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2022–23 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

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2022–23 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season
2022-2023 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed23 September 2022
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameDarian
 • Maximum winds220 km/h (140 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure920 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total disturbances5
Total depressions5
Total storms4
Tropical cyclones2
Intense tropical cyclones1
Very intense tropical cyclones1
Total fatalities8
Total damageUnknown
Related articles
South-West Indian Ocean tropical cyclone seasons
2020–21, 2021–22, 2022–23, 2023–24, 2024–25

The 2022–23 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event of the annual cycle of tropical cyclone and subtropical cyclone formation. It began on 15 November 2022, and will end on 30 April 2023, with the exception for Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it will end on 15 May 2023. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. However, tropical cyclones can form year-round, and all tropical cyclones that will form between 1 July 2022 and 30 June 2023 will be part of the season. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre in Réunion and unofficially by the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (as for American interests).

Discover more about 2022–23 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season related topics

Tropical cyclone

Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain and squalls. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply cyclone. A hurricane is a strong tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In the Indian Ocean, South Pacific, or (rarely) South Atlantic, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones", and such storms in the Indian Ocean can also be called "severe cyclonic storms".

Subtropical cyclone

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of both tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

Mauritius

Mauritius

Mauritius, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about 2,000 kilometres off the southeast coast of the African continent, east of Madagascar. It includes the main island, as well as Rodrigues, Agaléga and St. Brandon. The islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues, along with nearby Réunion, are part of the Mascarene Islands. The main island of Mauritius, where most of the population is concentrated, hosts the capital and largest city, Port Louis. The country spans 2,040 square kilometres (790 sq mi) and has an exclusive economic zone covering 2,300,000 square kilometres.

Seychelles

Seychelles

Seychelles, officially the Republic of Seychelles, is an archipelagic state consisting of 115 islands in the Indian Ocean. Its capital and largest city, Victoria, is 1,500 kilometres east of mainland Africa. Nearby island countries and territories include the Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, and the French overseas departments of Mayotte and Réunion to the south; and Maldives and the Chagos Archipelago to the east. It is the least populated sovereign African country, with an estimated 2020 population of 98,462.

Longitude

Longitude

Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east–west position of a point on the surface of the Earth, or another celestial body. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ). Meridians are semicircular lines running from pole to pole that connect points with the same longitude. The prime meridian defines 0° longitude; by convention the International Reference Meridian for the Earth passes near the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England on the island of Great Britain. Positive longitudes are east of the prime meridian, and negative ones are west.

Equator

Equator

The equator is a circle of latitude that divides a spheroid, such as Earth, into the northern and southern hemispheres. On Earth, it is an imaginary line located at 0 degrees latitude, about 40,075 km (24,901 mi) in circumference, halfway between the North and South poles. The term can also be used for any other celestial body that is roughly spherical.

Réunion

Réunion

Réunion is an island in the Indian Ocean that is an overseas department and region of France. It is located approximately 950 km (590 mi) east of the island of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of the island of Mauritius. As of January 2023, it had a population of 873,102.

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

Joint Typhoon Warning Center

The Joint typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) is a joint United States Navy – United States Air Force command in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The JTWC is responsible for the issuing of tropical cyclone warnings in the North-West Pacific Ocean, South Pacific Ocean, and Indian Ocean for all branches of the U.S. Department of Defense and other U.S. government agencies. Their warnings are intended for the protection of primarily military ships and aircraft as well as military installations jointly operated with other countries around the world.

Seasonal forecasts

Forecast
Center
Systems
Mauritius Meteorological Services 11–9 tropical cyclones
Météo-France 6–10 tropical cyclones
Forecast
Center
Chance of
above average
Météo-France 30% 60% 10%
Source: Seasonal Outlook for Tropical Cyclones.[1][2]

In October 2022, Météo-France issued its seasonal forecast of cyclone activity for the basin. The MFR predicted a season that was slightly below average to average, citing the effects of a La Niña event. The MFR placed chances of a below-average season at 60%. Average cyclone activity was given a 30% chance, and an above-average level of activity was given a 10% chance. The season in the South-West Indian Ocean was expected to be above average, with 6-10 tropical cyclones or moderate tropical storm.[2]

The Mauritius Meteorological Services (MMS) released their summer 2022–23 outlooks. An average season, with around eleven to nine cyclones forming, was expected.[1] The MMS also indicates that the eastern part of the basin is more conducive to cyclone formation in the second half of summer, and the western part of the basin will also become favorable for storm formation during the second half.[1]

Seasonal summary

Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

The season began early, with a weak tropical low being produced on 22 September.[3] Improving conditions over the next three days allowed the development of the system, which strengthened into Moderate Tropical Storm Ashley on 27 September.[4][5] The system slowly moved westward and weakened into a remnant low on 30 September.[6] Pre-season activity continued, with a disturbance being produced as a result of a westerly wind burst.[7][8] Another storm formed on 6 October, and was named Balita on 8 October.[9] In November 2022, Tropical Low 02U (reclassified the system as Tropical Depression 03) entered the basin and degenerated into a remnant low by the next day.[10][11] In December, Severe Tropical Cyclone Darian (classified as a very intense tropical cyclone) entered the basin, before gradually weakening.[12] In January, a new disturbance which became a tropical depression formed which later became Severe Tropical Storm Cheneso and made landfall over Madagascar on 19 January.[13]

Systems

Moderate Tropical Storm Ashley

On 22 September, a near-equatorial trough produced a weak tropical low in the Indian Ocean, initially expected by MFR to not form due to upper wind shear.[3] Environmental conditions improved over the next 3 days,[4] and the low organized enough to become the first tropical depression of the season by 26 September.[14] Early the next day, the JTWC subsequently designated the storm as Tropical Cyclone 02S, citing a scatterometer pass indicating tropical storm-force winds in its western and eastern semicircles.[15] The MFR also upgraded the system into a moderate tropical storm, and the Mauritius Meteorological Services (MMS) named it Ashley.[16][5] The system then reached peak intensity, with 10-minute sustained winds of 75 km/h (45 mph),[5] before succumbing to strong northeasterly shear and significant dry air intrusions late on the same day, prompting the JTWC to issue their final advisory on Ashley.[17] The MFR terminated advisories by 06:00 UTC on 28 September as Ashley weakened into a remnant low,[6] but continued to track the storm until it was last noted on 30 September as a dissipating low.[18]

Moderate Tropical Storm Balita

On 2 October, the MFR began to monitor a disturbance associated with the convergence of the westerly wind burst.[7] However, convective activity was located in the low-level convergences.[19] Later the next day, the JTWC began monitoring an area of convection.[20] Satellite images indicated that the low-level cloud lines wrapping into the low-level center.[21] Early on 5 October, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert on the system.[22] The JTWC subsequently initiated advisories on the system and classified it as Tropical Cyclone 03S at 03:00 UTC on 6 October.[23] By 06:00 UTC, the MFR upgraded it to a tropical depression.[24] An ASCAT pass featured below gale-force winds on its southern quadrant.[25] Despite moderate northeasterly wind shear, convection increased around the system.[26]

The MFR further upgraded it to a moderate tropical storm at 00:00 UTC on 8 October with the name Balita from the MMS.[27][9] Microwave imagery revealed that Balita had improved its convective structure.[28] At 06:00 UTC on October 9, Balita's structure became elongated and asymmetrical, prompting MFR to reclassify the storm as a post-tropical depression.[29][30] Later that same day, the MFR ceased advisories, and the JTWC followed suit.[31] The remnants fully dissipated on 13 October.[32]

Tropical Depression 03

On 5 November, Tropical Low 02U that was being monitored by the MFR crossed into the South-West Indian Ocean basin from the Australian region.[10] At the time, there was no more convection associated, only a low-level vortex.[10] Thunderstorm activity has resumed in the southern part of the system in the last few hours.[10] Upon entering the basin, the JTWC ceased advisories by 09:00 UTC that day.[33] The MFR's reclassified the system as Tropical Depression 03.[11] Environmental conditions were assessed as being marginally conducive for tropical cyclogenesis, with low vertical wind shear and moderate equatorial outflow.[34] At 06:00 UTC on 6 November, the MFR's issued their last warning as the system degenerated into a remnant low.[8]

Very Intense Tropical Cyclone Darian

On 21 December, Severe Tropical Cyclone Darian moved into the basin from the Australian region, and was immediately classified as a very intense tropical cyclone by MFR.[12] Darian exhibited a highly symmetrical cloud structure around a well-defined eye.[35] Shortly afterward, Darian's cloud pattern deteriorated and its eye started to become less defined, causing the cyclone to weaken to an intense tropical cyclone status by 18:00 UTC.[36] Darian weakened to a Category 3-equivalent cyclone the next day, as the convective cloud tops had warmed slightly.[37] Darian's then weakened due to strong wind shear, and was downgraded into a tropical cyclone status.[38] With a well-defined eye and impressive appearance on satellite imagery, Darian re-intensified, reaching 10-minute maximum sustained winds of 165 km/h (105 mph) around 06:00 UTC on 23 December.[39] The cyclone was highly compact, with a distinct eye surrounded by cold cloud tops.[40] Around the same time, the JTWC's also assessed Darian as having 1-minute maximum sustained winds of 240 km/h (150 mph), making the storm a Category 4-equivalent cyclone again on the Saffir–Simpson scale (SSHWS).[41] Darian became quasi-stationary due to the presence of two main flows.[42] The cyclone's eye can be seen from satellite imagery, and its cloud tops warmed to −99 to −108 °F (−73 to −78 °C).[43] Steady weakening occurred thereafter as it underwent an eyewall replacement cycle.[44]

Multispectral animated satellite imagery revealed a 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9.2 mi) surrounded eye around deep convection as a result, the cyclone weakened to Category 2-equivalent cyclone.[45] Further weakening occurred as the MFR assessed that Darian's winds bottomed out at 155 km/h (100 mph).[46] At 03:00 UTC on 26 December, the JTWC reported that Darian had re-strengthened to 205 km/h (125 mph) with a warm 14 °F (−10 °C), a wide eye 25 nautical miles (46 km; 29 mi), and was surrounded by cold, −98 to −116 °F (−72 to −82 °C) cloud tops.[47] Using the Dvorak technique, MFR estimated winds of 185 km/h (115 mph).[48][49] Due to moderate east-northeasterly vertical wind shear, Darian fell to 155 km/h (100 mph) winds, according to MFR.[50] Just six hours later, the eye feature persisted, consisting of a warm area within the cooling eyewall.[51] At 15:00 UTC on 27 December, the JTWC further downgraded it to a Category 1-equivalent cyclone.[52] Satellite imagery showed that the cloud pattern began to rapidly deteriorate, and MFR followed suit and declared it a severe tropical storm status.[53] The JTWC also reported that Darian's weakened into a tropical storm.[54] By 00:00 UTC on 29 December, Darian weakened into a moderate tropical storm status, after the convection diminished around the center.[55] MFR issued its last advisory on the storm on 30 December as it transitioned into a post-tropical depression.[56] The JTWC also discontinued warnings on the system around 03:00 UTC on 31 December.[57]

Tropical Cyclone Cheneso

On 10 January, the MFR began highlighting the potential for tropical cyclone development in their daily bulletins, noting an increase in shower activity south of Diego Garcia.[58] By January 13, the JTWC had also began monitoring an area of convection, citing an exposed low-level center with convection.[59] The disturbance was located in a favorable environment for intensification, as well as warm sea surface temperatures, low to high vertical wind shear.[60] Despite this, the MFR initiated advisories for the zone of disturbed weather while the JTWC issued a TCFA on 17 January.[61][62] Six hours later, the MFR upgraded the system to a tropical disturbance status.[63] Similarly, the JTWC's began issuing warnings on the system, classifying it as Tropical Cyclone 08S.[64] Deep convection wrapping into the curved band pattern, prompting the MFR to upgrade it to a tropical depression status.[65] At 12:00 UTC on 18 January, the MFR also upgraded the system into a moderate tropical storm status, and the Météo Madagascar named it Cheneso.[13] Soon afterwards, Cheneso intensified further into a severe tropical storm status.[66] Satellite imagery showed that a central dense overcast (CDO) was obscuring the low-level circulation center (LLCC).[67] Cheneso continued moving westward, and by the next day, it had made landfall over northern Madagascar; the JTWC released its final warning on the storm.[68] By 18:00 UTC, MFR declared that Cheneso had degenerated into an overland depression.[69] Due to uncertainty in predicting the storm's track, the MFR temporarily ceased issuing advisories on 20 January.[70]

During 21 January, as the system began to emerge into the Mozambique Channel, the JTWC resumed monitoring and stated the system had the potential to re-develop.[71][72] The LLCC started to get consolidated with deep convective bands wrapping into it.[73] As a result, the MFR subsequently initiated advisories again on 23 January.[74] Cheneso gained tropical disturbance status yet again, however the system lacked deep convection near its center.[75] By 14:00 UTC that day, the JTWC re-issued a TCFA, and it re-upgraded the system to a tropical storm.[76][77] Cheneso resumed its organizing trend soon afterward, and at 00:00 UTC on 24 January, the MFR upgraded the system to a tropical depression status.[78] Six hours later, convection increased near the center, and the storm was upgraded to moderate tropical storm status.[79] The storm's continued to organize with an intense CDO forming along with an eye, and Cheneso strengthened to severe tropical storm status.[80][81] By 03:00 UTC on 25 January, Cheneso strengthened into a Category 1-equivalent tropical cyclone on the SSHWS, as it neared the coast of Madagascar.[82] The cyclone strengthened further with a defined curved pattern, marking its intensification into a tropical cyclone status.[83] By 18:00 UTC, the eye pattern consolidated as the cyclone moved northeast after being stationary for the past 6 hours.[84] Satellite imagery depicted that a tightly-wrapped convective banding was circulating around a cloud-filled eye.[85] Cheneso started to rapidly weaken after its eye quickly collapsed and the cloud tops had warmed.[86] By 12:00 UTC on 26 January, Cheneso was downgraded to severe tropical storm status by the MFR, as it heads in a southeast direction.[87]

The National Bureau of Risk and Disaster Management (BNGRC) reported 35,000 affected people, 14,400 were displaced.[88][89] At least 8 people were killed on the onslaught of Cheneso and 16 others missing.[90][91] In addition to this, over 10,570 houses were damaged.[92] In Sambava, Madagascar, Cheneso caused 100 mm (3.9 in) of rain.[92] The Météo Madagascar issued a red flood watch for several river basins.[93] The government of Madagascar ordered the temporary closure of schools in order to "prevent further accidents".[90]

Current storm information

As of 06:00 UTC 27 January, Severe Tropical Storm Cheneso is located within 20 nautical miles of 21°36′S 41°54′E / 21.6°S 41.9°E / -21.6; 41.9 (Cheneso) or about 1,380 km (860 mi) west of Réunion and about 1,030 km (640 mi) south-southwest of Mayotte. Maximum 10-minute sustained winds are at 50 knots (95 km/h; 60 mph), with gusts up to 70 knots (130 km/h; 80 mph) while maximum 1-minute sustained winds are at 65 knots (120 km/h; 75 mph). The minimum central barometric pressure is 982 hPa (29.00 inHg), and the system is moving southwest at 5 kn (9.3 km/h; 5.8 mph).

For the latest official information, see:

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Scatterometer

Scatterometer

A scatterometer or diffusionmeter is a scientific instrument to measure the return of a beam of light or radar waves scattered by diffusion in a medium such as air. Diffusionmeters using visible light are found in airports or along roads to measure horizontal visibility. Radar scatterometers use radio or microwaves to determine the normalized radar cross section of a surface. They are often mounted on weather satellites to find wind speed and direction, and are used in industries to analyze the roughness of surfaces.

Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert

Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert

A Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) is a bulletin released by the U.S. Navy-operated Joint Typhoon Warning Center in Honolulu, Hawaii or the Fleet Weather Center in Norfolk, Virginia, warning of the possibility of a tropical cyclone forming from a tropical disturbance that has been monitored. Such alerts are generally always issued when it is fairly certain that a tropical cyclone will form and are not always released before cyclone genesis, particularly if the cyclone appears suddenly. The TCFA consists of several different checks that are performed by the on-duty meteorologist of the system and its surroundings. If the condition being checked is met, a certain number of points are given to the system.

Microwave imaging

Microwave imaging

Microwave imaging is a science which has been evolved from older detecting/locating techniques in order to evaluate hidden or embedded objects in a structure using electromagnetic (EM) waves in microwave regime. Engineering and application oriented microwave imaging for non-destructive testing is called microwave testing, see below.

Eye (cyclone)

Eye (cyclone)

The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of tropical cyclones. The eye of a storm is a roughly circular area, typically 30–65 kilometers in diameter. It is surrounded by the eyewall, a ring of towering thunderstorms where the most severe weather and highest winds occur. The cyclone's lowest barometric pressure occurs in the eye and can be as much as 15 percent lower than the pressure outside the storm.

Saffir–Simpson scale

Saffir–Simpson scale

The Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) classifies hurricanes—which in the Western Hemisphere are tropical cyclones that exceed the intensities of tropical depressions and tropical storms—into five categories distinguished by the intensities of their sustained winds. This measuring system was formerly known as the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale, or SSHS.

Eyewall replacement cycle

Eyewall replacement cycle

In meteorology, eyewall replacement cycles, also called concentric eyewall cycles, naturally occur in intense tropical cyclones, generally with winds greater than 185 km/h (115 mph), or major hurricanes. When tropical cyclones reach this intensity, and the eyewall contracts or is already sufficiently small, some of the outer rainbands may strengthen and organize into a ring of thunderstorms—a new, outer eyewall—that slowly moves inward and robs the original, inner eyewall of its needed moisture and angular momentum. Since the strongest winds are in a tropical cyclone's eyewall, the storm usually weakens during this phase, as the inner wall is "choked" by the outer wall. Eventually the outer eyewall replaces the inner one completely, and the storm may re-intensify.

Dvorak technique

Dvorak technique

The Dvorak technique is a widely used system to estimate tropical cyclone intensity based solely on visible and infrared satellite images. Within the Dvorak satellite strength estimate for tropical cyclones, there are several visual patterns that a cyclone may take on which define the upper and lower bounds on its intensity. The primary patterns used are curved band pattern (T1.0-T4.5), shear pattern (T1.5–T3.5), central dense overcast (CDO) pattern (T2.5–T5.0), central cold cover (CCC) pattern, banding eye pattern (T4.0–T4.5), and eye pattern (T4.5–T8.0).

Diego Garcia

Diego Garcia

Diego Garcia is an island of the British Indian Ocean Territory, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom. It is a militarised atoll just south of the equator in the central Indian Ocean, and the largest of the 60 small islands of the Chagos Archipelago. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to find it and it was then settled by the French in the 1790s and transferred to British rule after the Napoleonic Wars. It was one of the "Dependencies" of the British Colony of Mauritius until the Chagos Islands were detached for inclusion in the newly created British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT) in 1965.

Central dense overcast

Central dense overcast

The central dense overcast, or CDO, of a tropical cyclone or strong subtropical cyclone is the large central area of thunderstorms surrounding its circulation center, caused by the formation of its eyewall. It can be round, angular, oval, or irregular in shape. This feature shows up in tropical cyclones of tropical storm or hurricane strength. How far the center is embedded within the CDO, and the temperature difference between the cloud tops within the CDO and the cyclone's eye, can help determine a tropical cyclone's intensity with the Dvorak technique. Locating the center within the CDO can be a problem with strong tropical storms and minimal hurricanes as its location can be obscured by the CDO's high cloud canopy. This center location problem can be resolved through the use of microwave satellite imagery.

Mozambique Channel

Mozambique Channel

The Mozambique Channel is an arm of the Indian Ocean located between the Southeast African countries of Madagascar and Mozambique. The channel is about 1,700 km (1,100 mi) long and 419 km (260 mi) across at its narrowest point, and reaches a depth of 3,292 m (10,800 ft) about 230 km (143 mi) off the coast of Mozambique. A warm current, the Mozambique Current, flows in a southward direction in the channel, leading into the Agulhas Current off the east coast of Southern Africa.

Sambava

Sambava

Sambava [samˈbav] is a city and commune at the east coast of northern Madagascar. It is the capital of Sambava District and Sava Region. The population of the commune was 84,039 in as of the 2018 commune census.

Flash flood watch

Flash flood watch

A flash flood watch is severe weather watch product of the National Weather Service that is issued when conditions are favorable for flash flooding in flood-prone areas, usually when grounds are already saturated from recent rains, or when upcoming rains will have the potential to cause a flash flood. These watches are also occasionally issued when a dam may break in the near future.

Storm names

Within the South-West Indian Ocean, tropical depressions and subtropical depressions that are judged to have 10-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h (40 mph) by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center on Réunion island, France (RSMC La Réunion) are usually assigned a name. However, it is the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Centers in Mauritius and Madagascar who name the systems. The Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Center (Mauritius Meteorological Services) in Mauritius names a storm should it intensify into a moderate tropical storm between 55°E and 90°E. If instead a cyclone intensifies into a moderate tropical storm between 30°E and 55°E then the Sub-Regional Tropical Cyclone Advisory Center (Meteo Madagascar) in Madagascar assigns the appropriate name to the storm. Storm names are taken from three pre-determined lists of names, which rotate on a triennial basis, with any names that have been used automatically removed. Therefore, all storm names used this year will be removed from the rotation and replaced with a new name for the 2025–26 season, while the unused names will remain on the list.[94] New names this season are: Ashley, Balita, Cheneso, Dingani, Enali, Fabien, Gezani, Horacio, Indusa and Juluka. They replaced Ambali, Belna, Calvinia, Diane, Esami, Francisco, Gabekile, Herold, Irondro and Jeruto during the 2019–20 season.[94]

  • Ashley
  • Balita
  • Cheneso (active)
  • Dingani (unused)
  • Enali (unused)
  • Fabien (unused)
  • Gezani (unused)
  • Horacio (unused)
  • Indusa (unused)
  • Juluka (unused)
  • Kundai (unused)
  • Lisebo (unused)
  • Michel (unused)
  • Nousra (unused)
  • Olivier (unused)
  • Pokera (unused)
  • Quincy (unused)
  • Rebaone (unused)
  • Salama (unused)
  • Tristan (unused)
  • Ursula (unused)
  • Violet (unused)
  • Wilson (unused)
  • Xila (unused)
  • Yekela (unused)
  • Zania (unused)

If a tropical cyclone enters the South-West Indian basin from the Australian region basin (west of 90°E), it will retain the name assigned to it by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM). The following storms were named in this manner.[95]

  • Darian

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Réunion

Réunion

Réunion is an island in the Indian Ocean that is an overseas department and region of France. It is located approximately 950 km (590 mi) east of the island of Madagascar and 175 km (109 mi) southwest of the island of Mauritius. As of January 2023, it had a population of 873,102.

55th meridian east

55th meridian east

The meridian 55° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

90th meridian east

90th meridian east

The meridian 90° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

30th meridian east

30th meridian east

The meridian 30° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

2019–20 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

2019–20 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2019–20 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season was a slightly above-average season in tropical cyclone and subtropical cyclone formation west of 90°E. The season officially began on 15 November, however, the formation of the first system—Zone of Disturbed Weather 01—occurred on 22 July 2019, well before the official start of the season. This was the earliest start to a season since the 2016–17 season. The season then officially ended on 30 April 2020, with the exception of Mauritius and the Seychelles, for which it officially ended on 15 May 2020. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical and subtropical cyclones form in the basin, which is west of 90°E and south of the Equator. Tropical and subtropical cyclones in this basin are monitored by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in Réunion.

Season effects

This table lists all of the tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones that were monitored during the 2022–2023 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season. Information on their intensity, duration, name, areas affected, primarily comes from RSMC La Réunion. Death and damage reports come from either press reports or the relevant national disaster management agency while the damage totals are given in 2022 or 2023 USD.

Name Dates Peak intensity Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Category Wind speed Pressure
Ashley 23 – 28 September Moderate tropical storm 75 km/h (45 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) None None None
Balita 3 – 9 October Moderate tropical storm 65 km/h (40 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) None None None
03 5 – 6 November Tropical depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1008 hPa (29.77 inHg) None None None
Darian 21 – 30 December Very intense tropical cyclone 220 km/h (140 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) None None None
Cheneso 16 January – Present Tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 959 hPa (28.32 inHg) Madagascar Unknown 8 [90]
Season aggregates
5 systems 23 September 2022 – Season ongoing 220 km/h (140 mph) 920 hPa (27.17 inHg) Unknown 8

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Tropical cyclone

Tropical cyclone

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain and squalls. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, or simply cyclone. A hurricane is a strong tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean or northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In the Indian Ocean, South Pacific, or (rarely) South Atlantic, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones", and such storms in the Indian Ocean can also be called "severe cyclonic storms".

Subtropical cyclone

Subtropical cyclone

A subtropical cyclone is a weather system that has some characteristics of both tropical and an extratropical cyclone.

United States dollar

United States dollar

The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and several other countries. The Coinage Act of 1792 introduced the U.S. dollar at par with the Spanish silver dollar, divided it into 100 cents, and authorized the minting of coins denominated in dollars and cents. U.S. banknotes are issued in the form of Federal Reserve Notes, popularly called greenbacks due to their predominantly green color.

Tropical cyclone scales

Tropical cyclone scales

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basins they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but other scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

Madagascar

Madagascar

Madagascar, officially the Republic of Madagascar is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometres off the coast of East Africa across the Mozambique Channel. At 592,800 square kilometres (228,900 sq mi), it is the world's second-largest island country, after Indonesia.

Source: "2022–23 South-West Indian Ocean cyclone season", Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, (2023, January 27th), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2022–23_South-West_Indian_Ocean_cyclone_season.

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References
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