue outside the Flatiron Building, while the other goes up to the northeastern corner of Broadway and Fifth Avenue, near a mid-block pedestrian crossing.[21]

The station's other two fare control areas are at the south end of the station. The one on the Queens-bound platform is unstaffed, containing High Entry-Exit Turnstiles and one staircase going up to the northeastern corner of 22nd Street and Broadway. The turnstile on the Brooklyn-bound platform is exit-only and has one staircase to the northwest corner of 22nd Street and Broadway.[21] There is a crossunder here that was closed in the 1990s and is now only used for station facilities.

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Side platform

Side platform

A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of one or more railway tracks or guideways at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. A station having dual side platforms, one for each direction of travel, is the basic design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track.

R (New York City Subway service)

R (New York City Subway service)

The R Broadway/Fourth Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

Forest Hills–71st Avenue station

Forest Hills–71st Avenue station

The Forest Hills–71st Avenue station is an express station on the IND Queens Boulevard Line of the New York City Subway, located on Queens Boulevard at 71st (Continental) Avenue in Forest Hills, Queens. It is served by the E and F trains at all times, the train during rush hours in the reverse peak direction, the R train at all times except late nights, and the M train on weekdays except late nights. It serves as the terminus for the latter two services.

28th Street station (BMT Broadway Line)

28th Street station (BMT Broadway Line)

The 28th Street station is a local station on the BMT Broadway Line of the New York City Subway, located at 28th Street and Broadway in Manhattan. It is served by the R train at all times except late nights, the W train on weekdays, the N train during late nights and weekends and the Q train during late nights.

W (New York City Subway service)

W (New York City Subway service)

The W Broadway Local is a rapid transit service of the New York City Subway's B Division. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard station

Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard station

The Astoria–Ditmars Boulevard station, is the northern terminal station on the BMT Astoria Line of the New York City Subway. Located above 31st Street between 23rd Avenue and Ditmars Boulevard in Astoria and Ditmars, Queens, it is served by the N train at all times and the W train on weekdays.

N (New York City Subway service)

N (New York City Subway service)

The N Broadway Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet," is colored yellow, since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

Q (New York City Subway service)

Q (New York City Subway service)

The Q Second Avenue/Broadway Express/Brighton Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored yellow since it uses the BMT Broadway Line in Manhattan.

96th Street station (Second Avenue Subway)

96th Street station (Second Avenue Subway)

The 96th Street station is a station on the IND Second Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. Located at the intersection of Second Avenue and 96th Street on the border of the Upper East Side/Yorkville and East Harlem neighborhoods in Manhattan, it is the northern terminus for the Q train at all times. It is also served by limited southbound rush hour N trains and one northbound morning rush hour R train. The station is the terminus for the first phase of the Second Avenue Line.

Bay Ridge–95th Street station

Bay Ridge–95th Street station

The Bay Ridge–95th Street station is the southern terminal station on the BMT Fourth Avenue Line of the New York City Subway. Despite the name, the station is located in the neighborhood of Fort Hamilton at the intersection of 95th Street and Fourth Avenue in southwestern Brooklyn. It is served by the R train at all times. Geographically, this station is the westernmost New York City Subway station.

Source: "23rd Street station (BMT Broadway Line)", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, March 16th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/23rd_Street_station_(BMT_Broadway_Line).

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References
  1. ^ "Glossary". Second Avenue Subway Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement (SDEIS) (PDF). Vol. 1. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. March 4, 2003. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 26, 2021. Retrieved January 1, 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Open New Subway to Times Square". The New York Times. January 6, 1918. p. 3. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  3. ^ "Facts and Figures: Annual Subway Ridership 2014–2019". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Facts and Figures: Annual Subway Ridership 2014–2019". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2020. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  5. ^ James Blaine Walker, Fifty Years of Rapid Transit, 1864–1917, published 1918, pp. 207-223
  6. ^ Engineering News, A New Subway Line for New York City, Volume 63, No. 10, March 10, 1910
  7. ^ James Blaine Walker, Fifty Years of Rapid Transit, 1864–1917, published 1918, pp. 224-241
  8. ^ "Broadway Subway Opened To Coney By Special Train. Brooklynites Try New Manhattan Link From Canal St. to Union Square. Go Via Fourth Ave. Tube". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 4, 1917. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  9. ^ "Open First Section Of Broadway Line; Train Carrying 1,000 Passengers Runs from Fourteenth Street to Coney Island. Regular Service Begins. New Road Is Expected to Relieve Old System of 15,000 PersonsDaily in Rush Hours. Service Commissioners Jubliant. Schedule Not Fully Arranged". The New York Times. September 5, 1917. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  10. ^ District, New York State Public Service Commission First (1919). Report of the Public Service Commission for the First District of the State of New York For The Year Ending December 31, 1918 Vol. I. New York State Legislature.
  11. ^ Legislative Documents. J.B. Lyon Company. January 1, 1920.
  12. ^ "New B.R.T. lines open". The New York Times. August 2, 1920. p. 17. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
  13. ^ "Broadway - Fifty-Ninth Street Extension of B.R.T. Subway, Opened to Queensboro Plaza, L.I. City". The New York Times. August 1, 1920. p. R-92. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  14. ^ "B.M.T. Lines Pass to City Ownership; $175,000,000 Deal Completed at City Hall Ceremony-- Mayor 'Motorman No. 1'". The New York Times. June 2, 1940. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 19, 2021. Retrieved May 14, 2022.
  15. ^ "City Takes Over B. M. T. System; Mayor Skippers Midnight Train". New York Herald Tribune. June 2, 1940. p. 1. ProQuest 1243059209.
  16. ^ Waldman, Amy (January 4, 1999). "Woman Killed in a Subway Station Attack". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  17. ^ Hartocollis, Anemona (October 11, 2006). "Nearly 8 Years Later, Guilty Plea in Subway Killing". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  18. ^ Schapiro, Rich (December 5, 2012). "Horrifying subway homicide causes parents to relive daughter's death". NY Daily News. Retrieved October 27, 2015.
  19. ^ Watkins, Ali (September 11, 2018). "A Horrific Crime on the Subway Led to Kendra's Law. Years Later, Has It Helped?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  20. ^ "23rd Street - Keith Godard - Memories of Twenty-Third Street, 2002". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on August 31, 2020. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  21. ^ a b "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Union Square / Gramercy" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved August 6, 2015.
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