Get Our Extension

2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference

From Wikipedia, in a visual modern way
2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference
COP27 Logo.svg
Native name مؤتمر الأمم المتحدة للتغير المناخي 2022
Date6–20 November 2022 (2022-11-06 – 2022-11-20)
LocationSHICC, Sharm El Sheikh, South Sinai Governorate, Egypt
Coordinates27°56′42″N 34°21′48″E / 27.94500°N 34.36333°E / 27.94500; 34.36333Coordinates: 27°56′42″N 34°21′48″E / 27.94500°N 34.36333°E / 27.94500; 34.36333
Organised byEgypt
ParticipantsUNFCCC member countries
Previous event← Glasgow 2021
Next eventDubai 2023
Websitecop27.eg

The 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference or Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC, more commonly referred to as COP27,[1] was the 27th United Nations Climate Change conference, held from 6 November until 20 November 2022[2] in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt. It took place under the presidency of Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry, with more than 92 heads of state and an estimated 35,000 representatives, or delegates, of 190 countries attending. It was the first climate summit held in Africa since 2016.[3]

The conference has been held annually since the first UN climate agreement in 1992. It is used by governments to agree on policies to limit global temperature rises and adapt to impacts associated with climate change.[4] The conference led to the first loss and damage fund being created.[5]

Discover more about 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference related topics

United Nations Climate Change conference

United Nations Climate Change conference

The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). They serve as the formal meeting of the UNFCCC parties to assess progress in dealing with climate change, and beginning in the mid-1990s, to negotiate the Kyoto Protocol to establish legally binding obligations for developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Starting in 2005 the conferences have also served as the "Conference of the Parties Serving as the Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol" (CMP); also parties to the convention that are not parties to the protocol can participate in protocol-related meetings as observers. From 2011 to 2015 the meetings were used to negotiate the Paris Agreement as part of the Durban platform, which created a general path towards climate action. Any final text of a COP must be agreed by consensus.

Sharm El Sheikh

Sharm El Sheikh

Sharm El Sheikh, commonly abbreviated to Sharm, is an Egyptian city on the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in South Sinai Governorate, on the coastal strip along the Red Sea. Its population is approximately 53,670 as of 2022. Sharm El Sheikh is the administrative hub of Egypt's South Sinai Governorate, which includes the smaller coastal towns of Dahab and Nuweiba as well as the mountainous interior, St. Catherine and Mount Sinai. The city and holiday resort is a significant centre for tourism in Egypt, while also attracting many international conferences and diplomatic meetings.

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Sameh Shoukry

Sameh Shoukry

Sameh Hassan Shoukry is an Egyptian diplomat who has been Minister of Foreign Affairs of Egypt since 2014. Previously, Shoukry served as the Ambassador of Egypt to the United States from 2008 to 2012. He is expected to preside over the 2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference.

Earth Summit

Earth Summit

The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Conference or the Earth Summit, was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992.

Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation is about reducing greenhouse gas emissions or removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. The main goal of all climate change mitigation activities is to limit global warming, in accordance with the Paris Agreement. The use of fossil fuels for energy, as well as agriculture and land use, certain industrial processes like cement production, and deforestation increase the concentration of greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gas concentration can be reduced by conserving energy and by switching to clean energy. Solar and wind energy are among clean energy substitutes for fossil fuels in electricity production. Variable availability of sunshine and wind is addressed by energy storage and improved electrical grids, including long-distance electricity transmission, demand management and diversification of renewables. As low-emission energy is more widely available, transportation and heating can increasingly rely on these sources. Energy efficiency is improved using heat pumps and electric vehicles. If industrial processes must create carbon dioxide, carbon capture and storage reduces net emissions.

Climate change

Climate change

In common usage, climate change describes global warming—the ongoing increase in global average temperature—and its effects on Earth's climate system. Climate change in a broader sense also includes previous long-term changes to Earth's climate. The current rise in global average temperature is more rapid than previous changes, and is primarily caused by humans burning fossil fuels. Fossil fuel use, deforestation, and some agricultural and industrial practices increase greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide and methane. Greenhouse gases absorb some of the heat that the Earth radiates after it warms from sunlight. Larger amounts of these gases trap more heat in Earth's lower atmosphere, causing global warming.

Loss and damage

Loss and damage

In the context of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) process, loss and damage is the harm caused by anthropogenic (human-generated) climate change.

Background

Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry was the president of COP27.
Egyptian Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry was the president of COP27.

Egypt was announced as the host of the conference following a successful bid launched in 2021.[6][7][8][9] On 8 January 2022 the Minister of Environment of Egypt, Yasmine Fouad, met with COP26 President Alok Sharma to discuss preparations for the conference.[10][11] The Egyptian organizers advised countries to set aside tensions over the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine to ensure negotiations are successful.[12]

Possible climate change measures were discussed at the 2022 United Nations General Assembly, including the governments of several island nations launching the Rising Nations initiative, and Denmark and Scotland announcing climate finance measures for developing countries.[13] On 14 October 2022, the Scottish government called for climate reparations at COP27, as a "moral responsibility".[14] At a pre-COP meeting in October 2022, UN Secretary-General António Guterres emphasized the importance of the conference given the impacts of climate change observed in 2022, such as floods in Pakistan, heat waves in Europe and Hurricane Ian.[15]

The conference will be the first COP to take place in Africa since 2016, when COP22 was held in Marrakesh. Egypt's Minister of Foreign Affairs Sameh Shoukry will take over the presidency from Sharma at the start of the conference.[15] The United States decided to support climate talks at COP27, and will try to assist countries that are most affected by climate change.[16]

One week ahead of the summit, UNEP released a report outlining how there was "no credible pathway" to limiting global temperature increase to 1.5 °C and that mitigation efforts since COP26 had been "woefully inadequate".[17] But countries can curb time spent in a warmer world by adopting more ambitious climate pledges and decarbonizing faster, according to a new research[18] published in the academic journal Nature Climate Change during the COP27.

Several days before the opening of the summit a report was published, sponsored by some of the biggest agricultural companies. The report was produced by Sustainable Markets Initiative an organization of companies, trying to become climate friendly, established by the king Charles III. According to the report, Regenerative agriculture is already implemented on 15% of all cropland. Despite it the rate of transition is "far too slow" and must be tripled by the year 2030 for preventing the global temperature to pass the threshold of 1.5 degrees above preindustrial level. Agricultural practices must immediately change for not "destroying the planet". One of the authors emphasized that “The interconnection between human health and planetary health is more evident than ever before.” The authors propose a set of measures for accelerating the transition, like creating metrics for measuring how much the farming is sustainable and pay the farmers who will change their farming mode to more sustainable. They want to present their propositions in the summit.[19]

Two days before the start of the talks, a compromise was reached, "that discussion would focus on 'cooperation and facilitation' not 'liability or compensation'".[20] The ultimate goal of the 2022 COP27 was in dispute. Wealthy countries were expected to focus on ways to help developing nations phase out fossil fuels and transition to renewable energy. However, tensions between richer, developed countries and poorer nations, the latter of which bear the brunt of climate impacts, over who should pay the costs of global warming, were expected to define the conference.[3]

Sponsorship

The conference is sponsored by Coca-Cola. Several environmental campaigners suggested this was greenwashing, given the company's contribution to plastic pollution.[21]

Challenges for the African continent

In a report published in October 2021, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) considers Africa to be the most vulnerable continent to the effects of climate change. More than 100 million Africans will in fact be threatened by global warming between now and 2030. Thus many States, NGOs and African commentators hope that the holding of this summit in an African country will improve the visibility of the priority demands of civil society and African States, in particular the compensation of developing countries for the consequences of global warming.[22]

Discover more about Background related topics

Egypt

Egypt

Egypt, officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world.

Alok Sharma

Alok Sharma

Alok Sharma is a British politician who served as the President for COP26 from 2021-2022. Resigning his previous position as Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in order to lead COP26, he retained full Cabinet status from January 2021 to October 2022 as Minister of State for the Cabinet Office. Sharma has been the Conservative Member of Parliament (MP) for Reading West since 2010.

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

On 24 February 2022, Russia invaded Ukraine in a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War, which began in 2014. The invasion has likely resulted in tens of thousands of deaths on both sides and caused Europe's largest refugee crisis since World War II, with an estimated 8 million people being displaced within the country by late May as well as 7.8 million Ukrainians fleeing the country as of 8 November 2022. Within five weeks of the invasion, Russia experienced its greatest emigration since the 1917 October Revolution. The invasion has also caused global food shortages.

Effects of climate change on small island countries

Effects of climate change on small island countries

The effect of climate change on small island countries can be extreme because of low-lying coasts, relatively small land masses, and exposure to extreme weather. The effects of climate change, particularly sea level rise and increasingly intense tropical cyclones, threaten the existence of many island countries, island peoples and their cultures, and will alter their ecosystems and natural environments. Several Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are among the most vulnerable nations to climate change.

Climate finance

Climate finance

Climate finance is "finance that aims at reducing emissions, and enhancing sinks of greenhouse gases and aims at reducing vulnerability of, and maintaining and increasing the resilience of, human and ecological systems to negative climate change impacts", as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Standing Committee on Finance. The term has been used in a narrow sense to refer to transfers of public resources from developed to developing countries, in light of their UN Climate Convention obligations to provide "new and additional financial resources", and in a wider sense to refer to all financial flows relating to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Climate reparations

Climate reparations

Climate reparations are loss and damage payments for damage and harm caused by climate change, which may include debt cancellation. The term climate reparations differs from simple "loss and damage," in that is based on the concept of reparations, that compensation holds countries accountable for historical emissions, and is an ethical and moral obligation.

António Guterres

António Guterres

António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres is a Portuguese politician and diplomat. Since 2017, he has served as secretary-general of the United Nations, the ninth person to hold this title. A member of the Portuguese Socialist Party, Guterres served as prime minister of Portugal from 1995 to 2002.

2022 in climate change

2022 in climate change

This article documents events, research findings, effects, and responses related to global warming and climate change during the year 2022.

2022 Pakistan floods

2022 Pakistan floods

Since 14 June 2022, floods in Pakistan have killed 1,717 people. The floods were caused by heavier than usual monsoon rains and melting glaciers that followed a severe heat wave, all of which are linked to climate change. It is the world's deadliest flood since the 2020 South Asian floods and described as the worst in the country's history. On 25 August, Pakistan declared a state of emergency because of the flooding. The government of Pakistan has estimated losses worth US$40 billion from the flooding.

2022 European heat waves

2022 European heat waves

From June to August 2022, persistent heatwaves affected parts of Europe, causing evacuations and heat-related deaths. The highest temperature recorded was 47.0 °C (116.6 °F) in Pinhão, Portugal, on 14 July.

Hurricane Ian

Hurricane Ian

Hurricane Ian was a large and destructive Category 4 Atlantic hurricane that was the deadliest hurricane to strike the state of Florida since the 1935 Labor Day hurricane. Ian caused widespread damage across western Cuba and the southeast United States, especially the states of Florida and South Carolina. It was the ninth named storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 2022 Atlantic hurricane season.

Minister of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)

Minister of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)

This is a list of ministers heading the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Egypt.

Participation

Venue of COP27 in Sharm El Sheikh.
Venue of COP27 in Sharm El Sheikh.

As a COVID-19 recovery strategy, the Egyptian government increased hotel prices in Sharm El Sheikh, leading to concerns over the affordability and inclusivity of the conference.[23] Egypt's foreign, environment and social solidarity ministries privately selected and screened local NGOs that would be permitted to apply for one-time registration for the climate summit. The application process and the selection criteria were not made public.[24]

Attendees

French president Emmanuel Macron delivers a speech at COP27.

Around 90 heads of state and representatives from more than 190 countries are expected to attend.[15] United States president Joe Biden and climate envoy John Kerry are both expected to attend, as are French president Emmanuel Macron, German chancellor Olaf Scholz, European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and Sri Lankan president Ranil Wickremesinghe.[25]

By the number of attendees the COP is the second largest after the COP26 in Glasgow. It has 33,449 participants. This is the first COP without observer states as all participating countries ratifies the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change including Vatican City. 11,711 participants are from 1,751 Non-governmental organizations. The 3 countries with the largest delegations are: United Arab Emirates (1,073 participants), Brazil (573) Democratic Republic of Congo (459). Many African countries are in the list of 10 countries with the largest number of delegates.[26]

UK prime minister Rishi Sunak said he would not attend COP27.[27] However, on 2 November, Sunak reversed himself and said he will attend.[28] Former prime minister Boris Johnson and Scottish first minister Nicola Sturgeon are also both attending.[25] Right after winning the 2022 general election, president-elect Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva of Brazil confirmed he will attend the summit.[29]

Non-attendees

Among the heads of state and government not attending are Chinese leader Xi Jinping and his premier Li Keqiang, as well as Russia's Vladimir Putin and his prime minister Mikhail Mishustin.[30]

In September 2022, Egypt warned the United Kingdom not to backtrack on its climate targets, in light of a change to the new government of prime minister Liz Truss, and the announcement that new monarch Charles III would not attend the conference on Truss's advice.[31][32] Following Truss's resignation, the request that Charles III not attend remained in place.[33][28] Instead, he hosted a reception to discuss climate change at Buckingham Palace two days prior to COP27.[34]

Australian prime minister Anthony Albanese, Brazilian president Jair Bolsonaro, and Swedish climate activist Greta Thunberg are all not attending COP27.[25]

Discover more about Participation related topics

COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt

COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt

The COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt is part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The virus was confirmed to have reached Egypt on 14 February 2020.

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron is a French politician who has served as President of France since 2017. Ex officio, he is also one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra. Prior to his presidency, Macron served as Minister of Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs under President François Hollande between 2014 and 2016.

Joe Biden

Joe Biden

Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States. A member of the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 47th vice president from 2009 to 2017 under President Barack Obama, and represented Delaware in the United States Senate from 1973 to 2009.

John Kerry

John Kerry

John Forbes Kerry is an American attorney, politician and diplomat who currently serves as the first United States special presidential envoy for climate. A member of the Forbes family and the Democratic Party, he previously served as the 68th United States secretary of state from 2013 to 2017 under Barack Obama and as a United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1985 to 2013. He was the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the 2004 election, losing to incumbent President George W. Bush.

Olaf Scholz

Olaf Scholz

Olaf Scholz is a German politician who has served as the chancellor of Germany since 8 December 2021. A member of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), he previously served as Vice Chancellor under Angela Merkel and as Federal Minister of Finance from 2018 to 2021. He was also First Mayor of Hamburg from 2011 to 2018 and deputy leader of the SPD from 2009 to 2019.

Narendra Modi

Narendra Modi

Narendra Damodardas Modi is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the chief minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014 and is the Member of Parliament from Varanasi. He is a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a right-wing Hindu nationalist paramilitary volunteer organisation. He is the longest serving prime minister from outside the Indian National Congress.

Ranil Wickremesinghe

Ranil Wickremesinghe

Ranil Wickremesinghe is a Sri Lankan politician who is the current president of Sri Lanka since 21 July 2022. He also holds the position of Minister of Finance of Sri Lanka. He has been the leader of the centre-right United National Party since 1994. He served as Prime Minister of Sri Lanka in five separate stints, leading six governments, from 1993 to 1994, 2001 to 2004, 2015 to 2018, 2018 to 2019, and in 2022. He also served as Leader of the Opposition from 1994 to 2001 and from 2004 to 2015.

Rishi Sunak

Rishi Sunak

Rishi Sunak is a British politician who has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since October 2022. He previously held two cabinet positions under prime minister Boris Johnson, lastly as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 2020 to 2022. Sunak has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Richmond (Yorks) since 2015. Ideologically, Sunak has been described as belonging to the centre-ground of the Conservative Party.

Boris Johnson

Boris Johnson

Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson is a British politician, writer, and journalist who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2019 to 2022. He previously served as Foreign Secretary from 2016 to 2018 and as Mayor of London from 2008 to 2016. Johnson has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015, having previously been MP for Henley from 2001 to 2008. His political positions have sometimes been described as following one-nation conservatism, and commentators have characterised his political style as opportunistic, populist, or pragmatic.

Nicola Sturgeon

Nicola Sturgeon

Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon is a Scottish politician serving as First Minister of Scotland and Leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP) since 2014. She is the first woman to hold either position. She has been a member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) since 1999, first as an additional member for the Glasgow electoral region, and as the member for Glasgow Southside from 2007.

2022 Brazilian general election

2022 Brazilian general election

General elections were held on 2 October 2022 in Brazil to elect the president, vice president, the National Congress, the governors, vice governors, and legislative assemblies of all federative units, and the district council of Fernando de Noronha. As no candidate for president—or for governor in some states—received more than half of the valid votes in the first round, a runoff election for these offices was held on 30 October. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva received the majority of the votes in the second round and became president-elect of Brazil.

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, known mononymously as Lula, is a Brazilian politician, trade unionist, and former metalworker who is the president-elect of Brazil. A member of the Workers' Party, he was the 35th president of Brazil from 2003 to 2010. After winning the 2022 Brazilian general election, he will be sworn in on 1 January 2023 as the 39th president of Brazil, succeeding Jair Bolsonaro.

During the summit

Itinerary and events

The prime ministers of Spain and Tunisia, Pedro Sánchez and Najla Bouden, holding a bilateral meeting at COP27.
The prime ministers of Spain and Tunisia, Pedro Sánchez and Najla Bouden, holding a bilateral meeting at COP27.

On 7 and 8 November, the conference began with a World Leaders' Summit, followed by discussions on topics such as climate finance, decarbonization, climate change adaptation and agriculture during the first week. The second week is expected to cover gender, water and biodiversity.[15] French president Emmanuel Macron, Dutch prime minister Mark Rutte and Senegalese president Macky Sall will host an event on accelerating climate change adaptation in Africa.[25] India has sought clarity and definition on climate finance besides motivating other countries to provide technology to combat climate and disasters. [35]

Event spaces on the opening day of the conference were told they may need to be cancelled, unless they involve visiting heads of state, following tightening of security. These restrictions will not apply to the following day of the conference. Some NGOs criticized the move. Media access to the pavilions is also expected to have heavy restrictions.[36]

Opening days

In his opening remarks, Egyptian president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi called for countries to act on climate change, drawing attention to the impact of extreme weather events in recent years.[37] Barbados premier Mia Mottley called for grant-based rather than loan-based approach to climate finance.[37]

Negotiations

The United States proposed a system of carbon credits for facilitating energy transition in low income countries. The U.S. Development Finance Corporation tried to increase investment to help low income countries deal with different impacts of climate change. As a whole rich countries gave 29 billion dollars to the issue in the year 2020 but it is only a fraction of what is needed. The climate minister of Pakistan Sherry Rehman demanded high income countries will pay for the damage caused by climate change impacts, stating that floods in Pakistan cost the country 30 billion dollars that "Pakistan cannot afford". Some countries do announce new funding to support loss and damage in recent days, including New Zealand ($20 million) and Austria (50 million euros[38]). Germany and Denmark pledged more than 170 million euros for the "Global Shield," a new fund that will help to lower income countries cope with climate disasters. Negotiations over loss and damage are expected to continue.[39]

A new site (Climate Trace) was opened, showing from where exactly greenhouse gas emissions came from. The map is open to the public. The aim is to provide public with correct information as self-reported information is often unreliable, especially about methane. The data is based on measurements from satellites, and sensors on land and on ships and planes.[40]

Plant-based treaty advocates

A coalition of organisations headed by NGO ProVeg International erected the first-ever pavilion dedicated to the climate impact of food at an international climate conference. The pavilion is called Food4Climate and participants all seek food systems change. Participants include Upfield, Oatly, Impossible Foods, the International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food), and the Jeremy Coller Foundation.[41]

On 11 November, celebrities, politicians, and businesses delivered a letter to COP27 President Sameh Shoukry calling for COP27 to adopt a global plant-based treaty. The treaty calls for:

  • an end to the expansion of animal agriculture;
  • the promotion of a shift to sustainable plant-based diets;
  • and an effort to “reforest and rewild” planet Earth.[42]

Those advocating for a plant-based treaty also urge the adoption of a Soil Treaty at COP27.[43]

On 12 November, Nitin Mehta the founder of Indian Cultural Centre of London wrote in The Sunday Guardian that if COP27 delegates do not decree that humans "abandon meat, fish, eggs and dairy" then COP27 will be a failure.[44] As she waited in line at COP27 for a vegan burger, Sarah Garry of the British Society of Soil Science told CNBC that the vendor was the only place selling vegetarian food at the event plagued by logistics issues.[45] Reuters reported that grilled meat and activists protesting animal agriculture are very visible at COP27, but governments, many of which heavily subsidize animal agriculture, have made no proposals to cut production of animal agriculture products. Instead governments are proposing controversial technical proposals to capture methane from animals or doctor their feed to make them produce less methane. Supporters of the plant-based treaty handed out free vegan burgers at the event.[46]

Discover more about During the summit related topics

Climate finance

Climate finance

Climate finance is "finance that aims at reducing emissions, and enhancing sinks of greenhouse gases and aims at reducing vulnerability of, and maintaining and increasing the resilience of, human and ecological systems to negative climate change impacts", as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Standing Committee on Finance. The term has been used in a narrow sense to refer to transfers of public resources from developed to developing countries, in light of their UN Climate Convention obligations to provide "new and additional financial resources", and in a wider sense to refer to all financial flows relating to climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Climate change adaptation

Climate change adaptation

Climate change adaptation is the process of adjusting to current or expected effects of climate change. It is one of the ways to respond to climate change, along with mitigation. For humans, adaptation aims to moderate or avoid harm, and exploit opportunities; for natural systems, humans may intervene to help adjustment. Adaptation actions can be either incremental or transformative. The need for adaptation varies from place to place, depending on the risk to human or ecological systems.

Effects of climate change on agriculture

Effects of climate change on agriculture

The effects of climate change on agriculture can result in lower crop yields and nutritional quality due to drought, heat waves and flooding as well as increases in pests and plant diseases. The effects are unevenly distributed across the world and are caused by changes in temperature, precipitation and atmospheric carbon dioxide levels due to global climate change. In 2019, millions already suffer from food insecurity due to climate change and predicted decline in global crop production of 2% - 6% by decade. It has been predicted in 2019 that food prices will rise by 80% by 2050 which will likely lead to food insecurity, disproportionally affecting poorer communities. A 2021 study estimates that the severity of heatwave and drought impacts on crop production tripled over the last 50 years in Europe – from losses of 2.2% during 1964–1990 to losses of 7.3% in 1991–2015.

Climate change and gender

Climate change and gender

Climate change and gender is a way to interpret the disparate impacts of climate change on men and women, based on the social construction of gender roles and relations. Climate change increases gender inequality, reduces women's ability to be financially independent, and has an overall negative impact on the social and political rights of women, especially in economies that are heavily based on agriculture. In many cases, gender inequality means that women are more vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change. This is due to gender roles, particularly in the developing world, which means that women are often dependent on the natural environment for subsistence and income. By further limiting women's already constrained access to physical, social, political, and fiscal resources, climate change often burdens women more than men and can magnify existing gender inequality.

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron

Emmanuel Macron is a French politician who has served as President of France since 2017. Ex officio, he is also one of the two Co-Princes of Andorra. Prior to his presidency, Macron served as Minister of Economics, Industry and Digital Affairs under President François Hollande between 2014 and 2016.

Mark Rutte

Mark Rutte

Mark Rutte is a Dutch politician who has served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands since 2010 and Leader of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) since 2006.

Macky Sall

Macky Sall

Macky Sall is a Senegalese politician who has been President of Senegal since April 2012. He was re-elected President in the first round voting in February 2019. Under President Abdoulaye Wade, Sall was Prime Minister of Senegal from July 2004 to June 2007 and President of the National Assembly from June 2007 to November 2008. He was the Mayor of Fatick from 2002 to 2008 and held that post again from 2009 to 2012. Sall was a long-time member of the Senegalese Democratic Party (PDS). After coming into conflict with Wade, he was removed from his post as President of the National Assembly in November 2008; he consequently founded his own party named the Alliance for the Republic (APR) and joined the opposition. Placing second in the first round of the 2012 presidential election, he won the backing of other opposition candidates and prevailed over Wade in the second round of voting, held on 25 March 2012. He is the first president born after Senegalese independence from France.

Climate change in Africa

Climate change in Africa

Climate change in Africa is an increasingly serious threat in Africa which is among the most vulnerable continents to the effects of climate change. Some sources even classify Africa as "the most vulnerable continent on Earth". This vulnerability is driven by a range of factors that include weak adaptive capacity, high dependence on ecosystem goods for livelihoods, and less developed agricultural production systems. The risks of climate change on agricultural production, food security, water resources and ecosystem services will likely have increasingly severe consequences on lives and sustainable development prospects in Africa. With high confidence, it was projected by the IPCC in 2007 that in many African countries and regions, agricultural production and food security would probably be severely compromised by climate change and climate variability. Managing this risk requires an integration of mitigation and adaptation strategies in the management of ecosystem goods and services, and the agriculture production systems in Africa.

India

India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand, Myanmar, and Indonesia. The nation's capital city is New Delhi.

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi is an Egyptian politician and retired military officer who has served as the sixth and current president of Egypt since 2014. Before retiring as a general in the Egyptian military in 2014, Sisi served as Egypt’s deputy prime minister from 2013 to 2014, as its minister of defense from 2012 to 2013, and as its director of military intelligence from 2010 to 2012. He was promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in January 2014.

Extreme weather

Extreme weather

Extreme weather or extreme climate events includes unexpected, unusual, severe, or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past. Often, extreme events are based on a location's recorded weather history and defined as lying in the most unusual ten percent. The main types of extreme weather include heat waves, cold waves and tropical cyclones. The effects of extreme weather events are seen in rising economic costs, loss of human lives, droughts, floods, landslides and changes in ecosystems.

Mia Mottley

Mia Mottley

Mia Amor Mottley, is a Barbadian politician and attorney who has served as prime minister of Barbados since 2018 and as leader of the Barbados Labour Party (BLP) since 2008. Mottley is the eighth person to hold the office of Prime Minister in Barbados and the first woman to hold either position. She is also Barbados' first prime minister under its republican system, following constitutional changes she introduced which abolished the country's constitutional monarchy.

Outcomes

At the conference, a loss and damage fund was agreed for the first time, considered a significant achievement.[5][47] However, a commitment to phase out fossil fuels was not made.[47]

Reception

Before the summit and protests

Climate protests are common at each annual negotiation, and in previous years there have been sit-ins, marches, hunger strikes, and other forms of civil disobedience to call attention to the urgency climate change.[3]

Ahead of the 2022 summit, the choice of Egypt as a host country attracted attention, in particular in regards to the country's human rights record, which The New York Times described as "abysmal," and fossil fuel use.[48][49][3] Issues raised by critics included the authoritarian political system, mass imprisonment and curbs on civil society and dissent since 2013, under the leadership of Abdel Fattah el-Sisi. International human rights organizations reported that there are about 60,000 political prisoners in Egypt.[50] Imprisoned Egyptian activist Alaa Abd El-Fattah criticized COP27 taking place in Egypt, and stated that "Of all the countries to host they chose the one banning protest and sending everyone to prison, which shows how the world is handling this issue."[51] Naomi Klein, Bill McKibben and British Green Party MP Caroline Lucas are among the signatories who have signed a letter detailing their concerns about holding COP27 in Egypt.[52]

On 15 July 2022, a White House adviser, Jerome Foster II, and a British climate justice activist, Elijah Mckenzie-Jackson, wrote a letter to the UNFCCC condemning the choice of Egypt as host of the COP27. The letter written to Patricia Espinosa, executive secretary of UNFCCC, requested it to move the conference to another safer African country due to concerns over LGBT rights, women's rights and civil rights suppression. Various human rights groups, including Amnesty International, viewed COP27 as an opportunity for Egypt to lift restrictions on civic space, and advocated for it to release its political prisoners and create a safe environment for advocates after COP27 ends.[53][54]

Human Rights Watch expressed concerns regarding the state of freedom of expression in Egypt, and questioned to what extent it would be possible to protest in a country that has essentially banned all demonstrations and criminalized free assembly.[49][3] On 12 September 2022, Human Rights Watch published a report based on interviews with more than a dozen activists, academics, scientists, and journalists working on environmental issues in Egypt. The report suggests that restrictions from the Egyptian government on independent nongovernmental organizations, including environmental groups, has curtailed organizations' ability to carry out independent advocacy and field work towards protecting the natural environment.[55] In October 2022, the environment director at Human Rights Watch, Richard Pearshouse, stated that Egypt has threatened to derail meaningful global climate action by silencing the country's independent environmentalists before COP27.[56]

When the official smartphone app for COP27 was released in late October, various human rights and security experts, such as Hossam Bahgat, discovered that it asks for various and unreasonable permissions for access to user data, such as emails and location tracking, which could be used by the Egyptian government for surveillance of attendants.[57]

Alaa Abd El-Fattah hunger strike

Alaa Abd El-Fattah's sister protesting outside the UK's Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office during the conference.
Alaa Abd El-Fattah's sister protesting outside the UK's Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office during the conference.

The British-Egyptian writer and activist Alaa Abd El-Fattah, who has been imprisoned for most of the previous nine years for his activism and criticism of Egypt’s government, had been on hunger strike since late October, and his case has become a central topic at COP27, especially after he reportedly stopped drinking water at the beginning of the summit.[58] International pressure mounted on Egypt to release him: several world leaders, including British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak and German Chancellor Olaf Scholz, raised his case directly with Egyptian President Abdel Fatah El-Sisi, and Volker Türk, United Nations human rights chief, also urged Egypt to release him and other political prisoners.[58] El-Fattah rose to prominence in Egypt's 2011 uprising.[59]

At a news conference held by Sanaa Seif, sister of Alaa, the Egyptian parliament member Amr Darwish, confronted the speaker from the audience and was escorted out of the room by United Nations security officers. Representatives of nongovernmental groups at the conference threatened to walk out if the activist dies. El-Fattah's sister told reporters, "I urge President Biden to do something, whatever way out that is needed."[59]

Protests during the conference

On 15 November 2022,[60] Polish climate activists Dominika Lasota and Wiktoria Jędroszkowiak, and Ukrainian activists Svitlana Romanko, Valeria Bondarieva and Viktoriya Ball protested during a session held by Russians, whose 150-person delegation included 33 fuel lobbyists. The activists called out to the Russian delegation, stating that the Russians were war criminals who didn't have the right to be present at the conference and didn't deserve respect. Lasota called the Russians "despicable" (Polish: podłymi) and held up a banner "Fossil Fuels Kill". The activists were forced out by security personnel.[61] Justin Rowlatt of BBC News was also removed from the Russian session by security personnel after he asked the Russian delegation, "Do you plan to compensate for the damage made to the natural environment in Ukraine?".[61]

Discover more about Reception related topics

Civil disobedience

Civil disobedience

Civil disobedience is the active, professed refusal of a citizen to obey certain laws, demands, orders or commands of a government. By some definitions, civil disobedience has to be nonviolent to be called "civil". Hence, civil disobedience is sometimes equated with peaceful protests or nonviolent resistance.

Human rights in Egypt

Human rights in Egypt

Human rights in Egypt are guaranteed by the Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt under the various articles of Chapter 3. The country is also a party to numerous international human rights treaties, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. However, the state of human rights in the country has been criticized both in the past and the present, especially by foreign human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch. As of 2022, Human Rights Watch has declared that Egypt's human rights crises under the government of President Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, is "one of its worst ... in many decades", and that "tens of thousands of government critics, including journalists, peaceful activists, and human rights defenders, remain imprisoned on abusive 'terrorism' charges, many in lengthy pretrial detention." International human rights organizations, such as the aforementioned HRW and Amnesty International, report that as of January 2020, there are some 60,000 political prisoners in Egypt. Other complaints made are of authorities harassing and detaining "relatives of dissidents abroad" and use of "vague 'morality' charges to prosecute LGBT people, female social media influencers, and survivors of sexual violence". The Egyptian government has frequently rejected such criticism, denying that any of the prisoners it holds are political prisoners.

Energy in Egypt

Energy in Egypt

This article describes the energy and electricity production, consumption and import in Egypt.

2013 Egyptian coup d'état

2013 Egyptian coup d'état

The 2013 Egyptian coup d'etat took place on 3 July 2013. Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah al-Sisi led a coalition to remove the democratically elected President of Egypt, Mohamed Morsi, from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution of 2012. The move came after the military's ultimatum for the government to "resolve its differences" with protesters during widespread national protests. The military arrested Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood leaders, and declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. The announcement was followed by demonstrations and clashes between supporters and opponents of the move throughout Egypt.

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah el-Sisi

Abdel Fattah Saeed Hussein Khalil el-Sisi is an Egyptian politician and retired military officer who has served as the sixth and current president of Egypt since 2014. Before retiring as a general in the Egyptian military in 2014, Sisi served as Egypt’s deputy prime minister from 2013 to 2014, as its minister of defense from 2012 to 2013, and as its director of military intelligence from 2010 to 2012. He was promoted to the rank of Field Marshal in January 2014.

Alaa Abd El-Fattah

Alaa Abd El-Fattah

Alaa Ahmed Seif Abd-El Fattah, known professionally as Alaa Abd El-Fattah, is an Egyptian-British blogger, software developer and a political activist. He has been active in developing Arabic-language versions of software and platforms. He was imprisoned in Egypt for allegedly organising a political protest without requesting authorization, though he was released on bail on 23 March 2014. He was rearrested and ordered released on bail again on 15 September 2014, subsequently sentenced to a month of jail in absentia, and received a five-year sentence in February 2015, which he was released from in late March 2019. Abd El-Fattah remained subject to a five-year parole period, requiring him to stay at a police station for 12 hours daily, from evening until morning. On 29 September, during the 2019 Egyptian protests, Abd El-Fattah was arrested by the National Security Agency and taken to State Security Prosecution on charges that were unknown as of 29 September 2019. He was subsequently convicted of "spreading fake news" and jailed for five years. In April 2022 he began a hunger strike.

Naomi Klein

Naomi Klein

Naomi A. Klein is a Canadian author, social activist, and filmmaker known for her political analyses, support of ecofeminism, organized labour, left-wing politics and criticism of corporate globalization, fascism, ecofascism and capitalism. As of 2021 she is Associate Professor, and Professor of Climate Justice at the University of British Columbia, co-directing a Centre for Climate Justice.

Bill McKibben

Bill McKibben

William Ernest McKibben is an American environmentalist, author, and journalist who has written extensively on the impact of global warming. He is the Schumann Distinguished Scholar at Middlebury College and leader of the climate campaign group 350.org. He has authored a dozen books about the environment, including his first, The End of Nature (1989), about climate change, and Falter: Has the Human Game Begun to Play Itself Out? (2019), about the state of the environmental challenges facing humanity and future prospects.

Caroline Lucas

Caroline Lucas

Caroline Patricia Lucas is a British politician who has twice led the Green Party of England and Wales and has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Brighton Pavilion since the 2010 general election. She was re-elected in the 2015, 2017 and 2019 general elections, increasing her majority each time.

Jerome Foster II

Jerome Foster II

Jerome Foster II is an American climate justice activist, voting rights advocate, and political advisor.

LGBT rights in Egypt

LGBT rights in Egypt

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people in Egypt face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.

Amnesty International

Amnesty International

Amnesty International is an international non-governmental organization focused on human rights, with its headquarters in the United Kingdom. The organization says it has more than ten million members and supporters around the world. The stated mission of the organization is to campaign for "a world in which every person enjoys all of the human rights enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments." The organization has played a notable role on human rights issues due to its frequent citation in media and by world leaders.

Source: "2022 United Nations Climate Change Conference", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2022, November 26th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2022_United_Nations_Climate_Change_Conference.

Enjoying Wikiz?

Enjoying Wikiz?

Get our FREE extension now!

References
  1. ^ Burke, Kieran (2021-11-15). "HRW slams decision for Egypt to host COP27". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  2. ^ "Sharm el-Sheikh Climate Change Conference – November 2022: 6 Nov – 20 Nov 2022". unfccc.int. Retrieved 2022-11-05.
  3. ^ a b c d e Friedman, Lisa (2022-11-11). "What Is COP27? And Other Questions About the Big U.N. Climate Summit". The New York Times.
  4. ^ Stallard, Esme (2022-10-25). "COP27: What is the Egypt climate conference and why is it important?". BBC News. Retrieved 2022-10-27.
  5. ^ a b "Climate change: Five key takeaways from COP27". BBC News. 2022-11-20. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  6. ^ "Egypt to host COP27 international climate conference in 2022 -ministry". Reuters. Cairo. 2021-11-11. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  7. ^ "Egypt to host COP27 international climate conference next year". The Economic Times. 2021-11-12. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  8. ^ "Egypt selected to host UN climate change conference COP27 in 2022 after significant bids to counter problem". Egypt Today. Cairo. 2021-11-11. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  9. ^ "Road to COP 27: It's time for Africa to lead the climate conversations". The Independent. 2021-11-15. Archived from the original on 2021-11-15. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  10. ^ "Ministry of Environment – EEAA > Home". www.eeaa.gov.eg. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  11. ^ "Egypt's Environment Minister discusses preparations for COP27 Climate Conference". Egypt Independent. 2022-01-16. Retrieved 2022-04-18.
  12. ^ Harvey, Fiona (2022-09-28). "Cop27: Egyptian hosts urge leaders to set aside tensions over Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
  13. ^ Harvey, Fiona (2022-09-21). "Denmark offers 'loss and damage' funding to poorer countries for climate breakdown". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
  14. ^ Sadasivam, Naveena. "'A moral responsibility': Scotland calls for climate reparations ahead of COP27". Grist. MSN. Retrieved 2022-10-18.
  15. ^ a b c d Limb, Lottie (2022-11-07) [2022-10-08]. "What is COP27 and why is it so important?". euronews. Retrieved 2022-10-21.
  16. ^ Dlouhy, Jennifer A; Roston, Eric (2022-10-22) [2022-10-20]. "US Supports Climate Reparations Talks at UN Summit in Egypt". Bloomberg. p. 1. Retrieved 2022-10-23.
  17. ^ McGrath, Matt (2022-10-27). "Climate change: UN warns key warming threshold slipping from sight". BBC News. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  18. ^ Iyer, Gokul; Ou, Yang; Edmonds, James; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan; McFarland, James; Fuhrman, Jay; Waldhoff, Stephanie; McJeon, Haewon (2022-11-10). "Ratcheting of climate pledges needed to limit peak global warming". Nature Climate Change: 1–7. doi:10.1038/s41558-022-01508-0. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 253473059.
  19. ^ Rushe, Dominic (2022-11-03). "Big agriculture warns farming must change or risk 'destroying the planet'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  20. ^ Ainger, John; El Wardany, Salma; Dlouhy, Jennifer A (2022-11-06). "COP27 Talks Begin With Deal to Discuss Climate Reparations". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2022-11-08.
  21. ^ Green, Graeme; McVeigh, Karen (2022-10-04). "Cop27 climate summit's sponsorship by Coca-Cola condemned as 'greenwash'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
  22. ^ Ngounou, Boris (2022-06-17). "COP27: facing the climate emergency, decision-makers meet on 7 November". Afrik 21. Retrieved 2022-11-07.
  23. ^ Farand, Chloé (2022-02-24). "Activists raise inclusivity concerns for Cop27 as Egypt hikes hotel prices". Climate Home News. Retrieved 2022-07-31.
  24. ^ Michaelson, Ruth (2022-08-24). "Egyptian NGOs complain of being shut out of Cop27 climate summit". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-08-24.
  25. ^ a b c d Limb, Lottie (2022-11-01). "The European leaders heading to COP27 as Sunak U-turns after backlash". euronews. Retrieved 2022-11-02.
  26. ^ McSweeney, Robert (2022-11-09). "Analysis: Which countries have sent the most delegates to COP27?". Carbon Brief. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  27. ^ "Rishi Sunak criticised for skipping COP27 climate summit". BBC News. 2022-10-27. Retrieved 2022-10-28.
  28. ^ a b "Rishi Sunak is now going to COP27 climate summit". BBC News. 2022-11-02. Retrieved 2022-11-02.
  29. ^ Paraguassu, Lisandra; Spring, Jake (2022-11-01). "Brazil's Lula to attend COP27 climate change summit". Reuters. São Paulo. Retrieved 2022-11-07.
  30. ^ Sommerlad, Joe (2022-11-02). "Cop27 guest list explained as Sunak U-turns on attending". The Independent. Retrieved 2022-11-02.
  31. ^ Adu, Aletha (2022-10-28). "King Charles will not go to Cop27 in Egypt, No 10 confirms". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-30.
  32. ^ "King Charles will not attend climate summit on Truss advice". BBC News. 2022-10-03. Retrieved 2022-10-04.
  33. ^ Adu, Aletha (2022-10-28). "King Charles will not go to Cop27 in Egypt, No 10 confirms". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-30.
  34. ^ Rannard, Georgina; Rowlatt, Justin (2022-11-05). "COP27: King Charles hosts meeting ahead of climate summit". Climate change. BBC. Archived from the original on 2022-11-06. Retrieved 2022-11-06.
  35. ^ "India's agenda at the COP27 summit in 10 points". mint. 2022-11-06. Retrieved 2022-11-08.
  36. ^ Greenfield, Patrick (2022-10-24). "Egypt shuts down event spaces on first Monday of Cop27 in blow to NGOs". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-24.
  37. ^ a b Greenfield, Patrick; Harvey, Fiona; Lakhani, Nina; Carrington, Damian (2022-11-07). "Barbados PM launches blistering attack on rich nations at Cop27 climate talks". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-11-08.
  38. ^ "COP27: Austria pledges €50m of funding for loss and damage from climate change". 2022-11-08. Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  39. ^ "Global Shield against Climate Risks". Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  40. ^ Hersher, Rebecca; Copley, Michael; Sommer, Lauren (2022-11-09). "Here's what happened on day 4 of the U.N.'s COP27 climate talks". Kosu. Retrieved 2022-11-10.
  41. ^ Lorenzo, Daniela De. "COP27 Will Have Its First Food Pavilion To Address Food System Change". Forbes. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  42. ^ "NGO urges leaders in COP27 to discuss 'plant-based treaty'". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  43. ^ Cocking, Simon (2022-11-10). "Soil Treaty as necessary climate action". Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  44. ^ "The meat that COP27 is not talking about". The Sunday Guardian Live. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  45. ^ Meredith, Sam. "Flowing sewage, bewildering signs, lack of water: COP27 faces logistics nightmares". CNBC. Retrieved 2022-11-13.
  46. ^ Valdmanis, Richard; Cocks, Tim (2022-11-15). "Meat on the menu, not the agenda, at COP27 climate conference". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-11-16.
  47. ^ a b "COP27: Climate costs deal struck but no fossil fuel progress". BBC News. 2022-11-20. Retrieved 2022-11-21.
  48. ^ Joselow, Maxine (2021-11-16). "Egypt will host COP27. Expect criticism over fossil fuels, human rights". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  49. ^ a b Michaelson, Ruth; Harvey, Fiona (2021-11-21). "Cop27 is in Egypt next year … but will anyone be allowed to protest?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021-12-19.
  50. ^ Yee, Vivian (2022-08-08). "Egypt's Political Prisoners Recount Horrific Conditions". The New York Times. Cairo.
  51. ^ Michaelson, Ruth (2022-06-29). "'It's a sham': Egypt accused of restricting protest in run-up to Cop27". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-06-29.
  52. ^ Michaelson, Ruth (2022-07-29). "Fears that Egypt may use Cop27 to whitewash human rights abuses". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-07-29.
  53. ^ Milman, Oliver (2022-07-15). "UN urged to move Cop27 from Egypt over 'LGBTQ+ torture'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-07-15.
  54. ^ Funes, Yessenia (2022-08-03). "The Dangers of a COP27 in Egypt". Atmos. Retrieved 2022-08-30.
  55. ^ "Egypt: Government Undermining Environmental Groups". Beirut: Human Rights Watch. 2022-09-12. Retrieved 2022-09-12.
  56. ^ Lakhani, Nina (2022-10-14). "Egypt silenced climate experts' voices before hosting Cop27, HRW says". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022-10-14.
  57. ^ "Fears mount that Cop27 app could be used by Egypt to surveil regime's critics". the Guardian. 2022-11-06.
  58. ^ a b O'Grady, Siobhán (2022-11-10). "Egypt conducts 'medical intervention' on hunger-striking dissident, family says". The Washington Post.
  59. ^ a b Saafan, Farah; Lewis, Aidan (2022-11-10). "Egyptian authorities intervene in prisoner's hunger strike, family says". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-11-11.
  60. ^ Nasralla, Shadia; Dickie, Gloria; James, William; Evans, Dominic (2022-11-15). "Protesters disrupt Russian event at COP27 climate conference". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on 2022-11-17. Retrieved 2022-11-17.
  61. ^ a b Danielewicz, Marta (2022-11-16). "'Jesteście podli!' Polskie i ukraińskie aktywistki na szczycie COP27 przerwały panel zorganizowany przez rosyjską delegację" ['You're despicable!' Polish and Ukrainian activists interrupted the Russian delegation's panel at COP27]. Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2022-11-16. Retrieved 2022-11-16. Jak śmiesz siedzieć tu w spokoju? Jesteście zbrodniarzami wojennymi! Nie zasługujecie na szacunek – dołączyła do ukraińskich aktywistek Dominika Lasota. Nazywając rosyjskich polityków 'podłymi', wyciągnęła w ich stronę baner z napisem 'Fossil Fuels Kill'.
Sources
External links

The content of this page is based on the Wikipedia article written by contributors..
The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike Licence & the media files are available under their respective licenses; additional terms may apply.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use & Privacy Policy.
Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization & is not affiliated to WikiZ.com.